Foreign Policy Magazine

Unbreakable

The hidden history of the Soviets’ impenetrable espionage machine.

IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE COLD WAR, the Soviet Union needed a foolproof way to encrypt the messages it sent to its allies. This was a daunting task: The previous pinnacle in cryptography, the German Enigma machine, had been cracked. And not only would any new communications system have to be unbreakable, but it would also have to work across

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