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by K.D. Bierstedt, J. Bonet, and M. Maestre

Ratings:

468 pages9 hours

This Proceedings Volume contains 32 articles on various interesting areas of

present-day functional analysis and its applications: Banach spaces and

their geometry, operator ideals, Banach and operator algebras, operator and

spectral theory, Frechet spaces and algebras, function and sequence spaces.

The authors have taken much care with their articles and many papers present

important results and methods in active fields of research. Several survey

type articles (at the beginning and the end of the book) will be very useful

for mathematicians who want to learn "what is going on" in some particular

field of research.

Publisher: Elsevier ScienceReleased: Sep 20, 2001ISBN: 9780080515922Format: book

First Edition

Klaus D. Bierstedt

*University of Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany *

José Bonet

*Technical University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain *

Manuel Maestre

*University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain *

Jean Schmets

*University of Liège, Liège, Belgium *

Proceedings of the International Functional Analysis Meeting on the Occasion of the 70th Birthday of Professor Manuel Valdivia, Valencia, Spain, July 3–7, 2000

N·H

2001

ELSEVIER

Amsterdam - London - New York - Oxford - Paris - Shannon - Tokyo

**Cover image **

**Title page **

**Copyright page **

**Preface **

**International Functional Analysis Meeting on the Occasion of the 70th Birthday of Professor M. Valdivia Valencia, Spain, 3 - 7 July 2000 **

**International Functional Analysis Meeting on the Occasion of the 70th Birthday of Professor M. Valdivia Valencia, Spain, 3 - 7 July 2000 **

**List of the Special Sessions with the Session Organizers **

**Schedule of the Special Session Geometry and Structure of Banach Spaces **

**Schedule of the Poster Sessions **

**International Functional Analysis Meeting on the Occasion of the 70th Birthday of Professor M. Valdivia Valencia, Spain, 3 - 7 July 2000 **

**List of Contributors **

**The Mathematical Works of Manuel VALDIVIA, II **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Foreword **

**3 Banach spaces **

**4 Real analyticity **

**5 Spaces of polynomials and multilinear forms **

**6 Fréchet spaces **

**7 The Zahorski theorem **

**8 Infinite dimensional complex analysis **

**9 Conclusion **

**Fréchet differentiability of Lipschitz functions (a survey) **

**Abstract **

**1 Preliminaries **

**2 Gâteaux differentiability **

**3 Non existence of points of Fréchet differentiability **

**4 Existence theorems for almost Fréchet derivatives **

**5 Existence theorems for Fréchet derivatives **

**6 The mean value theorem **

**7 Open problems **

**Summing inclusion maps between symmetric sequence spaces, a survey **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Preliminaries **

**3 Summing identity maps **

**4 Strictly singular identity operators **

**5 Approximation numbers of identity operators **

**6 Eigenvalues of compact operators **

**7 Interpolation of operators **

**8 Mixing identities **

**Applications of Banach space theory to sectorial operators **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Sectorial operators **

**3 The maximal regularity problem **

**4 Solution of the maximal regularity problem **

**5 Rademacher boundedness and maximal regularity **

**6 The joint functional calculus **

**7 Concluding Remarks **

**Derivations from Banach algebras **

**Abstract **

**1 Algebraic background **

**2 Continuous derivations **

**3 Contractible algebras **

**4 Amenable and weakly amenable algebras **

**5 C*-algebras and their closed subalgebras **

**6 Commutative Banach algebras **

**7 Group algebras **

**8 Measure algebras **

**Homomorphisms of Uniform Algebras **

**Abstract **

**1 Unital Homomorphisms and Composition Operators **

**2 Homomorphisms of the Disk Algebra **

**3 The Pseudohyperbolic Metric on the Spectrum **

**4 Homomorphisms and Pseudohyperbolic Contractions **

**5 Homomorphisms of the Ball Algebra **

**6 The Algebra A(D) **

**7 The Algebra H∞(D) **

**8 Behrens Domains **

**Generic Dynamics and Monotone Complete C*-Algebras **

**1 Preliminaries **

**2 Polish Spaces and Group Actions **

**3 Constructing Outer Automorphisms **

**Linear topological properties of the space of analytic functions on the real line **

**Abstract **

**1 General properties of A(ω) **

**2 Fundamental lemmas **

**3 Applications of the Lemmas **

**4 One dimensional convolution operators **

**Contribution to the isomorphic classification of Sobolev spaces Lp(k)(Ω) (1 ≤ p < ∞) **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Terminology and notation **

**Decomposability and the cyclic behavior of parabolic composition operators **

**Abstract **

**Introduction **

**1 Prerequisites **

**2 Migrating to the Upper Half-Plane **

**3 A functional calculus **

**4 Decomposability **

**5 (Non)Supercyclicity **

**Algebras of subnormal operators on the unit polydisc **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Preliminaries **

**3 Factorization results **

**4 Reflexivity **

**An example concerning the local radial Phragmén-Lindelöf condition **

**Abstract **

**Continuity of monotone functions with values in Banach lattices **

**Abstract **

**Introduction **

**1 A few general facts **

**2 An increasing function without points of continuity **

**3 Extensions of the results of Lavrič **

**4 A negative answer to Lavrič’s question (LQ) **

**5 Spaces of continuous vector functions with property (λ) **

**6 Spaces of measurable vector functions with property (λ) **

**Remarks on Gowers’ dichotomy **

**Abstract **

**1 INTRODUCTION **

**2 THE STABILIZING LEMMA **

**3 GOWERS’ DICHOTOMY FOR FINITE SEQUENCES **

**4 GEOMETRIC ASPECTS OF DICHOTOMIES FOR UNCONDITIONAL SEQUENCES AND HI SPACES **

**5 CONES AND BASIC SEQUENCES **

**Norm attaining operators and James’ Theorem **

**Abstract **

**The extension theorem for norms on symmetric tensor products of normed spaces **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction and definitions **

**2 The norm extension theorem **

**3 Some applications **

**Remarks on p-summing multipliers. **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Definition and examples **

**3 General facts on p-summing multipliers **

**Bergman projection on simply connected domains **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 General result **

**3 Examples **

**On isomorphically equivalent extensions of quasi-Banach spaces **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Preliminaries **

**3 Isomorphically equivalent exact sequences, and examples **

**4 Main results, with applications **

**Integrated Trigonometric Sine Functions **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 α-Times Integrated Trigonometric Sine Function **

**3 Two Classical Examples **

**Applications of a result of Aron, Hervés, and Valdivia to the homology of Banach algebras **

**Abstract **

**Introduction and main result **

**Construction of the example **

**Concluding remarks **

**Acknowledgements **

**On the ideal structure of some algebras with an Arens product **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 On the maximal ideals **

**3 On the dimension of right ideals **

**4 The radical of LUC(G)* **

**Stochastic continuity algebras **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Stochastic Continuity and Convergence **

**3 The Space CP(T) and its Ideal Structure **

**4 Stochastic Uniform Algebras **

**Hilbert space methods in the theory of Lie triple systems **

**Abstract **

**1 On the structure of two-graded L*-algebras **

**2 Previous results on L*-triples **

**3 On the structure of L*-triples **

**4 Direct limits of ternary H*-structures **

**5 Direct limits of L*-triples **

**Truncated Hamburger moment problems with constraints **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Truncated Hamburger moment problem with point constraints **

**3 Auxiliary problem. Schur algorithm **

**4 Auxiliary problem. Lagrange algorithm **

**5 Inclusion of derivatives **

**Fourier-Bessel transformation of measures and singular differential equations **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Preliminaries **

**3 Estimates for Fourier-Bessel transforms of non-negative functions **

**4 Estimates for solutions of singular equations **

**A trace theorem for normal boundary conditions **

**Abstract **

**Operators into Hardy spaces and analytic Pettis integrable functions **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Representability of operators into function spaces **

**3 Analytic p-Pettis Integrable Functions Failing Fatou’s Theorem **

**4 Projective Tensor Products **

**The norm problem for elementary operators **

**Abstract **

**1 Setting the scene **

**2 Special cases on special algebras **

**3 General case on very special algebras **

**4 General case on general C*-algebras **

**5 General case on good C*-algebras **

**6 The challenge **

**Problems on Boolean algebras of projections in locally convex spaces **

**Abstract **

**Introduction **

**Some open problems **

**Non associative C*-algebras revisited **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Geometric properties of the products of alternative C*-algebras **

**3 Prime non-commutative J B*-algebras **

**4 Holomorphic characterization of non-commutative JB*-algebras **

**5 Multipliers of non-commutative J B*-algebras **

**6 Isometries of non-commutative JΒ*-algebras **

**7 Notes and remarks **

**Acknowledgments **

**Grothendieck’s inequalities revisited **

**Abstract **

**Introduction **

**Copyright **

**Klaus D. Bierstedt; José Bonet; Manuel Maestre; Jean Schmets **

During its meeting before the Second European Congress in Mathematics in Budapest in 1996, the Council of the European Mathematical Society decided that the Third European Congress of Mathematics would be held in Barcelona in July 2000. Klaus D. Bierstedt, a member of this Council, who had also been one of the organizers of the International Functional Analysis Meeting on the Occasion of the 60th Birthday of Professor M. Valdivia at Peñíscola, Spain, October 22–27, 1990, immediately suggested to organize a satellite meeting on functional analysis in Valencia during the week before the Third European Congress. José Bonet and Manuel Maestre from the two universities of Valencia agreed with this suggestion and decided to hold such a meeting, ten years after the one in Peñíscola, and now on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Professor Valdivia. The preparations for the conference started in 1998, the Scientific Committee was formed, and the first Plenary Speakers were invited.

The Proceedings of the International Functional Analysis Meeting of 1990 had been published as volume 170 (1992) in the series North-Holland Math. Studies. During the International Congress of Mathematicians 1998 in Berlin, Bierstedt and Bonet asked Drs. Arjen Sevenster, Associate Publisher of Elsevier Science, if the Proceedings of the meeting in Valencia in 2000 could again be published in the series North-Holland Math. Studies, one year after the conference. The reaction of Sevenster was very positive; the contract was signed some months later. We thank Drs. Sevenster and the Elsevier/North-Holland company for publishing this book.

The preface of the Proceedings of the Peñíscola meeting contained a short summary of the merits of Professor Valdivia, and the first article in the book, The mathematical works of Manuel Valdivia

by J. Horváth, gave a report on his books and articles up to 1990. Since then Valdivia had gone on to publish many important results, some of them in joint work with the President of the Belgian Mathematical Society, Professor Jean Schmets. Hence it was natural to ask Schmets to report on the recent work of Valdivia at the meeting in Valencia. Schmets accepted; his article The mathematical works of Manuel VALDIVIA, II

is the first one in the present Proceedings volume.

Soon it became clear that the International Functional Analysis Meeting in Valencia in 2000 would be much bigger and broader in scope than the one in Peñíscola. In addition to the special talk of Jean Schmets, there were 16 Plenary Lectures of 50 minutes, by well-known specialists from 8 countries, as originally planned. However, the organizers had not anticipated in the beginning that there would be more than 300 participants in the end. And so many abstracts were submitted that, only a few weeks before the meeting, it was finally decided to group the 176 parallel talks of 25 minutes in 10 Special Sessions and to let each Special Session have its own organizers. In addition, 24 posters were presented in three Poster Sessions.

We take the opportunity to thank the people of the Atlas Mathematical Conference Abstracts (AMCA) server at York University, Canada, and here especially Elliott Pearl, for providing an excellent service for the submission of the abstracts of the participants via WWW and for the preparation of the booklet. Announcements of the meeting and several circular letters were distributed by e-mail and by Internet. The homepages of the meeting, with much pertinent information and many useful links, were designed and maintained in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Paderborn by Dr. Silke Holtmanns to whom special thanks are due.

We thank various sponsors, in particular the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, for contributing money and the facilities for the meeting. Among other things, these contributions made it possible to waive the conference fee and to offer free accomodation and lunches in Valencia to 29 participants from Eastern Europe, from countries of the former Soviet Union, as well as from countries of the Third World. More than twice as many mathematicians had applied for such grants, and the selection process was painful for the Scientific Committee since a much larger number of them would have deserved grants. – Finally, this may be the right point to also thank the members of the Scientific Committee and of various other committees and the organizers of the Special Sessions for their efficient help. (A list of the sponsors, of all the committees, of all Special Sessions and their organizers, the schedule of the meeting, as well as the schedules of the Special Sessions, can be found in the editorial part of this book.)

The organization took much more time and energy than expected. The arrival day was hectic. The week of the meeting turned out to be one of the hottest of the summer of 2000 in Valencia. On Monday, the highest temperature was 39 degrees, and even after midnight there remained 31 degrees. The air condition cooled down the main lecture hall in the Rectorado so much that some participants ended up with a cold. On the other hand, some of the smaller lecture rooms for the Special Sessions did not have any air condition at all, and the speakers (and the audience) suffered from the heat. Fortunately enough, Wednesday afternoon was not as hot as Monday, or else the excursion to Xàtiva would have ended in a virtual disaster. (Temperatures in Xàtiva during the summer are usually five degrees higher than in Valencia.) In fact, both excursions to Xàtiva and to the Hemisferic and Science Museum (on Friday) turned out fine. The participants will remember the Castillo of Xàtiva with its beautiful scenic views, the picturesque center of this town, and the spectacular new buildings of the City of Arts and Sciences in Valencia.

But for the success of a meeting in mathematics, it is mathematics which is by far the most important thing, and in this respect the meeting was very successful indeed. Many interesting lectures and posters were presented during the meeting, and it was reported on plenty of deep and important theorems: the mathematics was first-rate. It remains to thank the speakers for their excellent, well-prepared and inspiring talks, the chairpersons for their help, and the audience for persistent interest and stimulating discussions.

All the Plenary Speakers had been invited, and all the other participants had the opportunity, to submit an article to this Proceedings volume. The original deadline was November 30, 2000, but the last paper published here, by one of the Plenary Speakers, arrived at Paderborn only in early March 2001. Part of the Scientific Committee also served as editors of the book. 12 contributions by Plenary Speakers and 37 articles by other participants were submitted and refereed. We thank the referees very much; some of them took their job very seriously. Many comments and criticisms were made which definitely helped to improve several articles, sometimes not only in the exposition or by removing misprints. 17 articles had to be rejected, revisions of some of which, according to the remarks of referees, would actually have been publishable in a good mathematical journal. The editors regret the limitations of space (the book was supposed to have about 400 pages) and time. Still, the original deadline for the submission of the final manuscript to Elsevier (March 1, 2001) was exceeded by more than two months. We thank Ms. Duddeck for compiling the editorial part of the book in Paderborn.

As a glance at the table of contents shows, the present Proceeedings volume contains 32 articles on various interesting areas of present-day functional analysis and its applications: Banach spaces and their geometry, operator ideals, Banach and operator algebras, operator and spectral theory, Fréchet spaces and algebras, function and sequence spaces. The reports we received from the (sometimes very prominent) referees confirmed our impression that the authors have taken much care with their articles and that many of the papers present important results and methods in active fields of research. Several survey type articles (at the beginning and the end of the book) will be very useful for mathematicians who wants to learn what’s going on

in some particular field of research. We hope, and are quite confident, that this collection of papers, dedicated to Professor Manuel Valdivia on the occasion of his 70th birthday, with best wishes for the future, will prove helpful, valuable and inspiring for anybody interested in functional analysis and related fields.

Paderborn/Valencia/Liège, May 2001

**List of the Special Sessions with the Session Organizers **

**Schedule of the Special Session Geometry and Structure of Banach Spaces **

**Schedule of the Poster Sessions **

**List of Contributors **

**The Mathematical Works of Manuel VALDIVIA, II **

*Jean Schmets j.schmets@ulg.ac.be Institut de Mathématique, Université de Liège, Sart Tilman Bât. B 37, B-4000 Liège 1, Belgium *

At the International Functional Analysis Meeting on the Occasion of the 60th Birthday of Professor M. Valdivia, which took place at Peñíscola on October 22-27, 1990, John Horváth has had the great honour and pleasure to present the mathematical works of Manuel Valdivia.

Since then this presentation has appeared as **[Ho] at the beginning of the Proceedings of the Meeting [FA], a volume of the well-known North-Holland Mathematics Studies series. It certainly was quite a tour de force to write down a remarkable presentation of 114 publications in some 44 pages, i.e. the scientific production of Manuel Valdivia from his first paper back in 1963 up to early 1989. If you give a look at these Proceedings, you will remark that on page 55, the editors have added a list of 13 more articles which appeared or were to appear in the short period in between 1989 and 1992. The last sentence of John Horváth’s presentation was indeed prophetic. It was saying I wish Manuel Valdivia many more years of happy and fruitful research activity. This certainly has been the case since by now on top of those 114 publications, some 42 new ones are born and … more are coming. **

In these notes I try to assume the responsibility to present these new mathematical works of Manuel Valdivia.

While preparing this address I really measured the quality and the amount of research done by Manuel Valdivia.

Let me take some caution; about the same as the one John Horváth took.

It would make no sense to try to present each new result of each new paper of M. Valdivia one by one; this would require an enormous amount of space and of time. I have had to make a severe selection. This leaves away numerous deep theorems but there was no way around. What is worse is that even so there is no place either for describing any proof although it is there that you find what John Horváth called the stupendous ingenuity

of Manuel. I will just advise the following: go to the papers, read them and work on them, then you will realize what stupendous ingenuity

really means.

Another caution deals with the language: in places, it will get a bit loose. For instance, the word space

may often be used instead of Hausdorfî topological space

. Another possibility is that I may omit from time to time some obvious hypotheses in order to make the presentation friendlier. In case of a doubt, please go to the paper and check.

The list of the Publications of Manuel Valdivia

at the end of this presentation starts with the item **[115]; the 114 first ones refer of course to the corresponding list of [Ho]. **

Now we are ready to start the survey of the mathematical works of Manuel Valdivia during the period starting in 1989 and going to early 2000, developed by themes.

In the late 80’s and early 90’s, a large part of the research of M. Valdivia deals with the theory of Banach spaces. It mainly concerns the existence of projective resolutions of the identity, specialized notions of compactness, Markushevich bases, basic sequences, rotundness, …

Unless specifically otherwise stated, *X *denotes a Banach space, *X* *the closed unit ball of *X** endowed with the weak* topology *σ*(*X**, *X*).

For a set *A*, let |*A*| denote the cardinal number of *A *and, for a Banach space *X*, let then dens(*X*) be the smallest cardinal number *λ *for which there is a dense subset *D *of *X *verifying |*D*| = *λ*. Moreover *ω*0 is the first infinite ordinal and *ω*1 the first uncountable ordinal.

A *projective resolution of the identity *— for short, a PRI — in *X *is a well ordered family {*Pα *: *ω*0 ≤ *α *≤ *μ*} of continuous linear projections in *X*, where *μ *is the first ordinal such that |*μ*| = dens(*X*), satisfying the following conditions:

(1) ||*Pα*|| **= 1**,

(2) dens(*Pα*(*X*)) ≤ |*α*|,

(3) *PαPβ *= *PβPα *= *Pβ *if *ω*0 ≤ *β *≤ *α *≤ *μ*,

(4) *Pμ = IX*,

(5) for every limit ordinal *α *is dense in *Pα*(*X*).

D. Amir and J. Lindenstrauss have shown **[AL] that the construction of a PRI is an important tool in the theory of Banach spaces. However getting a PRI mostly is quite a difficult task. To partially overcome this difficulty, S. Gul’ko introduced [Gu] the notion of conjugate pairs of topological spaces. But there are many Banach spaces with a PRI that fail to have such a conjugate pair. **

In **[115], J. Orihuela and M. Valdivia overcome this problem. In fact they adapt a method developed earlier by M. Valdivia in ([108], [113], [114] and [117]) to construct projections. This leads them to the introduction of a more flexible notion to obtain a PRI in Banach spaces, the notion of projective generator. This is a set-valued function φ defined on a norming subset of X* such that φ(f) is a countable subset of X for every element f of the domain of φ, verifying some additional technical conditions. The key lies in the notion of norming pairs, a particular kind of the preconjugate pairs of Gul’ko [Gu], that leads naturally to norm one projections hence to projective generators. Then inspired by an idea of M. Fabian and G. Godefroy [FG], they prove that a Banach space is an Asplund space (i.e. the dual of every separable subspace of X is separable or equivalently X* has the Radon-Nikodym property) if and only if X* has a projective generator. Next they get the following basic and deep property: a Banach space with a projective generator has a particular PRI and derive therefrom the following known results as direct corollaries: every weakly Countably determined Banach space has a PRI [Va] and every dual Banach space with the Radon-Nikodym property has a PRJ [FG]. **

Given a compact subset *K *of [0, 1]*I*, let *K*(*I*) denote the set of the elements *x *of *K *such that {*i *∈ *I *: *xi *be the family of the now so-called Valdivia compact spaces, i.e. of the topological spaces homeomorphic to a compact subset *K *of some [0, 1]*I *such that *K*(*I*) is dense in *K*contains all the Corson compact spaces since H. H. Corson proved *I *the elements of which have countably many non zero components. In [117] M. Valdivia proves the existence of a particular PRI in C(*K*. His main result is as follows. Let *K *be an infinite element of *A *and let *μ *be the first ordinal number such that |*μ*| = dens(*K*). Then there is a family {*Kα*: *ω*0 *≤ α *≤ *μ*} of compact subsets of *K *and, for every *α *∈ [*ω*0, *μ*], a continuous linear extension map *Tα *from C(*Kα*) into C(*K*) such that {*Tα*(·|*Kα*) : *ω*0 ≤ *α *≤ *μ*} is a PRI in C(*K*). As a consequence, for every continuous image *K *, the space C(*K*) has an equivalent locally uniformly rotund norm (this notion is defined in 3.5).

R. Deville, G. Godefroy and V. Zisler asked in **which is a continuous image of [0, ω1] and such that C(K) is isometric to a hyperplane of C([0, ω1]) and isomorphic to C([0, ω1]). **

Over the years the notion of compactness has been refined a lot.

For instance a topological space is *Eberlein *(resp. *Radon-Nikodym; Gul’ko*; *Talagrand*) *compact *iff it is homeomorphic to a weakly compact subset of a Banach space (resp. to a weak* compact subset of the dual of an Asplund space; to a weak* compact subset of the dual of a weakly compactly generated space; to a weak* compact subset of the dual of a weakly *K*-analytic Banach space). These notions have been quite deeply investigated. In **[DFJP], W. J. Davis, T. Figiel, W. B. Johnson and A. Pełczynski have proved that every Eberlein compact space is Radon-Nikodym compact. Results of S. Gul’ko [Gu] and M. Talagrand [Ta] assert that the following implications: **

hold. In **[Na], I. Namioka dealt with the Radon-Nikodym compact spaces and proved that this notion is equivalent to the fragmentation by a lower semi-continuous metric, hence implies the fragmentation by a metric. So two lines of implications were at hand and he asked three questions about their links. **

The first answer is due to E. A. Reznichenko **[Ke] who provided a Talagrand compact space which is not Radon-Nikodym compact. **

J. Orihuela, W. Schachermayer and M. Valdivia give a full answer in **[120] to these three questions. They first establish that Talagrand’s initial example [Ta] of a Talagrand compact space failing to be Eberlein compact already is not Radon-Nikodym compact. They also prove what is announced in the title: every Radon-Nikodym and Corson compact space is Eberlein compact. The paper also contains a Banach space version of this result, i.e. a Banach space X is weakly compactly generated if (and only if) its dual unit ball is Corson compact and if there is a continuous linear map T : Y → X with dense range, where Y is an Asplund space. The proof deeply relies on the existence of a PRI. **

A biorthogonał system {*xi, ui*)*i*∈*I *in a Banach space *X *is *complete *if the set {*xi*:*i *∈ *I*} is total in *X*, total if the set {*ui *: *i *∈ *I*and a *Markushevich basis *if it is complete and total. A Markushevich basis is *associated *to the PRI {*Pα*: *ω*0 ≤ *α *≤ *μ*and, for every *ω*0 ≤ *α *< *μ*a Markushevich basis in (*Pα *+ 1 ‒ *Pα*)(*X*).

In **[121], M. Valdivia constructs a PRI and a Markushevich basis in certain Banach spaces. More explicitely, let X be a Banach space and M be a total subset of X such that the intersection of **

with *B*(*X*. Then if *μ *is the first ordinal number such that |*μ*| = dens(*X*), there is a PRI {*Pα *: *ω*0 ≤*α*≤*μ*} in *X *of *M *such that

This extends a result of A. N. Plichko **[PI]. There also is a Markushevich basis ( xi, ui)i∈I associated to a PRI {Pα : ω0 ≤ α ≤ μ} such that the linear hulls of M and of {xi : i ∈ I} coincide and such that S(M) = S({xi : i ∈ I}). **

In **[125], M. Valdivia refines the construction set up in [117]. This leads him to results on the existence of a PRI in C( K) spaces that induce resolutions of the identity simultaneously on countably many subspaces. He also gets the existence of a Markushevich basis associated with a PRI on a subspace of C(K). As corollaries, he obtains the following consequences. Let X is Corson compact. Then every closed subspace L of X has a quasicomplement in X (i.e. there is a closed subspace M of X such that L ∩ M = 0 and L + M is dense in X) and X . **

M. Valdivia derives consequences of the existence of a Markushevich basis in **[137]. One of the statements deals with a Banach space X is of weak*-countable tightness, i.e. every element u . In such a case, if X* has a Markushevich basis (ui, zi)i∈I such that the closed linear hull of (zi : i ∈ I} contains X, then X is weakly compactly generated. This leads to an example of a scattered compact space K and of an equivalent norm | · | on C(K) such that (C(K), | · |)* has no 1-norming Markushevich basis. Another result concerns Banach spaces X such that X* is non separable and weakly countably determined. It states the existence of δ ∈]0, l[ and of a Banach space Y such that Y* is isomorphic to X* ⊕ ℓ1 and has no α-norming Markushevich basis for δ ≤ α ≤ 1. **

In **[130], M. Valdivia uses and refines methods developed in [114], with the idea of obtaining total biorthogonal systems. The main result asserts the following. Let Y be an infinite dimensional closed subspace of a Banach space X is Corson compact, then there is a total biorthogonal system (xi, ui)i∈I in X such that {xi : i ∈ I} is total in Y. **

In **[141], M. Valdivia firstly considers Asplund spaces X and gets as a corollary that X admits a total biorthogonal system (xi, ui)i∈I such that the closed linear hull of {xi : i ∈ I} is weakly compactly generated. He next investigates the weakly countably convex determined spaces defined in [113] and obtains the following statement, by use of a method similar to the one developed in [130]. Let Y be a normed subspace of a Banach space X . If Y is weakly countably convex determined, then there is a total biorthogonal system (xi, ui)i∈I in X such that the linear hull of {xi : i ∈ I} is a dense subspace of Y. **

In **[126], M. Valdivia deals with basic sequences in Banach spaces and essentially establishes the following results. If X is a Banach space with a shrinking basis and a separable bidual, then for every closed subspace Z of X** containing X, there is a shrinking basis (xn)nin X and a partition {N1, Nsuch that the closed linear hull of {xn : n ∈ N1}is reflexive and X + Y = Z where Y is the weak*-closure of the linear hull of {xn : n ∈ N2} in X**. If (xn)nis a normalized sequence of a Banach space X with separable bidual, then {xn : n } is not weakly relatively compact if and only if there is a subsequence such that the closed linear hull of each of its subsequences has codimension 1 in X**. If the Banach space X has a basis, then every basic sequence contains a subsequence which extends to a basis of X. **

Basic sequences are also revisited in **[151]. As a corollary of a deep result, M. Valdivia gets the following property. Let X be a Banach space with separable dual and let Y, Z be two norming closed subspaces of X* such that Y ⊂ Z. Then there is a basic sequence (xn)nsuch that Y + L = Z and (Y ∩ L)~ = L where L = {xn: n }⊥ and A~ is the weak*-closure of A ⊂ X*. This article also contains properties unifying or refining properties of W. B. Johnson and H. P. Rosenthal [JR] such as if X is a Banach space and if (un)nis a weak*-Cauchy sequence in X* equivalent to the unit vector basis of ℓ1, then X/L is isomorphic to c0 where L = {un : n ∈ }⊥. As a corollary based on a result of J. Hagler and W. B. Johnson [HJ], M. Valdivia also gets that if the Banach space X contains no copy of ℓ1 and if X* contains a copy of ℓ1, then there is a quotient of X isomorphic to c0. **

A normed space (X, ||·||) is *uniformly rotund *(resp. *weakly uniformly rotund*) — in short UR (resp WUR) — if given sequences (*xn*)*n*and (*yn*)*n*of the unit sphere of *X *such that ||*xn *+ *yn*|| → 2, the sequence *xn *‒ *yn *converges (resp. weakly converges) to 0. It is *locally uniformly rotund *(resp. *weakly locally uniformly rotund*) — in short LUR (resp WLUR) — if given a point x and a sequence (*xn*)*n*of the unit sphere of *X *such that ||*x *+ *xn*|| *→ *2, the sequence *x *‒ *xn *converges (resp. weakly converges) to 0. Of course the following implications hold:

The interest of these notions in renorming theory comes from the fact that they may characterize geometric or topological properties of normed spaces. For instance a result of R. C. James, P. Enflo and G. Pisier states that a Banach space is superreflexive if and only if it has an equivalent UR norm.

It was well known that, with the exception of LUR ⇒ WLUR, the inverse implications do not hold for equivalent norms. So several authors investigated conditions under which WLUR implies LUR. For instance in **[DGZ], R. Deville, G. Godefroy and V. Zisler proved that a WLUR Banach space with a Fréchet differentiable norm is LUR renormable. In the same vein, R. Haydon [Ha] established that if T is a tree and if C(T) is WLUR, then C(T) has an equivalent LUR norm. **

In **[156], with A. Moltó, J. Orihuela and S. Troyanski, M. Valdivia solves completely the problem: every WLUR normed space has an equivalent LUR norm. The proof uses an elegant technique of countable covers of a topological space by sets of small local diameters. This paper also contains the fact that the unit sphere of a WUR normed space endowed with the weak topology is metrizable under a metric that may differ from the norm-metric. **

In **[119] and [128], M. Valdivia continues previous investigations on the direct sum decompositions of locally convex spaces. **

The main result of **[119] deals with two closed subspaces Y and Z of a Banach space X. If Y ≠ {0}, X = Y + Z and Z is weakly countably determined, then there is a continuous linear projection P on X such that ||P|| = 1, PX ⊃ Y, ker(P) ⊂ Z and dens(TX) = dens(Y). It leads to the fact that every Banach space is a topological direct sum X = X1 ⊕ X2 with X, a result that he had already established under the assumption that X**/X is separable [54]. **

In **[128], M. Valdivia considers the case of a Fréchet space E such that (E′, μ(E′, E″))is barrelled. He then proves that E is the direct sum of two closed subspaces F and G such that G is reflexive and dens(F″, β(F″, F′)) ≤ dens(E′, β(E′,E″)/E), generalizing the result of [119] mentioned above, as well as the one of [110]. **

In the 1990’s, M. Valdivia has been very much interested in generalizations of the Borel, Mityagin, Ritt and Whitney theorems. The historical setting can roughly be presented in the following way.

In **of complex numbers, there is a C∞-function f such that f(n)(0) = cn for every n 0- The first deep improvement of this result is due to J. F. Ritt [Ri]: the function f on a closed subset F n coming from a function f n), i.e. such that φα = f(α)|F . In fact, for these jets (since then known as Whitney jets), H. Whitney also proved that the function f n n n \ Fof the Whitney jets on Fn . **

These results have been extended in many different ways. The contribution of M. Valdivia deals mainly with the real-analyticity property of the extensions, a property which was not considered previously.

A first generalization of the Borel theorem with real-analytic extension outside the origin in a real normed space appears in **[132]. This ‘one direction’ result can be stated as follows. Let X be a real normed space satisfying the Kurzweil condition (i.e. there is a polynomial P on X such that P(0) = 0 and inf{P(x): ||x|| = 1} > 0). Then for every direction ∈ of real numbers, there is a real C∞-function f on X which is real-analytic on X \ for every n 0. **

Next in **[134], M. Valdivia deals with real Hilbert spaces X and proves the following result for every real number A0 and sequence (An)nof continuous symmetric n-linear functionals on Xn. There always is a holomorphic function on a domain of the complexification of X, containing X \ {0}, which has a real C∞-extension / on X, bounded on the bounded subsets of X and such that f(n)(0) = An for every n 0. **

This result is finally generalized to the setting of the real Banach spaces *X *in **[146]. Let A0 be a real number and for every n 0, let An be a n-linear symmetric and approximable real functional on Xn. Then there is a real C∞-function f on X such that **

a) *f*(*n*) (0) = *An *for every *n *0,

b) *f*(*n*) (*x*) is approximable for every *x *∈ *X *and *n *,

c) *f*(*n*) is bounded on the bounded subsets of *X *for every *n *0,

d) *f *is real-analytic on *X *\ {0} endowed with the topology of uniform convergence on the compact subsets of *X**.

*n *for which there is (is not) a continuous linear extension map, to characterize them by means of properties of the boundary of *F *. This literature is very rich (cf. **[150] for an attempt to describe the situation in the C∞-setting around 1997). **

This research has also been extended from the C∞-setting to the Beurling and Roumieu type spaces of ultradifferentiable jets and functions. These can be defined by use of a weight *w *— then the appropriate definition of *w *is due to R. Meise and B. A. Taylor on the basis of one going back to A. Beurling (cf. **[BMT]). They also can be defined by means of a normalized, logarithmically convex and non quasi-analytic sequence M n (resp. of jets on F). In this vast literature, the real-analyticity part of the Borel-Ritt theorem [Pe] or of the Whitney theorem ([BBMT], [BMT], [MT], …) had not been considered. **

*n *\ *F*. He first published two papers **[142], [145] where he solves the problem when F is compact. His results brought more light and new importance to the results obtained by the previous authors. Here is the main property he got. **

Let *K **n*.

*n *\ *K**n **n *\ *K*.

, then there also is such an extension map *E *such that *Eφ **n *\ *K *.

*n*; the method is basically the same but requires quite refined arguments. M. Valdivia has done this successively for the Beurling type with * = *M *in **[154], for the Roumieu type with * = M in [148], and for the Beurling and Roumieu types with * = w nnn n as well as all their derivatives. Since then, M. Langenbruch [La] has set up a unified approach to get the *-cases, up to a condition when * = M; it is based on the existence of a special function obtained in [150]. **

The Ritt theorem leads naturally to the following question: on which subsets *D *is it possible to fix arbitrarily the asymptotic behaviour of some holomorphic function? It is a direct matter to check that such a set *D *may not have any accumulation point and that no element of *D *may be an isolated point of ∂Ω. Known results go back to the work of T. Carleman **[Ca] who proved that the answer is positive in the following two cases: **

(a) *D *is finite and Ω is convex and bounded,

(b) *D *= {0} and Ω = {*z *: *|*z*| *< *R*}\ {(*x*,0) : *x *≤ 0},

and also to the work of Ph. Franklin **[Fr] dealing with a case when D is infinite. **

In **[118], M. Valdivia proves that the answer is positive if D is finite and such that the answer is positive at each single point of D separately. **

In **[123], M. Valdivia completes this result in the following way: the answer is positive for D = {z0} if the connected component of z0 in ∂Ω has more than one point. The proof lies on a deep study of the space of the holomorphic functions on Ω which have an asymptotic behaviour at the point z0, endowed with an appropriate locally convex topology. **

The next and final step is contained in **[138] where the main statement contains a rather technical condition leading to the following corollary which generalizes all previous known results. If D ⊂ ∂Ω (finite or not) has no accumulation point and if the connected component in ∂Ω of any point of D contains more than one point, then the answer is positive. **

Let *X *be a real normed space. A domain Ω of *X *is of *real-analytic existence *if there is a real-analytic function *f *on Ω such that, for every domain Ω1 of *X *verifying Ω1 *⊄ *Ω ⊄ *X *has no real-analytic extension onto Ω1. It is a *real-analytic domain *if, for every domain Ω1 of *X *verifying Ω1 ⊄ Ω ⊄ *X *\ Ω1 and every connected component Ω0 of Ω ∩ Ω1, there is a real-analytic function *f *has no real-analytic extension onto Ω1. Of course every real-analytic existence domain is a real-analytic domain.

M. Valdivia has considered the characterization of such domains twice: in **[132] and [136]. The final result is as follows. For every non void domain Ω of a separable real normed space, there is a C∞-function on X which is real-analytic on Ω and has Ω as domain of real-analytic existence. The separability hypothesis is compulsory since he also proved that if A is an uncountable set, then the open unit ball of c) is a real-analytic domain but not a domain of real-analytic existence. **

The study of the reflexivity of the spaces of polynomials and multilinear forms has received much interest over the last years. The relation with weak continuity was discovered by R. Ryan **was investigated by R. Aron and S. Dineen in [AD]. **

M. Valdivia has been very active in this area too.

For a Banach space *X *and a positive integer *m*designates the space of the *m*-homogeneous polynomials on *X *endowed with the uniform norm on *B*(*X*.

In **[140] M. Valdivia first establishes that if X contains no copy of ℓ1 (hence in particular if X endowed with the compact-open topology. He also gets that if X is an Asplund space such that Xand that if X . **

Let us note that in **[143], M. Valdivia gets similar results to those developed in [140], in the setting of holomorphic functions. Let X the Fréchet space of the holomorphic functions on X which are bounded on the bounded subsets of X, endowed with the fundamental system of the norms || · ||mB(X) for m whose elements are weak*-continuous on mB(X*) for every m contains no copy of ℓif moreover X* has the approximation property. If X contains no copy of ℓ1; if moreover X is weakly compactly generated, then **

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