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In this famous monograph, a distinguished mathematician presents an innovative approach to classical boundary value problems ― one that may be used by mathematicians as well as by theoreticians in mechanics. The approach is based on a number of geometric properties of conformal and quasi-conformal mappings and employs the general basic scheme for solution of variational problems first suggested by Hilbert and developed by Tonnelli.

The first two chapters cover variational principles of the theory of conformal mapping and behavior of a conformal transformation on the boundary. Chapters 3 and 4 explore hydrodynamic applications and quasiconformal mappings, and the final two chapters address linear systems and the simplest classes of non-linear systems. Mathematicians will take particular interest in the method of the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems as well as the general theory of quasi-conformal mappings. Theoreticians in mechanics will find the approximate formulas for conformal and quasi-conformal

Publisher: Dover PublicationsReleased: Jan 14, 2016ISBN: 9780486160283Format: book

**INDEX **

INTRODUCTION

Let there be given a class *E *of admissible curves *γ *and in this class let there be defined a functional *I*(*γ*) such that a definite numerical value of *I *corresponds to every curve *γ *of *E*. Let it be required to find *γ*0 of *E *for which *I *assumes an extreme value. In order to prove the existence of such a curve *γ*0, construct, first of all, a minimizing sequence

of curves of *E *with the property that

The existence theorem reduces now to the establishment of the following two properties of *I *:

1)one can select from the sequence *γn *a compact sequence such that the limiting curve also lies in *E *;

2)semi-continuity of *I *: if *γ*0 is the limiting curve of *γn*.

For the applications presented below we require a minor modification of this scheme. Again let there be given some class of admissible curves *E *= {*γ*} and on this class non-negative continuous functionals *I*(*γ*) ; it is required to prove that there exists in the class *E *a curve *γ*0 for which

For the solution of this problem it is sufficient to establish the possibility of a subdivision in *E *of some compact subclass *E*0 such that every curve *γ *of *E*0 for which *I*(*γ*) > 0 can be varied in the following manner:

belongs to *E*0 ;

the value of *I *would be smaller than for the initial curve, i.e.,

In fact, it follows from the compactness of *E*0 that one can select from the minimizing sequence **(1) a uniformly convergent sequence with the limit curve Γ; however, by virtue of the continuity of I and of (2), one has **

Hence we conclude that *I*(*Γ*) = 0. In fact, if we had *I*(*Γ*for which

which is impossible.

We will now present examples of classes of functionals for which the above scheme may be realized.

Select for the class *E*0 = {*y*} the manifold of curves *y *= *y*(*x*), |*x*| < ∞ satisfying the conditions**¹: **

Further, let there be given on *E*0 functionals *I*(*γ*, *x*) with the following properties:

1°. *I*(*γ*, *x*) is continuous and satisfies a Hölder condition with respect to *x *:

where *k *and *v *depend only on the constants *k*1 and *k*2 ;

2°. For a transition from *γ *attains a non-negative maximum (non-positive minimum), we have

4°. if *γ *contains a segment of a straight line with gradient *k*1(– *k*1) or an arc of a parabola *y *= *ax*²/2 + *bx *+ *c*, *a *= *k*2 (*a *= – *k*2), then the functional *I*(*γ*, *x*) cannot attain a maximum at the right ends or a minimum at the left ends of the segment or arc, respectively; on replacing *k*1 by – *k*1 or *k*2 by – *k*2, respectively, the maxima and minima must change places;

5°. there exists a curve of *E*0 for which |*I*(*γ*, *x*)| < *a *;

6°. if *γ *contains points on the straight lines *y *= 0 or *y *= 1, then at these points *I*(*γ*, *x*) > *a *and *I*(*γ*, *x*) < – *a*, respectively, where *a *> 0.

THEOREM. *Under the conditions *1°.–6°., *there exists in the class E*0 *a curve γ*0 *for which I*(*γ*0, *x*) ≡ 0.

*Proof*. By virtue of the general variational principle formulated above, it is sufficient for the proof of this theorem to show that, whatever may be the curve *γ*0 of *E*0 for which *I*(*γ*0, *x*0 or

one can always construct a new curve *γ*0 in *E*0 such that

By virtue of 2°., one may assume beforehand for this purpose that

In fact, it follows from 5°. that *v *< *a *; therefore *γ*0 has no common points with the straight lines *y *= 0 and *y *the curve *γ*0 deflected in the direction of the *y*.

Thus, let γ0 : *y *= *y*0(*x*) be an arbitrary curve of *E*0. Denote by *E*+ and *E*–, respectively, the sets of points where *I*(*γ*0, *x*) attains maxima and minima; we have for *E*+ and *E*– the condition **(9). Both sets are closed and, by virtue of the uniform convergence of I(γ, x), they lie at a finite distance from each other. Consequently, E+ and E– can contain the system of segments δ+, δ– with the properties: **

1)between any two *δ*+ lies a *δ*– and between two *δ*– lies a *δ*+;

2)between the *δ*+ and *δ*– lie segments *g*+ of length larger than *ρ*, where *ρ *does not depend on *δ*, and between the *δ*– and *δ*+ lie segments *g*– the lengths of which are also larger than *ρ*.

Fig. 1

Noting these facts we proceed to the construction of the unknown variation

First of all, we determine *δy *in the intervals *δ*+ and *δ*– by letting

By 2°., if we predetermine *δy *in an arbitrary manner in the intervals *g *under the condition |*δy*| < *ε*, then we will have for the curve *γ *at the points of *E*+ and *E*–

In order to prove the theorem, we must predetermine *δy *in the following manner:

lies in it *E*0 ;

b) the inequality **(10) is fulfilled for all x. **

We will begin with the simplest case. Assume that all intervals *g*+ and *g*– contain segments *x*0 ≤ *x *≤ *x*1 in which simultaneously

Then we select in the capacity of *δy *in each segment *g*+

*δy *= *ε *at the points of *g*+ which lie to the left of *x*0,

*δy *= – *ε *at the points of *g*+ which lie to the right of *x*1.

In every interval *g*–, let

*δy **ε *to the left of *x*0 and to the right of *x*1, respectively.

By 3°., the number of segments *δ*+ and *δ*– is finite; on the left side of the most left segment, let *δy *= ± *ε*, to the right of the most right segment, *δy *= ± *ε*, the signs being selected in dependence on whether the corresponding intervals belong to *δ*+ or *δ*–.

It is readily shown that for sufficiently small *ε *the varied curve will satisfy all the conditions below.

Now we will proceed to the general case. Let *a *and *b *be the ends of the interval *g*+. Predetermine *γ *in the neighbourhood of the point *b*. It follows from 4°. that in any neighbourhood of the point *b *there is a point *b*′ fulfilling the following conditions :

1) at *b*′, and consequently also in some neighbourhood of this point, we have *y*′(*x*) > – *k*1 ;

2) the point *b*′ is a limit point of the set of points for which *y*″(*x*) exists and is less than *k*2.

With these facts in mind construct the parabola

tangential to *γ*0 at a point with abscissa *b*′. By 1) and 2), we will have for any point *b*″ sufficiently close to the left of *b*′ that

We now construct the parabola

which has for *x *= *b*″ with the parabola *Y *a common tangent and ordinate. Using 2) we find now a point *b*‴ for which

where

We note still that for *b*″ → *b*′ the point *b*‴ will likewise tend to *b*′, and *ε*+ will tend to zero, so that for sufficiently small *ε *a value of *b*″ can be found for which *ε*+ = *ε*.

In a completely analogous manner one can construct corresponding parabolae to the right of the point *a *for the intervals *a*′ < *x *< *a*″ and *a*″ < *x *< *a*‴, respectively. Now design for *g*in the following manner:

belongs in *g*+ to the class *E*0**². On the other hand, by 3°., the number of segments δ+ and δ– is bounded and for sufficiently small ε the construction is possible for all finite g ; for g±∞ (g–∞ extending to the left of the most left δ and g+∞ to the right of the most right δ), we let **

where the ± signs must be selected in correspondence with the fact whether the interval belongs to *δ*+ or *δ*–.

belongs to *E*0. We still have to show that the inequality **(10) is true for this curve. This inequality will be satisfied in all δ+ and δ–; by virtue of the continuity of I(γ, x) with respect to x, it will also be fulfilled (for sufficiently small ε and a′, b′ sufficiently close to a, b) in the intervals aa′, bb′. We still have to study the intervals a′b′ and g±∞ ; the fulfillment of (10) in these regions is ensured by 3°. and the continuity of I with respect to γ. **

Naturally, the class of admissible curves can be changed in dependence on the boundary value problem. For example, in the problem of stream line flow around an arc *Γ *(to be considered in **Chapter III) one finds it to be convenient to select as admissible curves the set of curves y = y(x) with the properties: **

1o. *y*(*x*) is determined for *x *≥ 0, *y*(0) = 1, *y*(*x*) > 0;

2°. |*y*′(*x*)| ≤ *k*1, |*y*′(*x *+ *h*) – *y*′(*x*)| ≤ *k*2|*h*|*α *;

3°. the curvature *K *of the curve *γ *satisfies the inequality *K *≤ *k*3/*x *;

4°. 0 ≤ *y*(*x*) ≤ 1.

In correspondence with a change of the class of admissible curves, one has also to change the conditions imposed on the functional *I*(*γ*, *x*) so that increasing max |*I*| for variation of *γ *will be possible in the class of admissible curves under consideration.

The choice of the class of admissible curves is determined, first of all, by the fact that this class must contain the solution sought ; in particular, the conditions 2°. and 3°. were designed such that particular solutions of the problem of jets satisfy these conditions. In the problem of waves in a viscous fluid, one must select as class of admissible curves the set of curves *y *= *y*(*x*) which exhibit the periodicity *y*(*x *+ *ω*) = *y*(*x*).

**¹ It follows from 3°. that on any finite interval γ has almost everywhere a curvature k where |y″(x)| ≤ k2 **

**² The conditions 4°. and 5°. together ensure that γ belongs to the strip 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. **

CHAPTER I

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF THE THEORY OF CONFORMAL

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