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Created by King Of All

2:51:28 PM7/18/2012
1
(loi)
MT S K NNG GII H PHNG TRNH
Tc gi: King Of All

I.H S DNG PHNG PHP BIN I TNG NG.
c im chung ca dng h ny l s dng cc k nng bin i ng nht c bit l k
nng phn tch nhm a mt PT trong h v dng n gin ( c th rt theo y hoc
ngc li ) ri th vo PT cn li trong h .
*Loi th nht , trong h c mt phng trnh bc nht vi n x hoc y khi ta tm cch
rt y theo x hoc ngc li
V d 1 . Gii h phng trnh
( )( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
x y 1 x y 1 3x 4x 1 1
xy x 1 x 2
+ + + = +

+ + =


Gii.
D thy x = 0 khng tha mn PT(2) nn t (2) ta c :
2
x 1
y 1
x

+ = thay vo (1) ta c

( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
x 1 x 1
x x 3x 4x 1 x 1 2x 1 x 1 3x 1
x x
| |
+ = + =
|
\


( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
3 2 3 2
x 1
x 1 2x 2x x 1 x 1 3x 1 x 1 2x 2x 4x 0 x 0
x 2
=

+ = + = =


T , ta c cc nghim ca h l : (1;-1) , (-2;
5
2
)
*Loi th hai , Mt phng trnh trong h c th a v dng tch ca cc phng trnh
bc nht hai n
V d 2 . Gii h phng trnh
( )
( )
2 2
xy x y x 2y 1
x 2y y x 1 2x 2y 2
+ + =


Gii .
iu kin : x1 ; y0
PT (1) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
2 2
x xy 2y x y 0 x y x 2y x y 0 + = + + = ( t iu kin
ta c x+y>0)
x 2y 1 0 x 2y 1 = = + thay vo PT (2) ta c :
( )
( )
( ) y 2x 2y 2y 2 y 1 2y 2 0 do y 0 y 2 x 5 + = + + = = =
*loi th ba , a mt phng trnh trong h v dng phng trnh bc hai ca mt n ,
n cn li l tham s
V d 3. Gii h phng trnh
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2
y = 5x 4 4 x 1
y 5x 4xy 16x 8y 16 0 2
+

+ + =


Gii .
Bin i PT (2) v dng ( )
2 2
y 4x 8 y 5x 16x 16 0 + + + =
Created by King Of All
2:51:28 PM7/18/2012
2
Coi PT (2) l phng trnh n y tham s x ta c
2
' 9x = t ta c nghim
( )
( )
y 5x 4 3
y 4 x 4
= +


Thay (3) vo (1) ta c : ( ) ( )( )
2
4
x y 0
5x 4 5x 4 4 x 5
x 0 y 4

= =

+ = +

= =


Thay (4) vo (1) ta c : ( ) ( )( )
2
x 4 y 0
4 x 5x 4 4 x
x 0 y 4
= =
= +

= =


Vy nghim ca h l : (0;4) , (4;0) , (
4
5
;0)

II.H S DNG PHNG PHP T N PH
im quan trng nht trong h dng ny l pht hin n ph ( ) ( ) a f x, y ; b g x, y = = c
ngay trong tng phng trnh hoc xut hin sau mt php bin i hng ng thc c
bn hoc php chia cho mt biu thc khc 0.
V d 4. Gii h phng trnh
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
2
2
x 1 y y x 4y 1
x 1 y x 2 y 2
+ + + =

+ + =


Gii .
D thy y=0 khng tha mn PT(1) nn HPT
( )
2
2
x 1
y x 4
y
x 1
y x 2 1
y
+
+ + =


| | +

+ =
|

\

t
2
a b 2
x 1
a , b y x 2
ab 1 y
+ = +
= = +

=

gii h ta c a=b=1 t ta c h
2
x 1 y
x y 3
+ =

+ =


H ny bn c c th gii d dng.
V d 5. Gii h phng trnh
( )
( )
2 2
2
3
4xy 4 x y 7
x y
1
2x 3
x y

+ + + =

+ =


Gii . iu kin : x +y 0
HPT
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
3
3 x y x y 7
x y
1
x y x y 3
x y

+ + + =

+ + + =


Created by King Of All
2:51:28 PM7/18/2012
3
t
( )
1
a x y a 2 ; b x y
x y
= + + =
+
ta c h
( )
( )
2 2
3a b 13 1
a b 3 2
+ =

+ =


Gii h ta c a=2 , b=1 ( do |a|2 ) t ta c h
1
x y 2 x y 1 x 1
x y
x y 1 y 0
x y 1

+ + = + = =
+

= =


III.H S DNG PHNG PHP HM S
H loi ny ta gp nhiu hai dng f(x)=0 (1)v f(x)=f(y) (2) vi f l hm n iu trn
tp D v x,y thuc D .Nhiu khi ta cn phi nh gi n x,y x,y thuc tp m hm f
n iu
* Loi th nht , mt phng trnh trong h c dng f(x)=f(y) , phng trnh cn li
gip ta gii hn x,y thuc tp D trn trn hm f n iu
V d 6 . Gii h phng trnh
( )
( )
3 3
8 4
x 5x y 5y 1
x y 1 2
=

+ =


Gii .
T PT (2) ta c
8 4
x 1; y 1 x 1; y 1
Xt hm s ( ) [ ]
3
f t t 5t; t 1;1 = c ( ) [ ]
2
f ' t 3t 5 0; t 1;1 = < do f(t)
nghch bin trn
khong (-1;1) hay PT (1) x y = thay vo PT (2) ta c PT :
8 4
x x 1 0 + =
t a=x
4
0 v gii phng trnh ta c
4
1 5 1 5
a y x
2 2
+ +
= = =
*loi th hai , l dng h i xng loi hai m khi gii thng dn n c hai trng
hp (1) v (2)
V d 7. Gii h phng trnh
2 y 1
2 x 1
x x 2x 2 3 1
y y 2y 2 3 1

+ + = +

+ + = +


Gii .
t a x 1; b y 1 = = ta c h
( )
( )
2 b
2 a
a a 1 3 1
b b 1 3 2

+ + =

+ + =


Tr v vi v 2 PT ta c :
2 a 2 b
a a 1 3 b b 1 3 + + + = + + + (3)
Xt hm s ( ) ( )
2
2 t t
2
t 1 t
f t t t 1 3 ; f ' t 3 ln3
t 1
+ +
= + + + = +
+

V ( )
2 2 2
t 1 t t t 1 t 0 f ' t 0, t + > + + > > do hm s f(t) ng
bin trn R
Nn PT (3) a b = thay vo PT (1) ta c
2 a
a a 1 3 + + = (4)
Created by King Of All
2:51:28 PM7/18/2012
4
Theo nhn xt trn th
2
a a 1 0 + + > nn PT (4)
( )
2
ln a a 1 a ln3 0 + + = (
ly ln hai v )
Xt hm s
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1
g a ln a a 1 a ln3; g' a ln3 1 ln3 0, a R
a 1
= + + = < <
+

hay hm g(a) nghch bin trn R v do PT (4) c nghim a=0 nn PT (4) c
nghim duy nht a=0
T ta c nghim ca h ban u l : x=y=1
IV.H S DNG PHNG PHP NH GI
Vi phng php ny, cn lu pht hin cc biu thc khng m v nm vng cch
vn dng cc bt ng thc c bn
V d 8 . Gii h phng trnh
2
3 2
2
2
3
2xy
x x y
x 2x 9
2xy
y y x
y 2y 9

+ = +

+ = +


Gii.
Cng v vi v hai PT ta c
2 2
3 2 2
3
2xy 2xy
x y
x 2x 9 y 2y 9
+ = +
+ +
(1)
Ta c :
( )
2
3 2
3
3 3 2 2
2 xy 2 xy
2xy
x 2x 9 x 1 8 2 xy
2
x 2x 9 x 2x 9
+ = + =
+ +

Tng t
3 2
2xy
xy
x 2x 9

+
m theo bt ng thc Csi
2 2
x y 2 xy + nn
VT(1)VP(1)
Du bng xy ra khi
x y 1
x y 0
= =

= =

th li ta c nghim ca h l : (0;0) , (1;1)


V d 9 . Gii h phng trnh
3
3
y x 3x 4
x 2y 6y 2
= + +


Gii.
HPT
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
2 3
y 2 x 3x 2
y 2 x 1 x 2 1
x 2 2 y 3y 2 x 2 2 y 1 y 2 2
=
= +



= = +



Nu x>2 t (1) suy ra y-2<0 diu ny mu thun vi PT(2) c (x-2) v (y-2) cng
du
Tng t vi x<2 ta cng suy ra iu v l . Vy nghim ca h l x=y=2
King Of All