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:

1385

1
4

27

RC

37

RL

45

RLC

53

69

79

-1 pdf :
http://ece.ut.ac.ir/classpages/circuitlab
-2 :Spice pdf
. pdf
.
Circuitlab@ece.ut.ac.ir
-3 :
.


.
.
-4 .
-5
) (. -
spice 2 .

-6 .
A 123456
B 234561
C 345612
D 456123
E 561234
F 612345
-7 :
1-7 3 :
------

------ section

01-A-4 :
*** section .
: 1-3/5 (01) section
: 3/5-6

)(02

: 1-3/5

)(03

: 3/5-6

)(04

: 1-3/5

)(05

: 9/5-12

)(06

* section section
). section
(.

* : A,B,C,D,E,F
.
2-7 : - .
3-7 .
*** .


85



.

.
)
( .
.

.
.
.

.
.

.

.

.
.
.


.
.
.
.

.

)(1-1
.
:
-1 220 .
.
.
-2 220 .
-3 . S R T . MP
SL .
.
-4 .
.
-5 16


.


) (...


:
:
.
: .
:
.
:X sweep
.
:Y
.
:
CCD
.
.

)(2-1


) (3-1
.

)(3-1
.1 ) (
.2 ) (
.3 1 ) X (
.4 1 :
gnd AC DC DC DC AC .5 Y 1
.6 ) (1
.7 4 :
1 2 ) ( .8
.9 X
.10 sweep X

(Cathode Ray

) )Oscilloscope(CRO
) Scope Oscillation( .

. .
CRT .
.

)CRT (4-1

.

.
)( Vsweep

)( .
Vsweep

3T

2T

) (5-1

T Vsweep
T
.
.

.
.
)(

)(

)(

)(

) (6-1
grid
).(intensify
) (2
.
) (2 focus .

) (7-1


y E.
) ( V0
Va V0
) (
:
Lld
Vd
2dV a

=D

: Vd ) (
: l d
: Va
: d
: L
: D
D ) Vd ( .
ld

+ + +
E

L
X

)(8-1

-1 S

D
ld

Lld
=S
2dVa

S
-2 ld
.

-3 ld
2 3
-4 ) V0 (


-5

.
-6 4 5 ) (2
grid horizontal position, Vertical position,
intensify, focus .
-7 )
(

)(9-1
Vsweep .
VH .
) (10-1.

VH

Vsweep

2T

)(9-1

b

)(10-1
a b
.

. -2 trigger level -1
. trigger slope



.
.

)
(

10mv
div

900K
100mv
div

90K

1mv
div

10K

)(11-1


. R2C2=R1C1
Vi
.
C1

R1

V0

R2

C2

)(12-1

.


time/div .
time/div
Vcc

= S

.
)(13-1

unblanking
grid . Hold time .

x-y T
. .

s
) (13-1 .

) (14-1

. )(
.

Hold-off

.
)(15-1

OFF.

: NORM NORM.
: AUTO
f=50HZ .
: TV

external Line 50Hz .

: dc .
: Ac DC .
: HF Rej .
: LF Rej .

Alt
Alt
)(1 2
.
Chop
1 2 .


-1
-2

V0
Vi

mV
div

) (12-1 .

-3

-4 FET
-5
-6

-7 Hold OFF .
-8 Alt .
-9 Alt 2 1
.


. .

)(16-1
:
-1
-2
-3
.

.
Rp

Rp

)(17-1

R p = 1M , C p = 250 pf , 1

C p = 25 pf , R p = 10M ,10

10
.
10 .
:

Focus Intensity
Gnd

Gnd AC DC
Sweep


Offset .
.

-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6

)(18-1



Offset AC

.

PSpice

PSpice
PSpice
.
PScpice
Simulation Program for Integrated Circuits Emphasis SPICE
.
. PSPICE
MICROSIM HSPICE AVANT
- .
SPICE
.
.
.
WORD PROBE
.

FILE
. FILE .
SCH .
WORD
WORD
FILE COPY TO CLIPBOARD . PASTE
.

.
CNTRL+G .

DRAW->PLACE PART . :

LIBRARIES
.
.
.

CNTRL+R .
CNTRL+F
.
DELETE .
VDC VSRC .
G F E H

.
VPULSE .



DRAW->WIRE .
DELETE .

. . SPICE
:
M:

U:
G:

N:
MEG:

P:
K:

:

. .


MARKERS -> MARK ADVANED .
.
:

.

:

ANALYSIS -> SETUP

TRANSIENT
. AC SWEEP
.

ANALYSIS -> SIMULATION .

) F11 (


:

TRACE -> ADD .

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
.
%5 %10
%1 %2

5600 = 5.6K 5%


:
1 1/2 1/5 1/8 2/2 2/7 3/3
4/7 5/6 6/8 8/2
2/7K 270 27 2/7 . . .
30
.
30
) 27 33( .

1 1

4 2

5
.


1f
dc
.
. 16v 1000f
16
) ( .

1f


.
503 50000pf 50nf 104 100nf . 1f

27


555
:
555 ) (1
.. CR


.
.
: Astable
Astable timer RB ) (2 ) (3
. Astable trigger threshold self-
trigger . high
Tr Vc1 (RA+RB)C
.
Vc1 threshold 2Vcc/3 comparator
high threshold reset F/F lowtimer.
Tr C1 RB Tr
. Vc1 Vcc/3 comparator high trigger
timer high . Tr Vc1 .

28

)(1

)(2

29

)(3

high timer Vc1 Vcc/32Vcc/3


lowtimer Vc1 2Vcc/3 Vcc/3
. high timer C1 :

RB
VC1(0-)=Vcc/3

C1

RA
Vcc

)(1

) dVc1 Vcc V(0


=
dt
RA + RB

)(2

Vcc
3

C1

= ) Vc1 (0 +

)(3

)2 -(- (R A + R B )C1
Vc1 (t) = Vcc[1 e
]
3

timer high)(tH Vc1


2Vcc/3 .

30

tH

) 2 -(- (R + R )C1
2
] Vc1 (t) = Vcc = Vcc[1 e A B
3
3
t H = C1 (R A + R B )Ln2 = 0.693(R A + R B )C1

)(4
)(5

C1 lowtimer :

dVc1
1
+
Vc1 = 0
dt
RD + RB

)(6

)(7

t
(R D + R B )C1

2
Vcc(e
3

C1

= )Vc1 (t

timer low ) (tL Vc1


Vcc/3 .
tL

)(8
)(9

1
2
) Vcc = Vcc(e (R D + R B )C1
3
3
t L = C1 (R D + R B )Ln2 = 0.693(R D + R B )C1

RB>>RD Tr )(R D 0
)(10

t L = 0.693R B C1

timer Astable .
T = t H + t L = 0.693(R A + R B )C1 + 0.693R B C1 = 0.693(R A + 2R B )C1

.
31

1
1.44
=
T (R A + 2R B )C1

= f

:
-1 ) (3 Astabl 1.386ms duty cycle 75%.
RA RB C duty cycle) . tH T(
-2 RA RB C
( duty cycle=50% 1KHz .
( duty cycle=25% 1KHz .
( duty cycle
.
-3 Vcc .
4 RA RB C 1 .
1
) (3 Astabl 1.386ms duty cycle 75%.
RA =1K RB=500 C 1 .

.
duty cycle .
2
RA = 4,7 K RB=22 K C 1

duty cycle .

32


: ) (
.
.
) ( .
.
100 450 . 50
:
Zg

Eg

Zg

Eg

:
:
)(5-1

50
100 = 10 V
450 + 50

= Vload = V ab

10 .
.
. Rload = Rin
.
.
.

33

R=450
=Rin
50

Eg

) :(6-1 450

: .
.
Output 2

Circuit 2

Output 1

Circuit 1

Input

)(7-1

2 . 10
5
1
50
6
6
R=50

RL=10
AC

)(8-1
.
.
Output 2

Circuit 2

Impedance
Matching Circuit

Circuit 1

Input

)(9-1

. RLC
p :
Z p = RL (1 + Q p2 ) = ARL

34

L
C
L

R
p

)(10-1
L C A
L C RL .
Z g = Z in Z in
.
2
RS .
R L C . Z in
:
L

Rs
Vs

C
B

Zin

)(11-1

R
R 2 C

j
L

1 + R 2C 2 2
1 + R 2C 2 2

= Z in

:
Z in = RS

:
Re( Z in ) = RS

Im(Z in ) = 0

35

L
C
R
1
= + C 2 2
= = RS RS
,
2
2 2 2
R
1+ R C
CR
L

R S = R

:
1

1
R2
C 2 2 > 0 < 1 :

= C 2 2

L
= R 2
C

.
R RS
L C .
18
.
:
.
:
- R = 10k . ) RS = 3.3k
( Rg L = 18mH .
. .
R AB VS ) VS (
Volt p p

VS = 4

- fm
.
)f(kHz

fm

Vo p p

- ) ( V S = 4Volt
.
p p

36

RC
RC
:
R C .
R
Rg
)Vo(t

Vg

)(1-2
Vim f
) (
.
Vi (t ) = Vim sin t = Vie0o :
Vo (t ) = Vom sin(t + ) = Voe o


:
Vo Vo
=
o
V i Vi

= AV

Vo
V
o f .
Vi
Vi

.
RC .
:
Vo
1
=
= AV o
V i 1 + jRC

= AV

Vi = ( R + jC ) I

V = ( 1 ) I
o
jc

:
Vo
1
=
2
Vi
) 1 + (RC

= AV

) = Arctg (RC

Vo
RC << 1 1
Vi

Vo
RC >> 1 0
Vi

. RC


.
.
)( 0o 2
o

.
f c
.
)

( . :
Vo
1
1
1
=
=
= fc
2
Vi
2RC
2
) 1 + (RC

:
R=10 k C=0/22 F .
4
.
4
.

.
f
)(Hz

20

50

100

150

250

500

1000

3000

10,000

V0

V0


56 k C
. 56 k
.
f
)(Hz

20

50

100

150

250

500

1000

3000

10,000

V0

V0


RC
:
R C RC >> 1
f c Vo .
:
) dVo (t
1
= ) Vo (t
Vi (t )dt
dt
RC

Vi (t ) = Ri (t ) + Vo (t ) Ri (t ) = RC

) ( .
RC >> 1 .
:
R C=0/22 F .
4 ) ( V p p
. 100 .
22 k 10 k 6/8 k 150 k R
. 4 ) ( V p p
) .(R=150 k .


:
.

)(2-2
:
Vo
jRC
=
V i 1 + jRC
Vo
RC
=
Vi
1 + (RC ) 2
1
)
RC

= AV

= AV

( = Arctg

Vo
RC >> 1 0o 1
Vi

Vo
90o 0
Vi

RC << 1

RC

. :
Vo
RC
1
1
=
=
= fc
2
Vi
2RC
2
) 1 + (RC

:
R=10 k C=0/22 F . 2

.
2 .
56 k R
.

f
)(Hz

20

50

100

150

250

500

1000

3000

10,000

V0

V0



:
R C RC << 1 Vo
f c ) Vi ( :
) dV (t
1
) 1 V (t
idt + Vo (t ) o dt Vo (t ) = RC i

C
C
R
dt

= ) Vi (t

.
RC .
:
R C=0/22 F 4 ) ( V p p
100 Hz . 10 k 15 k
2/2 k 4/7 k R .
4 ) ( V p p ) (R=2/2 k
.

:
.

)(3-2
:

Vo
jRC
=
V i 1 + 3 jRC 2 R 2C 2
Vo
RC
=
2
2
Vi
(1 R C 2 ) 2 + 9 2 R 2C 2

= AV

= AV

3RC
)
1 2 R 2C 2

( = 90o Arctg

) ( RC >> 1 ) ( RC << 1 :

Vo
0
Vi


.
f 0
. 1
2

. .
:
d AV
1
1
= =0
= f0
2RC
d
RC
1
j
= ) AV ( f 0
= ) AV ( f 0
1+ 3 j 1
3

:
R 4C 4 4 11R 2C 2 2 + 1 = 0

, f2 = 2
2
2

1
3 2

= AV

= BW = f1 f 2 , f1

11
1
3
= 2 2 2 1 2
2 2
RC
RC
RC
3
3.3
0.3
= , 1
= , 2
= BW
2RC
RC
RC

= (1 2 ) 2 = 1 + 2 21 2
2

:
R=10 k C=0/22 F . 4

.
4 .
f
)(Hz

10

25

50

100

150

200

500

1000

2000

V0


V0




.
N

Vs

VA

Amper
Rx, Lx

Watt

RA

RI

Volt
V

)(1-3
:
) P = I 2 (RI + RA + RW

:
P
) (RA + RI
I2

= RW

:
) VA = I (RI + RA

VRW = I .RW
VL = V 2 (VA + VRW ) 2

Lx :
1
VL
2
=
) V 2 I 2 (RA + RI + RW
I I

= Lx

VRW VA
Vs
V

VL

I
0

.
L1 L2
Lh ) . (
L1

L2

)(2-3
)
( . Lg
Lg L2 L1 Lh .
:
Vh = V1 + V2 + 2V3
di
di
di
di
Lh 1 = L1 1 + L2 1 + 2 M 1
dt
dt
dt
dt

:
Lh = L1 + L2 + 2M

:
Vg = V1 + V2 2V3
di2
di
di
di
= L1 2 + L2 2 2 M 2
dt
dt
dt
dt

Lg

:
Lg = L1 + L2 2 M

:
L1 + L2 = Lh 2 M = Lg + 2 M

1
Lh Lg
4

= M

:
:
- .
- .
:
.
.

)(3-3
) (


.
)(4-3
:
.

)(5-3
H .
B :
d
1
= Vdt
dt
N

V =N

R C :
RC X C
VC :
V
1
idt
=i

C
R
N
1
= VC
= Vdt

RC
RC
= VC

i RC.
VC y VR x
.

RL
. 4
. 22 R L
1 k 500 200 100
.
L
Y

)(6-3
) .( I = V R = L R
.
4 6
.
.
. VL
.
RL
:
R=10 k 22 .
2
.
2
.

.
f
)(Hz

20

50

100

150

250

500

1000

3000

10,000

V0

V0


56 k L
. 56 k
.
f
)(Hz

20

50

100

150

250

500

1000

3000

10,000

V0

V0



.
.
.
x = x0 sin t ) y = y0 sin(t +
:
: . = 0
x = x0 sin t
y
y= 0x

x0
y = y0 sin t

x y
.

: 2 . = 2
x = x0 sin t

y = y0 sin(t + 2 ) = y0 cos t

:
2

x y
+ = 1
x0 y0

x y ) ( .
x0 = y0 = a
a .
: = :
x = x0 sin t
y
y= 0 x

x0
y = y0 sin(t + ) = y0 sin t

.
.
.

< <

< =0 0<

< < 0
2

=
2

= < <

)(7-3
:
0 < < 2
.
y :

C
A
Y-input
G

o
B
D

X-input

)(8-3
x = x0 sin t = 0 t = k

y = y0 sin(t + ) y = y0 sin(k + ) = y0 sin

y
= y0 sin = Arc sin x =0
y0

2 yx = 0 = 2 y0 = :

x =0

= Arc sin


.
:
y = y0 sin y t

f x x = x0 sin xt f y
x X y Y
. f y f x
.
NH
NV

fy
fx

:
X Y
.
. 3 2 1 4
.

)(9-3

RLC

RLC

RLC:
RLC


RL RC .
L R C .


) RL (
.
) RC(
.

)Vo(t

Vi

)(1-4

. :
di 1
+
idt + Ri
dt C

V =L

:
2

d i
di i
+R + =0
2
dt C
dt

s1

s2

R
1
=0
s+
L
LC
R
R2
1
+

= s1
2
2L
LC
4L
s2 +

R2
1
R

2
2L
4 L LC

= s2

:
i (t ) = k1 e s1t + k 2 e s 2t
i (0) = 0
di (0) V
=
dt
L
R
2L

LC

) ) ( i(t

:
.1

1
LC

R
>
2L

. :
V t et e t
e

L
2

= ) i (t

R2
1

2
4 L LC
2L
=
R

)i(t

)(2-4
RL .

2RL
.
.2

1
LC

R
=
2L

I max

2L
R

. Critically Damped .

V t
te
L
2L
=
R
V 1
e
= I max
L
= ) i (t

e
)i(t
Imax

)(3-4
1

.3

LC

R
<
2L

. Oscillatory Damped .
V t
e sin 1t
L1
1
R2
2
LC 4 L

= ) i (t

= 1 = J

:
1
R2
2
LC 4 L

1
2

= f1

)i(t

V
L1
t

e
t

e
V
L1

)(4-4
R2
4L2

f1

f1

2 LC

f1

1
LC

RLC:
RLC :
Rg

)Vo(t

L
,
RL

Vg

)(5-4
:
)Vo(t

Lp

Rp

Rg

Ig

1442443

)(6-4
I g :
V0 1
dV0
d 2V0
1 dV0
1
V
dt
C
+
+

+
+
=0
o
2

R Lp
dt
dt
RC dt LpC

= Ig

:
2

1
1
1


2 RC
2 RC LpC

= s1 , s2

:
.1
.2
.3

LpC

1
>
2 RC

Over Damped .

LpC

1
=
2 RC

Critically Damped .

LpC

1
<
2 RC

Oscillatory Damped .

.
R R = R || R R L L . 2 3
:
p

= 2 RC

Damping Factor

1
2 RC

Critical Resistance

1 L
C
2

= RC

: 1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

4 .
Overshoot
RLC .
C=3.3 L=18 R=2K
.
( )
2 .

.

:
RLC 18 3,3 1
10 4 V p p
.
-1
.
-2
)
(.
-3
Overshoot
Overshoot 2 5 . 2 5
. RLC

.

RLC

RLC:
RLC

. L R C
.

. RLC .
:
RLC .
I .
:
1

Z = Rt + J L

Rt = Rg + R .
R

)Vo(t

Vg+Rg

)(8-4
:
1
1
= fs
LC
2 LC

= s

Z = Z = R .
:
s

Vg
Rt

= I = Is

f .
:
s

1
1 Vg
= Is
. = QsVg
sC
sC Rt
= QsVg

L s
Rt

s CRt

= Qs

Vg
Rt

= VCs

VLs = s LI s = s L.

Qs > 1

(
.
RLC :
Qs

Vo
1
=
2
Vg 1 LC + JRt C
1

(1 LC ) + R C
2

2
t

2 2

= AV

= AV

Rt C

2
LC 1

= Arctg

A 1 f . f

. f :
s

1
Rt2

LC 2 L2

Qs > 1

L
C

< Rt2

1
Rt2
1
=
= = 0 1
= 2 f1
d
LC 2 L
2
f1 < f s
Qs
= AV
R 2C
1 t
4L
d AV

2L
C

AV

< Rt2

2L
C

< Rt2

.
||Av

)(9-4

:
RLC . .
C

)Vo(t

Vi

)(10-4
) Rg (:
R
1

R + J L

Vo
=
Vi

= AV

:
= AV

1
s

1 + JQ s

= AV

:
1
2

1 + Q
s

= AV

2
s

= Arctg Q s s
s

>> s

Qs > 1

).

= s
0

Vo
=1
Vi

<< s

( VV

o
i

. 1 s 2 .

) . V
V 3db
( . 2 1 BW
. :
1

1
2

R
L

s
Qs

BW = 2 1

||Av
1

0.7

1 s 2

)(11-4
RLC
. =
) ( = 0 << >> .
.
1

)(12-4
: 2
-1
-2
-3

-4
-5

RLC
RLC
Rt .
3 Q
). RLC
(.
3db
.
Q RLC C = 3.3nf
L = 18mH 1K 3K .

:
::
-1
2
.

)(13-4
1-1 . )(
L AB .
AB .
f s VR .
.
2-1 4
.

.
3-1 2-1
. .

-2 ) : Qs (.
1- .

)(13-4

0
BW

QS R=1K R=3K BW 0

QS
). R=1K .(
: ) (.
-1 R=7K .
L=18mH

Vo

C=3.3nF

Rt

Vg
B

)(14-4
:
2L
-a
C

> Rt 2 Vc QS < 1

.
2L
L
2
> > Rt
-b
C
C

Vc QS < 1


.
L
-c
C

< Rt 2 Vc QS > 1

. Rt Vc
.

). Vc (.
-2
.

-3 3 Rt

.
-4 QS > 1 .

RLC:
RLC .
Rg

)Vo(t

L
,
RL

Vg

ZP

)(15-4
Vo Z p Vo Vg
. Tank
Circuit .
:
Y = YL + YC
1
+ JC
RL + JL

RL
L
J 2
C
2 2
2 2
R + L
RL + L

2
L

=Y

= Y


) ( . :
2

1 RL

LC L

= p

:
1
Q s2

p = s 1

RLC

L s
RL

= Q s

s . Qs

.
Z :
p

Qp

= RL + Q p L p = RL 1 + Q p2

2
p

R +L
2
L

RL

= Zp

:
Z p = RLQ p2
1
Qs >> 1
LC
L
= Zp
Qs , Q p >> 1
CRL

= p

L C .
Z p = Rg .
:
= p C Vo
CR L
Vo
L

Vo
XC
Vo
Zp

IC
Ig

IC = Qp I g

.
) .
(
:
Zp
VC
=
Vg Z p + Rg

= AV

Z
. .
:
p

p
Qp

= BW

Re

Le

Vg
B

Rg
L
,
RL

Vg

AB

)(16-4


RL + JL
.Vg
= Vg
Rg + RL + JL

Rg Rg RL + RL2 + 2 L2

= Re
(Rg + RL )2 + 2 L2

Rg2 L
= L
e (Rg + RL )2 + 2 L2

L
Qs = s e
Re

Rg Ls
Rg RL + RL2 + 2 L2
Rg RL + RL2 + 2 L2
Rg L

R L s2 L2
1 +
+
R
Rg RL
g

s
Qs

= Qs

= BW

RL
L

= BW

= s

Le C

V RLC .
C .
V A B
.
Rg
) ( .
.
.
g

Vo max

90

Vo max
2

-90

1 p 2

)(17-4
:
1 10 Rg
2
)
( ). (.
R
Vg
)C=3.3nF Vo(t

L=18mH

Vi

Rg

)(18-4
10
I C I L I
.


.
.
) (

.
.
-1

120 .
) (1-5 .
120 . .
V
Z

=I

vA (t ) = 2V . sin t V

VA = V 0o V

vB (t ) = 2V .sin(t 120o ) V

VB = V 120o V

vC (t ) = 2V . sin(t 240o ) V

VC = V 240o V

) v A (t

) v B (t

) vC (t

) (1-5
Volts
) vC (t

) v B (t

) v A (t

) (1-5

:
V0o
= I
Z
V 120o
= IB
= I 120o
Z
V 240o
= Ic
= I 240o
Z
= IA

) i A (t

Z =| Z |

) v A (t

) iB (t

Z =| Z |

) v B (t

) iC (t

Z =| Z |

) vC (t

) (1-5
.
. )
( .
) (2-5 :
I N = I A + I B + IC
= I + I 120o + I 240o
) = I cos( ) + jI sin(
) + I cos( 120o ) + jI sin( 120o
) + I cos( 240o ) + jI sin( 240o
]) = I [cos( ) + cos( 120o ) + cos( 240o
]) + jI [sin( ) + sin( 120o ) + sin( 240o

IA

IB

IN

vB

vA

vC

IC

:
]) I N = I [cos( ) + cos( ) cos(120o ) + sin( ) sin(120o ) + cos( ) cos(240o ) + sin( ) sin( 240o
]) + jI [sin( ) + sin( ) cos(120o ) cos( ) sin(120o ) + sin( ) cos(240o ) cos( ) sin(240o
1
3
1
3
sin( ) cos( )
]) sin(
= I [cos( ) cos( ) +
2
2
2
2
1
3
1
3
cos( ) sin( ) +
]) sin(
+ jI [sin( ) sin( )
2
2
2
2
=0A

.
120
.
.
)(3-5 Y )(3-5 .

IL

VL

+
-

IL

VL
-

v
-

IL

)(3-5
IL

I
-

+
VL

IL

I
v

IL

VL

)(3-5
-2
.
.
) (4-5 .
) ( ) (L
. .
Y
5 .
:
V A = V0 o
VB = V 120 o
VC = V 240 o

IL2

VL3

+
-

I L1

IC

IA

VC = V 0 o

VC = V 240 o

VL2
VL1

I L3

IB

V B = V 120

)(4-5
.
:

I A = I0o
I B = I 120o
I C = I 240o
5 .
:
I L = I Y
.
VL1 = VA VB
= V0o V 120o
1
3
) = V ( V j V
2
2
3
3
= V+ j V
2
2
3
1
( = 3V
) + j
2
2
o
= 3V 30

:
VL = 3V Y


6 .

30 .

VC
VL

VL

30 o

VA
VB
VL

)(5-5
:
7 .
:
VA = V0o
VB = V 120o
VC = V 240o

:
I A = I0o
I B = I 120o

.
:

VL = V

I L1

VA

VL2

VL1

+
+

VL3

IC
I

I L3

I L2

VB
+

I A I

IB

VC

)(6-5
.
I L1 = I A I B
= I0o I 120o
1
3
= I ( I j
)I
2
2
3
3
= I+ j
I
2
2
3
1
( = 3I
) + j
2
2
o
= 3I 30

I L = 3I

30 .

.
.
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.
) (

.

MP
A

)(7-5
.
) (
.

.

W
A
V

R
MP

)(8-5
:
.
.
-1 ac .
-2 1 2 1 2 X Y .
.
-3 2 - 2 3 - 3 2 3 .

1 Ground

2
2

)(9-5
.
-1 ac .
-2 1 1 3 X Y .
.
-3 .
1

Ground

1
2

2
3

)(10-5


-1 .
. ) I = f (V ) R = cte ( .

R
)I(mA
V

-2 .
) ( .
R
Vi
R1 + R2 + R3

= VR

)(1-6
-3 .
) ( .
R1 R2
I
R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R1 R3

= I R3

)(2-6
-4 I 1 I 2 . 1,5
3 I 1 I 2
Superposition .

)(3-6

-1 . a b ) I sc
( a ) Voc b (
. Rth .

)(4-6
-2 1) . Rth
( . I sc Voc
. .

)(5-6

-3 . Rth
.
.

)(6-6
-4 1 3 .
. .

)(7-6
-5 . AC R X
a b Rth . R X
.

)(8-6

)(9-6
-6 R X ) .
(. .
.
.
R X
. .
.
10

R
V

P
)I(mA

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