You are on page 1of 3

MOUTH AND ESOPHAGUS

SALIVA:

1. Secreted by 3 pairs of salivary glands- parotid, sub mandiblular and sub


maxillary glands.
2. Daily secretion of saliva: 1500ml/day.
3. Composition of saliva:

a) Enzymes: amylase, lysozymes, lipase, kallikerin.


b) Mucin
c) IgA
d) Cations and anions: Na+, K+, Ca+, Cl-, HCO3- .
e) Organic contents – urea, uric acid, creatine.

4. pH of saliva: less than 7

FUNCTIONS

1. Digestion of starch by amylase.


2. Lubrication of the food
3. Lowers oral infections.
4. Act as buffer, maintain pH to 7.
5. Excretion of drugs: alcohol, ions, K+, Ca etc

APPLIED
1. Sialorrhoea: Hypersecretion of saliva.
Seen in pregnancy, parkinsonism

2. Xerostomia: Suppression of salivary secretion


Seen in anxiety, stress, duct blockage, irradiation therapy.
MASTICATION

1. Process of breaking up of larger food particles into small pieces.


2. Important for fruits and raw vegetables, as they contain cellulose, an
indigestible substance.

SWALLOWING (DEGLUTITION)

1. Reflex response controlled via vagus nerve,


2. Centre for this response is located in medula.

3. THREE STAGES:
A) ORAL STAGE - Voluntary stage
B) PHARYNGEAL STAGE - Involuntary stage
C) OESOPHAGEAL STAGE - Involuntary stage

3. SWALLOWING REFLEX
Impulses travel in V, IX, X nerves to stimulate medulla,
and efferent pass through V, VII, IX, X, XII nerves to pharynx and
tongue

Oesophagus

It connects the oral cavity with the stomach.


z At the upper end of esophagus is present upper esophageal sphincter
that prevents air to enter esophagus during respiration.
z At the lower end of esophagus is present lower esophageal sphincter
that prevents regurgitation of stomach contents back in esophagus.

APPLIED

Dysphagia- Difficulty in swallowing due to any reason is called as


dysphagia.

Achalasia cardia- In this condition there is failure of lower oesophageal


sphincter to relax completely resulting in accumulation of food in lower
esophagus that dilates the proximal esophagus.
POINTS TO REMEMBER:

1. LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHICTER RELAXES AHEAD OF


PERISTALTIC WAVES.

2. SALIVA CONTAINS HIGHEST AMOUNT OF POTASSIUM.