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Now (I) shall expound the adhyAya giving the enumeration

of bodily parts. [1]

As propounded by the Venerable Atreya. [2]

agnivesha submitted to the Venerable Atreya for providing

knowledge of the entire body by dividing the enitre body
into parts and then enumerating the same. [3]

The Venerable Atreya replied - listen to me O agnivesha!

attentively according to your queries.There are six layers
of skin (tvak) in the body such as - the outermost layer of
skin is known as udakadharA (that which holds up water).
The second one is that which holds up blood, the third one
is the seat of the origin of sidhma and kilAsa (leuederma),
the fourth one is the seat of the origin of ring worm and
leprosy; the fifth one is the seat of the origin of alaji (a type
of boil) and vidradhi (abscess). The sixth layer is that
which, if cut, causes loss of consciousness and is the seat
of the origin of boils being manifested as blackish red and
eep rooted on joints and are hardly curable. Thus are the
six layers of skin which cover the entire body with six
parts. [4]

The body is divided into six parts - two upper extremities,
two lower extremities, head - neck and trunk (chest and
abdomen). [5]

There are three hundred and sixty (360) bones including
teeth, sockets and nails. Such as:
Teeth - 32
Teeth sockets - 32
Nails - 20
Phalangeal bones of hand and feet - 60
Metaphalangeal bones of hand and feet - 20
Metaphalangeal support of hands and feet - 4
Calcaneum - 2
Ankles(in feet) - 4
Wrist bones (in hands) - 2
Fore Arms - 4
Legs - 4
Knee - 2
jAnukapAla (knee caps) - 2
Thighs - 2
Arms - 2
Shoulders - 2
Shoulder blades - 2
Clavicles - 2
Xiphisternum - 1
Palate bones - 2

Hip bones - 2
Pubis - 1
Back - 45
Neck - 15
Chest - 14
Ribs (both sides) - 24
Rib sockets (both sides) - 24
Tubercles in rib sockets(both sides) - 24
Mandible - 1
Extremities of the mandible - 2
Nose, zygomatic process and forehead - 1
Temporals - 2
Skull bones - 4
Thus are the three hundred and sixty bones including
teeth, sockets and nails. [6]
See yAjJNavalkyadharmashAstra 3.84 - 110.

Five seats of the senses are such as - skin, tongue, nose,
eyes and ears. Five sense organs such as - tactile,
gustatory, olfactory, visual and auditory. Five motor organs
such as - hands, feet, anus, genital and speech organ.
One heart which is the seat of consciousness. [7 - 8]

Ten seats of the vital breath such as - head, throat, heart,

navel, anus, bladder, ojas, semen, blood and muscular
tissue. Of them, the first six are known as marmas (vital
organs). [9]

Fifteen are the visceral organs such as - navel, heart,
kloman(lungs), liver, spleen, kidneys, urinary bladder,
caecum, stomach, jejunum, rectum, anus, small intestines,
large intestines and omentum. [10]

There are fifty - six sub - parts associated with the six
major parts (of the body). These were not enumerated
earlier in the context of the major parts and as such are
mentioned here such as Calves - 2
Thighs - 2
Buttocks - 2
Testicles - 2
Penis - 1
ukhA (axilla) - 2
Groin (sides of the scrotum) - 2
Ischeal tuberosities - 2
Pubis - 1
Abdomen - 1
Breast - 2
Arms - 2
Forearms - 2
Chin - 1
Lips - 2
Corners of the mouth - 2
Gums - 2
Palate - 1
Uvula - 1
upajihvikA (tonsils) - 2
gojihvikA (tongue) - 1
Cheeks - 2

Ear pinnae - 2
Lower portion of the ear pinnae - 2
Eye orbit - 2
Eye lids - 4
Pupils of the eyes - 2
Eye brows - 2
Thyroid - 1
Soles of hands and feet - 4
TOTAL - 56

Nine major orifices - seven in the head and two below.

This much is visible and can also be demonstrated.

Beyond this they cannot be demonstrated and as such
can only be inferred such as:
snAyu (ligaments) - 900

sirA (veins) - 700

dhamanI (arteries) - 200
mAMsa (Muscles) - 400
marma(vital organs) - 107
sandhi(joints) - 200
sirAdhamanyaNusha (the end portion of minute branches
of bloodvessels (capillaries) - 29956
keshashmashrulomAni (hair on the scalp, beard and
mustaches plus skin hairs) - 29956
Thus the skin, etc., which are visible are enumerated
properly. Others are known by inference only. Substances
of both categories have no variations due to the normal
constitution of the body.[14]

Now the substances measurable in the unit of number of

aJNjali * are mentioned. These figures indicate the mean
standard and as such there is a scope of increase or
decrease. This is also known by inference. Such as, there
are ten aJNjalis by the standard of the individual's own
aJNjali, of fluid which if discharged accompanies faeces,
urine, blood or other dhAtus, circulating in the entire body
and is held up by the outermost layer of the skin; beneath
the skin exists as lymph exuding through wounds; under
influence of heat goes out of the hair follicles as sweat.
Nine aJNjalis of the first dhAtu being a product of food and
which is known as rasa; eight aJNjalis of blood, seven of
feaces, six of kapha, five of pitta, four of urine, three of
muscle - fat, two of fat, one of bone marrow, a half aJNjali each of brain substance, semen and ojas which is
of the nature of kapha. Thus in essence the body is
described. [15]

The body part which is particularly thick, stable, massive,
heavy, coarse and hard; and nails, bones, teeth, muscle
tissue, skin, faeces, hairs, beards, and mustaches, skin
hairs, tendons, etc., along with smell and the olfactory
sense are pArthiva (predominant in pR^ithivI mahAbhUta).
The liquid, mobile, dull, unctuous, soft and slimy; rasa,
blood, muscle - fat, kapha, pitta, urine, sweat, etc., along
with taste and the gustatory sense are Apya (predominant
in Ap mahAbhUta); pitta, heat, lustre along with vision and
the visual sense are Agneya (predominant in agni
mahAbhUta); respiration, twinkling of the eys, contraction
and relaxation, movement, propulsion and retention along
with touch and the tactile sense are vAyavIya
(predominant in vAyu mahAbhUta);Vacant space, big and
small channels, along with sound and the auditory sense
are AntarIxa (predominant in AkAshamahAbhUta).
Whatever impels is the principal one (principle of
consciousness) along with intellect and mind. Thus
the enumeration of the different corporeal body parts is
described. [16]

The body components according to the division into the
smallest units (cells) are innumerable due to multitude,

minuteness and to being unobservable. The causative

agent in conjunction and disjunction of cells is vayu
and karmasvabhAva. [17]

Thus the body having many parts and enumerated above,
if seen synthetically leads to attachment and viewed
analytically leads to emancipation. The principal one
(consciousness) which is detached, retires after all
existant entities cease to be. [18]

Now the summary verses The wise physician who knows the enumeration of the
body parts does not get confused due to ignorance. One
who is free from ignorance does not become overcome by
the defects caused by it and as such he, devoid of defects
and desires, and who is calm, attains everlasting peace
because he is not reborn. [19 - 20]

Thus ends the Seventh Chapter on the Enumeration of

the Body Parts in shArIrasthAna in the Treatise
Composed by agnivesha and Redacted by charaka.

* a handful weighing 160 gm.