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/ .............................................................21
( cpu ) ....................24
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(memory storage devices)...............27
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;


.
Informatics, Computer
Science.

,
;


,

.

Internet;


, video


(e-mail)

Internet;

World Wide Web ( )

e-mail ( ) newsgroups (
)

FTP ( )

Telnet ( )

CAD/CAM (Computer Aided


Design/ Computer Aided Manufacturing);
(Computer
Aided Design)

. ,
.
,
(Computer

Aided

Manufacturing)
,

.
CAD/CAM.

,
.


(GPS Global Positioning
Systems);
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(,


.

.

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. , , ,
, radar- .
.

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, ,
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( , ,
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.
(, , , )
.

;


.

(word processors)

. ,

,
,
.


(desktop pulbishing systems) ;


.

(CD-ROM), ,
video .
, ,
, .

,
.

;
, ,
(, , ),


(.. ). ,
.
,
,

,
(, )
(, ) .



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,
.

;

.
.

, ,
. ,

(on-line). ,

(Automatic Teller Machines ATM).


,
.

10

(information

kiosks)

,
. ,

11

,
, , , ,

(Computer Based Training )

(distance

learning)

(simulators)
.

DNA

12

Video Animation( )

video

13

14

;

.
, ,
,

15


;

.

),

),

( )

( )


.
(

..)

().

(supercomputers):
.
.


.. . 10 30
.

16

(mainframes):

, . 200 . 1
. .

(minicomputers):

.
20000 250000 .

ersonal

Computer:



. 250 . 1
. .

;
laptop, desktop, tower, workstations,
networked computer.

17


(laptop);

, .

/,
, IT managers. '
,
' . 350 . 2
. .

PC Mac.
PC (Personal Computer)

.
Windows Microsoft. O Apple Mac
PC.
.

;

video, , CD-ROM, DVD .
multimedia PC
.

18

)
,

:

,

).

;
(computer network)
,

(..
) (.. )

19

,

.

.
, Modem.
,

20

T (System Unit);

.
: (tower) (desktop),
.

(System Monitor board);



,
.

(CPU: Central Processing


Unit);
(Main Processor), ,

. .

21

Intel

Pentium.

AMD Cyrix.
600 800 MHz,
1 GHz 1,4 GHz.

(Serial Port);

()

, modem
. COM 1 COM2.

(Parallel Port)

.
LPT1 LPT2.
.

USB (Universal Serial Bus)


,

, scanner .

22


(ain Memory);
.

;

, , zip discs, CD-ROMs DVDs.

.

, , Modem, .

;

(, ,

, .

( , , , ,
).

23

(
cpu )

;
1.
2.
3. .

;

.
. , .

.

- ;

.

.

24

;
.

;

(bus),

;
MHz ().
.


1.

ROM (Read Only Memory). .


R '

25


.
.

R (Random Access Memory). .



.
/
.

2)

/. :
, , CD-R, zip .

;
Bytes. 1 Byte
(, )
it = 1 1
1 yte= 8 bits
1 yte ( ) = 1024 ytes

26


1 yte ( )= 1024 ytes
1 Gyte ( ) =1024 ytes

(files);
.

, ,
.

(folders).

(memory storage
devices)

27


: . 10 GB.
: 50000 .

: .
: .
: .
Zip Disks
:
backup.
: 100 250 MB
: 3500 .

:
: 1,44 MB
: 200
CD ROM disks
: .
CD ROM 1x .
50x, 50
.
: 650 MB.
: 200 CD.

28

DVD disks
: CD ROM
.
: 17 GB
: CD ROM.

;
(keyboard)
,

. :
,

..
(mouse)
/.
' ,
. /,
(),

29


. ( )
.

(joystick)

/,


() .
,
/.
(light-pen)
, .

,
.

....
(track-ball)
,
""

.
.

30


(scanner)

.

/.


.
(Web Cam)

.
(Digital Camera)

.

;
(Visual Display Unit)

.
.
.

31


(pixel).

pixel


( ) pixel, .. 800 600.
VGA (Video Graphics Array), Super VGA,
XGA. XGA
.

. .

. 17 17 .
(projectors)


.
.
(Printers)

.


(ink-jet), (laser).

32


,
.

(Plotters)

.
.
(speakers)

.

Modem:

.

(,

modem

) .
modulation (

demodulation

).

(Sounds Cards):
.

33

Video (Video Cards):


.

video,

;

(,
, /).
(flat bus).

(slots).
.
,
.

;

.

( )
ROM.

34

;
, ,
, , ,
,
.
,
.

(controllers)

(adapters).

;

(.. ).

,
.

.
/

35

36

.
;

.
;

:

(Operating System)

(Utilities)

(Compilers) (Interpreters)


.
;

,

.


. UNIX,

37


Sun OS, Windows 2000, Windows 98,
Windows Me, Linux, Apple
Mac OS.
;
/


()

/
(boot).
,
/
BIOS (Basic Input Output System).


,
.
;

.
;

,
,

38

, ,
.

, .
,

,
,




( custom made
). ,
,

.
, ,
,

;
,
, ,
, ,
.

,
.
,
.


. ,
(
)
,

39



.
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. ,

,
,


.
,
.
. ,

(..


(..
).

(.. ,

).

(..

,
).

,
, ,
( bugs).
,
.

40

. ,
,

.

, ,
.

,
(help).

, . ,

case

sensitive

help.

(help lines, instruction lines, tips)

(tutorials).

41

OLE

(object

linking,

embedding)

;
;



.

.

,
,

;
(

) .


, .

42

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44

,
.

;

.

( , ).
;
,
, .

(downloading).

FTP.
,
.

45

.
.

,
;

.
(network version)


site licence


/

.
freeware;
(freeware).
.
(public
domain software),
.


, ..
shareware;


,
. shareware

.

46


:
.
.

,

. ,


(
).
.
,
.
:

(serial number) ,
.
,

:
(
)
.
;

(virus), ,


(boot sector).

47

,
.

' ;
,
CD

'


internet.
/
;

.
- (anti-virus),

.

. :

48

5

;


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.
;
,
.
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
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49



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50


3.
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3.
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4.


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51

.

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C++.

,
().

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52



.
1.

___
, ,
+ +
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2.

___

.
3.
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3.


1.

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3.

3.

4.

2.

4.

+ +

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+ +
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53

(data)

, ,

.

(information).


.

.

;

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.
+ =

.

,

.

()
()

,
.

54

.
;

,
(assembler).

.
,
.
;
,


,
(compiler).

, .

;
1957

FORTRAN. FORTRAN
FORmula TRANslation.
.

1960 COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented


Language).
.
.
ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language)

55


.
.
PL/1 (Programming Language 1)
FORTRAN COBOL .

LISP PROLOG.
, ,
.

BASIC

(Beginners

All

Purpose

Symbolic

Instruction

Code)

.

(interpreter).
Microsoft

.
PASCAL (Niklaus Wirth) ALGOL
.
. ,

ADA Modula-2.
C C++

BELL
UNIX. . C++
.

JAVA

SUN .

56


-.


(object driven programming)

(visual programming) Visual Basic,


Visual C++, Java, Delfi.


.

,
.
;

.
.
.

.

.

57


4 ;

4
. dBASE, Clipper,
Access, SQL.
;

, .
:
1.
2.

3.
4.


;
:

1. (procedural)
,

2. (object oriented languages).


3. (functional languages) .. LISP.

4. (non procedural languages) .


PROLOG.

58

1.

I. (science oriented
languages) . FORTRAN

II. (business oriented


languages) .. COBOL

III.
.. BASIC, PASCAL
2. (system
programming languages) .. C
3. (artificial intelligence
lannguages) .. LISP, PROLOG
4. .
, ,
,
;


.

.

(module)

59

(structured

programming).


:
1.
2.
3.

.
;

,

;


.
(
)
.
;

.
, .
;
1.

2.

3.

60


4.

5.

6.
;

.

.

(objects).

.
;


.
OCCAM
;

(compilers)

61


(interpreters)

.

compiler;

(source).


(object).
.

(libraries) .


(linker - loader).

(executable
;

, .
.

, .

.

,
.
;
.

62

.
.


.
;

(editor).

;

.
,
.
;
.

1.

2.
3.
, .

60%
.

63

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