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A Presentation on Welding procedure of SA 335 P91 Material

Presented by Siddhartha Sankar Bharali


Assistant Engineer Emp Code : M6B194

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali M6B194

WELDING BASE MATERIALS


P.No P1 P1 P3 P3 P4 Group No. 1 2 1 1 Common Name Carbon Steels Carbon Steels Carbon-Moly Steels CrMo Steels 1CrMo/ 1CrMo Steels 1 2 2Cr1Mo Steels 9Cr1MoV Steels Tubes SA192 SA210GRC SA209T1 SA213T2 SA213T12/ SA213T11 SA213T22 SA213T91 Pipes SA106GRB SA106GRC SA335P1 SA335P2 SA335P12/ SA335P11 SA335P22 SA335P91

P5A P5B
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali M6B194

HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM PIPING MATERIAL BEFORE P91


Material used for high

temperature piping before the use of P91 was X20.


Composition of P91
9 Cr 1MoV

Composition of X20
12 Cr 1Mo 1/4V

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali M6B194

BREIF HISTORY OF X20


X20 was introduced in the 1950s in Germany and used in steam lines

operating at temperatures of 530 0C and higher for power generating sets of 150MW and more. X20 material was first used in India for high-temperature steam piping around 1970. The use of X20 allowed wall thickness reductions of about 50%. These reductions resulted in easier handling; less energy needed for preheating and postweld heat treatment , faster start-up and shutdown of the unit. However, two factors limited its use: - The extreme care needed for its fabrication and welding. - Its noninclusion in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali M6B194

INTRODUCTION OF A NEW MATERIAL:P91


U.S. had been trying to develop a new material since the

middle 1970s to bridge the gap between ferritic P22 and austenitic steels with respect to creep rupture strength for hightemperature service from 540 to 600 0C. As a result of these developmental efforts, a new material, designated P91, was introduced in the U.S. in the 1980s by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It has very high strength at elevated temperatures and good fabrication properties. These features have made P91 the material of choice for high-temperature steam piping.
Siddhartha Sankar Bharali M6B194

P91 DETAILS
P NO. COMPOSITION FILLER USED ELECTRODE P 5A GR 2 9 Cr 1 MoV 90 S- B9 E9018- B9

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali M6B194

SA 335 P91 welding steps


Edge preparation & fit up
GTAW SMAW

Cooling

Purging

Preheating

PWHT

Soaking

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali M6B194

EDGE PREPARATION & FIT-UP


Cutting of P-91 material shall be done by band saw /

hacksaw / machining / grinding only. Edge preparation (EP) shall be done only by machining. The weld fit-up shall be carried out properly to ensure proper alignment and root gap . Neither tack welds nor bridge piece shall be used to secure alignment. Partial root weld of minimum 20mm length by GTAW and fit-up by a clamping arrangement is recommended. Use of site manufactured clamps for fit up is acceptable .

Siddhartha Sankar Bharali M6B194

The fit-up shall be as per drawing. Root gap shall be 2 to 4 mm; root mismatch shall be within 1-mm.
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ELECTRODE NOMENCLATURE
Prefix E : Arc Welding Electrode First two or three digits : Strenght in ksi

For example : E-90xx is 90ksi Second last digit: Welding position For example : E-xx1x = All positions : E-xx2x = Horizontal and Flat : E-xx3x = Flat Last digit : E-xxx1: Type of Coating and other Characteristics For example : E-xxx3 = Rutile Coated : E-xxx8 = Basic Coated (Low hydrogen) Suffix A-1,B-2,B-3 etc. : Alloying Element For example : E-xxxx A-1 = 0.5Mo : E-xxxx B-2 = 1.25Cr & 0.5Mo : E-xxxx B-3 = 2.25Cr & 1.0Mo
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PURGING
Reason for purging
It is generally carried out on the backside of the weld to

eliminate oxygen and other atmospheric gases from mixing with hot metal. Oxygen have a stronge tendency to combine with hot metal which will lead to the formation of thin films of oxide layers on the weld surface. It prevents the joining of two pieces by welding. Argon is commonly used as purging gas.

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WHY ARGON ?
Argon is chemically inert, heavy, monatomic gas available in

large quantity at reasonable cost. Argon is used for shielding and backing purpose.

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ARRANGEMENT FOR PURGING

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Purging Details
Purging should be start from inside of the pipe when root

temperature reaches 2200C . Adequate amount of Argon should be purged in the root area. Minimum pre-flushing time for purging before the start of welding is 5 min irrespective of pipe thickness. The min flow rate to be maintained during purging is 10-26 litres/min. For shielding during GTAW welding, flow rate is 814 litres/min.

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PREHEATING
Prior to the start of

preheating the surface should be clean from oil, grease and dirt. Preheating temperature should be maintained at 2200C.

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WELD PREHEAT & PWHT FOR PIPES(OD>102mm)


P No. of Material Thickness (mm) 19 > 19 25 > 25 75 > 75 P1 Gr 2 & SA 106 Gr C P4 Gr 1 19 > 9 19 > 19 75 > 75 P5 A Butt Weld Preheat C NIL NIL 150 150 Nil Nil 150 125 150 150 NIL 595- 625 595- 625 595- 625 Nil 620-650 620-650 640- 670 640- 670 680- 750 PWHT C

P1 Gr 1 & SA106 Gr C

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Contd.
P No. of Material Thickness (mm)
All

Butt Weld
Preheat C 220 PWHT C 750-770

P5B Gr2 + P5B Gr2 P5B Gr2 + P5 A

All

220

730- 760

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Preheating Methods
3 common methods of preheating:
Electrical resistance heating. Induction heating. Oxy- acetylene heating.

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GTAW WELDING PROCESS

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TIG WELGING BENIFITS


Superior weld quality. Precise control of welding variables. Free of spatter. Low Distortion. Weld can be made with or without filler material.

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SMAW WELDING PROCESS

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POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (PWHT)


The method shall be by locally heating a circumferential band

including the entire weld and adjacent area of base metal, by induction or electrical resistance heating.

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DETAILS OF PWHT
PWHT temperature for P91 : (76010)0 C
Soaking time : 2.5 minutes/ mm of weld thickness

subjected to minimum of two hours.

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HEATING & COOLING RATES


Thickness of Material 25 mm > 25 50 mm > 50 75 mm Maximum Heating Rate Maximum Cooling Above 300C Rate Upto 300C 220C/hour 110C/hour 75C/hour 55C/hour 220C/hour 110C/hour 75C/hour 55C/hour

> 75mm
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GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF SA 335 P91 WELDING PROCRESS

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SL NO 1
2 3 4 5 6

OPERATION
PREHEAT WELDING BY GTAW/ SMAW COOLING

TEMPERATURE
220 220-350 80-100

RATE OF COOLING/ HEATING


100

100

HOLDING AT 80-100 FOR MIN 1 HR . HOLDING SHALL CONTINUE TILL THE START OF PWHT HEATING TO PWHT SOAKING at PWHT 760 +/- 10 760 +/- 10 at 2MIN / mm COOLING TO 350 COOLING TO ROOM TEMPERATURE

7 8

COOLING COOLING

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES DURING POWER FAILURE


No interruption is allowed during welding & PWHT. Following alternative arrangements should be made available: Diesel generator for power supply. Gas burner arrangement for maintaining temperature.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF POWER FAILURE DURING PREHEATING

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF POWER FAILURE DURING GTAW/SMAW


Gas burner arrangement is used to maintain the

temperature at 80 to 100C up to a length of 50 mm on either side from weld centre line along the complete circumference of the pipe. Root welding shall be continued after power is restored and preheating temperature is raised to 220C.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF POWER FAILURE DURING PWHT HEATING CYCLE


During post weld heat treatment; The following shall be followed: During heating cycle : the whole operation to be repeated from the beginning. During soaking : Heat treat (soak) subsequently for the entire duration. (complete period) During cooling (above 350C ) : Reheat to soaking temperature and cool at the required rate. * Temp should not be allowed to fall below 80 to 100C. Gas burner arrangement shall be used to maintain the temperature.
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PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF POWER FAILURE DURING PWHT SOAKING CYCLE

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Dos and Donts during P91 welding


Dos Cutting by Band saw/Hack saw/Machining . Pipes Edge Preparation by machining. Machining shall be done without excessive pressure to prevent heating up of pipe. Adequate Argon Gas should be ensured for complete purging of air inside the pipe before starting GTAW root welding. Preheating to 220C minimum before GTAW root welding.
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Contd.
Argon purging should be continued until the GTAW root

welding followed by minimum two filler passes of SMAW, is completed. GTAW wires are kept in absolutely clean condition and free from oil , rust, etc. SMAW electrodes are baked to proper temperature. Interpass temperature should be less than 350C. Argon purging arrangements should be removed after welding.
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Contd.
Don'ts No Tack welding or Bridge piece welding is permitted. Argon purging is continued till the completion of GTAW root welding and two layers of SMAW. Oxy-Acetylene flame cutting is avoided. Do not allow moisture, rain, water, cold wind, cold draft etc. to come in contact with the weld zone or heating zone during the entire cycle from preheat to PWHT. Use unidentified TIG wires or electrodes is not permitted.
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THANK YOU

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