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FUNCTION OF POLITICAL SCIENCE spontaneously rationally and voluntarily

• to discover the principles that should be 2. GOVERNMENT gave up their individual sovereignties and
adhered to in public affairs a. The agency or instrumentality, through united with other communities to form a
• to study the operations of government which the will of the state is formulated, larger political unit deserving to be called a
in order to demonstrate what is good, to expressed and realized. state.
criticize what is bad or inefficient, and b. the institution or aggregate of institutions by
to suggest improvements which an independent society makes and a. "automatic" theory. According to this
carries out those rules of action which are theory, the invention of agriculture
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY OF necessary to enable men to live in a social automatically brought into being a surplus of
POLITICAL SCIENCE State, or which are imposed upon the people food, enabling some individuals to divorce
• useful to constitution-makers, legislators, forming that society by those who possess themselves from food production and to
executives and judges who need models or the power or authority of prescribing them. become potters, weavers, smiths, masons,
norms that can be applied to immediate and so on, thus creating an extensive
situations 3. TERRITORY-fixed portion of the surface division of labor.
• useful to individuals who seek to understand of the earth, inhabited by the people of the
the state in which they live state. The territory must not be too small as 2. Coercive Theories A close examination of
to be unable to provide for the needs of the history indicates that only a coercive theory
GOALS IN THE STUDY OF POLITICAL people; nor should it be too large as to be can account for the rise of the state. Force
SCIENCE COURSES difficult to administer. The territory can and not enlightened self-interest. is the
• Education for Citizenship extend to over a vast expanse, like China or mechanism by which political evolution has
Russia, or be as small as Abu Dhabi. led. step by step, from autonomous villages
• Essential parts of liberal education
to the state.
• Knowledge and understanding of COMPONENTS OF TERRITORY
government 3. Social contract theory provides the
a. terrestrial domain-the land mass maritime or rationale behind the historically important
Government, political organization comprising the fluvial domain-inland and external waters notion that legitimate state authority must be
individuals and institutions authorized to formulate derived from the consent of the governed.
aerial domain- the air space above the land
public policies and conduct affairs of state. and water.
State -A community of persons, more or less 4. SOVEREIGNTY STATE, AS DISTINGUISHED FROM NATION
numerous, permanently occupying a fixed territory
• means the supreme, uncontrollable power,
and possessed of an independent government
the absolute right to govern. The state pertains to a legal concept, while the nation
organised for political ends to which the great body
• The supreme will of the State, the power to refers to a racial or ethnic concept.
of inhabitants render habitual obedience.
make laws, and enforce them by all the
ELEMENTS OF STATE means of coercion it cares to employ.
• Legal sovereignty: power to adapt/alter the …AS DISTINGUISHED FROM GOVERNMENT
1. PEOPLE constitution or supreme power to make laws
vs. Political sovereignty: sum total of all the The government is only an element of the state. The
• inhabitants of the state government is an agent, and the State is the principal.
influences in a state, legal & non-legal w/c
• Community of persons sufficient in no. & The government externalizes the will of the State.
determine the course of law
capable of maintaining the continued
existence of the community & held together
THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF STATE
by a common bond of law FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT
• Doesn’t matter if they possess diverse racial,
1. Voluntaristic theories said that at some
cultural or economic interests The government performs two functions—the
point in their history, certain peoples
constituent and the ministrant.
1. CONSTITUENT-constitute the bonds of THE SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION • Unwritten-one which is entirely the product
society. Constituent functions consist of of political evolution ,consisting largely of a
fixing of legal relations between husband The Constitution is the most basic and most mass of customs, usages and judicial
and wife, parents and children; keeping of paramount law to which all other laws must conform decisions together with a smaller body of
order and providing protection from and to which all persons including the higher officials statutory enactments of a fundamental
violence; regulation of the holding, of the land must defer. No act shall be valid however character, usually bearing different dates
transmission and interchange of property; noble its intentions if it is in conflict with the
determination of liabilities for debt or crime; Constitution. The Constitution must reign supreme. As to manner of amending them:
determination of contractual rights between • Rigid or inelastic-one regarded as a
individuals; definition and punishment of IMPORTANCE, NATURE AND PURPOSE OF
document of a special sanctity which cannot
crimes, administration of justice in civil CONSTITUTION
be amended or altered except by some
cases; administration of political duties, special machinery more cumbrous than the
privileges, and relations of citizens, and 1. The people exercise d control of their ordinary legislative process.
dealings of the state with foreign powers, government primarily through the
preservation of state from external dangers, Constitution which protects from unjust
• Flexible or elastic-one which possess no
and the advancement of international exercise of governmental power and through higher legal authority than ordinary laws and
interests. periodic elections by means of which they which may be altered in the same way as
other laws.
2. MINISTRANT functions-are those taken to choose the officers to represent them.
advance the general interests of society— 2. A constitution is the supreme or fundamental
law creating the government having been CONSTIUTUTION DISTINGUISHED FORM
such as public works, public charity,
enacted by the people themselves. STATUTE
regulation of trade and industry.
3. The purpose of the constitution is to draw
1. A constitution is a law give \n directly
FORMS OF GOVERNMENT: DE Jure and De framework or general outline of the system
by the people while a statute is enacted
Facto governments of the government and to specific the
by the people’s representative
respective powers and functions of the
2. A constitution is the fundamental law of
A de jure government has rightful title but no power various branches of government comprising
the state on which all other laws or
or control, because it may have been withdrawn or it this framework.
statute are based
has not yet actually entered into exercise. On the
other hand, a de facto government is a government of KINDS/CLASSIFICATION of CONSTITUTION
BASIC PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING OUR
fact—it actually exercises power or control, but has
no legal title. As to their origin and history CONSTITUTION
• Conventional or enacted one which is
WHAT IS A CONSTITUTION? • Recognition of the Almighty God
enacted by a constituent assembly or granted
by a monarch to his subjects • Sovereignity of the people
• A Constitution is the fundamental organic • Cumulative or evolved-one which is the • Supremacy of civilian authority
law of a State which contains the principles product of growth or a long period of over the military
on which the government is founded and development originating in customs, • Separation of Church and State
regulates the division and exercise of traditions, judicial decisions rather than from • Guarantee of human rights
sovereign powers. deliberate and formal enactment • Government through suffrage
• A body of rules and maxims in accordance
• Separation of powers
with which the powers of sovereignty are As to their form:
habitually exercised. • Independence of the judiciary
• Written-one which has been given definite • Rule of the majority
written form at a particular time usually by a
• Government of laws and not of
specially constituted authority called
constitutional convention men