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( + )2 = 2 + 2 + 2

x2 + x + = 0 , 0
2 4
x=
2

.. ...

1:

1.

1.1. ;
:

+=+
( + ) + = + ( + )
+0=

. = .
.( . ) = ( . ).
.1 =

1 = 1 , 0

+ () = 0
.
.
.
(+)=+
.0 = 0

1.2. .
:

2
:
=

...

+
1. . =

= 1 = .
0, 0 = 1
= 1 .

( ) ( ) , , 0

2.

3.

. = (.)

4.

5.

()

( ) =

1.3. ;.
:

, , ,
.
2
= x , x2 =
( ) = .

0 = 0.

1.4.

, , 0.

:
2
2
2
1 : ( ) = ( ) ( ) = .
2 :

) = .
2

1:

) =
2

1.5.

0 > 0.

(
(

1 : =

2 : =

1.5.1. > 0 > 0

+ =

+ 0.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

1.6.
6 10 x + 2(4 x y 3)
= 2003
2(x + 1 ) 2y ,
3( x z ) + 3( y + z )
3

x + y = 2003.

1.12. x = 2 y = 101 ,


= 51.(x1 y1 2x1y)
[. - 48 ]
25

[. =-2003]

1.7.
1
15
17
= 12 18
3
24
2
36

()

[. =1]

5 2.

(5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 ) (2 . 22 . 22)2
10.
5

31 + 21 + 13 + 7 + 4 = 6.

1.14.

24 6 9 16 = 12.

1.15. :

1.8. :
5

1.13.

[. 1012]

2 3 24

1 12 45
3
5
4
[. )12 )3]

1.9. :
3
(33)3 : 33 + 33 . 33 + 3

1.16. :
20 6
)
)
15 2

3.

1.10.

[. 37]

3x + 4 y
= 5 2x 2 y

x2 + 2 y2
xy

[. )2 )]

1.17. :
16 + 2 81 8 + 2 2 8
2

7.
[. 14=.7]

[. =3]

1.11. x = 0,03 y = 3 , 10
3

7
= ( x 3 y 5 ) 2 : x11 .
y

[. =1000]

1.18. , , -

:
49 2 + 4 2 + 2 .
[. 7]

1:

1.19. :
= 4 + 12 = 8 20
2
2

1.25. :
3+ 5 + 3 5
3 5
3+ 5
[. 7]

[. =2+ 3 , =4- 5 ]

1.26. :

1.20. x, y , -

:
5x xy 3 2y x 3 y 3 x 3 y 3
.

x 3

12 cm

1.27. :
x 1 = x +1
5 1
5 +1

3 cm.

[. x= 5 ]

[. =3cm2]

1.28.
5 7 3

+ 13 : 3 6.

1+ 3

1.22. :
i)
ii)

6 11 6 + 11
19 + 3

19 3
[. i)5 ii)4]

1.23. =

3 + 2 =

5 (1x)
[. x=1]

1.21. -

3 =

12

1.29. :
5 + 60 3 : 32 15 = 1.
3
5 15

8 , -

: + , , ..
[. +=3 3 - 2 , -=3 2 - 3 , =2]

1.30.

1.24.
3 3 + 27
8 + 2 +5 2
i) =
ii) =
3
8 8

[. 3 ]

3.1.

1
+
2
2)

1
= 1.
2
2 + 2)

3.2.

, ,
.
32

9 2

50

3.3.

810 + 410
84 + 411
[. 16]

12 cm

2 3 cm.

5 cm;

[. i)=6 ii)= 1 ]

27 cm

1:

2.

2.1. ;
:

, .
2.1.1. , : 5x , 4 1 ,

3 2 + 9 , 2,64 + 3

2.2. ;
:


, .
2.2.1. : = 2 32 5 8

3(2)2 5(2) 8 = 3.4 + 10 8 = 12 + 10 8 = 14.


2.3. ;
:

.
2.3.1. : 3 , ,

3 x2 , 2 34 , 4,35629.
5

2.4. ;
:

.
2.4.1. :

3 25 , 925 , 2,725 .
2

2.5. ;
:

.
2.5.1.: 52 , 2 , 22 :

52 + 2 + (22) = (5 + 1 2)2 = 42.

2.6. ;
:

.
2.6.1. : 3x2 1 , 532 + 3,222 , 62 5 3 + 4 25.
3

4:

2.7. ;
:


.
2.7.1.: 22 , 3 54 , 5x :
4
2 .
5 4 .
2
5
4
3
3
3
(2 ) ( ) (x) = 2( )(1) . . .x) = 3 479x.
4
4
2
2.8. ;
:

, ,
.
2.8.1.: (1) 1252 : (33) = 1252 .

2
12 5 2
12 5 = 42.
1
=
=
3 3
3 3
3 3

(2) (10x2y2) : (5xy4) = (10x2y2) .

2
10 x 2 y 2
1
10 x 2 y = 2 x 2 .
=
=
5 x y4
5 xy 4
5 xy 4
y2

2.8.2.:

___________________________________________________________________________________________
2.9.

i)

3 32

ii)

1,4x4y5

iii)

iv)

4x6-3

v)

x 1

vi)

2x
y

3
1 xy3 xy3 2 y3x + 5xy

ii)

3 2 1,25 + 1 4 324
5
4

iii)

(1+ 5 )

2.10. x+y = 2 -

3 2 4

3 2 4

3 4 2

2.15. 3x23y+2 , 2x3y4.

, .
[. =3, =1]

:
x(x3) + y(y3) + 2xy
[. 10]

2.11.


3x2y 7x2y 5x3y5 + 7x2y + + = 5x2y

)
)

0,632 + 32 3 32 + + 423 =
5

232

2.12.

(5+4)43
;

2.13.
2
2x2 , 1 xy2 , x2y , yx2 , 2x2y2 , x , 1 x2
3
2
2

.
2.14. :
2
2
2
2
i) 2x y 3x y x y + 1 x y
2

2.16. ,

:
2+1x2 + 53x+2
2.17. ,

:
32x2y+7 + 22x+1y12
2.18. :

2xy2 . (3x2y4)

i)

ii)

2 x 2 y 3 . 15 x 5 y 3
8
5

iii)

( 23 ) . ( 43 y )

2xy2 . (4x3y) . (x4y6)


2 2
3 5
3 2
v) xy . ( ) . 4 . ( 1 )
iv)

2.19. :
3
3 5
4 2
1
i) 2 . (2 ) . (3 )
2

ii)

(2

(2x3y2)2 . 1 x2 y 4

1:

iii)

(323)3 . (42)2 . 1 5 6

v)

( 3

x y ) ( 2 xy
2

) ( ax 6 y 2 )

3 2

2.20. :
8

i) 12x : (6x )
2 3
3
iii) (18 ) : (9 )

ii)
iv)

(2497) : (653)
10xy4z3 : (15x3y4z5)

2.21. :

[2x3y4 . (6x2y)] : (4x5y7)


2 3
5 3
6
11 5 4
ii) [(4 x) . x ) . ( 1 x)] : (14 x )
i)

2
3 5 3
4 4 2
2
4
iii) ( x ) : ( x )
9
3
2
3
1 2 3
2 4 : 3 2
iv)

:
3

3
4

) (

) (

3: - &

3.

3.1. ;
:

,
.
3.1.1. : 52 3 +6 + 2 + 9 2 + 3 2 + = 42 2 + 14 + 3.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
3.2.
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

4x2 3x3 + 5x 2x2 + 7 x 2 + 3x2 + 4x3


5x4 3x2 + 2x 7x4 3x3 1 2x + 4 5x2
x2 + 2x + 3x2 x + 5 4x
23x 62x2 + 53x + 3 24 + x4

3.3. = x23x+1 , = x2+2x+5 = 2x2x3


i) +
ii) + +
iii)
3.4. :
2

i) 3x [(5x x) + 4x
3
2
ii) 5 (2 +3) +

(2x2+6)] + (2x25x)
[ (3224) + (2+6)]

3.5. :
2

i) (2x3) [2x (x 2)] {x [3x+4(x 1)]}


2
2
3
3
2
2
ii)3x {x [x(1x )]+2x}{2x + [x+(x 3)3x ]1}4

1:

10

4.

4.1. ;
:

, .
4.1.1. : (22).(3 1 32 + 4) = 632 232 + 82.
2
4.2. ;
:

,
.
4.2.1. : ( 2).(2 3 4) = 3 32 4 22 + 6 + 8

= 3 52 + 2 + 8

4.2.2. : ,
.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
)

2{ [2(+4)] + 2} 3(22)

4.3. :

(x22y)3y + (xy+y2)(x) + (x+y)(2xy) (x+3)2y2.



x = 2 y = 1.

4.4.

2x(2+1) (x+1)(2) x(2+2) +


, x.

4.5.


.
2
2
3
) (2x+3)(x +x1) (x 1)(x+2) 2x ,
x = 2.
2
2
3
3
) (x y2xy )(2xy) 2x (x+y) (xy)(2y ), x = 1,
y = 2.
4.6. :
)
)
)
)

3x(x21) 4x2(x+2) 3x + 4(x21)


5x2(x32x2+4) +(12x)(4x3) x(x1) 2x
2(2+2) 3 ()(3) 42
3[x2 (x+4) 3] 2x2[x + (x2)] 5

4.7. ,

:
2
3
2
) * .(4 7+8) = 28 49 + 56
2
5
) * .(3x +8x7) = 36x + * *
2 3
2
5 7
4 9
) 5 ( * 9 + * ) = 20 * +
4.8. :
)
)
)
)

(3x+1)(2x3)
(3x22x+4)(2x5)
(x+2)(x2)(x+5)
(x+1)(x+2)(x+3)

4.9. :
)
)
)
)

(2)(1)(23)
(3)(4+1)(2)
(x1)(2x5)(x2+5x1)
(+3)(2)(221)(42)

4.10. :

4:
i)
ii)

11

(x3)(1x) + (x2x+2)(x2+x2)
(+1)(2) (22+3)(3+22)

4.11. = 2+1 , = +2 = 1 -

:
. , . , . . + . ..
4.12. = 4x1 , = x2 = x2+x1 -

:
K. , . , . K. .(. .).
4.13. :
(x2y)(4x3y) ( 2 x 5 y ) 2 x 11 y 37 y 2 2 xy
3
3

) (

4.14. x , 2x x .
2

x.
.
[. 3 ]
4

1:

12

5.

5.1. ;
:


.
5.1.1. :
2

(i) ( 2) = 2
2
(ii) (x + 2)(x + 5) = x + 7x +10
2
2
2
(iii) + = ( + ) 2

5.2.
:

( + )2 = 2 + 2 + 2 .

( + )2 = ( + )( + )
= 2 + + + 2
= 2 + 2 + 2 .

5.2.1. : (i) ( + 3)2 = 2 + 2.3 + 32 = 2 + 6 + 9.

(5x + 4y)2 = (5x)2 + 2.5x.4y + (4y)2 = 25x2 + 40xy + 16y2.


3
1 2)2 = (23)2 + 2.23. 1 2 + ( 1 2)2 = 46 + 32 + 1 4.
(iii) (2 +
(ii)


5.3.
:

16

( )2 = 2 2 + 2 .

( )2 = ( )( )
= 2 + 2
= 2 2 + 2 .

5.3.1. : (i) ( 11)2 = 2 2.11 + 112 = 2 22 + 121.


(ii)

(6x2 + 7)2 = (7 6x2)2 = (7)2 2.7.6x2 + (6x2)2 = 492 84x2 + 36x4.


4

4
4
= + 4 3 = + 4 3

4 3
(iii)

= + 443 + 1626.
4

4
4
= + 2. .43 + (43)2

5:

5.4.
:

( + )3 =
=
=
=

( )3 =
=
=
=

( + )3 = 3 + 32 + 32 + 3 .

( + )( + )2
( + )(2 + 2 + 2)
3 + 22 + 2 + 2 + 22 + 3
3 + 32 + 32 + 3 .


5.5.
:

13

( )3 = 3 32 + 32 3 .

( )( )2
( )(2 2 + 2)
3 22 + 2 2 + 22 3
3 32 + 32 3 .


5.6. ( + )( ) = 2 2 .
:

( + )( ) = 2 + 2
= 2 2 .

5.6.1. : (i) (9x + 2y)(9x 2y) = (9x)2 (2y)2 = 812x2 42y2.


(ii)

(35 + 32)(35 + 32) = (32 35)( 32 + 35) = (32)2 (35)2 = 64 910.


5.7. (i) 3 3 = ( )(2 + + 2) .
(ii) 3 + 3 = ( + )(2 + 2) .
:

(i) 2 :

( )(2 + + 2) = 3 + 2 + 2 2 2 3
= 3 3 .

(ii) 2 :

( + )(2 + 2) = 3 2 + 2 + 2 2 + 3
= 3 + 3 .

___________________________________________________________________________________________
5.10. :

5.8. :
)
)

(x + 5)
(3xy + 2)2

)
)

(2x 3)
(x2 4y)2

)
)

(3 7)
(23 2)2

5.9. :
2
2
2 2
) ( 3 x + 4xy)
) (7 3 )
2
2
1 )2
3 + 23)2
) (3
) (
2
4a 2
5 2 4
2 )2
1 2 3
6 )2
) ( x y
) (
6
2
xy
2

(2 + 24)2

( 2 2x3 3 5)2
3

y2 2
)
4
1 2 3
11 )2
) ( x y
4
6x 2 y
)

(2x3 +

5.11.

( + )2 + 2( + ) .

5.12. -

:
2
2
) x + 2x +
) 4x + 4xy +
2
2
2
) 9 6 +
) x + 4y +

1:

14

)
)
)

252 + 42 +
40xy + 16x2 +
1232 + 44 +

)
)

812 + 492
60 + 92 +

(2x+3)2 + (2x3)2 + (2x+3)(2x3) 3(x5)2

5.23. :

(x+3)2 +(x3)2+(x2)2 (x+2)2 + (x+3)(x3)


(x+2)(x2)
2
2
2
2
) (2x+5) (x5) + (3x1) (2x+1) (2x3)(2x+3)
2
) (2x+1) + (2x+1)(2x1) (x+3)(x3)
(x3)(x3)
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
) (x +1) + (2x 3) (3x +4) + (x 2) +
(x23)(x2+3)
)

5.13. -

:
)

2 +

6x+
) x +
5
2
9
)
x 6xy +
4
2

)
)

2 + 1 +
4

49 + 8 +
25 a2 5 +
4

5.14. (+)2 = 2 + 2 + 2, -

, .
= (2+3)2 (23)2
24, .
5.16.i) 2 + 2 2.


:
2 + 2 + 2 + + .

5.17. :
) (4x+3)(4x3)
3
3
) (52 )(5+2 )

) (+2)(2)
2 4
3
2 4
3
) (2x y 3a x)(2x y +3a x)

(7a+4)(47)

( 2 x2y3 2)(2 + 2 x2y3)


5

i)

)
)
)

3
3
+
.
4 14
4 + 14

.
[. =30, =30]

5.27. -

(x,y)

[. )(6,2)]

5.30. :

2 + 1 , :
( 2 + 2 )
ii) +
iii)
+

21, =

) (2x 3)
2
3
) (x + 2y)

5.22. :

7 2 6 7 + 2 6 =

5.21. :
3

) : (x 3y) + 2(y 2) = 0.
)

[. i)1 ii)2 2 iii)6]

) (x + 4)
3
) (3xy + 2)

5.29. x2 6xy + 11y2 8y + 8 = 0

(x+y1)(x+y+1)
(2x+y3)(2x+y+3)
(2+3)(2+3)
(x2+x 2 +1)(x2x 2 +1)
(x+y)(+x++y)

5.26.

: x2 20x + 50 = 0.

5.19. :

5.20. =

6 10 :
2 2.
.

5.28. = 10 + 5 2

(4x3 92y)(4x3 92y)


3
4
4
3
) ( 2 x a )(a 2 x )
)

)
)
)
)
)

i)
ii)

,
, 1.
.

5.18. :

(3x+2)(3x2)(x1) (2x1)3 x(x2)(x5) + 5


= 10(x1)2.

5.25. = 2 4 15 =

5.15. -

ii)

5.24. :

3 3 = ( )3 + 3( ).
3 + 3 = ( + )3 3( + ).

5.31. :
)
)
)

(x1)3 (3x+2)3 x(x2)(x+2)


(x+y)3 y(xy)(x+y) x(xy)
(x+2)3 3x(x1)2 + (x1)(x+1)(x2)

) (2x 3y)
3
2 3
) (2a x )

(+3)2 (2)2 52
(x)2 ()(+3x) (x)2
(x3+2y2)2 (y2+2x3)2 + (x32y2)(x3+2y2)

)
)

5.32. :
3

i) (x+1) + 3(x+1) (x1) + 3(x+1)(x1) + (x1)


3
2
2
3
ii) (xy) 3(xy) (x+y) + 3(xy)(x+y) (x+y)
3
3
2
2
iii) (+) () 3(+) () + 3(+)()

5:

y
5
iv) x

15

3
2
y
y
y
+ 5 x + + 3 5 x 5 x + +

5 2

y
y
3 5 x 5 x +

5 2

)
)

(+2 ) (2 ) =
2

5.43. :
2

5.44. x = 22 , y = 2 = 2+2 , -

5.34. :
2
2
( +1)
( 1) = 3
)

2
2

2 .
5.36. > 1 , ,

)
)
)

2 1
2

2 +1
.
2

5.37. :
2

:
+ = (x+3)2
5.46. x + y = 3 xy = 1 , -

:
2
2
3
3
i) x + y
ii) x + y
[.i)11 ii)36]

5.47. x + y = xy = , :
2

(+) + (+) + (+) = (++)


(x2+y2+xy)2 = x2y2 + (x+y)2(x2+y2)
(++)2 + (+)2 + (+)2 + ()2 =
4(2+2+2)

5.38. :

x2 + y2 = 2 2

i)

5.39. :

ii)

x3 + y3 = 3 3

5.48. =

5 + 2 = 5
:
2
2
i) = 3 +
ii)

(3x2+2)2 (2x2+3)2 2(2x21)3 + 27x2 =


5(x41) (x22)(4x2+1)2

2 ,

2 + 2

5.49.

99.
[.49 , 50]

999 + 1998 + 1
10012 + 1 2002
) 1001 . 999 = (1000+1)( )
3
2
) 99 + 3.99 + 3.99 + 1
3
2
) 101 3.101 + 303 1
)
)

x2 + y2 = 2.

5.45. = (x+1)2 , = (x1)2 = +8 -

5.35. > , 2 + 2,

(+1)3 = (3)2 + (31)2


(+)3 = (3)2 + (3)2
(x3+y3)2 (x2+y2)3+3x2y2(x+y)2 = (2xy)3

i)
ii)
iii)

) (x+3y) (x2y) 5y = 10xy


2
2
2
2
) ( +4)(x +1) (x+2) = (2x)
2
2
2
2
2
2
) ( + )(x +y ) = (x+y) + (yx)

( + )3 = 643 + + + 1253
( + )3 = 83 + 122 + +
( 3)3 = 1000x3 +

i)
ii)
iii)

(+) () = 4
(2+2)2 (2)2 = (22)2

4
3
1
iii) ( )(
x + ) = 324
2

5.42. :

5.33. :
2

( )( + ) = 1218x2 9 2y6

ii)

5.50. 1 = 7 ,

:
2
i) + 12

ii)

3 13 .

[.i)51 ii)364]

5.40. :
2

i) (2 + ) = + + 9
2
4
ii) (3 + ) = + + 4x
3 2
4
iii) ( 3y ) = 25x +
2
2
iv) ( 3) = 24 +
2
2
4
v) ( + ) = 4 + 9 +
2
2
vi) ( ) = 9x 9x +

5.41. :
i)

( 53 + )( 82) =

5.51. x > 0 (x + 1 )2 = 9 ,
x

x +

1
x3

.
[.18]

5.52. :
i)
ii)
iii)

2 + 2 2
( + )2 4
x2 +1 x
2

1:

16

iv)

+ 1 2 , >0

;
5.53.


, : x2 + y2 = z2.
5.54. :
B

.
A
y



, : x2 + y2 = 2.


[. x=27w]

5.55. -

( + 2)2 = 2 + 4 +4.

5.61. , -

:
2 + 2 + 2 2 4 6 + 14 = 0.
[. =1, =2, =3]

5.62. :

5.56. x, y, z

x,
= 3x + 2y + 2z , = 2x + y + 2z ,
= 2x + 2y + z .
5.57.


. ,
(+1)(+2)(+3) + 1 = (2+3+1)2.
5.58. x.y = 6 x2y + xy2 + x +y = 35

x2 + y2.

[. 13]

5.59. :

= 2 10 + 272 8 + 8.
) .
) , .
[. )=10, =2]

5.60. x, y, z, w

x2 + 10y2 + 10z2 + 9w2 = 6(xy + yz + zw).


)
0.
) x w.

.
= x , = y , = 2x + y.
() 2 ()
5

. :
i)

y
()
ii)
()
[. i)2 ii) 2 ]
25

6:

17

6.

6.1. ;
:

, .

____________________________________________________________________________________________


6.2. :
)
)
)
)

2 4
6x3 + 3x2
12x2y + 6xy2 3xy
152 25 + 302

6.3. :
)
)
)

(x1) x +1
(2) + 6 3
(2x+3y) 7(2x+3y) (3y+2x)

6.4. :
)
)

()3 + (+)2() 2(2+2)


(52)(4x3y) + (3y4x)

6.5. :

3+3 3+2 + 3
19.

6.6. -

) x + 2ay + 3x + 6y
) 5y 5 + y
) 4y 2y + 2
) 15x + 6x 20y 8y
2
) xy 2x + 3y 6y
3
2
) x + x + x + 1
5
4
3
2
) + + + + + 1

6.7. :
)
)
)
)
)

+ 1
x2 + xy x y
33 62 + 5 10
3 2 2 + 3
8xy3 24y2 7xy + 21

) 2x + x 2xy y
) x y x + y
3
2
) x 5x + 3x 15

6.8. :
)
)
)
)
)

x2 + (5y)x 5y
() ()
x(x3) + y(x) (x3)
xy(2+2) + (x2+y2)
(22) + (22)

6.9. :
)
)
)
)
)

(+)(+)
x 2y x + 2y + x 2y
x x + y + y x y
2 2 + + 1
x2y + xy + xy + y + x2 2

6.10. x , y
2
. x 2 +1 = x
y
y +1

x, y .


6.11. :
)
)
)
)

812 492
3xy3 27x3y
45x2y4 802
202 15

x2 y2
9

4
2
) 1 4x
8
) 1 x
6
8
) 16 49

1:

18
6.12. :
2
2
) 1540 463
1077
22 5,122 7 2,1 22
)
2 97 , 2 4

1001 1

6 2,3 12 3 7,69 2
2 4 ,6 2

20 0 42 1 83 42
1 92 42 1 9 142

) +
4
4
) 81x 16y
8
) x 1
3
) 27x 3x
3
) 20x 5x

+ 1

1 2x + x2
2 4y + 4y2
9x2 + 48xy + 64y2

9 x2
16

3 xy + 4 y2

5
) x x + 1
4
xy
y2
)
+
3
9

25

2
+ x

6.23. -

(+2) + 1
9(x+y)2 6y(x+y) + y2
x+1+2 x , x>0
2
2
) y 2 3 xy + 3x
)
)
)

6.15. -

6.24. -

i) (5x6) 9
2
2
ii) (3) 16
2
2
iii) (32) (32)
2
2
iv) (x5y) 9(x+2y)
2
2
v) 9(2) 16(+2)
3
2
vi) x x(y z)

2x2 12x + 18
x2 4x3 + 4x4
x3 + 2x2 + x + xy + y

)
)
)

6.16. x ,

(x2+3x+1)2 1 .

6.17. :

(4x23x18)2 (4x2+3x)2
5(4x2) (x2)2
(53x)(x+4) + (3x5)(2x3) +9x2 25

6.18.

3 .

6.19. = 3 2 + 1.
i)
ii)

)
)
)

) 5 4 + 20
2
2
) 2x y 18y + 3x 27
2 2
2
2
) x 4 x + 4
5
4
) 1 +
2
2
2
2
) x + x y y
3
3
2
) x x(y + z)
2 2
2
2 2
2
) 9 x 4 9 x + 4

)
)
)

6 + 643

6.22. :

6.14. :
3

iii)

6.13. :
2

6.21.
6
3 6
i) 64x y + 27
ii) 3 1
8

.
,
.
[. ii)=2]

6.25.
2

) x 10x + 24
2
) + 12 + 27
2
) y + 3y 10
2
) + 2 15
2
) 3x 6x 24
2
) 2x 2x 40
2
) 14 5x x
2
) x + 2x + 15
2
) x 17x 84
2
) x + 6x + 5

6.26. = x2 5x + 6

, x > 3.
6.27.
)
)
)

x2 + 9x + 142
2 4 + 32
2 + 4 52

&
6.20.
i)
iv)

3 125
2163 1

ii)
v)

83 + 27
x4 64x

iii)

273 + 643


6.28. :
)

x2 2 + 6 9

6:
2

) x 4y + 4y 1
2
2
) 9 9 + 6
2
2
) 9 12 + 4 4
2
2
) 1 + +2 2
2
2
) 9y 4x + 4x 1
2
2
2
) 4x 36x + 81 y
2
2
) 16y 9x + 12x 4

19

ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)

9x2 4y2 4y 1
x2 y2 2 +2x 2y + 1
x4 + 5x2y2 + 9y4
9(x + y)2 6y(x + y) + y2
(3 1) 2(2 1) ( 1)2
( 1)3 (2 4) + (4 2)

6.37. :
6.29. :
2

i) + + 2( 8)
2 2
2 2
2
2
ii) x y + 2
2
2
2
iii) y 4y + 3 2x x

2xy

i) (x 5x+6)(x1) (x3)(x 1)
2
2
2
2
2 2
ii) 4( + ) ( + )
2
2
2
2
iii) (5 +2 3) ( 2 3)
2
2
iv) (3x 6)(x 1) (5x 10)(x 1)
2
2
2
v) ( 9) ( + 3)

6.30. :
4

i) + + 1
4
2 2
4
ii) + +
4
2 2
4
iii) 11 +
4
2
iv) x + 3x + 4
4
2
v) y 2y + 1
4
2 2
4
vi) 25 + 31 + 16

6.31. :
4

2 2

i) + 4 + 3
4
2
2 2
ii) x + 9y + 5x y
4
2
iii) 13 + 36


6.32. :
)
)
)

x3 + 12x2 + 48x + 64
83 122 + 6 1
3x + 62x + 12x + 8x

6.33.

(x+y)3 3(x+y)2.y + 3(x+y).y2 y3


3
3
2
2
) (+) + () + 3(+) .() + 3(+).()
)


6.34. :

(2x1)(x+3) + 1 2x
(+)(2) + (2)2 (242)
(x29)2 (x+3)2
(2x25x+2)2 4x2 + 4x 1
3
) 5 9
)
)
)
)

y2 + 4x 16x2 y

6.35. :
2

i) + + 2
2
2
ii) x + (2+1)x + +
2
2
2
iii) + 9( ) + 6
2
2
2
2
iv) + 2 + 2
2
2
v) + (+1) +(+1) +

6.38. :

(2 + 3 + 1)2 1.

[.(+1)(+2)(+3)]

6.39.
)
)
)
)

4 4 (+)()3
(2 + 1)2 42
6 1
(2 + 2 2)2 422

6.40.
)
)

42 4 +1 2(21) + 183 92
5 + 24 + 3 2 2 1

6.41. :
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

1 x3
(2+x+x2)2 1
(2+x+x2)2 x2
x3 + 2x2 3

6.42.
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

3 + 3 2 2
2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2
32 23 + 32 23 + 32 23


6.43. i) -

, >
=

(2 + 1) 2 (2 + 1) 2
4

.
ii) ,
, > 1 1
.
[. ii)=1, =0]

6.44. (105 + 25)2 (105 25)2 = 10 ,

, .
[. =7]

6.36.
i)

2 + 2 + 2 x2 + 4x 4

1:

20
6.45. :
= 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + ... + 2002 .
3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + ... + 3003
[. = 2 ]
3

6.46.

= 3 + 3 2 2.

6.47. :

= (2 + x + x2) x3

(: 1.)

[. =(1+x+x2)(4+x2)]

6.48. ) :

x4 + 4y4.
) x, y
y 2, x4 + 4y4
.

6.49.

S = 1002 992 + 982 972 + + 22 12 .


2
2
) 100 99 = 100 + 99 S = 100 + 99 + 98 + 97 + + 2 + 1.
) S
Gauss .
[. )S=5050]

7:

21

7.

____________________________________________________________________________________________
7.1. :
3

i) (x x 21x + 45) : (x + 5)
3
2
ii) (18x + 9x 50x 25) : (3x 5)
3
2
iii) (2x 3x 17x 12) : (2x + 3)
3
2
iv) (15 14 + 7 + 6) : (5 + 2)

7.2. :
3

i) (x + 4x 18x + 2) : (x + 1)
3
2
2
ii) ( + 4 11 30) : ( 6)
4
3
2
iii) (2y + 8y 16y + 8) : (2y 4)
5
6
2
3
iv) (2x + 4x + x 6 + 5x 3x ) : (x 3

+ x2 + 2x3)

7.3. :
2

i) [(3x+5)
2
2
ii) [(x 9)
iii)

+ (2x+3)2 3x(2x+4) (x+1)2] : (3x 2)


(x+5)(x3)2] : (x2 + x 12)

7.4. , -

x2 x + 1
x4 x2 + 2x 1.

7.5. , -

x + 3 x3 5x2 + 7x + 95.

7.6. (x) = 2x2 5x + 3, -

:
[(x) + (x2) (x1)] : (x 3)
7.7. (x) = x3 2x2 + 3x 1, -

:
[(x+1) + (x1) (x)] : (x 2)

1:

22

8.

... & ...

____________________________________________________________________________________________
8.1. ... ... -

:
3 2
2 3
4 3
) 12 , 15 , 6
2 3
3 5
3 3
) 8 x , 4 x , 12 x
2
2
2
2
) 3 ( ) , 6 ( ) ( + )
8.2. ... ... -

:
2
2
2
2
) 4(x y ) , 6(x + y) , 3(x y)
2
2
2
3
3
) , ( ) ,
3
2
2
2
) 6 + 12 8 , 4 , 2
2
2
3
2
) 3 + 2 , + 3 4 , , 2 + 1

9:

23

9.

9.1. ;
:

, .
2
2 , x 5 y .
+3
xy 3 y 4

: 1 ,
x

____________________________________________________________________________________________
9.2. o
33 2
2 3
i)
ii)
22
6 3 18 2
2
a2 4 2
a 4
iii)
iv)
2
2 2
3 6

2
9.7. = 4 x 2+ 4 x 48 .
2 x 8x + 6

i) x ;
ii) ;
iii) x ;

[. i)x 1 3 iii)x=-4]

9.3. o
3 3
4 x 2 xy
i)
ii)
4 4
12 xy 3 y 2
x x
x2 + x
3

iii)

9.8. -

;
2 14 + 49
2 49

x 9
x2 4x + 3
2

iv)

[. ]

9.4. o
2 4 + 4 2
x 2 1
i)
ii)
2
(1 x )
2 4 2
iii)

a + x x
+ x x

+
+ 2
3

iv)

3 3 + 3 3 6 2 2
iv)
6 3 6 3

9.6.
4 81
x2 6x + 9
i)
ii)
2
9
x2 4x + 3
( 1) 2 ( +1) 2
( x 2 4) 2 ( x + 2) 2
iii)
iv)
+ + + 1
x2 4 x + 3

(3 2 ) 2 (2 3 ) 2
(5 4 ) 2 (4 5 ) 2

, .
> 1 .
2

9.5. o
9x2 4 y2
xy 2 7 y 2 + x 7
i)
ii)
x 2 14 x + 49
9 x 2 12 xy + 4 y 2
49 x 2 16 y 2
iii)
49 x 2 56 xy + 16 y 2

9.9. =

9.10. o
( + ) 2
x3 + 2 x2 2 x
i)
ii)
2
3 4
x + 3x + 2
iii)

4 x 4 x
2a + 2a 2 + 2 2 + 2 3
3

iv)

2 2
a 2
2

9.11. :
x 5 x 4 y xy 4 + y 5
x 4 yx 3 y 2 x 2 + y 3 x
9.12. =
i)
ii)

( x 2) 2 + 2 x 2 4 x
9 x2 4

x;
.

1:

24

iii)

= 1.
[. iii)x=-2]

2
9.13. = x 2 7 x + 6 ,
x 36
2
x
+
7
x
+
6
=
.
x 2 1

x ;
ii) .
2
2
iii) : (+) () = 4.
i)

9.14. :
x 7 2 x 4 y 3 + xy 6
= x2 + xy + y2
x 5 x 2 y 3 x 4 y + xy 4

10:

25

10.

____________________________________________________________________________________________


10.1. :
3x + 2 2 x 3x 2
i)
4
5x 2
9x2 4

ii)

x 2 1 : x + 1
+ 2 2

10.2. :
12
2 3
2 16 : 3 + 12
i)
ii)
6 5 4 15 2
2 8 + 16 3 9
2
2
3 6 : 12 3
iii)
1 2 + 2 2 2 + 2 4
[. i) 2 3 ii) -3 iii) 2 ]
5

-4

10.8. :
1 + 2 4
i)
x +1
x 1
x 2 1
2 + 4y
ii)
x y
y2 x2
1 + 1 4
iii)
2
+2
2 4
1 + 1 6
iv)
+3
3
2 9
2
x
v) x +
( )
( x )( x )
x
x

1-

10.3. :
x2 y2 y4
xy 2 + y 3
A= 3 3 : 2
.
x y
x + xy + y 2

[. i)

ii)

2
x+y

iii)

2
+2

iv)

2
+3

v)2]

10.9. x , y, z ,

:
1
1
1
+
+
= 0.
( x y )( x z )
( y z )( y x )
( z x )( z y )

[. A=1]

10.4. :
4 x2 y
8x3 :
: 2x
.
3
3
2
x y
x + xy + y 2 xy y 2
[. 1]

10.10. :
x+ y
4xy
i)
2 2
x y
x y
ii)

3
2
10.5. = x 2 x 4
x 5x + 6

i)
ii)

3
x +1

x ;
.

iii)

2 + 2
2 + 2 + 2
+
2

2 2
2
2 + 2
2

+ 2
2

+
a +

2
2
2 + ( + x ) ( + y )
xy
x 2 xy
xy y 2
1 3 4
v)
2
+2
4 a2

iv)

10.6. :
(4 + 5)( + 2 )
2 + 2 2 + 2 :
2 2
=
.
2
5 + 4
16 + 25 + 40
2

[. i)

10.7. :
+4
3 5 + 9
i)
ii)
1
15
4
5

ii)-

iii)-

10.11. :
3
i)
2 + 52+ 3
2 + 2
3a 3
6a 6

[. i)- 1

xy
x+y

ii)
ii) 1 ]
4

iii)

1
2 2

1
2 +

1
2 2 2

2
+
24 2
2
2 +
a 4

iv)1 v)- 2 ]
+2

1:

26
1
+ 2 1
+ 21
x 2 3x + 2
x + x2
x 4
2
x

1
2
x
+
1
v)
2
+ 22 x + 4
x2 x 2
x + x 6
x 4x + 4
iv)

10.19. :
2 + 2
+

2

1+
i)
ii)
11
2 +
1

1+

10.12. :
6

i)
+ 3 +
3 +
3
9 2 2

[. i)- ii)-]

10.20. :
+

1
+

+
i)
ii)
+
2
+1

+

+

2
x +
x
2x
x2
3x + 3
x x2

iii)

+ 2 4
3
1+
2 3

ii)

[. i)

3 +
3

ii)

x
3(x 2)

10.13. = 1

iii)

2( 2)
3

6x + 3 .
x 3
x2 9

i) x ;
ii)

.
[. i)x -3 3 ii)=

x
x +3

[. i) ii) 1 ]

10.14.
2
2
= x 2 x 6 + 2 x +1 x 2+ x 3
x
x 9
x + 3x

10.21. :
+ 1 a
1

a
+
i)
1 a
a
1+
3
3
3
ii)
+
+

1+
1+
1+
+
+
a+
[. i)

) x ;
) ,

.
[. )x 0,-3 3 )=

2(x +1)
x

1
2

2 1

ii)6]

10.22. :
2 + 2
2 2 1
1


3 + 3 :

[. ]

10.23. =
10.15. :
x2 y2
1
1
i) 2
y x y2
x

1 , = 1 ,
1 x
1+ x

+

ii)
+
:

1
1
+
+ ( + )2
( ) 2
+
2 + 2

iii)
+
2 + 1 2

+ 2

4 y2

4 x 2 : 1 + 2 x + 2 y + 4 xy

iv)

y=

2
, x= ,
+
+

z =
, :
+
+
y = 2 xz .
x+z

10.25. ) :
2
= (1 1 )( 1 1 )
( + 1)( + 2)

+1
+1
+2
)

10.17. :
1
: x+4
1 2
x2 + x 6 4 x2 x2 + 2 x x3 4 x

[.

10.18. :
1 12
1

x
x
i)
ii)
1
1 1
1+
x
x

+ x
x

10.24. : =

10.16. :
4 2 + .
2
+

2

3 ]
x+3

1 + 1 + 1 ++
1
1 2 3
2 3 4
3 4 5
1999 2000 2001
= 1 1 + 1
4
4000
4002

10:

27

10.26. :
4
4
4 + 2
2 +
+
+
2 2

:
4
4 +
2

+ +
+

.
[. 2]

10.27. x , y,

, :
y2
2
x2
+
+
= 1.
( x y )( x )
( y )( y x )
( x )( y )

29

x + = 0

1: x + = 0

31

1.

x + = 0

1.1. ;
;
:

x + y = .
.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
)

1.1. :


x = 3.
[. )-1,1 )=5]

(3 x).21 = x
1
2
) 10 .(x 3) = 5.10 .
)

[. )1 )3,5]

1.7. :
3x + 1
x+ 1
x
3 + 15 = 0 .
2 +
1
2
2
1
3
2
[. x=-1]

1.2. , -

, ;
, + , = ,.
,
6
30
[. 5]

1.3.

15.
[. 7,8]

1.4. :
33 + 2 x + 1 2( x + 3) = 3x + 2 2 x 1
10
3
6
10
5
[. x=60]

1.5. :
)

x 3

3 =

3 (1x)

2 x 1 = 2 x + 1
5 1
5 +1
[. )1 ) 5 ]
2

1.6. x 2 x + 1 = 22 .
x 1
x +1
x 1
)

2: -

32

2.

2.1. 2 .
:

x2 + x + = 0 0.

x2 + x + = 0
[ 4]
4.x2 + 4.x + 4. = 0
42x2 + 4x = 4
[ 2 ]
(2x)2 + 2.2x. = 4
[ 1 2 ]
(2x)2 + 2.2x. + 2 = 2 4
2
2
(2x + ) = 4
2 4 () :
(2x + )2 = :

> 0 :
2x + =
2x =
x =

= 0 :
2x + = 0
2x =
x =

2.1.1.

< 0 ().

:
x2 + x + = 0 0

2

= 0 x =
2

> 0 x =

< 0 ().

2: 2

33

___________________________________________________________________________________________
2.2. :
2

i) x x = 0
2
iii) 4x + 36x =

ii) 2x 7x =
2
iv) 3x = 5x

[. i)0,1 ii)0, 7 iii)0,-9 iv)0, 5 ]


3

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

(x + 1)(x2 + 2x 8) = 0
(2x 1)(x2 + 3)(x2 + x 2) = 0
x3 2x2 9x + 18 = 0
2x3 + x2 3x = 0

[. i)-4, -1, 2, -2 ii)-2, 1, 1 iii)- 3 , 0, 1]


2

2.3. :
2

i) x 1 = 0
2
iii) 6x + 12 =
v)

ii) 3x
2
iv) x

5x2 10 = 0

vi)

27 = 0
12 = 0

2.12. :

(x25x+4)2 + (2x26x+4)2 = 0.
[. 1]

8x2 25 = 0
2

[. i)-1,1 ii)-3, 3 iii) iv)-2 3 ,2 3


v)- 2 , 2 vi)- 5 , 5 ]
4

2.4. :
i)

300x2 600.25 = 0

ii) 200x

= 2000x

2.13. :

x2 + ( 2 1)x 2 = 0
2
) x + 3 3 x 12 = 0
3
2
) 4x 4 3 x x + 3 = 0
)

[. )1, 2 ) 3 ,-4 3 ) 3 , 1 ,- 1 ]
2

[. i)-8,8 ii)0,10]

ii) 4x(x + 6) = 0
2
iv) (2x + 1)(8 x )

147) = 0

=0

[. i)-2,0,2 ii)0 iii)-7,5,7 iv)-2 2 ,2 2 ,- 1 ]

5 ) = 5.
x1 , x2 , : x1.x2.

[. )-5]

2.15.

2.6. :
i)
iii)

x 9x +14 = 0
12x2 x 6 = 0

2.14. ) : x(x

2.5. :
i) x(x 4) = 0
2
iii) (x 5)(3x

ii)
iv)

x 12x +20 = 0
3x2 5x 2 = 0

[. i)2,7 ii)2, 10 iii) 3 ,- 2 iv)2,- 1 ]


4

= (x29)2 (x+5)(x3)2
= (x1)2 4
i) , .
ii)

x ;

.
iii)

2.7. :

1000x2 + 4000 = 4000x


400x2 + 300x = 1000
10 2
10
12
iii) 3.2 .x 5.2 .x + 2 = 0
i)
ii)

iv)

[. i)2 ii)-2, 5 iii)]


4

x = x 3.

6
= 3B.
v) x
x2 9

[. i)A=(x-3)2(x+1)(x+4) B=(x+1)(x-3) ii)x -1,x 3


iii)(x-3)(x+4) iv)x=2 v)x=-5/2]

2.8. :
2

i) (x + 2) = x + 2
2
2
ii) (x + 2) + x 4 = 0
2
2
iii) (x 1) + (x + 2) = 29
2
2
2
iv) x + (x+1) = (x + 2)
2
2
v) (2x + 1) + (3x + 1) = (5x

2
2.16. = x 4 x ,
x
2
3
2
( x 3)( x 9)
=
= x 4 x + 4 x
x+3
x

+ 2)2

[. i)-1,-2 ii)0,-2 iii)3,-4 iv)3,-1 v)- 1 ,- 1 ]


3

2.9. :

25(x + 2)2 9(x 2)2 = 0.

x
;
ii) , .
2
iii) = .
i)

[. i) x 0, x -3
ii)A=x-4 , B=(x-3)2, =(x-2)2 iii)x=-1, x=3]

[. -8,- 1 ]
2

2.10. ) :

= (2x 3)2 8x2 7(1 x x2)


) = 0.

[. )A=3x2-5x+2 )1, 2 ]
3

2.11. :

2.17. = 2x + 4x2 ,
2
= 1 4x2 K = A , = x3 + 1 +2 2 x
B
4 x + 8x + 4 x

x
;
ii) .
iii) = .
i)

2: -

34
[. i) x 1 , x 0 -1
2

iii)x= 1 ]
4

2.18. :

= x3 x2 4x + 4

i)

= (x3)2 4.

x .
ii)

= 12.

[. i)x 1 5, = (x-2)(x+2) ii)x=-16, x=4]

x-5

2.19. :

(x + 1)3 3(x 1)2 2(x 1)(x + 1) = (x 1)3 + 8


[. -7 , 1]

2.20. x.

(x )2 + (x + )2 = (x )(x + ) + 4x .

[. ,3]

2.21. :

(x2 4)(x 1) = (x2 1)(x 2)


[. 1, 2]

2.22. :
2 + 3 = 2.

2
i)
ii)

.
,
2
: x x = 1 .

[. i)=2 ii)-1,2]

2.23. : 5( x

+3 x+1) 2

= 5.
[. -3,-2,-1,0]

2.24. i) :

= x3 3x + 2 = x5 x3 x2 + 1.

ii)

= .
x +1

[. i)=(x-1)2(x+2), B=(x-1)2(x+1)(x2+x+1) ii)x=1]

3: 2

35

3.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
3.1. x + 3

x 3. 40 cm2.
i)

.
ii) x.
iii) .

[. i)4x ii)x=7 iii)28cm]

3.2. 2x m , 3 (x+1) m

4 m.
.
[. 6+2 3 m]

3.3. -

5cm
12cm. .
[. 3cm, 4cm]

3.4.

, 2cm 10cm.
[. 6cm , 8cm]

3.5. -

1cm , 2cm .
,
.
[. 3cm

4cm

5cm , 12cm , 6cm2]

3.6. -

10m ,
.
[. 6m, 8m]

= 900 :
3.7.
2
2
= + 1 = 1 > 1.

.
[. 2+2]

3.8.

2cm .
60cm2,
.
[. 34cm , 13cm]

3.9. -

.
.
[. 3, 4, 5]

3.10.


10 . ;
[. 15]

3.11. -

100.
.
[. 6,8]

3.12. = 2x7

cm , = x5 cm
27 cm2. .
[. 9cm, 3cm]

= =
3.13. //

900. = = x2 cm , = x+10 cm 112 cm2 ,


.
[. ==8cm, B=20cm]

2: -

36

4.

4.1. ;.
:

, .
___________________________________________________________________________________________
2x +
x+2
x 1 +
)
x
2x 3
)
x
1
)

x2
)

4.2. :
4
)
+ 1 = 2x
x+2
x2
x 4
2

1
)
= 2
x2 + 2 x
x + 5x + 6
13
1
)

= 5 x2 3
1 x
x +1
x 1
[. )3/2 ) )]

x+2 = 2
2x
x
21
= 0
x2
x 2x
5x 3 = 2 x 2 + x 8 + 2
x3
x2
2 =
3
x +1
x2 x 2
[. )2 )1, - 1 )1, -0,8 )]
2

4.3. 8 = x
:
x 10 = 10 x
10 x
x
x 10
8
[. ]

4.4. :
2
)
21
= 42 x
x 2x
x + 2x
x2 4
5
1
2
x
)

= 2 +1
x+2
x +3
x + 5x + 6
2
+
x

2
x
4
)
= 2
x
x 2x
2( x 2 + 6)
) x + 2 + x 2 =
x 3
x+3
x2 9
[. )3 ) ) ) -3,3]

4.5.
= 22 x , = 3
= x 2 14 .
2x 4
2( x 4)
x + 2x

x
.
) = .
)

[. ) x 0 -2. x 2, x 2 ) 0,-2,2]

4.6. :

4.7. :
4 4x 3 = 2
)
x +1
x 2 1
1
) 1
1 = 22 x
x+2
2 x
x 4
12
8
2

33
x
)

=
3x 2
3x + 2
4 9x2
[. )-

4.8.

2
2

2
2

)0 )2]

3
2

2x + 4
x2 + 2 x

,
x = 1;
;
[. 7 , - 12 ]
6

4.9.

x + 2x
x 2
1+ 24
x 4

= x +1
x 1

x3 .
x x
3


x
.
2 (x+1). = 0.
)
)

4:

37

[. ) x 0, 2 -2. x 0, 1
-1 )4]

4.10. :
2
x2 + 1 x + 2 + 2 = 0
1

1.
[. -1, 2 ]
3

4.11. :
x 1 x 2 =
1
)
x2
x 1
x 2 3x + 2
x 1 + 1 = x 2 3 x + 4
)
x 3
x 2 5x + 6
x 1 x 2 = x 2 + 3
)
x +3
x 3
x2 9
[. ) )1,4 )1,-6]

4.12. :
5x 4
5
)
102x + 1 =
3x 9
x2 + 5x + 6
3x 27
4
)
+ x +5 = 2x
2x + 2
3x 6
x2 x 2
4
) x + 2 x + 1 =
x+3
x 1
x2 + 2x 3
2
) 32 x
2x 1 = x + 2 + 2
x2
x 4
x + 2x
[. ) 4

103

)3 ) )1,

2
5

4.13. :
2 x + x + 1 = 3x 2 5
)
x +1
1 x
x 2 1
2 x +1 + 4 x = 4 2
)
3+ x
3 x
x 2 + 3x
x2 9
2

7
x
3
2
)
+
=
x +1
x 1
x 2 1
x2 + 4
)
= 28
x
x2
x 2x
[. )-4 ) )2 )-1]

4.14. :
2
3 x 2 1
2
i)
= x 3x + 2
2
x 1
x
x x
ii)
[. i)-3 ii)]

2: -

38

5.

5.1. ;.
:

, :
> 0 >
< 0 <
= 0 =
5.2. ,
. > + > + .
:

: ( + ) ( + ) = + = > 0 , > .
+ > + .
5.3. ,
. > > 0 . > . .
:

: . . = .( ) > 0 , > 0 > 0.


. > . .
5.4. , . > < 0 . > . .
:

: . . = .( ) < 0 , < 0 > 0.


. < . .
5.5. ,
. > > + > + .
:

: ( + ) ( + ) = + = ( ) + ( ) > 0 , > 0 > 0.


+ > + .

5.6. > >

> .

( )

> > 0 (1). , > > 0 (2).


(1) (2) , :
+>0
>0
>.
5.7. > < .
:

5: -

39

>
(1). < (1).
< .

5.8. > , ,

1 < 1 .

, > 0
:

1 > 0.

>
1 >

1 >

1 .

___________________________________________________________________________________________
5.9. x > y ,
3 x 5z
3 y 5z.
4
4
5.10. > ,

8,3 6

8,3 6.

5.11. > 0 : + > .


5.12. x < z 0 < y < :
x 1 <z 1 .
y

5.13. x > 3

( x 3)2

= 2x.
[A. <]

5.14. 2 < , :
+

<
< .
3
2
5.15. 1 < x < 3 2 < y < 3

:
i) = 3x + 2y 1
ii) = 4x 2y + 5
[A. i)0<A<14 ii)-5<B<13]

5.16. :
2( x 3)
1 x + 2 3x + 1 > x
x < 0.
2
3
3
[A. -6<x< 10 ]
9

41

1:

43

1.

1.1. y = x + ;
:

y = x + y = x.
1.2. x + = ;
:

x + = .

___________________________________________________________________________________________
1.1. ,

[. =1]

1.2. 1 , 2

y = (2+4)x + 5 y = 4x 3 .
,
.
[. =2]

1.3. y = 32x + 1
2

y = (+4)x 5 ;
[. =-1 =4/3]

1.4. 1 : y = (34)x + 2 6.

1 :
) (2,2)
) xx
)
) 2 : y = 8x + 7
) xx 3
) yy 4
)
3 : y =

(3 1) x + 2 1
2

[. )=2 )= 4 )=3 )=4 )= 18 )=5 )= 7 ]


3

11

1.5. 4x + 3y = 12.
i) .
ii)

iii)

(52,2+1)
y = x+6.

[.ii)A(3,0) B(0,4) iii)=12,E=6]

1.6. 2 x + (1)y = 12
2

(3,2). :
i) .
ii)
.
iii) o .
[.i)=-2 ii)A(6,0) B(0,-4) iii)E=12]

1.7. 1 , 2

y = 22x + 3 + 1 y = (53)x + 9 ,
, . 1
(1,6).
i) , ..
ii) .
[.i)==1]

3:

44

2.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
2.1. :
x + y = 4
x=2
y=x
)
)
)
y =1
x + y =5
2 x + y = 6
[. )(x,y)=(3,1) )(x,y)=(2,3) )(x,y)=(2,2)]

2.2. :
y=x
y = x+2
)
)
y = 2x 3
2 x + y = 5
[. )(x,y)=(3,3) )(x,y)=(2,4)]

2.3.

, .
2 x + y = 4
y = x+3

i)

3x 2 y = 5
4 y = 6 x + 7

iii)

3x y = 2
x + y 2 = 0
1 x 2 y = 3
iv) 2
2 x 8 y 12 = 0
ii)

2( x + y ) 4 = 0
2.4.
5( x + y ) 10 = 0

; .

3:

45

3.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
2.1.

x = 3 y +1
3x 2 y = 11

x 2 y = 4
x + y = 31

i)

ii)

[. i)(x,y)=(-5,-2) ii) (x,y)=(22,9)]

2.2. :
x 2y =2
i)
x 7 y + 13 = 0

5 x + y = 45
2 y 3x = 25

ii)

[. i)(x,y)=(8,3) ii) (x,y)=(5,20)]

x 2y = 1
2.3. :
.
3x = 5( y + 1)
[. (x,y)=(5,2)]

2.4. :
2[ x (4 y )] + 20 = 0
2(2 x + 3 y ) = 3(2 x 3 y ) + 10
i)
ii)
x
+
4
y
=
0

4 x 3 y = 4(6 y 2 x ) + 3
[. i)x=-8, y=2 ii)x= 52 ,y=1]

2.5. :
1 x+ y = 1
2
0, 3x 1,5 y + 0,3 = 0
2
i)
ii)
y 0, 3x = 0, 2
3 x 2 y = 19
2
3
2
[. i)(x,y)=(5,-3) ii)(x,y)=(4,1)]

2.6. :
4 x y = 1 x
4
i) 6
x + y = 7

1 x + 4 y = 1

ii) 2

x 2 y + 3 = 0

[. i)x=2, y=5 ii)x=-2,y= 12 ]

2.7. :
2 x 3 y = 6
i) x y
3 = 4

3x 2 y +1 = x 3 y 2

2
3
ii)
x
+
2
y
2
x
+
y
+1

5
3

[. i)(-3,-4) ii)(-1,-2)]

2.8. :

2x + 2 + y = 3
3
i)
x + 2 1 = y + 2
2
3

x + 3 + ( y + 1) 2 = y 2
3( x + 2 y ) = 2

ii)

[. i)(2,1) ii)]

2.9. :
2x y x + y = 1
3
6
2
i)
ii)
x

+ y =7

2x + y + 4 = 0

3x + y 2 y x
2
3 + 5 = x + 5

[. i)(x,y)=(4,5) ii)(x,y)=(-2,0)]

(2 1) x + (4 + 1) y = 3
2.10.

( + 1) x + ( 2) y = 2

x, y. , , (1,1).
[. =-1/2, =9/2)]

2.11. :
2( x + 2 y ) 3( x 3 y ) = 83
i)
2( y 2 x ) ( x 2 y ) = 49
3x + 2 y = 7

ii)
2(3x + 2 y ) + 4(2 y + 3x ) = 42
[. i)x=5, y=-6 ii)]

2.12. :
x 2 + y 3 = x 1
4
8
2
i)
ii)

5
y
9
+
x
4
1

= x +1
4
6
2
[. i)x=2,y=3 ii)]

2.13. :
3x y + x + y = x + y + 2 +1
2
5
3
i)
+
x
y
x
x
1 = y + 6

2
3

3x 2 y + 2 x = 4

2
3 3
ii)
+
x
y
2 x 3 y +
= 4

5
[. i)(6,4) ii)(2,3)]

2 x 5 y = 2 3
2.14.
.
2x 5y = 1

3:

46
[. =2 =-2]

3x 3 y = 3
2.15.
.
2
x y =


.
.
[. =1]

2x + 3y = 5

2.16. : x
y
2 + 3 = 2
[. x= 2 ,y= 3 ]

[. 7]

2.24. -

, 10 cm
1 cm
.
[. 3cm 4cm]

2.25. , 5

3 2 8. ;
[. 17]

2.26. y = x +

(2,5) (4,1).
[. y=-3x+11]

2.17. 5x 4y = 7. -


) , .
) , .
) , .
2.18. :
1 + 1 = 7

y 12

x2 9 y2 = 5
x +3y = 2

ii) x

i)

x2 + x + = 0 x = 3 x = 7.
[. =4, =-21]

2.28. f (x) = x2 + x + .

f (1) = 2 2 f (x) = 0
,
.
[. =-1, =2, ]

x + y = 7

[. i)x=3,y=- 13 ii)(3,4), (4,3)]

2.19. :
y x =1
i) 2
2
x + xy y = 1
2.20. :
3x + 2 y = 7
i) 2
x xy + 2 y = 3

2.29. y = x +

(,1) (1,3).
[. y=-x-2]

2x + y = 5
2
2
x + y + xy = 7

ii)

[. i)(-1,0), (2,3) ii)(2,1), (3,-1)]

x + 3y = 5
2
5 x y = 9

2.30. 9 -

, . .
9 , .
;
[. 33 12 ]

ii)

11 ) ii)(2,1), (53,-16)]
[. i)(1,2), ( 58 , 10

2.21. i) ,

(0,1).
y = 2x +
3
ii)

2.27. , ,


y = 2 x +
3
:
2
y + xy = 12

2.31. = 3x+6 ,

= x2 , = 5y+4 = y x
. .
[. 20]

2.32.

= x2 , = 5 y2 ,
= x + y = 1 . .
[. ==1 ==4]

[. i)=3 ii)(x,y)=(1,3), (- 11
,- 38 )]
6

2.22. :
1 1 =3
4 + 12 = 1
2 x +1 y 2
x y x+ y
i)
ii)
3
2
1

1 +
+
=4
=0
2 x +1 y 2
x y 2x + 2 y
[. i)(- 14 ,1) ii)(5,-15)]

2.23. :

= x + 4 , = 4x y = y + 2.
.

2.33. x2 + x + = 0

16
3+

x = 2 + 1 , , .
x 1
x 1
[. =1,=- 15 =-3,=- 7 ]
4

2.34.

9. 27
. ;
[. 36]

47

y = x

y = x + x + , 0

1: y = x2

49

1.

y = x2

___________________________________________________________________________________________
1.1. f (x) = 20x2.

:
f () + f ( )
= 20.
2 + 2
f ( + ) + f ( )
)
= 2.
f () + f ( )
)

1.2. y = x2

y = x + 6.
[. (-2,4) , (3,9)]

1.3. y = (26)x2

;
[. >3]

1.4. y = 3 5 x2
7

xx;
[. > 3 ]
5

4:

50

2.

y = x2 + x +

____________________________________________________________________________________________
2.1. f (x) = x2 3x + 1. ,

, x
11.
[. x=-2, x=5]

2.2. f (x) = 3x2 (+1)x 2.

[. i)=1, =-1 ii)B(-1,0)]

2.7. , -

.
10cm.
B

,
(1,5);
)

1 x 4.
)

[. )=5]

2.3. f (x) = x2 4x + 5.

, (1,8).
ii) .
iii) .
i)

[. i)=-1]

2.4. y = x2 + 2x + .

,

(1,5).
ii) .
i)

[. i)=2, =0]

2.5. y = x + 3

y = x2 2x + 3.
i) .
ii)
.
[. (0,3) (3,6)]

2.6. y = 2x2 + x +

y = x . (1,2)
:
i) , .
ii)
.

x
.
[. 5cm]

2.8. -

12 cm.
2x cm,
x.
ii) x.
iii) 0 x 6.
iv)

.
i)

[. i)=12-2x ii)E(x)=-2x2+12x iv)x=3, ==6cm]

2.9. f (x) = x2 9x + 12.

x :
i) f (x) = 6
iii) f (x) = f (x)

ii)
iv)

f (x) = x
f (x) = f (x+1)

[. i)x=3, x=6 ii)x=2, x=6 iii)x=0 iv)x=4]

2.10. -

y = x2 + x + ,
A(1,3).

51

1:

53

1.

1.1. ;

.
:

.
.

, , , . :
<+
<+
<+.

1.2. .

.
:

:
1) , .

=
=
=

2)


, .

3)

=
=

, .

=
=
=
.

1:

54

1.3. .
:

:
1)
, .
2)

,
.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
1.4.

, .
.
1.5. ,

, , .
.

,
= .
, .
1.13. = .


,
= . = .
1.14. =

1.6.

. :
+ + >

+ +
.
2

. .
.
1.15.

1.7.


.
1.8. :
+
) <
.
2
)

+ + < + + .

1.9.

.

, :
+ +
+ + >
.
2

1.10. -

.
1.11. = .

= 1 = 1 .
3

, .
1.12. = .

, , , = = .
) .
) .
) .
1.16. .

,
= = .
= .
1.17. .

,
. :
 =
l .
)
) .

l y . x
1.18. x
y , , , = , = .
:
) =
) =
ly .
) x

1:
1.19. .

. , . = .
1.20.

.

. ,
.
1.21. . -


.
l y
1.22. xO

.
x y .
:
) .
l .
) AMB
) .
1.23.

.
1.24.

.
= .

55

1:

56

2.

2.1. ,
.
:


//. // ,
,
. .

___________________________________________________________________________________________
2.2. , ,

.

.

2.6.

, , ,
, , .
.
.

2.3.

. ,
.

.
2.4. ,

.
, = 1 = 1 .
2
2
1
= .
4
2.5.

,
.
. .

2.7.

, ( < )
. ,
.
)
.
)

= = .

) = =
.
2
+
) =
.
2
) = .
2

2.8.

. ,
.
.

2:

2.9. -

,
, , .
.

= 900,
2.10.
= 12 cm = 2x+2 cm.
2x1 cm, .

57

1:

58

3.

3.1. ;

.
:

,
.

1 , 2 , 3

4.
A

: = = .

___________________________________________________________________________________________
A

3.2. -

//.
= 2x+1,
= x, = x2+2
= 4x2+x.
x.

x +2

2x+1

4x2+ x

[. x= 1 ]
7

= 900 = 8cm ,

= 6cm. //
= 4cm.
.
[. =3,2cm]

ii)

3.4.

= .

:
i) //

3.3.

3.5. 1 2.


= 2cm, = x cm , = x+1 cm
AE = 3cm, .
[. 2cm]

3.6. -


= = .

3:

59


. = 2,5 m = 8 m
.
[. =10m]

1:

60

5.

5.1. ;
:

, .
5.2. .
:

, ,
.
2) , , .
1)

___________________________________________________________________________________________

5.3. 5cm , 3cm

15cm , 9cm.
.

4 cm

5.4. -

=
= 65 ,
= 7,2dm , = 40cm ,
= 72cm , = 4dm.
.

5.5. -

=
= 700 ,
= 8cm , = 2cm ,
= 10cm , = 4cm.
.

9 cm

.
[. 6cm]

5.9. 6 cm -

= 2 cm.
,
.
[. =18cm]

5.6.
1 . = 4cm , = 5cm
4

.
5.7. = 12 cm

= 18 cm. = 8 cm
. = 10 cm,
, .
[. =12cm, =6cm, =15cm]

l ,
=
5.8.
1 = 2 , = 4 cm = 9 cm.

5.10. -

:
= , = , = 4cm , = x+6 cm ,

= x+2 cm , = 4x+8 cm.


i) .
ii) x.
iii)
= 1 .
3

5.11.

, .

5:

61

, ,
.
ii) .
l =
l .
iii)
i)

= 900, 5.12.
= 8 cm = 10 cm.

.
i)
.
ii) ,
.
[. i)=2,4cm , =3,2cm]

5.13. = 6 x , = x(x+3)

= x2 + 5x.
) x 2;
) x 15 cm.
) x
,
= 2.

[. ) )x=1 )10cm, 8cm, 12cm]

1:

62

6.

6.1. ;
:

.
___________________________________________________________________________________________
6.2. 490cm2.


= 2 .

, .
.
i) ,
.
ii)
.
iii) .

[. i)40cm2 ii)250cm2 iii)200cm2]

63

1: 00 1800

65

1.

1.1. , ;
:

,
.




, = =
.


,
.




.
, = =


,
.




, = =
.



1.1.1. :

, .

1.2. :
(900 ) =

(900 ) = .

:
=

= ,

= .

,
,
+ = 900
= 900 .

0
(90 ) = . (900 ) = .
, 900 :
(900 ) = . (900 ) = .
1.2.1.

: 540 = (900 360) = 360.


730 = (900 170) = 170.

7:

66
1.3. .
:

y
M(x,y)

l = .
(x, y) , x OM
= , :
=

= x

y
(x 0).
x

1.4. , 1 1.
:

x y
> x > y . 1 , 1 0.
, : 1 1

1 1.
1.5. .
:

. .

x
x
x

+
+
+

____________________________________________________________________________________________
1.6. :

= 250 350 + 550 650


= 2x + 3(900x) 5x
2 450 + 4 2 300 2007
=
2006 100 450 2600

[. =0, =0, =-1]

1.7.

(3,0) , (2,2) , (6,8) , (0,5).



l , x
l , x
l x
l .
x
1.8.

:
i) = 3x 5
iii) = 7x + 6x

ii) = 4 2x
iv) = 2x 3x

1.9. -

y = 22x + 1.

[. 1, 3]

1.10. -

y = 42x 1.

[. -1, 3]

1: 00 1800

67

2.

1800 :
(1800) =
(1800) =
(1800) =
: (i) 1300 = (1800500) = 500  0,766
(ii)
(iii)

1150 = (1800650) = 650  0,423


980 = (1800820) = 820  7,115.

____________________________________________________________________________________________
2.1. 350 = 0,819 :
)
)

2.6. 900 < < 1800


2(1 ) + 4 + 3 = 3( 3 2) + 6

55
1450
[. )0,819 )-0,819]

2.2. :
(900 ) (900 ) (1800 ) 450
=
(1800 ) (1800 ) 1500
[. 2]

2.3. , , ,

:
) (+) =
) (+) = B

(+) =

2.4. x, :
0
0
) 2x 3 = 0 , 0 < x < 180

2x = 1 , 900 < x < 1800


0
0
) 3x + 3 = 0 , 90 < x < 180
0
0
) x = 1 , 90 < x < 180
)

2.5. x, :

2x = 0,25 , 00 x 1800
42x = 3 , 900 x 1800
2x 2x + 1 = 0 , 00 x 1800
22x + x 1 = 0 , 00 x 1800
0
0
) (2x 2 )(x1) = 0 , 0 x 180
)
)
)
)


.
[. = 3 ,=- 1 ,=- 3 , =1200]
2

7:

68

3.

3.1. :

:
y
M(x,y)

l = ,
x OM
y

= x

y

y

= =
=
= .
x
x

x


.

, 0, 900 2700.
x

3.2. :

2 + 2 = 1.

y
M(x,y)

x2 + y2 = 2
2
2
x2 + y =
2
2
2
2

x + y =1



()2 + ()2 = 1.
,

2 + 2 = 1.

____________________________________________________________________________________________
[. i)=3,=6 ii)= 3 ]
4

3.3. i) :

= 13 13 + 7 + 4 = 41 29 19 9

ii) 2
= ,

: =

2 2
.
2

3.4. x = 3 00 < x < 900, :


5
i)
ii)

T x x.
T :
A=

3 2 x + 5 x x
.
2 x

3:

3.5. x = 5 900 x 1800, 13

:
i) T x x.
ii) T :
A=

5 x + 3 2 x + x
.
2 x + 3

3.18. : (1

:
2 x 2 x x
.
4 2 x 3 2 x
[. = 1 ]
11

[. =1]

3.8. x2 + .x + 2 = 0

. , 4 .
[. =- 2 5 , = 5 , =-2]
5

2
2
3.9. = 2 2 , > > 0 900 < x < 1800,
+

[. )=- 2
2
2
+

)= - ]
2

3.10. : 2 (1 + 2) = 1.
3.11. : ( 3) = 3.
3.12. i) :
2 x y + 1 + 4 x 3 y = x + 2
3
2

2 y = 3( x 1)

ii)

[. i)(x,y)=(1,0)]

1 .
2

3.14. :

( + )2 ( )2 = 4..
3.15. :
2

3.19. :

+
+ 1
=
.

1

3.20. :

2 1
= 2 2.
2 + 1

3.22. :

1
1
+
= 22 .
1
1 +

3.23. :


+ 1 = 1 .

1+

3.24. :


1 = 1 .

3.25. :


+ 1 = 2 .

3.26. : 2 2 = 2 . 2.
3.27. : 4 2 = 4 2.
3.28. : 4x 4x = 22x 1.
3.29. :
4 4
2 2 1
i)
ii)
2
4 4
1
[. i)2 ii)1]

(x,y)
:
4(x.+2006y.)2 + (2006y.+2x.)2 = 4.

3.13. : 1 + 2 =

1 )(1 1 ) = 1.
2
2

: 2 + 2 + 2 = 9.

:
= 252 + (5 1)3.

1
= 1.
1+ 2 x

3.21. = 3. , = 3. , = 3

3.7. = 3 = 4 0 < < 1 ,


4

+
= 1 + .

3.17. : x.x.x +

3.6. x = 3 00 < x < 900,

3.16. :

69

(3 + 4) + (4 3) = 25.

2
3.30. : 1 = .
1+

3.31. :
( + )( 1 )( 1 ) = 1.

3.32. :
2 x
x +
= x + x.
x x
1 x
3.33. 00 < x < 900 x = 2x 1

x.
[. x= 4 , x= 3 , x= 4 ]
5

7:

70

3.34. i) = 12 900 1800 13

.
ii)

( ) x ( ) y = 1
.
( ) x y = 1

[. i)= 5 , =- 5
13

12

ii)( 5 , 1 )]
2

24

3.35.

x, 3x + 4x = 5.
[. = 3 , = 4 , = 3 ]
5

6: &

71

4.

&

4.1. .
:

,
:
, ,

= = .

.

= = . (1)


= = . (2)

(1) (2)
. = . . = .

= .

=
.

= = .

4.2. .
:

,
:
, ,
2
2
2
= + 2.
2 = 2 + 2 2.
2 = 2 + 2 2..
.
2 = 2 + 2 (1)
=

= . (2)

= ..

= = . (3)
(1) , (2) (3)
2 = (.)2 + ( .)2
= 2.2 + 2 2. + 2.2
= 2.(2+2) + 2 2.
= 2 + 2 2..
2
2
2
= + 2. 2 = 2 + 2 2..

7:

72
4.2.1. :

:
2 = 2 + 2 2.
2. = 2 + 2 2
=

2 + 2 2
.
2

2 + 2 2
2

2 + 2 2
.
2

___________________________________________________________________________________________
4.3. .

= 2 , .

l = x
l = y :

x

=
= .

4.11. :

> 900 = 450 ,


4.4.
= 10 cm = 5 2 cm.
.
[. =300, =1050]

4.5. = 2 , =

= 600.
i) ,
.

ii) ;
iii) ,
= 10cm.
iv) .
[. i) =900, =300 iii)=5cm, =5 3 cm
iv)= 25 3 cm2]
2

4.6. :

2 = 2 + 2.
= 900.

+ = .
4.12. :

= 2 2 .

4.13. : = 3, = 5

= 7. = 1200.

3 cm , = 1 cm

[. i)=1 ii)1200]

4.8. = 2cm , =

2 cm
0

= 45 . .

4.9. =

31 ,
0

= x + 1 , = x + 2 = 60 .
.
[. =5, =6]

[. 1200]

4.14. , ,

: =
.

2 + 2 + ,
[. 1200]

4.15. = 4 , = 4

= 1200.

i) .
ii) B.
iii) .
[. i)=7 ii)= 3 3 iii)= 15 3 ]
14

4.7. =

= 300 , :

i) .
.
ii)

4.10.

, 1 ,

, Pascal (1623-1662) ,
1653.
.
1
1+1
1+2+1
1+3+3+1
1+4+6+4+1

= 20
= 21
= 22
= 23
= 24


Fibonacci.
, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55,

1 = 1 , 2 = 1 n+2 = n+1 + n.


,
,
.
1+9
= 10
1+5+15
= 21
1+6+21+56 = 84