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The Science and Engineering

of Materials, 5th ed
Donald R. Askeland – Pradeep P. Phulé

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Materials


Science and Engineering

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Objectives of Chapter 1
† Introduce the field of materials science and
engineering (MSE)
† Provide introduction to the classification of
materials

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Outline
† 1.1 What is Materials Science and
Engineering?
† 1.2 Classification of Materials
† 1.3 Functional Classification of
Materials
† 1.4 Classification of Materials Based
on Structure
† 1.5 Environmental and Other Effects
† 1.6 Materials Design and Selection

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What is Materials Science and
Engineering?
† Materials Science and Engineering
Materials Science – emphasis on relationships
between synthesis and processing, structure and
properties

Materials Engineering – emphasis on transforming


materials into useful devices or structures
† Composition means the chemical make-up of a
material.
† Structure means a description of the arrangements of
atoms or ions in a material.
† Synthesis is the process by which materials are made
from naturally occurring or other chemicals.
† Processing means different ways for shaping
materials into useful components or changing their
properties.

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Copyright © 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-4
Classification of Materials

‰ Metals and Alloys


‰ Ceramics, Glasses,and Glass-ceramics
‰ Polymers (plastics), Thermoplastics and Thermosets
‰ Semiconductors
‰ Composite Materials

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Functional Classification of
Materials

‰ Aerospace
‰ Biomedical
‰ Electronic Materials
‰ Energy Technology and Environmental Technology
‰ Magnetic Materials
‰ Photonic or Optical Materials
‰ Smart Materials
‰ Structural Materials

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Section 1.4
Classification of Materials-Based on Structure
‰ Crystalline material is a material comprised of one or
many crystals. In each crystal, atoms or ions show a
long-range periodic arrangement.
‰ Single crystal is a crystalline material that is made
of only one crystal (there are no grain boundaries).
‰ Grains are the crystals in a polycrystalline material.
‰ Polycrystalline material is a material comprised of
many crystals (as opposed to a single-crystal material
that has only one crystal).
‰ Grain boundaries are regions between grains of a
polycrystalline material.

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Section 1.5
Environmental and Other Effects

Effects of following factors must be accounted for in


design to ensure that components do not fail
unexpectedly:

‰ Temperature
‰ Corrosion
‰ Fatigue
‰ Strain Rate

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Materials Design and Selection

‰ Density is mass per unit volume of a material,


usually expressed in units of g/cm3 or lb/in.3
‰ Strength-to-weight ratio is the strength of a material
divided by its density; materials with a high strength-
to-weight ratio are strong but lightweight.

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Copyright © 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-16
The CES 4 EduPack

Unit 1. Mapping the World of Materials:


the first step in exploration and selection

New approaches to Materials Education


- a course authored by
Mike Ashby and Dave Cebon
Cambridge, UK
© 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon
Difficulty level 1
Materials, process and shape

Metals,
ceramics, glasses
MATERIALS
polymers
composites...

Casting ,
moulding
PROCESSES
powder methods,
machining...

Flat and dished


sheet
SHAPES
prismatic,
3-D

Unit 1, Frame 1.3 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


The world of materials

Steels
Cast irons
Al-alloys

Metals
Cu-alloys
Ni-alloys
Ti-alloys

PE, PP, PC
Alumina PA (Nylon)
Si-Carbide
Polymers,
Ceramics,
elastomers
glasses GFRP
CFRP
Butyl rubber
Soda-glass Neoprene
Pyrex Composites
KFRP
Plywood

Polymer foams Woods


Metal foams
Natural
Foams materials
Ceramic foams
Natural fibres:
Glass foams Hemp, Flax,
Cotton

Unit 1, Frame 1.4 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Basic material properties

Mechanical properties Thermal expansion

General
lo
Weight: Density ρ, Mg/m3
l

Thermal strain ε
Expense: Cost/kg Cm, $/kg

Mechanical Expansion
coefficient, α
Stiffness: Young’s modulus E, GPa
Ductile materials
Strength: Elastic limit σy , MPa Temperature, T
Elastic limit,σy
Fracture strength: Tensile strength σts , MPa
Stress σ

Thermal conduction
Brittleness: Fracture toughness Kic , MPa.m1/2 x

Young’s modulus, E
Thermal T1 To
Strain ε Expansion: Expansion coeff. α, 1/K Area A Q joules/sec

Conduction: Thermal conductivity λ, W/m.K


Brittle materials

∗ Tensile (fracture)

Heat flux, Q/A


strength, σts Electrical
Stress σ

∗ Conductor? Insulator? Thermal


conductivity, λ
Young’s
modulus, E
(T1 -T0)/x
Strain ε
Unit 1, Frame 1.5 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon
Mechanical properties illustrated

Stiff
Strong
All OK !
Tough
Light

Not stiff enough (need bigger E)

Not strong enough (need bigger σy )

Not tough enough (need bigger Kic)

Too heavy (need lower ρ)

Unit 1, Frame 1.6 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Materials information for design

The goal of design:


“To create products that perform their function effectively, safely, at acceptable cost”
What do we need to know about materials to do this? More than just test data.

Data Statistical Economic analysis


Selection of
capture analysis and business case
material and process

Mechanical Properties
Bulk Modulus 4.1 - 4.6 GPa
Compressive Strength 55 - 60 MPa

$
Ductility 0.06 - 0.07
Elastic Limit 40 - 45 MPa
Endurance Limit 24 - 27 MPa
Fracture Toughness 2.3 - 2.6 MPa.m1/2
Hardness 100 - 140 MPa
Loss Coefficient 0.009- 0.026
Modulus of Rupture 50 - 55 MPa
Poisson's Ratio 0.38 - 0.42
Shear Modulus 0.85 - 0.95 GPa
Tensile Strength 45 - 48 MPa
Young's Modulus 2.5 - 2.8 GPa

Test Test data Design data Potential Successful


applications applications

Characterisation Selection and implementation

Unit 1, Frame 1.7 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Data organisation: materials

Kingdom Family Class Member Attributes

Density
Steels 1000
• Ceramics Mechanical props.
Cu-alloys 2000
• Polymers 3000 Thermal props.
Structured
Al-alloys 4000 Electrical props. information
Materials • Metals
Ti-alloys 5000 Optical props.
• Natural 6000
Ni-alloys Corrosion props.
• Foams 7000 Supporting information
Zn-alloys 8000
• Composites -- specific Unstructured
information
-- general

A material record

Unit 1, Frame 1.9 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Structured data for ABS*

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) - (CH2-CH-C6H4)n

General Properties
Density 1.05 - 1.07 Mg/m^3 Electrical Properties
Price 2.1 - 2.3 US $/kg Conductor or insulator? Good insulator

Optical Properties
Mechanical Properties Transparent or opaque? Opaque
Young's Modulus 1.1 - 2.9 GPa
Elastic Limit 18 - 50 MPa
Tensile Strength 27 - 55 MPa Corrosion and Wear Resistance
Elongation 6 - 8 % Flammability Average
Fresh Water Good
Hardness - Vickers 6 - 15 HV
Organic Solvents Average
Endurance Limit 11 - 22 MPa Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Fracture Toughness 1.2 - 4.2 MPa.m1/2 Sea Water Good
Strong Acid Good
Strong Alkalis Good
Thermal Properties UV Good
Max Service Temp 350 - 370 K Wear Poor
Thermal Expansion 70 - 75 10-6/K Weak Acid Good
Weak Alkalis Good
Specific Heat 1500 - 1510 J/kg.K
Thermal Conductivity 0.17 - 0.24 W/m.K

*Using the CES 4 Level 2 DB


Unit 1, Frame 1.10 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon
Unstructured data for ABS*

What is it? ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene ) is tough, resilient, and easily molded.


It is usually opaque, although some grades can now be transparent, and it can be given vivid
colors. ABS-PVC alloys are tougher than standard ABS and, in self-extinguishing grades, are

used for the casings of power tools.

Design guidelines. ABS has the highest impact resistance of all polymers. It takes
color well. Integral metallics are possible (as in GE Plastics' Magix.) ABS is UV resistant for
outdoor application if stabilizers are added. It is hygroscopic (may need to be oven dried
before thermoforming) and can be damaged by petroleum-based machining oils.
ABS can be extruded, compression moulded or formed to sheet that is then vacuum thermo-
formed. It can be joined by ultrasonic or hot-plate welding, or bonded with polyester, epoxy,
isocyanate or nitrile-phenolic adhesives.

Technical notes. ABS is a terpolymer - one made by copolymerising 3 monomers: acrylonitrile, butadiene and syrene. The
acrylonitrile gives thermal and chemical resistance, rubber-like butadiene gives ductility and strength, the styrene gives a glossy surface,
ease of machining and a lower cost. In ASA, the butadiene component (which gives poor UV resistance) is replaced by an acrylic ester.
Without the addition of butyl, ABS becomes, SAN - a similar material with lower impact resistance or toughness. It is the stiffest of the
thermoplastics and has excellent resistance to acids, alkalis, salts and many solvents.
Typical Uses. Safety helmets; camper tops; automotive instrument panels and other interior components; pipe fittings; home-security
devices and housings for small appliances; communications equipment; business machines; plumbing hardware; automobile grilles; wheel
covers; mirror housings; refrigerator liners; luggage shells; tote trays; mower shrouds; boat hulls; large components for recreational
vehicles; weather seals; glass beading; refrigerator breaker strips; conduit; pipe for drain-waste-vent (DWV) systems.
The environment. The acrylonitrile monomer is nasty stuff, almost as poisonous as cyanide. Once polymerized with styrene it
becomes harmless. ABS is FDA compliant, can be recycled, and can be incinerated to recover the energy it contains.

*Using the CES 4 Level 2 DB


Unit 1, Frame 1.11 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon
Data, perspective and comparisons

z Handbooks, compilations (see Chapter 13 of The Text)


z Suppliers’ data sheets BUT: no perspective,
or comparison between
z The Worldwide Web (e.g. www.matweb.com) material classes

Example: Typical properties of wrought Al-alloys (extract)

Unit 1, Frame 1.12 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Using CES 4 to find data

z Three levels of database (levels 1,2 and 3)

Finding data (“browsing”):


z Locate candidate on MATERIALS tree and double click, or
z Use the SEARCH facility to find all records contain candidate name,
or trade-name, or application

Demo: finding data for materials

Relationships and comparisons


z Material bar-charts
z Material property charts

Unit 1, Frame 1.13 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Relationships: property bar-charts

Steel WC

Copper
CFRP
Young’s modulus, GPa

Alumina

Aluminum GFRP
PEEK
Zinc Glass Fibreboard
PP
Lead
PTFE

Metals Polymers Ceramics Composites

Unit 1, Frame 1.14 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Bar- chart created with CES 4 (Edu1)

Low alloy steel WC


High carbon steel BC
1000
Stainless steel SiC Alumina
Al-SiC Composite
Ti-alloys
100 Cu-alloys CFRP
Zn-alloys Glass Ceramic
(GPa)

Al-alloys Acetal, POM


Silica glass
Modulus (GPa)

Polyester, rigid KFRP


10 Mg-alloys Soda-Lime glass
PS ABS GFRP
modulus

PUR Plywood
1 PC PE
PP
Young's

PTFE
0.1
Ionomer
Young’s

EVA
0.01

Polyurethane

Natural Rubber (NR)


1e-003
Neoprene
Metals Polymers Ceramics & glass Composites
1e-004
Materials:\METALS Materials:\POLYMERS Materials:\CERAMICS and GLASSES Materials:\COMPOSITES
Untitled

z Explore relationships
z Elementary selection (“Find materials with large elastic limit”)

Unit 1, Frame 1.15 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Material property- charts: Modulus - Density

1000

Ceramics

100
Composites
Young’s modulus E, (GPa)

10 Woods

Metals

1
Foams
Polymers

0.1

Elastomers
0.01
0.1 1 10 100
Density (Mg/m3)
Unit 1, Frame 1.16 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon
Property chart created with CES 4, Level 1

Silicon Carbide
Tungsten Carbides
1000 Modulus - Density Boron Carbide Alumina

Silicon Steels Nickel alloys


Al alloys
Copper alloys
100 Mg alloys
Zinc alloys
CFRP
Bamboo Titanium
GFRP
Wood
(GPa)

Lead alloys
(GPa)

10 Concrete
Plywood
PET
(typical)

PVC
modulus

PP PUR
1
PE
Young's Modulus

Rigid Polymer Foams PTFE


Young’s

0.1
EVA

Silicone
Cork
0.01

Flexible Polymer Foams


Polyisoprene
Polyurethane
1e-003 Butyl Rubber

Neoprene

1e-004
0.01 0.1 1 10
Density (typical) (Mg/m^3)
Density (Mg/m3)
Unit 1, Frame 1.18 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon
Property chart created with CES 4, Level 1
1000
Neoprene
Flexible foam Silicone elastomers
Isoprene
Cork

Polyoxymethylene (Acetal, POM)


100

Mg alloys
Ni alloys Zinc alloys
(10-6/K)

GFRP (isotropic) Lead alloys


Expansion (µstrain/K)

Al alloys
Stainless steel

Ti alloys
Rigid foam
Thermalexpansion

10
Cu alloys

Wood AlN
Bamboo WC
SiC
Thermal

BC
Balsa (l) (ld) Borosilicate glass
1

CFRP

Silica glass

Glass Ceramic Conductivity -


0.1 Expansion

0.01 0.1 1 10 100 100


Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K)
Thermal conductivity (W/m.K)
Unit 1, Frame 1.20 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon
The main points

• A classification system for materials allows data for them to be


organised
• The data takes several forms:
(a) numeric, non-numeric data that can be structured in a uniform
way for all materials
(b) supporting information specific to a single material, best stored
as text and images
• The organization allows information to be retrieved accurately and
efficiently
• Visual presentation of data as bar-charts and property (bubble)
charts reveals relationships and allows comparisons

Demo: creating bar and bubble charts with CES 4

Unit 1, Frame 1.21 © 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon


Some Project Examples

© 2002, M.F. Ashby and D. Cebon