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AT O M I C ST RUCT URE

1Cathode ray oscilloscope


G The cathode rayosci lloscope ( CRO ) i s
one of the most i mportant sci enti fi c
i nstrumentsever to be developed. I t i s
often used asa graph plotter to di splay
a waveform showi ng how potenti al
di fference changeswi th ti me. The
CRO hasthree essenti al parts: the
electron gun, the deflecti ng system,
and the fluorescent gun.
G The electron gun consi stsof a heater
and cathode, a gri d, and several
anodes. Together these provi de a
stream of cathode rays. The gri d i sat
negati ve potenti al wi th respect to the
cathode and controlsthe number of
electronspassi ng through i tscentral
hole. I t i sthe bri ghtnesscontrol.
G The deflecti ng system consi stsof a pai r
of deflecti ng platesacrosswhi ch
potenti al di fferencescan be appli ed.
The Y-platesare hori zontal but deflect
the beam verti cally. The X-platesare
verti cal and deflect the bean
hori zontally.
G A bri ght spot appearson the
fluorescent screen where the beam
hi tsi t.
2 Electron gun
G When a current passesthrough the
heater, electronsare emi tted from the
surface of the cathode and attracted
towardsan opposi tely charged anode.
Some wi ll be absorbed by the anode,
whi le otherspassthrough and are
accelerated, formi ng a stream of hi gh-
speed electrons.
Cathode ray oscilloscope
anode
cathode
cathode rays
Key words
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1The cathode ray oscilloscope
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2 Electron gun
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p c y c li n d ri c a l a n o d e
q h i g h sp e e d e le c tro n s
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