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PSCAD Power System Lab Manual

Laboratory Experiment1: Electromagnetic Transients


Objective: Explain Electromagnetic Transient Phenomenon by simple example using DC
Source, Inductor and capacitance
Laboratory Tasks:
1. Calculate the natural frequency of oscillation for the given circuit
2. Set the time step, plot step and duration of run and analyze the effect of time step, plot step on
the results
3. Study the Damping effect of switch resistance on the oscillations
Circuit:
R
=
0
1.0 [H]
0
.
0
5

[
u
F
]
Vc
1
0
e
4

[
o
h
m
]
0.001 [ohm]
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

S
o
u
r
c
e

M
o
d
e
l

2

Figure 1: Simple RLC circuit
Source: IEEE PES
Natural frequency of oscillation for the given circuit is 712Hz
F
0
1
2 pi LC
:=

Build the above the circuit, right click on the blank space of the design editor and select project
settings, enter the time step=plot step= 1.5ms (1/F
0
) and duration of run=0.1s. Run the
simulation and comment on the results.
Change the project settings as below and comment on the results
1. Time step=Plot step=0.15ms (1/(10*F
0
)), duration of run=0.1s
2. Time step=Plot step=0.015ms (1/(100*F
0
)), duration of run=0.1s
With the selection of appropriate project settings run the simulation for different value of
switch resistance and comment on the sensitivity and damping nature of resistance on
oscillations.







Waveforms:
Main : Graphs
Time
0.0000 0.0050 0.0100 0.0150 0.0200 0.0250 0.0300 0.0350 0.0400 0.0450



0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

a
/
c

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
o
r
Voltage A/c Capacitor

Figure 2: Voltage across capacitor with 15us time step=plot step

Main : Graphs
Time
0.0000 0.0050 0.0100 0.0150 0.0200 0.0250 0.0300 0.0350 0.0400 0.0450



0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

a
/
c

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
o
r
Voltage A/c Capacitor

Figure 3: Voltage across capacitor with 150us time step=plot step

Main : Graphs
Time
0.0000 0.0050 0.0100 0.0150 0.0200 0.0250 0.0300 0.0350 0.0400 0.0450



0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

a
/
c

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
o
r
Voltage A/c Capacitor

Figure 4: Voltage across capacitor with 1500us time step=plot step



Laboratory Experiment2: PF Improvement of a lagging load

Objective: Understand power flow and power factor in three phase circuits
Laboratory Tasks:
1. Learn breaker operation
2. Calculate the reactive power requirement of the load theoretically and match with the
simulated value
3. Calculate theoretically capacitance requirement to make the power factor unity
4. Learn how to measure instantaneous and average power
Circuit:
BRK1
2
2
.
6
1

[
o
h
m
]
1
9
.
7
2
e
-
3

[
H
]
3
5
.
9

[
u
F
]
BRK2
I
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
e

l
o
a
d

w
i
t
h

P
F

0
.
9
7
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
i
v
e

L
o
a
d
IL
VL
R
=
0

Figure 1: Voltage source connected to RL load with capacitor across the load

*
Va
Ia
*
*
Vb
Ib
Vc
Ic
Pa inst
Pb inst
Pc inst
B
+
D
+
F
+ Pt inst
G
1 + sT
Pa avg

BRK1
Breaker1 Breaker2
BRK2

Figure 2: Calculation of Instantaneous active power, Breaker control panel and switch




Main ...
Breaker2
0
open cl ose
Main ...
Breaker1
0
open cl ose



Capacitor Design:
Qd 37.6 e
6
:=
Var



Volts

Xc
Vlg ( )
2
Qd
88.652 = :=



Cap
1
2 50 Xc ( )
3.591 10
5
= :=

Keep breaker 1 closed and breaker 2 in open position, run the simulation with default runtime
settings and observe the current lagging the voltage on the plot and also note down the reactive
power demand displayed on the breaker1
Calculate the capacitance required to compensate for the reactive demand, connect the
calculated capacitance across the lagging load through breaker2
Keep the breaker 1 and breaker 2 in closed position and run the simulation with default runtime
settings and observe the current in phase with the voltage on the plot and also observe the
reactive power demand displayed on the breaker 1
Calculate the instantaneous active power of each phase by using the relation P
a
(t)=V
a
(t)*I
a
(t) and
total instantaneous active power by using P
t
(t)= P
a
(t)+ P
b
(t)+ P
c
(t). Comment on the per phase
and total three phase active power waveforms. Obtain the average power of each phase by
connecting the smoothing filter.






















Vlg
100e
3
( )
3
:=
Ohm
Farads



Waveforms:

Main : Graphs
Time
0.170 0.180 0.190 0.200 0.210 0.220 0.230 0.240



-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

a
n
d

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

w
/
o

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
o
r
Current Voltage

Figure 3: Voltage and Current waveforms without capacitor

Main : Graphs
Time
0.170 0.180 0.190 0.200 0.210 0.220 0.230 0.240



-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

a
n
d

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

w
i
t
h

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
o
r
Current Voltage

Figure 4: Voltage and Current waveforms with capacitor












Laboratory Experiment3: Transformer Inrush

Objective: Understand the Transformer core saturation and inrush current
Motivation
Transformers are essential parts in power system as they provide voltage step up/step down. This
exercise demonstrates the Transformer model available in Transformer section of PSCAD Mater Library
and the effect of core saturation and inrush current in the transformer when energized

PSCAD model
Two types of transformer models are available in the PSCAD master library as classical model and the
UMEC (Unified Magnetic Equivalent Circuit) model. In this exercise, we are only interested in the
classical model. Depending upon the number of winding and whether it is a single phase or a three
phase, many configurations of transformer models are available from these two types.
Three phase two winding transformer model based on classical approach is used in this exercise.



a). Single line view b).Three phase view
Figure 1 : Three phase two winding transformer model in PSCAD
Figure 1 shows the corresponding transformer model available in PSCAD Master Library under
Transformers. Options are provided so that the user may choose between either a magnetizing branch
(linear core), or a current injection routine to model magnetizing characteristics. If desired, the
magnetizing branch can be eliminated altogether, leaving the transformer in 'ideal' mode, where all that
remains is a series leakage reactance and losses.
This component is the equivalent of three, 1-Phase, 2-Winding Transformers connected in a 3-phase
bank, where the user can select the winding interconnections to be Y or on either side. Inter-phase
coupling is not represented in the classical transformer models. An equivalent circuit is shown below,
using 1-phase transformers:

Figure 2 : Equivalent 3 phase circuit based on single phase transformers
#1 #2

A
B
C
A
B
C
230.0 [kV]
#2 #1
230.0 [kV]
100.0 [MVA]




If inter-phase coupling is essential for your study, then you should choose the equivalent UMEC
transformer model.

The Classical Approach
The theory of mutual coupling can be easily demonstrated using the coupling of two coils as an example.
This process can be extended to N mutually coupled windings as shown in References [1], [2] and [3].
For our purpose, consider the two mutually coupled windings as shown below:

Figure 3 : Two Mutually Coupled Windings
Where,
L11 - Self inductance of winding 1
L22 - Self inductance of winding 2
L12 - Mutual inductance between windings 1 & 2
The voltage across the first winding is V1 and the voltage across the second winding is V2. The following
equation describes the voltage-current relationship for the two, coupled coils:


(1)
In order to solve for the winding currents, the inductance matrix needs to be inverted:

(2)
Where,


For 'tightly' coupled coils, wound on the same leg of a transformer core, the turns-ratio is defined as the
ratio of the number of turns in the two coils. In an 'ideal' transformer, this is also the ratio of the primary
and secondary voltages. With voltages E1 and E2 on two sides of an ideal transformer, we have:

E1/E2 = a (3)

And
I2/I1 = a (4)





Making use of this turns-ratio 'a' Equation 1 may be rewritten as:

(5)

Figure 4 : Equivalent Circuit of Two Mutually Coupled Windings
Where,

Now the inductance matrix parameters of Equation 1 can be determined from standard transformer
tests, assuming sinusoidal currents. The self inductance of any winding 'x' is determined by applying a
rated RMS voltage Vx to that winding and measuring the RMS current Ix flowing in the winding (with all
other windings open-circuited). This is known as the open-circuit test and the current Ix is the
magnetizing current. The self-inductance Lxx is given as:

(6)
Where,
- The radian frequency at which the test was performed
Similarly, the mutual-inductance between any two coils 'x' and 'y' can be determined by energizing coil
'y' with all other coils open-circuited. The mutual inductance Lxy is then:

(7)
Transformer data is often not available in this format. Most often, an equivalent circuit, as shown in
Figure 4, is assumed for the transformer and the parameters L1, L2 and aL12 are determined from open
and short-circuit tests.
For example if we neglect the resistance in the winding, a short circuit on the secondary side (i.e. V2 = 0)
causes a current to flow (assuming aL
12
>> L
2
). By measuring this current we may calculate



the total leakage reactance L
1
+ L
2
. Similarly, with winding 2 open-circuited the current flowing is,
from which we readily obtain a value for L
1
+ aL
12
.
Conducting a test with winding two energized and winding one open-circuit
.
The nominal turns-ratio 'a' is also determined from the open circuit tests.
PSCAD computes the inductances based on the open-circuit magnetizing current, the leakage reactance
and the rated winding voltages.

Derivation of Parameters
To demonstrate how the necessary parameters are derived for use by EMTDC, an example of a two
winding, single-phase transformer is presented. The data for the transformer is as shown in Table 1:

Parameter Description Value
TMVA Transformer single-phase MVA 100
MVA
f Base frequency 60 Hz
X1 Leakage reactance 0.1 pu
NLL No load losses 0.0 pu
V1 Primary winding voltage (RMS) 100 kV
Im1 Primary side magnetizing current 1 %
V2 Secondary winding voltage (RMS) 50 kV
Im2 Secondary side magnetizing current 1 %

Table 1 : Transformer Data

If we ignore the resistances in Figure 3, we can obtain the (approximate) value for L
1
+ L
2
, from the short
circuit test, as:

(8)
Where,
Z
base1
base impedance
As no other information is available, we assume for the turns ratio 'a' the nominal ratio:

We also have for the primary and secondary base currents:

(10)
Thus, we see that by energizing the primary side with 100 kV, we obtain a magnetizing current:

(11)
a=100 kV/50 kV =2 (9)



But we also have the following expression from the equivalent circuit:

(12)
Where,

Therefore since,

(13)
Then,
L
1
=L
2
(14)
By combining Equations 8 and 14 we obtain L
1
= L
2
=13.263 mH and from Equation 12 we obtain aL
12
=
26.5119 H. The values for the parameters in Equation 1 are then obtained as:
L
11
= L
1
+ a.L
12
= 26. 5252 H

(15)
L
22
= (L
2
+a.L
12
)/a
2
= 6.6313 H

(16)
L
12
= 13.2560 H

(17)
For more information, please refer to PSCAD Help under transformer.










System Overview
Figure 5 represents the circuit used in this exercise. Grid on the primary side of the transformer is
represented using an equivalent Thevenins voltage source while the other side is connected to a high
impedance resistance to model unloaded condition
Breaker is used to initialize the transformer at a given time value.
R
L
R
R
L
I
s
r
c
B
R
K
#
1
#
2
1
.
0
e
6
Transformer Data
100 MVA, 230 kV/33 kV
Impedance 10% (0.1 pu)
No load losses 0.5% (0.005pu)
Copper loss 0.3% (0.003)
Magnetizing current (no load) 1%
230 kV BUS
BRK
Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0
Source Data
Voltage 230 kV at 0.0 Deg.
Z+ = 10 Ohms at 88 Deg.
Z0 = 7 Ohms at 82 Deg.
V230
V230
Voltage
Isrc
Isrc
E
a
Ea
Ea

Figure 5 : System being studied in this exercise




Experiment
1. Build a new case and save it as Transformer_1.pscx and build the circuit as in Figure 5. Study the
Transformer parameters in the PSCAD model. Right click on the transformer model and select
Edit Parameters. Set the transformer as ideal. Set the transformer Saturation Enabled as
No under Saturation (Figure 6). Plot the bus voltage and source current. Discuss the results
obtained.
Figure 6 : Parameter dialog box for transformer
2. Save the case as Transformer_2.psc and set the transformer as non ideal while keeping the
saturation disabled. Plot the Bus voltage and source current and see the effect of saturation.
Discuss the effects before and after the saturation
3. Set the transformer as an Ideal one and set the Saturation Enabled Yes. Plot the Bus voltage
and source current and compare the results. Investigate the effect of inrush current and core
saturation.
Note: Always set the transformer to 'ideal' when enabling saturation. Otherwise, both the magnetizing
branch and the saturation routine will both be used. Here ideal does not mean lossless ideal losses are
still present regardless of this parameter.
Select the Saturation
Enabled as No.



Results:
1. Transformer Ideal = Yes, Saturation Enabled = No

Main : Graphs
Time(...
0.490 0.500 0.510 0.520 0.530 0.540 0.550 0.560



-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
2
3
0
k
V

B
u
s

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
k
V
)
Voltage
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
T
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
e
r

S
e
c

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
k
V
)
Ea
-0.0020
-0.0015
-0.0010
-0.0005
0.0000
0.0005
0.0010
0.0015
0.0020
2
3
0
k
V

B
u
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
k
A
)
Isrc

Figure 7 : Bus Voltage, Va and Isrc characteristic around T = 0.5 S











2. Transformer Ideal = No, Saturation Enabled = No
Main : Graphs
Time(...
0.480 0.500 0.520 0.540 0.560 0.580 0.600 0.620 0.640 0.660



-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
2
3
0
k
V

B
u
s

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
k
V
)
Voltage
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
T
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
e
r

S
e
c

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
k
V
)
Ea
-0.0060
-0.0040
-0.0020
0.0000
0.0020
0.0040
0.0060
0.0080
2
3
0
k
V

B
u
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
k
A
)
Isrc

Figure 8 : Bus Voltage, Va and Isrc characteristic around T = 0.5 S











3. Transformer Ideal = Yes, Saturation Enabled = Yes
Main : Graphs
Time(...
0.450 0.475 0.500 0.525 0.550 0.575 0.600 0.625 0.650 0.675



-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
2
3
0
k
V

B
u
s

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
k
V
)
Voltage
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
T
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
e
r

S
e
c

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
k
V
)
Ea
-0.60
-0.40
-0.20
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
2
3
0
k
V

B
u
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
k
A
)
Isrc

Figure 9 : Bus Voltage, Va and Isrc characteristic around T = 0.5
Main : Graphs
x
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0



-0.20
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
Isrc_a

Figure 10 : Phase A of the source current over total simulation run time



Main : Graphs
x
7.400 7.420 7.440 7.460 7.480 7.500 7.520 7.540 7.560 7.580



-0.0040
-0.0030
-0.0020
-0.0010
0.0000
0.0010
0.0020
0.0030
0.0040
0.0050
Isrc_a

Figure 11 : Phase A of the source current at steady state
Both the inrush phenomena during initialization of the transformer and the saturation effect of the
magnetizing are visualized in Figure 10 and Figure 11.

References
1. H. W. Dommel, Digital Computer Solution of Electromagnetic Transients in Single and
Multiphase Networks, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-88, #4, pp. 388-
399, April 1969.
2. H. W. Dommel, Transformer Models in the Simulation of Electromagnetic Transients, Proc. 5th
Power Systems Computing Conference, Cambridge, England, September 1-5, 1975, Paper 3.1/4.
3. V. Brandwajn, H. W. Dommel, I. I. Dommel, Matrix Representation of Three Phase N-Winding
Transformers for Steady State Transient Studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and
Systems, PAS-101, #6, pp. 1369-1378, June 1982.











Laboratory Experiment4: Induction Motor Starting

Objective: Understand the starting operation of an Induction machine
Motivation
Induction motors are the most common type of motors used in the industries. This exercise introduces
the induction machine model available in the PSCAD Master library under Machines and investigates
its starting characteristics.

PSCAD model
PSCAD has two fully developed Induction Machine models; namely the Squirrel Cage Induction
Machine and the Wound Rotor Induction Machine. If the rotor terminals are shorted in the wound
rotor machine, it is identical to the squirrel cage machine. It is recommended to use the Wound Rotor
induction machine model for all the simulations which include squirrel induction machines.
PSCAD model of the wound rotor induction machine is shown in Figure 1.
S
TL
I M
W

Figure 1 : PSCAD model of the wound rotor induction machine
The model can be controlled by specifying either the mechanical torque (input TL) on the machine shaft
or the machine speed (input W) as the input to the induction machine. The input S is simply a switch to
select between the two input modes. When S=0, input TL is selected and if S=1 input W is selected.
Induction machine can be either run at torque input mode or speed input mode depending upon
the value or input of S.
Torque Input Mode
In the torque input mode, the speed of the machine is calculated based on the equations of mechanical
motion.

The electrical torque is calculated by the model on its terminal conditions (voltage/current). T
m
is the
mechanical torque which is an input to the machine. J is the inertia due to all moving parts of the
mechanical shaft.
m
is the speed of the rotor and B accounts for mechanical damping.

Speed Input Mode
In the Speed Input mode, the machine will operate at the specified speed input W. This can be a
variable or a constant. In some simulations, it may be advantageous to start the machine in the Speed
Input mode and then switch to the torque input mode once steady state has been achieved. This can
be done by switching input S from 1 to 0. For a more complex representation of the mechanical system
such as multi mass torsional shaft model, the input W must be selected.






Equivalent circuit
In the Wound Rotor Induction Machine, the rotor terminals are accessible to the user, and can be
connected to an external resistance or an electrical circuit. In addition to the stator and rotor windings,
there is a provision in the model to include up to three additional windings to model the effects of rotor
bars (if any).The d-axis equivalent circuit for the wound rotor induction machine with one squirrel cage
in effect is shown in Figure 2. This is derived in a manner similar to that for the synchronous machine.
Similar equivalent circuits are applicable to the q axis as well as to the squirrel cage machine.

Figure 28: d axis equivalent circuit
NOTE: All reactance and resistance values are those referred to the stator.
Where,
R1= Stator resistance
R2= wound rotor resistance
R3= first cage resistance
Xa= Stator leakage reactance
Xkd1= wound rotor leakage reactance
Xkd2= first cage leakage reactance
Xmd= Magnetizing reactance
Xkd12= Mutual inductance - Wound rotor - first cage









System Overview
Part 1. Studying start up characteristics of the induction machine (Case Ind_Motor_Starting_1.pscx)
Figure 3 represents a system where induction machine is connected to a power system which comprises
of an equivalent Thevinins voltage source and connected through transformers.
0.0
WIN
S
TL
I M
W
Rrotor
Ix
0
.
1

[
H
]
BRK
#1 #2
BRK
Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0
INDUCTION MOTOR
13.8 kV, Wound rotor type
External rotor
resistance
0
V
A
Three Phase
Breaker
Tload
#
1
#
2
+
R
r
o
t
o
r
+
R
r
o
t
o
r
+
R
r
o
t
o
r

Figure 3: PSCAD system for Torque input mode of the induction machine
The breaker (BRK) is initially closed and open at t = 0.5 s. The motor is started from zero speed and the
applied mechanical torque is varied as a function of speed as shown in Figure 4.
D
+
F
+
Tload
k b
*
W
X
2

Figure 4: Load toque model (Tload =kW
2
+b)






0.0
WIN
S
TL
I M
W
Rrotor
+
R
r
o
t
o
r
+
R
r
o
t
o
r
+
R
r
o
t
o
r
A
B
Ctrl
Ctrl = 1
Tload
1.8
DIST
Ix
#1 #2
0
.
1

[
H
]
BRK
#1 #2
BRK
#
1
#
2
Timed
Breaker
Logic
Open@t0
INDUCTION MOTOR
13.8 kV, Wound rotor type
TIN
Passive load
0
V
A
0.24 [MVAR] 0.6 [MW]
V
A
External rotor
resistance

Figure 5 : PSCAD system (Induction machine starting characteristics (Case : Ind_Motor_Starting_2.pscx)
Part 2. Consider the system shown in figure 5 where load torque is changed from Tload to 1.8 at t = 3s.
If electrical torque is larger than mechanical torque, machine will accelerate.
Experiment
Part 1. Build a new case and save it as Ind_Motor_Starting_1.pscx. Build the case as shown in Figure 3.
Model the load torque as shown in Figure 4, Run the case and plot the current, electrical torque,
reactive power drawn by the motor and the speed of the motor.
Part 2. Save the case as Ind_Motor_Starting_2.pscx. Modify the system as shown in Figure 5. Run the
case and observe the variation of system parameters as similar to part 1.

Results
At the instant breaker is closed, large starting current is drawn by the induction machine as shown in
figure 7. The speed builds up slightly and settles at a speed slightly lower than the synchronous speed.
The motor starting up process take a large amount of reactive power which causes a voltage dip in the
system. Figure 6 shows the electrical and load torque characteristics of the induction motor. The motor
take few seconds to settle down.
Part 1
Main : Graphs
x
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00



-5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0

(
p
u
)
Electric torque Tload

Figure 6 : Electrical and load Torque curve



0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00



0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
S
p
e
e
d

(
p
u
)
Speed
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
M
o
t
o
r

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
k
A
)
Current
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
p
u
)
Q
-15.0
-10.0
-5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0

(
k
V
)
TERMINAL VOLTAGE

Figure 7 : Start up characteristics of the induction motor









Part 2: Initial transients are similar to the part 1. After t =3 s, the system settle after some transients.
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0



0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
S
p
e
e
d

(
p
u
)
Speed
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
k
A
)
Current
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r

(
p
.
u
.
)
Q
-15.0
-10.0
-5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
k
V
)
TERMINAL VOLTAGE

Figure 8 : Speed, current and reactive power characteristics



Main : Graphs
x
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0



-5.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
15.0
17.5
20.0

(
p
u
)
Electric torque Torque Input

Figure 9 : Electrical torque and torque input characteristics