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QUESTION:

Design a RCC retaining wall to retain earth up to a height of 15’. Base of


the footing is to be placed 3’ below NSL. Soil has density of 120 lb/ft3.
Angle of internal friction of soil is 30°. Earth surface that is to be retained
is horizontal. Take qall=2500 lb/ft2
Usefc'=4000 Psi & fy=40,000 Psi.

SOLUTION:
Given that,

Height of Retaining wall above NSL = 15’


Depth of footing below NSL=3’
Density of soil,γsoil=120 lb/ft3
Density of concrete,γconc.=150 lb/ft3
Angle of internal friction, φ=30°
fc'=4000 Psi
fy=40,000 Psi

STEP 1
ASSUMPTION OF SIZES:

Base thickness=stem thickness =H12 H10=15’×12”12=15”=1.25’


Base width=23H =23× 15'=10’
Width of toe =13×10'=3.3’
Width of heel=10'-3.3'-1.25'=5.45'

STEP 2
DESIGN OF STEM:

i. Calculation Of Soil Pressure:

Ca=1-sinφ1+sinφ
Ca=1-sin30°1+sin30°=0.33

Pa=12γCaH2
Pa=12×120×0.33×15'2=4455 lb

ii. Moment & Reinforcement Calculation:


Centroidal distance,y=H3=15'3=5'
M=Pa×y=4455×5'=22275 lbft
Mmax=1.6×M=1.6×22275
Mu=Mmax=35640 lbft=427680 lbin

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2
ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×4276800.85×4000×0.9×12"×12.5"2
Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"
ρ=0.00659

ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy
ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000
ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin OK

iii. Selection of bars & spacing:

Vertical Reinforcement On front face of wall:

Ast=ρbd
Ast=0.00659×12"×12.5"=0.9885 in2
Provide #6 bars @ 5"c/c see Nilson page 726

Temperature & Shrinkage Steel:

Ast=ρbh
Ast=0.002×12"×15"=0.36 in2
Provide #3 bars @3.5c/c see Nilson page 726

iv. Check for shear:

Vu=1.6×Pa
Vu=1.6×12×Ca×γ×H-d2
Vu=1.6×12×0.33×120×15'-1.042'2
Vu=6172.375 lb/ft=514.36 lb/in

v. Capacity of Section:

=2φfc'×bd
=2×0.9×4000×12"×12.5"
=17076.3lbin >Vu OK

STEP 3

CURTAILMENT OF BARS:

Bars are curtailed from top where B.M is Mmax2


Mu=Mmax=35640 lbft=427680 lbin
Mu2=Mmax2=213840 lb in
Mmax2=12×1.6×γ×Ca×H12×H13
213840=12×1.6×120×0.33×H12×H13
H1=27.26"=2.27'≈2.25'

According to ACI code, the following value should be added in the curtailed value
of steel,

• 12"
• 12"×dia of bar=12"×1"=12"
• 0.04×Ab×fyfc'=0.04×0.44×400004000=11.18"

Maximum of above three values is selected, i.e. 12” is selected.


So, Curtailment =2.25’-1’=1.25’ from top.

ρ for Mmax2,
ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×2138400.85×4000×0.9×12"×12.5"2
ρ=0.003295>min.value of temp.& shrinkage steel i.e.0.002
Ast'=Area of curtailed steel
Ast' =ρbh=0.003295×12"×15"=0.593 in2
Area of steel,As=ρbd=0.998 in2
12 As 23 As
0.494 in2 0.659 in2

0.659 in2 is more close to 0.593 in2 so curtail each 2nd alternate bar

PLAN & SECTION

According to ACI code provide main steel on the side where there is no
loading & provide same temperature and shrinkage steel on load bearing
side.
Step 4

STABILITY CHECKS:

There are three stability checks,

i. Check For Overturning Moment

Resisting momentOverturning moment>2

O.T.M=Pa×y

O.T.M=3743.44 ×4.58'

O.T.M=17144.96 lbft

1 produces overturning
moment & 2, 3 and 4
produces resisting
Sr. Weight Area×Density x moments. Resiting Moment
# "lb" “ft” "lbft"

01 15'×5.45'×1×120=9810 5.452+1.25+3.3=7.28' 71416.8

02 10'×1.25'×1×150=1875 102=5' 9375

03 1.75'×3.3'×1×120=693 3.32=1.65' 1143.45

04 15'×1.25'×1×50=2812.5 1.252+3.3=3.925' 11039.06

W=15190.5 lb M=92974.31

Resisting momentOverturning moment>2


92974.3122275=4.17>2 OK

If this check is not OK then increase the


thickness of toe, heel or stem as per
requirement.

ii. Check For Sliding Force:


Resisting forceSliding force≥1.5
Sliding force=Pa=4455 lb
Resisting moment=μ×∑W=0.3×15190.5
Resisting moment=4557.15 lb

Here μ is the coefficient of friction between soil and earth and its value
lies between 0.3-0.45.

Resisting forceSliding force≥1.5


4557.154455=1.02≥1.5 NOT OK

So we have to provide key under the base.

Key can be provided in different states as shown


below,

Design of Key:

Resisting force=1.5×Sliding force


Resisting force=1.5×4455
Resisting force=6682.5 lb
Additional resisting force provided,Pp=6682.5-4557.15
Additional resisting force to be provided,Pp=2125.35 lb
Additional Resiting force,,Pp=12×γ×H122×1Ca
2125.35=12×120×H122×10.33
H1=3.42'≈3.5'
Depth of Key=3.5'-1.25'=2.25'

iii. Check For Bearing Capacity Of Soil:

a=Stablizing moment-O.T.MStablizing forceW


a=92974.31-2227515190.5
a=4.65'

Eccentricity,e=B2-a
e=102-4.65'
e=0.35'
e≯B6=106=1.67'
0.35'≯1.67' OK

If this check is not OK then increase the length of base “B”

qmax=WB×1+W×eB26≯qall
qmax=15190.510+15190.5×0.351026
qmax=1838.05 lb/ft2 ≯qall OK
qmin=WB×1-W×eB26≮zero
qmin=15190.510-15190.5×0.351026
qmin=1200.05 lb/ft 2 OK

If this check is not OK then


increase “B”.

STEP 5

DESIGN OF TOE & HEEL:

63810=x15.45
x1=347.71 lb/ft2

63810=x21.25
x2=79.75 lb/ft2

63810=x33.3
x3=210.54 lb/ft2
i. Design Of Toe:

Taking moment about junction of toe and stem.

Mu=1.6Moment of bearing capacity-0.9Moment of concrete in toe


Mu=1.61627.51×3.3×3.32×12×210×3.3×23×3.3-
0.93.3×1.25×1×150×3.32
Mu=8705.25 lbft=104462.97 lbin

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2
ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×104462.970.85×4000×0.9×12×12.52
Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"
ρ=0.00156

ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy
ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000
ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin NOT OK

Selection of bars & spacing:

Ast=ρminbd
Ast=0.005×12×12.5
Ast=0.75 in2
Provide #5 bars @ 5" c/c

ii. Design of heel:

Taking moment about junction of heel and stem,

Mu=1.2Concrete in heel+1.6soil in heel


Mu=1.21.25×5.45×150×5.452+1.615×5.45×1×120×5.452

Neglecting moment produced due to stresses. It will make our structure


safer because it works as a FOS.

Mu=46113.13 lbft=553357.56 lbin

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2
ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×553357.560.85×4000×0.9×12×12.52
Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"
ρ=0.00863

ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy
ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000
ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin OK

Selection of bars & spacing:

Ast=ρbd
Ast=0.00863×12×12.5
Ast=1.295 in2
Provide #6 bars @ 4" c/c

Temperature & Shrinkage Steel:

Ast=ρbh
Ast=0.002×12×15
Ast=0.36 in2
Provide #3 bars @ 3.5" c/c

DETAILS OF STEEL IN TOE & HEEL