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MT S THAO TC PHA MT S THAO TC PHA

CH HA CHT PHNG CH HA CHT PHNG


TH NGHIM HA HC TH NGHIM HA HC
TRNG I HC AN GIANG TRNG I HC AN GIANG
KHOA S PHM KHOA S PHM
B MN HA B MN HA
MT S THAO TC PHA MT S THAO TC PHA
CH HA CHT PHNG CH HA CHT PHNG
TH NGHIM HA HC TH NGHIM HA HC
TRNG I HC AN GIANG TRNG I HC AN GIANG
KHOA S PHM KHOA S PHM
B MN HA B MN HA
-------------- --------------
MT S THAO TC MT S THAO TC
PHA CH HA CHT PHA CH HA CHT
PHNG TH PHNG TH
NGHIM HA HC NGHIM HA HC
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
MT S THAO TC MT S THAO TC
PHA CH HA CHT PHA CH HA CHT
PHNG TH PHNG TH
NGHIM HA HC NGHIM HA HC
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
I. I.Pha ch dung dch: Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung v pha ch dung 1. Nhng qui tc chung v pha ch dung
dch: dch:
Bnh, l dng pha ch dung dch phi c ra Bnh, l dng pha ch dung dch phi c ra
sch v trng nc ct trc khi pha. sch v trng nc ct trc khi pha.
Phi dng nc ct pha ha cht. Phi dng nc ct pha ha cht.
Trc khi pha dung dch cn tnh ton cn thn Trc khi pha dung dch cn tnh ton cn thn
lng cht tan v dung mi. lng cht tan v dung mi.
Dung dch kim c phi pha trong bt s. Dung dch kim c phi pha trong bt s.
Sau khi pha xong dung dch phi cho vo l c Sau khi pha xong dung dch phi cho vo l c
mu sc thch hp, y nt kn, dn nhn cn thn, mu sc thch hp, y nt kn, dn nhn cn thn,
ng v tr qui nh. ng v tr qui nh.
Ngi ta thng dng cc loi ng to, bnh nh Ngi ta thng dng cc loi ng to, bnh nh
mc, pipet chia khi pha ch dung dch. Bnh mc, pipet chia khi pha ch dung dch. Bnh
nh mc dng pha ch dung dch theo nng nh mc dng pha ch dung dch theo nng
mol v nng ng lng. mol v nng ng lng.
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Bnh, l dng pha ch dung dch phi c ra Bnh, l dng pha ch dung dch phi c ra
sch v trng nc ct trc khi pha. sch v trng nc ct trc khi pha.
Phi dng nc ct pha ha cht. Phi dng nc ct pha ha cht.
Trc khi pha dung dch cn tnh ton cn thn Trc khi pha dung dch cn tnh ton cn thn
lng cht tan v dung mi. lng cht tan v dung mi.
Dung dch kim c phi pha trong bt s. Dung dch kim c phi pha trong bt s.
Sau khi pha xong dung dch phi cho vo l c Sau khi pha xong dung dch phi cho vo l c
mu sc thch hp, y nt kn, dn nhn cn thn, mu sc thch hp, y nt kn, dn nhn cn thn,
ng v tr qui nh. ng v tr qui nh.
Ngi ta thng dng cc loi ng to, bnh nh Ngi ta thng dng cc loi ng to, bnh nh
mc, pipet chia khi pha ch dung dch. Bnh mc, pipet chia khi pha ch dung dch. Bnh
nh mc dng pha ch dung dch theo nng nh mc dng pha ch dung dch theo nng
mol v nng ng lng. mol v nng ng lng.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
2. Pha ch dung dch cht rn trong 2. Pha ch dung dch cht rn trong
nc theo nng phn trm. nc theo nng phn trm.
Cht rn khng ngm nc nh Cht rn khng ngm nc nh NaCl, BaCl NaCl, BaCl
22
, ,
Trc khi pha cn tnh lng cht tan v lng Trc khi pha cn tnh lng cht tan v lng
nc cn dng l bao nhiu, da vo biu thc nng nc cn dng l bao nhiu, da vo biu thc nng
%. %.
V d V d: Cn pha 250 g dung dch 10% mt cht cho. : Cn pha 250 g dung dch 10% mt cht cho.
Theo biu thc trn th: m Theo biu thc trn th: m
dd dd
= 250 g ; = 250 g ;
C% = 10% ; v ta c m C% = 10% ; v ta c m
ct ct
l : l :
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Cht rn khng ngm nc nh Cht rn khng ngm nc nh NaCl, BaCl NaCl, BaCl
22
, ,
Trc khi pha cn tnh lng cht tan v lng Trc khi pha cn tnh lng cht tan v lng
nc cn dng l bao nhiu, da vo biu thc nng nc cn dng l bao nhiu, da vo biu thc nng
%. %.
V d V d: Cn pha 250 g dung dch 10% mt cht cho. : Cn pha 250 g dung dch 10% mt cht cho.
Theo biu thc trn th: m Theo biu thc trn th: m
dd dd
= 250 g ; = 250 g ;
C% = 10% ; v ta c m C% = 10% ; v ta c m
ct ct
l : l :
.100 .100
%
c t c t
d d d m c t
m m
C
m m m

b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php


thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
Dng cn ly 25g cht tan cho vo Dng cn ly 25g cht tan cho vo
225 ml H 225 ml H
22
O (dng ng chia ong O (dng ng chia ong
225 ml H 225 ml H
22
O) ta khuy cho tan ht th O) ta khuy cho tan ht th
c 250 g dung dch nng 10%. c 250 g dung dch nng 10%.
Cht rn ngm nc nh Cht rn ngm nc nh CuSO CuSO
44
.5H .5H
22
O, O,
CoCl CoCl
22
.6H .6H
22
O. Trc ht chng ta O. Trc ht chng ta
cng tnh lng cht tan (khng ngm cng tnh lng cht tan (khng ngm
nc). Tip theo chng ta tnh lng nc). Tip theo chng ta tnh lng
cht rn ngm nc tng ng vi cht rn ngm nc tng ng vi
lng cht tan. lng cht tan.
. % 250.10
25( )
100 100
250 25 225( )
d d
c t
d m
m C
m g
m g


Nh vy Nh vy
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Dng cn ly 25g cht tan cho vo Dng cn ly 25g cht tan cho vo
225 ml H 225 ml H
22
O (dng ng chia ong O (dng ng chia ong
225 ml H 225 ml H
22
O) ta khuy cho tan ht th O) ta khuy cho tan ht th
c 250 g dung dch nng 10%. c 250 g dung dch nng 10%.
Cht rn ngm nc nh Cht rn ngm nc nh CuSO CuSO
44
.5H .5H
22
O, O,
CoCl CoCl
22
.6H .6H
22
O. Trc ht chng ta O. Trc ht chng ta
cng tnh lng cht tan (khng ngm cng tnh lng cht tan (khng ngm
nc). Tip theo chng ta tnh lng nc). Tip theo chng ta tnh lng
cht rn ngm nc tng ng vi cht rn ngm nc tng ng vi
lng cht tan. lng cht tan.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
Nu gi khi lng mol cht tan l Nu gi khi lng mol cht tan l
MM
11
v khi lng mol cht tan ngm v khi lng mol cht tan ngm
nc M nc M
22
th khi lng cht tan ngm th khi lng cht tan ngm
nc l m nc l m
22
c tnh theo biu thc c tnh theo biu thc
sau y : sau y :
2 1
2
1
. M m
m
M

I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:


1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
2 1
2
1
. M m
m
M

V d: Cn pha 200 g dung dch ng


sunfat 10%t mui CuSO
44
.5H
22
O.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
1 1
2
2
200.10
20( ); 64 32 64 160( )
100
64 32 64 (5.18) 250( )
250.20
31,25( )
160
m g M g
M g
m g



I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Phi ly 31,25 g CuSO Phi ly 31,25 g CuSO
44
.5H .5H
22
O v O v
ong 168,75 ml H ong 168,75 ml H
22
O (200 O (200 31,25)ml ta 31,25)ml ta
c c dung dch ng sunfat 10% ..
1 1
2
2
200.10
20( ); 64 32 64 160( )
100
64 32 64 (5.18) 250( )
250.20
31,25( )
160
m g M g
M g
m g



Nh vy Nh vy
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
3. Pha ch dung dch cht lng trong 3. Pha ch dung dch cht lng trong
nc theo nng phn trm. nc theo nng phn trm.
Phng php ny thng c dng Phng php ny thng c dng
pha long axit (pha dung dch c nng pha long axit (pha dung dch c nng
thp t mt dung dch c nng thp t mt dung dch c nng
cao cho trc). cao cho trc).
Trong trng hp ny chng ta p dng Trong trng hp ny chng ta p dng
phng php ng cho tnh ton phng php ng cho tnh ton
s nhanh hn hoc tnh ton chnh tc s nhanh hn hoc tnh ton chnh tc
nhng s lu hn nhiu. nhng s lu hn nhiu.
V d V d: Cn pha 250 g dung dch H : Cn pha 250 g dung dch H
22
SO SO
44
10% t axit H 10% t axit H
22
SO SO
44
92%(D=1,824g/ml). 92%(D=1,824g/ml).
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Phng php ny thng c dng Phng php ny thng c dng
pha long axit (pha dung dch c nng pha long axit (pha dung dch c nng
thp t mt dung dch c nng thp t mt dung dch c nng
cao cho trc). cao cho trc).
Trong trng hp ny chng ta p dng Trong trng hp ny chng ta p dng
phng php ng cho tnh ton phng php ng cho tnh ton
s nhanh hn hoc tnh ton chnh tc s nhanh hn hoc tnh ton chnh tc
nhng s lu hn nhiu. nhng s lu hn nhiu.
V d V d: Cn pha 250 g dung dch H : Cn pha 250 g dung dch H
22
SO SO
44
10% t axit H 10% t axit H
22
SO SO
44
92%(D=1,824g/ml). 92%(D=1,824g/ml).
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
a) Theo phng php ng cho: a) Theo phng php ng cho:
92% 92% 10 10 0 = 10 0 = 10
(axit) (axit)
10% 10%
0% 0% 92 92 10 = 82 10 = 82
(nc) (nc)
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
92% 92% 10 10 0 = 10 0 = 10
(axit) (axit)
10% 10%
0% 0% 92 92 10 = 82 10 = 82
(nc) (nc)
2
10 5
82 41
a x i t
H O

b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
( c axit c nng 10% th ly 5 ( c axit c nng 10% th ly 5
phn khi lng axit 92% v ly 41 phn khi lng axit 92% v ly 41
phn khi lng nc) phn khi lng nc)
2
250.5
27, 2( )
( 41 5)
27, 2
14, 9( )
1, 824
250.41
222, 8( ) 222, 8( )
( 41 5)
a x i t
a x i t
H O
m g
V m l
m g m l

I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:


1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
2
250.5
27, 2( )
( 41 5)
27, 2
14, 9( )
1, 824
250.41
222, 8( ) 222, 8( )
( 41 5)
a x i t
a x i t
H O
m g
V m l
m g m l

Nh vy Nh vy
Dng pipet ht 14,9ml axit cho vo ng Dng pipet ht 14,9ml axit cho vo ng
ong cha sn 100ml nc ct (cho rt t ong cha sn 100ml nc ct (cho rt t
t) sau cho phn nc cn li l c. t) sau cho phn nc cn li l c.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
b) Theo phng php thng b) Theo phng php thng
thng (t cc nh ngha): thng (t cc nh ngha):
250.10
25( )
100
axitnguyenchat
m g
(100 g dd 92% c 92 g axit nguyn cht
x g 25 g axit nguyn cht)
92%
25.100
27, 2( )
92
a xi t
m g
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
27, 2
14, 9( )
1,824
axit
V ml
92%
25.100
27, 2( )
92
a xi t
m g
2 2
250 27,2 222,8( ) 222,8( )
H O H O
m g V ml
Nh vy : Nh vy :
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
4. Pha ch dung dch theo nng M: 4. Pha ch dung dch theo nng M:
Theo nh ngha, nng mol/l l s mol Theo nh ngha, nng mol/l l s mol
cht tan c trong mt lt dung dch (1000 cht tan c trong mt lt dung dch (1000
ml dung dch). Thng ngi ta k hiu ml dung dch). Thng ngi ta k hiu
nng mol/l l C nng mol/l l C
MM
..
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
. 1 0 0 0
( ) ( )
M
m
n
M
n n
C
V l V m l


b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
a. Pha cht rn theo C a. Pha cht rn theo C
MM
::
V d: Cn pha 250 ml dung dch NaCl 0,1M. V d: Cn pha 250 ml dung dch NaCl 0,1M.
MM
NaCl NaCl
= 58,5. 1 lt dung dch NaCl 0,1M = 58,5. 1 lt dung dch NaCl 0,1M
(1 lt c 0,1 mol NaCl nguyn cht). (1 lt c 0,1 mol NaCl nguyn cht).
1000ml (1 lt) c 0,1 mol NaCl 1000ml (1 lt) c 0,1 mol NaCl
250 ml 250 ml c x mol NaCl c x mol NaCl
Cn 1,5 g NaCl nguyn cht cho vo Cn 1,5 g NaCl nguyn cht cho vo
ng ong, ri tip tc cho nc vo cho ti ng ong, ri tip tc cho nc vo cho ti
vch 250 ml (mun c chnh xc hn th vch 250 ml (mun c chnh xc hn th
pha ch vo bnh nh mc 250ml). pha ch vo bnh nh mc 250ml).
250.0,1
0, 025( )
1000
58, 5.0, 025 1, 4625( ) 1, 5( )
NaCl
x mol
m g g


I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
a. Pha cht rn theo C a. Pha cht rn theo C
MM
::
V d: Cn pha 250 ml dung dch NaCl 0,1M. V d: Cn pha 250 ml dung dch NaCl 0,1M.
MM
NaCl NaCl
= 58,5. 1 lt dung dch NaCl 0,1M = 58,5. 1 lt dung dch NaCl 0,1M
(1 lt c 0,1 mol NaCl nguyn cht). (1 lt c 0,1 mol NaCl nguyn cht).
1000ml (1 lt) c 0,1 mol NaCl 1000ml (1 lt) c 0,1 mol NaCl
250 ml 250 ml c x mol NaCl c x mol NaCl
Cn 1,5 g NaCl nguyn cht cho vo Cn 1,5 g NaCl nguyn cht cho vo
ng ong, ri tip tc cho nc vo cho ti ng ong, ri tip tc cho nc vo cho ti
vch 250 ml (mun c chnh xc hn th vch 250 ml (mun c chnh xc hn th
pha ch vo bnh nh mc 250ml). pha ch vo bnh nh mc 250ml).
250.0,1
0, 025( )
1000
58, 5.0, 025 1, 4625( ) 1, 5( )
NaCl
x mol
m g g


Nh vy Nh vy
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
b. Pha cht lng theo C b. Pha cht lng theo C
MM
::
V d: Pha 1 lt dung dch HCl 0,1M V d: Pha 1 lt dung dch HCl 0,1M
g x M n m
mol x l V C n
HCl
M HCl
65 , 3 5 , 36 1 , 0 .
1 , 0 1 1 , 0 ) ( .


I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
(100 g dd axit HCl 37% c 37 g axit nguyn cht
x g 3,65 g axit nguyn cht)
ml
D
m
V
g
x
m x
HCl
axit
36 , 8
18 , 1
865 , 9
865 , 9
37
100 65 , 3
% 37


Nh vy Nh vy
Dng pipet ly 8,36ml HCl (D=1,18g/ml) Dng pipet ly 8,36ml HCl (D=1,18g/ml)
cho vo bnh nh mc 1 lt cha sn cho vo bnh nh mc 1 lt cha sn
200ml nc ct, sau cho nc ct vo 200ml nc ct, sau cho nc ct vo
n vch. n vch.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
ml
D
m
V
g
x
m x
HCl
axit
36 , 8
18 , 1
865 , 9
865 , 9
37
100 65 , 3
% 37


II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
Nc vi trong cng l thuc th Nc vi trong cng l thuc th
nhn ra kh CO nhn ra kh CO
22
. y l dung dch . y l dung dch
kim r tin nht c dng rt nhiu kim r tin nht c dng rt nhiu
trong qu trnh th nghim, ngoi vai trong qu trnh th nghim, ngoi vai
tr l thuc th ca CO tr l thuc th ca CO
22
, n cn c , n cn c
dng loi b cc cht c c tnh dng loi b cc cht c c tnh
axit nh NO axit nh NO
22
, SO , SO
22
, H , H
22
S S
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Nc vi trong cng l thuc th Nc vi trong cng l thuc th
nhn ra kh CO nhn ra kh CO
22
. y l dung dch . y l dung dch
kim r tin nht c dng rt nhiu kim r tin nht c dng rt nhiu
trong qu trnh th nghim, ngoi vai trong qu trnh th nghim, ngoi vai
tr l thuc th ca CO tr l thuc th ca CO
22
, n cn c , n cn c
dng loi b cc cht c c tnh dng loi b cc cht c c tnh
axit nh NO axit nh NO
22
, SO , SO
22
, H , H
22
S S
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
Cch pha nc vi trong nh sau: Cch pha nc vi trong nh sau:
Ha tan vi ti Ca(OH) Ha tan vi ti Ca(OH)
22
vo nc ( tan vo nc ( tan
ca vi ti rt b : 0,156 g Ca(OH) ca vi ti rt b : 0,156 g Ca(OH)
22
trong trong
100 g H 100 g H
22
O 20 O 20
oo
C): cho t vi ti vo bnh C): cho t vi ti vo bnh
cu, cho nc vo gn y ti c bnh cu, cho nc vo gn y ti c bnh
din tch tip xc gia cht lng vi khng din tch tip xc gia cht lng vi khng
kh l b nht. Khuy cho vi trn u vi kh l b nht. Khuy cho vi trn u vi
nc. nc.
y kn v lng dung dch vi ngy. y kn v lng dung dch vi ngy.
Thnh thong li lc bnh. Thnh thong li lc bnh.
Trc khi dng phi lng dung dch vi Trc khi dng phi lng dung dch vi
gi ri gn cn thn hoc lc dung dch gi ri gn cn thn hoc lc dung dch
trong sut. trong sut.
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Ha tan vi ti Ca(OH) Ha tan vi ti Ca(OH)
22
vo nc ( tan vo nc ( tan
ca vi ti rt b : 0,156 g Ca(OH) ca vi ti rt b : 0,156 g Ca(OH)
22
trong trong
100 g H 100 g H
22
O 20 O 20
oo
C): cho t vi ti vo bnh C): cho t vi ti vo bnh
cu, cho nc vo gn y ti c bnh cu, cho nc vo gn y ti c bnh
din tch tip xc gia cht lng vi khng din tch tip xc gia cht lng vi khng
kh l b nht. Khuy cho vi trn u vi kh l b nht. Khuy cho vi trn u vi
nc. nc.
y kn v lng dung dch vi ngy. y kn v lng dung dch vi ngy.
Thnh thong li lc bnh. Thnh thong li lc bnh.
Trc khi dng phi lng dung dch vi Trc khi dng phi lng dung dch vi
gi ri gn cn thn hoc lc dung dch gi ri gn cn thn hoc lc dung dch
trong sut. trong sut.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
2. Pha dung dch h tinh bt. 2. Pha dung dch h tinh bt.
H tinh bt c dng rng ri nht H tinh bt c dng rng ri nht
nhn ra iot t do. nhn ra iot t do.
Mun pha khong 200ml h tinh bt Mun pha khong 200ml h tinh bt
th ly 0,5 g tinh bt. Nghin tht nh th ly 0,5 g tinh bt. Nghin tht nh
cho vo nc lnh lm thnh bt cho vo nc lnh lm thnh bt
long. Va khuy u, va t t bt long. Va khuy u, va t t bt
long vo khong 180 ml nc un long vo khong 180 ml nc un
si s c h tinh bt. si s c h tinh bt.
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
H tinh bt c dng rng ri nht H tinh bt c dng rng ri nht
nhn ra iot t do. nhn ra iot t do.
Mun pha khong 200ml h tinh bt Mun pha khong 200ml h tinh bt
th ly 0,5 g tinh bt. Nghin tht nh th ly 0,5 g tinh bt. Nghin tht nh
cho vo nc lnh lm thnh bt cho vo nc lnh lm thnh bt
long. Va khuy u, va t t bt long. Va khuy u, va t t bt
long vo khong 180 ml nc un long vo khong 180 ml nc un
si s c h tinh bt. si s c h tinh bt.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
3. Pha dung dch phenolphthalein. 3. Pha dung dch phenolphthalein.
Phenolphtalein l cht mu tng hp, n Phenolphtalein l cht mu tng hp, n
bin i mu theo mi trng phn ng. bin i mu theo mi trng phn ng.
Khng c mu trong mi trng axit v Khng c mu trong mi trng axit v
trung tnh (pH <= 7) trung tnh (pH <= 7)
C mu hng (chnh xc l mu tm) C mu hng (chnh xc l mu tm)
trong mi trng kim. Khong pH chuyn trong mi trng kim. Khong pH chuyn
mu ca n t pH = 8,2 mu ca n t pH = 8,2 10. 10.
Cch pha Cch pha : 1 g bt phenolphthalein + : 1 g bt phenolphthalein +
1000ml dung dch ru etylic 60% (600 ml 1000ml dung dch ru etylic 60% (600 ml
ru + 400 ml nc). ru + 400 ml nc).
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Phenolphtalein l cht mu tng hp, n Phenolphtalein l cht mu tng hp, n
bin i mu theo mi trng phn ng. bin i mu theo mi trng phn ng.
Khng c mu trong mi trng axit v Khng c mu trong mi trng axit v
trung tnh (pH <= 7) trung tnh (pH <= 7)
C mu hng (chnh xc l mu tm) C mu hng (chnh xc l mu tm)
trong mi trng kim. Khong pH chuyn trong mi trng kim. Khong pH chuyn
mu ca n t pH = 8,2 mu ca n t pH = 8,2 10. 10.
Cch pha Cch pha : 1 g bt phenolphthalein + : 1 g bt phenolphthalein +
1000ml dung dch ru etylic 60% (600 ml 1000ml dung dch ru etylic 60% (600 ml
ru + 400 ml nc). ru + 400 ml nc).
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz ch t baz ch t
hoa dm bt: hoa dm bt:
Nu khng c cc cht ch th trn y th mi Nu khng c cc cht ch th trn y th mi
trng axit, baz ta c th ch ly cht ch th rt trng axit, baz ta c th ch ly cht ch th rt
n gin, d dng s dng nh sau : n gin, d dng s dng nh sau :
Thi nh cnh hoa dm bt ti hoc kh, ngm Thi nh cnh hoa dm bt ti hoc kh, ngm
vo cn trong mt l c nt mi. Cng nhiu cnh vo cn trong mt l c nt mi. Cng nhiu cnh
hoa, cht ch th cng c. hoa, cht ch th cng c.
y nt kn, ngm sau vi ngy. y nt kn, ngm sau vi ngy.
Dung dch c mu tm cng ngy cng m. Dung dch c mu tm cng ngy cng m.
Khi cn sau 2 gi c th dng lm cht ch th axit, Khi cn sau 2 gi c th dng lm cht ch th axit,
baz. baz.
Khi dng chng ta cht dung dch ra. Khi dng chng ta cht dung dch ra.
Cht ch th ny trong mi trng axit s c mu Cht ch th ny trong mi trng axit s c mu
hng (). Trong mi trng trung tnh khng c hng (). Trong mi trng trung tnh khng c
mu (tm). Trong mi trng kim c mu xanh mu (tm). Trong mi trng kim c mu xanh
nhng khng bn v n nhanh chng bin i sang nhng khng bn v n nhanh chng bin i sang
mu vng. mu vng.
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
Nu khng c cc cht ch th trn y th mi Nu khng c cc cht ch th trn y th mi
trng axit, baz ta c th ch ly cht ch th rt trng axit, baz ta c th ch ly cht ch th rt
n gin, d dng s dng nh sau : n gin, d dng s dng nh sau :
Thi nh cnh hoa dm bt ti hoc kh, ngm Thi nh cnh hoa dm bt ti hoc kh, ngm
vo cn trong mt l c nt mi. Cng nhiu cnh vo cn trong mt l c nt mi. Cng nhiu cnh
hoa, cht ch th cng c. hoa, cht ch th cng c.
y nt kn, ngm sau vi ngy. y nt kn, ngm sau vi ngy.
Dung dch c mu tm cng ngy cng m. Dung dch c mu tm cng ngy cng m.
Khi cn sau 2 gi c th dng lm cht ch th axit, Khi cn sau 2 gi c th dng lm cht ch th axit,
baz. baz.
Khi dng chng ta cht dung dch ra. Khi dng chng ta cht dung dch ra.
Cht ch th ny trong mi trng axit s c mu Cht ch th ny trong mi trng axit s c mu
hng (). Trong mi trng trung tnh khng c hng (). Trong mi trng trung tnh khng c
mu (tm). Trong mi trng kim c mu xanh mu (tm). Trong mi trng kim c mu xanh
nhng khng bn v n nhanh chng bin i sang nhng khng bn v n nhanh chng bin i sang
mu vng. mu vng.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
Hoa dm bt Hoa dm bt
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM
CHC TP TH 32B1 CHC TP TH 32B1
VUI, KHE, HC VUI, KHE, HC
GII V THNH T GII V THNH T..
I. Pha ch dung dch: I. Pha ch dung dch:
1. Nhng qui tc chung 1. Nhng qui tc chung
v pha ch dung dch: v pha ch dung dch:
2. Pha ch dung dch 2. Pha ch dung dch
cht rn trong nc theo cht rn trong nc theo
nng phn trm. nng phn trm.
a) Theo phng php a) Theo phng php
ng cho: ng cho:
3. Pha ch dung dch 3. Pha ch dung dch
cht lng trong nc cht lng trong nc
theo nng phn trm. theo nng phn trm.
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
CHC TP TH 32B1 CHC TP TH 32B1
VUI, KHE, HC VUI, KHE, HC
GII V THNH T GII V THNH T..
b) Theo phng php b) Theo phng php
thng thng (t cc thng thng (t cc
nh ngha): nh ngha):
4. Pha ch dung dch 4. Pha ch dung dch
theo nng M: theo nng M:
II. Pha ch thuc th. II. Pha ch thuc th.
1. Pha ch nc vi trong: 1. Pha ch nc vi trong:
2. Pha dung dch h tinh 2. Pha dung dch h tinh
bt. bt.
3. Pha dung dch PP 3. Pha dung dch PP
4. Cht ch th axit 4. Cht ch th axit baz baz
ch t hoa dm bt: ch t hoa dm bt:
Kt thc Kt thc
a) Pha cht rn theo C a) Pha cht rn theo C
MM
b) Pha cht lng theo C b) Pha cht lng theo C
MM