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Group of Companies

SOS Institutes
(Training of PLCs)
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SARADA MACHINERY COMPANY
S’ONICSICAL SYSTEMS
(Mfg. of Plastics Injection & Blow Moulding Machines) (Solution Providers to Factory Automation)

WELCOME TO ALL PARTICIPANTS


FUNDAMENTAL COURSE OF
PLC TRAINING
OPPORTUNITY OF GETTING
JOB THROUGH SI
Name College Placed at Cell # Salary
Mr.Zabee Uddin Ayaan college HARTEX RUBBER 9866081435 Rs.7,500/-
LTD,HYD

Mr.Osaib Ahmedqureshi Ayaan college


OIL REFINERIES 9346687214 Rs.45,000/-
GULF

Mr.Varun MGIT OIL CONTAINERS & 9966352393 Rs.7,500/-


TUBES LTD,HYD

Mr.K.Srinivas Govt.Polytechnic
STEEL PLANT
Warangal Rs.20,000/-
KANPUR

Mr.Nadeem RITS JOB IS READY IN GULF Rs.30,000/-


Final Year
OPPORTUNITY OF GETTING
JOB THROUGH SI
Name Qualification Placed at Cell # Salary
Mr.Suresh DEEE RANE ENGINE VALVES 9246587775 Rs.14,500/-
LTD,HYD

Mr.S.Naveen Kumar DEEE


SRI SAI ENGG HYD 9908026024 Rs.6,500/-

SPENCE AUTOMATION
Mr.K.Ramesh DECE LTD,HYD 9948275761 Rs.7,500/-

RANE ENGINE VALVES


LTD,HYD
Mr.Sadananda rao DEEE 9290125469 Rs.16,000/-
COMPONENTS & THEIR SYMBOLS

 The following are most commonly used


components.

 Control transformers.

 Fuses/MCBs.

 Switches/Sensors.

 Relays/Contactors Contnu…..
CONTROL TRANSFORMER
Transformer is a component which converts electrical voltage/current from one
circuit to the other circuits at the same frequency.

If the person were to touch any part of metal bulb the shock could be lethal.However if
the bulb is powered by 110VAC or less the resulting shock would likely be much less
severe.

In order to make large ,powerful machines effective and cost effective and reduce line
Current, most are powered by high voltages (230 VAC,440VAC).

This means line voltage must be reduce to 230VAC or less for the controls.

This is done using a Control Transformer.

Contnu…..
TRANSFORMER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

420VAC or 230VAC

Primery winding

Secondary winding

230VAC 0VAC 24VAC 0VAC

The secondary windings are generally rated at 230VAC,110VAC,or 24VAC.


MCB

MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)


MCB is a device which cuts of the circuit if the current is more than predetermined
value,flows in a circuit.

Control circuits are always protected by MCB. This prevents damage to the control
components in the event of short circuit in the control circuit.

MCB must be rated at a current that is less than or equal to the rated Current of
control circuit.

MCB must be connected in series with the circuit.


USES OF SWITCHES

Switches are used to send instruction/signals to


the control logic.

Switches are installed on the moving parts


of a machine to provide automatic feedback
to the control logic.
TYPES OF SWITCH & SENSOR

 Push buttons
 Selector switches
 Limit switches
 Pressure switches
 Float switches
 Liquid Level switches
TYPES OF SWITCH & SENSOR

 Proximity sensors
 Optical sensors
 Encoders
 Transducers
 Thermocouples
 (RTD) Resistance Temperature Device
TYPES OF PUSHBUTTON & LAMP
 Momentary
 Maintained
 Mushroom Head
Contacts and Coils
Contacts have two states ,ON and OFF.In PLCs two type of
contacts.
Normally open (NO)
This type of contact does not allow current to flow through it when it is
switched OFF.
When the contact is switched ON,the circuit is completed and current flows
through the circuit.

Normally close (NC)


This type of contact allows current to flow through it when it is switched OFF.
When the contact is switched ON,the circuit is broken and stops the current
flow in the circuit.

Coils
Coils are output devices that are controlled By PLC as per the input
conditions of ladder logic is True or ON value.The coil is set to the ON status
and device performs its function.
FUNCTION OF SWITCHES
The contacts (Rear blocks ) on push button can be of
two types.
Normally Open (N/O)
Normally Close (N/C)
Description Symbol Comment

It is Normally Open (N/O).


Push Button When external force is applied it
(N/O) becomes closed.
It is used to switch ON equipments.
It is Normally Close (N/C).
Push Button When external force is applied it
(N/C) becomes open.
It is used to switch OFF equipments.
FUNCTION OF SWITCHES

Description Symbol Comment

It is normally open condition, it selects


Selector the mode of operation of work.
Switch

EXAMPLE:
Selection of Manual Mode.
Selection of Auto Mode.
FUNCTION OF SWITCHES
Limit Switch: Limit switches are not operator accessible,instead they are
Activated by moving part on the machine.
They are usually mechanical switches.

Example: Mechanically operated limit switch is the switch on the


refrigerator
Doors that turns on inside the light.
Description Symbol Comment
It is normally open condition when any
Limit Switch object is in contact of its CAM then it
becomes closed. Its application is to
limit the continuous signal by sensing
it.
FUNCTION OF SWITCHES
Description Symbol Comment
It is normally open condition it
Pressure works on the pressure level, it
becomes on when pressure level
Switch
reaches up to preset value.
It is normally closed condition it
Float consists a long lever arm with a
float attached.
Switch As the liquid level rises,the lever
arm presses on the switch’s
actuator knob.
FUNCTION OF SENSORS
Type of Proximity Sensors.
 Inductive proximity sensor.
 Capacitive proximity sensor.

 Inductive proximity sensor


It operates on the principle that the inductance of a coil and
the power losses in the coil vary as a metallic (or inductive)
object is passed near by it.
Because of this operating principle ,inductive proximity
sensors are only used for sensing metal objects.
They will not work with non-metallic materials.
FUNCTION OF SENSORS

Inductive proximity sensors are available in both AC and DC


powered types.

Most sensors available built in LED that indicates when the


sensor output is on while the object is sensed.

Capacitive proximity sensor


The principle of operation of the sensor is that internal
oscillator will not oscillate until a target material is moved
near to the sensor face.
This will work with Non-metallic objects.
SENSORS
Description Symbol Comment
Proximity Output It is normally open Condition, when
Sensor any metallic object is sensed from
specified distance then it becomes on.
+VE -VE

Optical Output
It is normally open Condition, It is
Sensor capable of sensing any type of
+VE material whether it is metallic,
-VE Conductive or porous.
It operates over longer distances.
SENSORS

Description Symbol Comment

Output Read switch and proximity switch


are similar in function but it is
Read Switch mounted on the pneumatic
cylinders only.
+VE -VE
CONTACTORS/RELAYS
A relay or Contactor is an electromagnetic device assembled of a frame,
electromagnetic coil and contacts (Movable and Fixed).

The movable contacts are mounted via an insulator to a plunger that moves
with in a bobbin.

A coil of copper wire is wound on the bobbin to create an electromagnet.


A spring holds the plunger up and always from the electromagnet.

When the electromagnet is energized by passing an electric current through


coil,the magnetic field pulls the plunger into the core,which pulls the movable
contacts downwards.

Two fixed pairs of contacts are mounted to the relay frame on electrical
insulator so that when movable contacts are not being pulled towards the core
(The coil is de-energized) they physically touch the upper fixed pair of contacts
And,when being pulled towards the coil,touch the lower pair of fixed contacts.
CONTACTORS&RELAYS
Description Symbol Comment

Contactor It is a device to make and break


the circuit. It is mainly used to
control the motors and heaters etc.
on/off

Relay It is a device to make and break


the circuit. It is mainly used to
control the solenoid coils,
magnetic clutches etc.. on/off
CONTACTORS/RELAYS
Following figure shows the three most common Contactor or Relay symbols.

These are used in electrical control logic diagrams.

 Normally open contact (N/O)


%QX0.3
R1

 Normally close contact (N/C)


R1

 Coil R1

Normally open and normally closed contacts of above figures have lines
extending from both sides of the symbols.These are the connecting lines
which,on a real relay would be the connection points for wires
OVER LOAD RELAY
Over load relay is component used to break the circuit and over loaded caution
automatically if there is short circuit or power over loaded in the power circuit.

Over load relay will have NO/NC contacts to inter lock the control circuit.

Mainly it is mounted under the Power contactor (L1,L2,L3 terminals) of 3-Phase


induction motors.

Restarting of OLR is very easy ,just pressing the RESET knob.


INDICATING LAMPS

LAMPS
The lamps are used to indicate present operation status of
the machine or fault conditions.

The indicators are generally white,they generally covered


with colored lenses.
INDICATING LAMPS
The colors are usually RED,GREEN or AMBER etc.
RED LAMP
This is used for Power is ON,the machine is running.
the machine door is open or other important faults.
GREEN LAMP
This is used for safety conditions (power to the motion
controllers OFF status etc).
AMBER LAMP
This indicates that are important but not dangerous.
Fluid getting low,Machine paused,etc.
INDICATING LAMPS
Description Symbol Comment
Indicating All control panels provided
Lamp indicator lamps.
It is provided at important
diagnostic points to monitor.
Know the present operating status
of the machine.
FUNDAMENTALS OF BASIC DIAGRAMS

All electrical control circuit diagrams are designed using a


standard format call the Relay Logic Circuit (RLC).

Ladder diagram begin with control transformer and protective


MCB on the left side.

As mentioned earlier,From transformer and MCB combination,


horizontal lines are extended to both sides and then drawn
vertically down the page as shown in Figure in next slide.
BASIC CONTROL CIRCUIT

R 420VAC Y

Primery

Secondary

1 230VAC 0VAC

MCB

230VAC
2 0

These vertical lines are called power lines.

The voltage deference between the two vertical lines is equal to the control
transformer secondary voltage.
WIRING AND NUMBERING
Total wires in a control circuit are numbered.
In our circuit,the left line number is 2 and right line number is 0.
When the circuit is designed,the actual wires used to connect
the components will have a ferrule(Number) on each end
called a wire numbering.
Numbering makes easier to design,troubleshoot and modify the
circuitry.
By using wire ferrule numbers,all the wires in the control panel
will be identified and unnecessary to use more than one color
wire to wire the circuit (except for ground wire).
SWITCH GEAR NOMENCLATURE PREFIX

Some of the most commonly used reference nomenclature


prefixes are listed below.

 T/F ------------ Transformer


 MCB ----------- Miniature Circuit Breaker
 CR ------------ Control Relay
 PB ------------ Push Button
 LS ------------ Limit Switch
 PX ------------ Proximity Switch
 OS ------------ Optical Sensor
 SS ------------Selector Switch
 OLR ------------ Over Load Relay
 FWD ------------ Forward
 REV ------------ Reverse
 L1 ------------ Lamp1
Etc…..

The number of the nomenclature is assigned by designer beginning


with the number 1.
CIRCUIT REFERENCE NOMENCLATURE

All electrical circuits and every switch gear is given a reference


nomenclature. This is a label assigned to the switch gear so
that it can be easily located.
The reference nomenclature for each switch gear appears on
the schematic diagram.
The reference nomenclature consists of an alphabetical prefix
followed by a number.
The prefix identifies that the kind of switch gear it is (Viz Control
transformer,Relay,Pushbutton…etc).
CONVENTIONAL RLC CIRCUIT

2
From Control Transformer (230V AC) 0

3 4
CR1
PB1 PB2
Wire ferrule number

CR1 Label

5 6 7 8
FWD
PB3 CR1
Label LS1 REV

9 10 11 12
REV
PB4 CR1 LS2
FWD
RELAY LOGIC
Since the relays in a machine perform some type of control
operation,it can be set that they perform a logic function.
As with all logic functions, these control circuits must consist of
the fundamental AND,OR,and compliment logic operations.
N/O,N/C contacts and relay coils can be wired to perform these
Same fundamental logical functions.
By properly wiring relay contacts and coils together ,we can
develop any logic function as required.
AND Lamp Circuit
This slide shows the actual wiring connection for two switches
a lamp and voltage source.

PUSHBUTTON-1 PUSHBUTTON-2
LAMP-1

230V AC

The LAMP1, will glow only when PUSHBUTTON-1,PUSHBUTTON-2


are pressed while the voltage sours is there.
AND Lamp Ladder diagram
To represent the previous diagram in ladder logic form an
electrical Machine diagram,we will utilize the power from the
vertical lines and simply add the two Pushbuttons and Lamp
in series between the two vertical power lines as shown in next
slide.

The switches are on the left and lamp is on the right.

This is a standard convention when designing and drawing


machine circuits.The controlling devices are always positioned
on the left side of the power line,and the controlled devices are
always positioned on the right side of the power line
AND Lamp Ladder diagram
420VAC
R Y

Primery

Secondary

MCB

230VAC
2 0

3 4

PB-1 PB-2
L-1
OR Lamp Circuit
This circuit shown in below figure illustrates two pushbuttons
wired as an OR logic controlling a lamp.
The lamp will glow if either PUSHBUTTON-1OR PUSHBUTTON-2 is
pressed,That is depressing either of switches will cause LAMP-2
to glow while the voltage sours is there.

PUSHBUTTON-1
LAMP-2

PUSHBUTTON-2

230V AC
LADDER DIAGRAM WITH “AND,OR” LOGIC

The next slide shows the combined ladder diagram (AND,OR logic).
Note that since the pushbuttons PB-1 and PB-2 same ones used in the top
line ,they will have the same names and the same reference nomenclature
when drawn in bottom.
When two or more components in parallel,each parallel path is called
branch.
In our diagram AND,OR logic has two branches,it is possible to exchange
branches 1and 2 without changing the way the lamps operate.

The branches can be arranged in any order without changing the way the
machine operates.
It allows the designer to group and organize the control circuitry so that it is
easier to understand and troubleshoot.
420VAC
R Y

Primery

Secondary

MCB AND Lamp Ladder diagram

230VAC
2 0

3 4
PB-1 PB-2
L-1

5
PB-1
L-2

PB-2
AND-OR Lamp Circuit

PB-1 PB-2
L-3

PB-3 PB-4

230V AC

LAMP- 3 will glow if PB-1 and PB-2 are both ON, or PB-3
and PB-4 are both ON.
This circuit is called AND-OR logic.
OR-AND Lamp Circuit

PB-1 PB-3
L-4

PB-2 PB-4

230V AC

This circuit is called OR- AND logic.


OR-AND Circuit combination chart

LAMP- 4 will glow when the following combination of


pushbuttons are ON.

LAMP- 4 ON PB-1 AND PB-3 are ON


PB-1 AND PB-4 are ON
PB-2 AND PB-3 are ON
PB-2 AND PB-4 are ON
LAMP- 4 ON PB-1 OR PB-2 AND PB-3 are ON
PB-1 OR PB-2 AND PB-4 are ON
PB-2 OR PB-1 AND PB-3 are ON
PB-2 OR PB-1 AND PB-4 are ON
LADDER DIAGRAM WITH COMBINATION BRANCHES

230VAC

2 0
3 4

PB-1 PB-2
L-1
5

PB-3
L-2

PB-4

6 7
PB-5 PB-6
L-3

PB-7 PB-8

9 10
L-3
PB-9 PB-10
L-3

PB-11 PB-12
INCH Circuit

2 0

3
CR1
INCH
SELF LATCH Circuit

2 0
3 4
CR1
START STOP

CR-1

When power is applied to the vertical lines,CR1 is de-energized and the N/O
of CR1 contact in parallel with START pushbutton is also open.
CR1 is energized when START pushbutton is pressed and CR1 remain ON,if
release START PB because power will flow through CR1 (NO) contact.
CR1 is de-energized when STOP PB is pressed.
Since we are assuming START PB not been pressed,there is no path for
power flow through the branch and it will be OFF.
INVENTION OF PLC
 The first PLC systems evolved from conventional computers
in the early 1970 s. These first PLCs were installed in
automotive plants. Traditionally automotive plants had to be
shut down for a month to change the model .

 The PLC keyboard reprogramming procedure replaced


rewiring of panel full of wires, relays, counters and other
components. The new PLCs helped to reduce the
changeover time to a matter of few days.
PLC DEFINITION

The Programmable Logic Controller is a solid state


equipment, designed to perform the function of logic
made for industrial control applications.
INTRODUCTION OF PLC
The PLC acts as a total replacement for hardwired relay
logic with an effective reduction in wiring and panels.

 With the coming of microprocessor and associated peripheral chips


the whole process of control & automation went for a radical
change.

 Instead of achieving the desired control or automation through


physical wiring of control components, in PLC it is achieved
through a program or say software.

 As the desired logic control is achieved through a program, these


controllers are referred to a Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC).
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PLC
PB1 I O
POWER SUPPLY FWD
N U CONT
PB2
P T
U P REV
CPU CONT
T U
LS1
USER PROGRAM T
MEMORY
R1
SERIAL PORT LAMP

Computer

PROGRAMMING DEVICE
CONNECTING CODEYSYS TO THE
NEXGEN 2000 PLC

Computer

CABLE CODE:PRG CAB 2910


DETAILS OF PLC BLOCK
DIAGRAM
INPUT MODULE
 The input module acts as an interface between the field
components (viz pushbuttons, selector switches, limit
switches, proximity switches, pressure switches etc) and
CPU.
POWER SUPPLY UNIT
 The power supply module delivers the power required for the
electronic components in the modules of the PLC.
CPU
 It is a Central Processing Unit which masterminds the
operation of PLC.
DETAILS OF PLC BLOCK
DIAGRAM
OUTPUT MODULE
 The Output Module receives commands from CPU inorder to
control various field elements like power contactors, solenoid
coils, indicating lamps etc.
SERIAL PORT
 It is a hardware device used to transfer a program from PC to
PLC and PLC to PC.
PROGRAMMING DEVICE
 Used for storing, editing, inserting, deleting of the logic
diagram and transferring the same to PLC and PC devices
like PC or Hand-Held programmer and also used to monitor
the status of inputs, outputs and flags in online mode.
PLC CONFIGURATION EXAMPLE
Slot Slot Slot-0 Slot-1 Slot-2 Slot-3
2113 2211 2616 2716 2616 2716
P C 16 16 16 16
S P I O I O
U U N U N U
P T P T
U P U P
T U T U
T T
M M
O M O M
D O D O
U D U D
L U L U
E L E L
E E
PLC CONFIGURATION EXAMPLE
Slot Slot Slot-0 Slot-1 Slot-2 Slot-3 Slot-4 Slot-5 Slot-6 Slot-7
2113 2211 2616 2414 2416 2716 2708 2708 2712 SPARE
P C 16 8 8 16D 8D 8D 12R S
I I I O O O O
S P
N N N U U U U P
U U P P P T T T T
U U U P P P P
A
T T T U U U U R
+ + T T T T
M 6R 8D E
O O O M M M M
D U U O O O O
U T T D D D D S
L P P U U U U
E U U L L L L L
E E E E
T T
O
M M T
O O
D D
U U
L L
E E
16 Pt 24 VDC Input Module
Sr.No SPECIFICATIONS Details

1 No of inputs 16
2 Voltage rating 24 VDC (18 to 30 VDC)
3 Indication for inputs Provided on CPU module via
Multiplexed dot matrix display
4 ON voltage 18 VDC Minimum
5 OFF voltage 5 VDC Maximum
6 Current per input channel 7mA (Maximum) @24 VDC
7 Ordering code 2616

Contnu…..
16 Pt 24 VDC Output Module
Sr.No SPECIFICATIONS Details

1 No of outputs 16
2 Voltage rating 24 VDC (18 to 30 VDC external
supply)
3 Current rating 250 mA per output
4 Indication for inputs Provided on CPU module via
Multiplexed dot matrix LED display
5 ON voltage 22 VDC Minimum
6 OFF voltage 1.5 VDC Maximum
7 Response time OFF to ON---- 0.1ms
ON to OFF---- 0.4ms
8 Inrush Current 600mA for 700 micro second
Contnu…..
16 Pt 24 VDC Output Module
Sr.No SPECIFICATIONS Details

9 Protections  Reverse voltage


 Over voltage
 Output short circuit protection
10 Ordering code 2716
DETAILS OF ADDRESSING

Following slides explain the input/output/Memory


addressing.
BASICS IN DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
 Numbering Systems
 Bit, Nibble, Byte, Word
Bit: Bit means binary digit. It is smallest piece of digital information. It can
be either 0 (OFF) or 1(ON).
Nibble: Four bits grouped together form nibble.
Byte: Eight bits or two nibbles grouped together form one byte.
Word: It is the maximum number of bits that are processed or handled at a time.
Sixteen bits or four nibbles or two byes grouped together form one word.

B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0


1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Bit
Nibble
Byte
Word
NUMBERING SYSTEM
 Binary
 Hexadecimal
 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)
Binary Numbering System:
The binary numbering systems uses a number set that consist of two digits
VIZ., numbers 0 AND 1.
Each digit in a binary number has a weightage expressed as a power of “2”.
The decimal equivalent of binary number is computed by multiplying each
binary digit by its corresponding weightage and adding these number
together.
2 2 2 2 2
Binary Number: 4 3 2 1 0

1 1 0 1 0
Decimal equivalent =
= 0 1 2 3 4
2X0 + 2X1 + 2X0 + 2X1 + 2X1
0+ 2 +0 + 8 + 16 = 26
NUMBERING SYSTEM

Hexadecimal Numbering System:


The hexadecimal numbering system has a number set of 16 digit VIZ.The
number 0-9 and the letter of A to F (Decimal number 10-15 respectively).
Each digit in a hexadecimal has a weightage expressed as a’16’.

A hexadecimal number can be converted to a decimal number by multiplying


the hexadecimal digit by its corresponding weightage,expressed as power of
’16’ and the adding these numbers together.

4 3 2 1 0
Binary Number: 16 16 16 16 16

1 0 1 0 1
Decimal equivalent =
= 2X0 + 2X1 + 2X0 + 2X1 + 2X1

0+ 2 +0 +8 + 16 = 26
ADDRESSING CODE
Hexadecimal Decimal Octal Binary
(Base 16) (Base 10) (Base 8) (Base 2)
00 00 000 00
01 01 001
02 02 002
03 03 003
04 04 004
05 05 005
06 06 006
07 07 007
08 08
09 09
0A 10
0B
0C
0D
0E
0F
INPUTS ADDRESSING RANGE

WORD BYTE BITS


%IB0 %IX0.0 %IX0.1 %IX0.2 %IX0.3 %IX0.4 %IX0.5 %IX0.6 %IX0.7

%IW0
%IB1 %IX1.0 %IX1.1 %IX1.2 %IX1.3 %X1.4 %IX1.5 %IX1.6 %IX1.7

%IB2 %IX2.0 %IX2.1 %IX2.2 %IX2.3 %IX2.4 %IX2.5 %IX2.6 %IX2.7

%IW2
%IB3 %IX3.0 %IX3.1 %IX3.2 %IX3.3 %IX3.4 %IX3.5 %IX3.6 %IX3.7

%IB4 %IX4.0 %IX4.1 %IX4.2 %IX4.3 %IX4.4 %IX4.5 %IX4.6 %IX4.7

%IW4
%IB5 %IX5.0 %IX5.1 %IX5.2 %IX5.3 %IX5.4 %IX5.5 %IX5.6 %IX5.7

%IB6 %IX6.0 %IX6.1 %IX6.2 %IX6.3 %IX6.4 %IX6.5 %IX6.6 %IX6.7

%IW6
%IB7 %IX7.0 %IX7.1 %IX7.2 %IX7.3 %IX7.4 %IX7.5 %IX7.6 %IX7.7
INPUTS ADDRESSING RANGE

WORD BYTE BITS


%QB0 %QX0.0 %QX0.1 %QX0.2 %QX0.3 %QX0.4 %QX0.5 %QX0.6 %QX0.7

%QW0
%QB1 %QX1.0 %QX1.1 %QX1.2 %QX1.3 %QX1.4 %QX1.5 %QX1.6 %QX1.7

%QB2 %QX2.0 %QX2.1 %QX2.2 %QX2.3 %QX2.4 %QX2.5 %QX2.6 %QX2.7

%QW2
%QB3 %QX3.0 %QX3.1 %QX3.2 %QX3.3 %QX3.4 %QX3.5 %QX3.6 %QX3.7

%QB4 %QX4.0 %QX4.1 %QX4.2 %QX4.3 %QX4.4 %QX4.5 %QX4.6 %QX4.7

%QW4
%QB5 %QX5.0 %QX5.1 %QX5.2 %QX5.3 %QX5.4 %QX5.5 %QX5.6 %QX5.7

%QB6 %QX6.0 %QX6.1 %QX6.2 %QX6.3 %QX6.4 %QX6.5 %QX6.6 %QX6.7

%QW6
%QB7 %QX7.0 %QX7.1 %QX7.2 %QX7.3 %QX7.4 %QX7.5 %QX7.6 %QX7.7
DEFINITION OF FLAG/MEMORY BIT
Storage of intermediate results of one Rung, ( as internal
relay in PLC software)
In Relay logic it is defined as Auxiliary contactor

%IX0.0 %IX0.1 %IX0.2 %MX0.0

Motor on PB
Motor off PB Safety
input Motor on flag
input inter lock
%MX0.0

Motor on flag

%MX0.0 %QX0.6

Motor on flag Motor on output


MEMORY ADDRESSING RANGE
WORD BYTE BITS
%MB0 %MX0.0 %MX0.1 %MX0.2 %MX0.3 %MX0.4 %MX0.5 %MX0.6 %MX0.7
%MW0
%MB1 %MX1.0 %MX1.1 %MX1.2 %MX1.3 %MX1.4 %MX1.5 %MX1.6 %MX1.7

%MB2 %MX2.0 %MX2.1 %MX2.2 %MX2.3 %MX2.4 %MX2.5 %MX2.6 %MX2.7


%MW2
%MB3 %MX3.0 %MX3.1 %MX3.2 %MX3.3 %MX3.4 %MX3.5 %MX3.6 %MX3.7
%MB4 %MX4.0 %MX4.1 %MX4.2 %MX4.3 %MX4.4 %MX4.5 %MX4.6 %MX4.7
%MW4
%MB5 %MX5.0 %MX5.1 %MX5.2 %MX5.3 %MX5.4 %MX5.5 %MX5.6 %MX5.7
%MB6 %MX6.0 %MX6.1 %MX6.2 %MX6.3 %MX6.4 %MX6.5 %MX6.6 %MX6.7
%MW6 %MB7 %MX7.0 %MX7.1 %MX7.2 %MX7.3 %MX7.4 %MX7.5 %MX6.6 %MX7.7
%MB8 %MX8.0 %MX8.1 %MX8.2 %MX8.3 %MX8.4 %MX8.5 %MX8.6 %MX8.7
%MW8
%MB9 %MX9.0 %MX9.1 %MX9.2 %MX9.3 %MX9.4 %MX9.5 %MX9.6 %MX9.7
%MB10 %MX10.0 %MX10.1 %MX10.2 %MX10.3 %MX10.4 %MX10.5 %MX10.6 %MX10.7
%MW10 %MB11 %MX11.0 %MX11.1 %MX11.2 %MX11.3 %MX11.4 %MX11.5 %MX11.6 %MX11.7
%MB12 %MX12.0 %MX12.1 %MX12.2 %MX12.3 %MX12.4 %MX12.5 %MX12.6 %MX12.7
%MW12
%MB13 %MX13.0 %MX13.1 %MX13.2 %MX13.3 %MX13.4 %MX13.5 %MX13.6 %MX13.7

%MB14 %MX14.0 %MX14.1 %MX14.2 %MX14.3 %MX14.4 %MX14.5 %MX14.6 %MX14.7


%MW14
%MB15 %MX15.0 %MX15.1 %MX15.2 %MX15.3 %MX15.4 %MX15.5 %MX15.6 %MX15.7
MEMORY ADDRESSING RANGE
WORD BYTE BITS
%MB16 %MX16.0 %MX16.1 %MX16.2 %MX16.3 %MX16.4 %MX16.5 %MX16.6 %MX16.7
%MW16 %MB17 %MX17.0 %MX17.1 %MX17.2 %MX17.3 %MX17.4 %MX17.5 %MX17.6 %MX17.7
%MB18 %MX18.0 %MX18.1 %MX18.2 %MX18.3 %MX18.4 %MX18.5 %MX18.6 %MX18.7
%MW18 %MB19 %MX19.0 %MX19.1 %MX19.2 %MX19.3 %MX19.4 %MX19.5 %MX19.6 %MX19.7
%MB20 %MX20.0 %MX20.1 %MX20.2 %MX20.3 %MX20.4 %MX20.5 %MX20.6 %MX20.7
%MW20 %MB21 %MX21.0 %MX21.1 %MX21.2 %MX21.3 %MX21.4 %MX21.5 %MX21.6 %MX21.7
%MB22 %MX22.0 %MX22.1 %MX22.2 %MX22.3 %MX22.4 %MX22.5 %MX22.6 %MX22.7
%MW22 %MB23 %MX23.0 %MX23.1 %MX23.2 %MX23.3 %MX23.4 %MX23.5 %MX23.6 %MX23.7
%MB24 %MX24.0 %MX24.1 %MX24.2 %MX24.3 %MX24.4 %MX24.5 %MX24.6 %MX24.7
%MW24 %MB25 %MX25.0 %MX25.1 %MX25.2 %MX25.3 %MX25.4 %MX25.5 %MX25.6 %MX25.7
%MB26 %MX26.0 %MX26.1 %MX26.2 %MX26.3 %MX26.4 %MX26.5 %MX26.6 %MX26.7
%MW26 %MB27 %MX27.0 %MX27.1 %MX27.2 %MX27.3 %MX27.4 %MX27.5 %MX26.6 %MX27.7
%MB28 %MX28.0 %MX28.1 %MX28.2 %MX28.3 %MX28.4 %MX28.5 %MX28.6 %MX28.7
%MW28 %MB29 %MX29.0 %MX29.1 %MX29.2 %MX29.3 %MX29.4 %MX29.5 %MX29.6 %MX29.7

RANGE OF WORDS RANGE OF BYTES


%MW0 TO %MW 7678 %MB0 TO %MB7679
PLC CONFIGURATION EXAMPLE
Slot Module Input addressing Output addressing
Slot PSU Nil Nil
Slot CPU Nil Nil
I/o Slot-0 16 Pt DC Input %IB0 & %IB1 Nil
I/o Slot-1 12Pt Relay Output NIL %QB0 & %QB1
I/o Slot-2 16 Pt DC Input %IB2 & %IB3 Nil
I/o Slot-3 8Pt DC input+6Pt %IB4 %QB2
Relay Output
I/o Slot-4 8Pt Relay Output NIL %QB3
I/o Slot-5 16 Pt DC Input %IB5 & %IB6 Nil
I/o Slot-6 8Pt DC input+6Pt %IB7 %QB4
Relay Output
I/o Slot-7 12Pt Relay Output NIL %QB5 & %QB6
Types of PLC
Basically PLCs are two types.
 Brick type.
 Modular type.
BRICK TYPE
PLC is housed in a single box with all power supply,CPU,Inputs and out puts
& connection terminals.

These are generally chosen according to a available program memory and


required number of I/Os to suit he application.

This type of PLC generally has an expansion port. This type of PLC will have
limited I/Os.

These ports allow the addition of Digital Inputs/outputs or analog Inputs/


Outputs. These expansion units are either plugged directly or connected it
with ribbon cable.
PLC Configurations
MODULAR TYPE
More sophisticated units,with a wider range of options,are MODULAR.

Modular type PLC can be connected consist following Modules.


 CPU (Central Processor Unit).
 I/O Rack.
 Power supply Module (PSU).
 Digital Input Module.
 Digital Output Module.
 Analog I/O Modules
 High speed counter Module.
Other type of modules may be available depending up on the manufacture of
the PLC.
Function of communication modules is transfer the data from one device to
another. One module allows the serial transfer of data to remote I/O modules
which is some feets away.
Modular Type PLC with 8 I/O Rack Figure
RACK
Slot Slot I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O
Slot-0 Slot-1 Slot-2 Slot-3 Slot-4 Slot-5 Slot-6 Slot-7

P C
O P
W U
E
R
Supply

Expansion Port

The RACK is a framework into which the Input/outputs modules


are inserted.
The size of the Rack depends on the number of slots ,such as 3,
5,8.
(Source: MESSUNG)
Fundamentals of PLC Programming
 Symbols used in ladder logic.
 Rungs.
 Contacts and Coils.
Symbols Used in Ladder Logic
A PLC takes input from field devices and based on the programming instructions
controls output devices.
Ladder logic diagrams are used in PLCs to write programming instructions below
figure illustrates a simple ladder diagram.

Input Rung Output

As shown in above figure,a ladder logic diagram consists of three elements.


 Input
 Output
 Rung
A ladder logic diagram consists of one or more horizontal lines,called RUNGS. The
rungs contain the input and output elements.In a ladder logic diagram,the input
elements referred as the contact and output element s referred as Coil.
Rungs
The horizontal lines in a ladder logic diagram are called RUNGS.
Each Rung of a ladder logic diagram represents a condition of the input/output/
memory bits.

Each Rung ends with a coil and starts with a set of conditions.

The two vertical lines at the two end of the rungs are called rails and are
represented as L1 and L2.

These rails represents the voltage potential of the ladder diagram.

The below figure illustrates the rails and the rung of ladder logic diagram.
L1 L2

Rung
Ladder Logic Specifications

Input Conditions Arrange Inputs Ladder Logic Diagram


All conditions Series A B C D M
should be met

Any condition Parallel M


A
should be met
B

A combination of In combination A D M
conditions
B

C
FUNDAMENTAL PLC
PROGRAMMING

 Relay type instructions.

 Function Block instructions.


 How to convert a simple relay logic diagram into
PLC Ladder Program.
RELAY TYPE INSRTUCTIONS

Symbol Instruction Comment

NO This is a single Normally Opened contact.


Its results is True if the input bit is 1 and the false if the
input bit is 0.

NC This is a single Normally Closed contact.


Its results is True if the input bit is 0 and the false if the
input bit is 1.

COIL This represents the coil of output, memory bit etc.


It becomes ON if the result of ladder programmed
prior to it is 1 (true).
RELAY TYPE INSRTUCTIONS

Symbol Instruction Comment

This represents the latch type coil of the output,


S
SET
memory bit etc. It is SET to 1(true).

RESET This represents the latch type coil of the output,


R
memory bit etc. It RESETS the latched coil if the result

of the ladder programmed prior to it is 1 (true).


FUNCTION BLOCK INSTRUCTION

 TIMERS
 COUNTERS

TYPE OF TIMERS
 On delay timer
 Off delay timer

TYPE OF COUNTERS
 Up counter
 Down counter
 Up/Down counter
DETAILS OF FUNCTION BLOCKS
ON DELAY TIMER
T1
%IX0.1 TON DONE
IN Q

T# 10M PT ET T1_ET

PT- Preset time


ET- Elapsed time

When IN input becomes high , the elapsed time value increments on every rising
edge. The DONE bit becomes on when elapsed time becomes equal to preset
time. When IN input becomes low the elapsed time become 0.

Cont….
DETAILS OF FUNCTION BLOCKS
OFF DELAY TIMER
T3
%MX10.0 TOF DONE
IN Q

T# 10S PT ET T3_ET

PT- Preset time


ET- Elapsed time

When IN input becomes high , timer DONE bit also becomes high immediately.
When IN input becomes low and the elapsed time value will get incremented by
every rising edge of time base. When elapsed time becomes equal to preset time
DONE bit goes low and elapsed time becomes 0.
Cont….
DETAILS OF FUNCTION BLOCKS
BLINK/CYCLIC
B10
%IX0.1 BLINK %QX0.6
ENABLE OUT

T#5S LOW TIME

T#3S HIGH TIME

LOW TIME- Output OFF duration


HIGH TIME- Output ON duration

When the ENABLE input becomes high , BLINK begins to set OUTPUT for the
time period TIMEHIGH to ON and then afterwards TIMELOW to OFF
Cont….
DETAILS OF FUNCTION BLOCKS
UP COUNTER
C1
%MX0.1 CTU DONE
UP Q

%IX0.6 RESET

20 PV CV %MW00

PV- Preset value


CV- Current value

When the REST input becomes high , the current value of counter becomes
zero. This is resetting of counter. When reset input is OFF the current value of
the counter increments by one on every transition from OFF to ON at the UP
input. The DONE bit goes high when the current value becomes equal to preset
value. Cont….
DETAILS OF FUNCTION BLOCKS
DOWN COUNTER
C10
%MX0.1 CTD DONE
DN Q

%IX0.6 LOAD

20 PV CV %MW100

PV- Preset value


CV- Current value
DN- Down
When the LOAD input becomes high , the current value of counter becomes
equal to preset value. This is presetting of counter. When LOAD input is OFF the
current value of the counter decrements by one on every transition from OFF to
ON at the DOWN input. The DONE bit goes high when the current value
becomes equal to zero. Cont….
PLC INPUTS AND OUTPUTS WIRING OF ‘AND’ LOGIC
INPUT MODULE OUTPUT MODULE

I0 I0 PB1 PUSH BUTTON-1 Q0 Q0 L1 LAMP-1


I1 I1 PB2 PUSH BUTTON-2 Q1
I2 Wire ferrule number Q2
I3 Q3
G1 Label Q4
I4 Q5
I5 Q6
I6 Q7
I7 V1
G2 G1
I10 Q10
I11 Q11
I12 Q12
I13 Q13
G3 Q14
I14 Q15
I15 Q16
I16 Q17
I17 V2
G4 G2
24VDC P1 N1
N1
P1 24VDC N1
CONVERSION OF RELAY LOGIC
CIRCUIT TO PLC LADDER
AND Relay Logic Diagram

PB-1 PB-2
L-1

230V AC

AND PLC Logic RUNG


%IX0.0 %IX0.1 %QX0.0

PB-1 PB-2 L-1


PLC INPUTS AND OUTPUTS WIRING OF ‘OR’ LOGIC
INPUT MODULE OUTPUT MODULE

I0 I0 PB1 PUSH BUTTON-1 Q0 Q0 L2 LAMP-2


I1 I1 PB2 PUSH BUTTON-2 Q1
I2 Wire ferrule number Q2
I3 Q3
G1 Label Q4
I4 Q5
I5 Q6
I6 Q7
I7 V1
G2 G1
I10 Q10
I11 Q11
I12 Q12
I13 Q13
G3 Q14
I14 Q15
I15 Q16
I16 Q17
I17 V2
G4 G2
24VDC P1 N1
N1
P1 24VDC N1
CONVERSION OF RELAY LOGIC
CIRCUIT TO PLC LADDER
OR Relay Logic Diagram

PB-1
L-2

PB-2

230V AC

OR PLC Logic RUNG


%IX0.0 %QX0.0

PB-1 L-2
%IX0.1

PB-2
PLC INPUTS AND OUTPUTS WIRING OF ‘AND-OR’ LOGIC
INPUT MODULE OUTPUT MODULE

I0 I0 PB1 PUSH BUTTON-1 Q0 Q0 L3 LAMP-3


I1 I1 PB2 PUSH BUTTON-2 Q1
I2 I2 PB3 PUSH BUTTON-3 Q2
I3 I3 PB4 PUSH BUTTON-4 Q3
G1 Wire ferrule number Q4
I4 Q5
I5 Label Q6
I6 Q7
I7 V1
G2 G1
I10 Q10
I11 Q11
I12 Q12
I13 Q13
G3 Q14
I14 Q15
I15 Q16
I16 Q17
I17 V2
G4 G2
24VDC P1 N1
N1
P1 24VDC N1
CONVERSION OF RELAY LOGIC
CIRCUIT TO PLC LADDER
AND-OR Relay Logic Diagram

PB-1 PB-2
L-3

PB-3 PB-4

230V AC
AND-OR PLC Logic RUNG
%IX0.0 %IX0.1 %QX0.0

PB-1 PB-2 L-3

%IX0.2 %IX0.3

PB-3 PB-4
PLC INPUTS AND OUTPUTS WIRING OF ‘OR-AND’ LOGIC
INPUT MODULE OUTPUT MODULE

I0 I0 PB1 PUSH BUTTON-1 Q0 Q0 L4 LAMP-4


I1 I1 PB2 PUSH BUTTON-2 Q1
I2 I2 PB3 PUSH BUTTON-3 Q2
I3 I3 PB4 PUSH BUTTON-4 Q3
G1 Wire ferrule number Q4
I4 Q5
I5 Label Q6
I6 Q7
I7 V1
G2 G1
I10 Q10
I11 Q11
I12 Q12
I13 Q13
G3 Q14
I14 Q15
I15 Q16
I16 Q17
I17 V2
G4 G2
24VDC P1 N1
N1
P1 24VDC N1
CONVERSION OF RELAY LOGIC
CIRCUIT TO PLC LADDER
OR-AND Relay Logic Diagram

PB-1 PB-3
L-4

PB-2 PB-4

230V AC
OR-AND PLC Logic RUNG
%IX0.0 %IX0.2 %QX0.0

PB-1 PB-3 L-4

%IX0.1 %IX0.4

PB-2 PB-4
ADVANTAGES OF USING PLC OVER
CONVENTIONAL ELECTRICAL PANEL
 Solid state devices reduce failures because there is no mechanical wear and tear.
 Power consumption is less.
 Easily programmed or reprogrammed with the help of
programming device.
 PLC can be reused if no longer required in original application. Only application
program is to be changed.
 Indicating lamps are provided at important diagnostic points to simplify
troubleshooting.
 No external hardware timers and counters are required unless due to specific need.
 Unlimited NO and NC contacts of inputs, outputs and auxiliary relays (Memory Bits)
are available.
 Smallest cabinet size leading to less floor requirement.
 Easy troubleshooting.
DISADVANTAGES OF RLC
 Life of components is limited because of wear and
tear of mechanical components .
 No flexibility.
 Huge space is required.
 Required more no of Labors.
 Fault finding is very lengthy process (Some times it
may take few days to solve the problem).
 Lot of time required to complete the Job of small
logic.
THANK YOU TO ALL
PARTICIPANTS AND KEEP ON
UPDATE THE KNOWLEDGE OF
PLC

THE END