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SAMPAH PLASTIK

SEBAGAI SUMBER BAHAN BAKU POTENSIAL


PEMBUATAN BBM SINTETIS DENGAN PROSES PIROLISIS
PPPTMGB Lemigas
Jl. Ciledug raya kav.109 Keb. Lama, Ciulir, Jakar!a "ela!a#
$mail% m&uad'lemigas.esdm.g(.id
Abstract
1. LATAR BELAKANG
Pera# e#ergi mi#yak masi) belum !erga#!ika# sebagai sumber e#ergi u!ama. *isisi lai#
uaya e#gemba#ga# e#ergi al!er#a!i& da# diversi&ikasi e#ergi dari mi#yak masi) belum
(!imal dilakuka#. +le) sebab i!u semua &i)ak di!u#!u! u#!uk lebi) me#g)ema! emakaia#
e#ergi da# beruaya me#,ari s(lusi dalam me#ga!asi masala) diversi&ikasi e#ergi i#i se,ara
lebi) serius.-Li)a! Gambar 1.
"ala) sa!u al!er#a!i& me#ga!asi masala) diversi&ikasi e#ergi i#i, adala) de#ga#
me#gemba#gka# (!e#si sama) las!ik, sebagai sumber ba)a# baku embua!a# BBM si#!e!is
de#ga# r(ses ir(lisis. Beberaa &ak!(r ya#g me#duku#g uaya e#gemba#ga# (!e#si
sama) las!ik sebagai ba)a# diversi&ikasi e#ergi dari mi#yak, a#!ara lai# %
/ Ba)a# baku las!ik sesu#ggu)#ya berasal dari mi#yak bumi . "eki!ar 01 mi#yak
bumi di du#ia digu#aka# sebagai ba)a# baku las!ik. +le) sebab i!u k(m(sisi
1
Gambar 1: Produs! M!"#a da" Ko"d$"sat I"do"$s!a ta%u" &'''(&'')
u!ama se#ya2a ba)a# las!ik !idak 3au) berbeda de#ga# u#sur e#yusu# u!ama
r(duk/r(duk ba)a# bakar mi#yak yak#i se#ya2a )idr(karb(#.
/ 4ilai kal(r ba)a# las!ik sa#ga! !i#ggi, se)i#gga memiliki (!e#si !i#ggi bila
dik(#versi me#3adi e#ergy.
/ Ke!ersediaa# ba)a# baku sama) las!ik i#i ya#g ,uku besar /!eru!ama di k(!a/
k(!a besar di 5#d(#esia. *a!a Keme#!eria# Li#gku#ga# 6idu !a)u# 7008
me#u#3ukka#, v(lume !imbu#a# sama) di 199 kabua!e# da# k(!a di 5#d(#esia
me#,aai ::: 3u!a li!er a!au se!ara 97 3u!a kil(gram, de#ga# k(m(sisi sama)
las!ik me#,aai 19 erse# a!au : 3u!a !(#. *ierkiraka# 3umla) sama) las!ik aka#
semaki# ber!amba) seiri#g e#i#gka!a# emakaia# bara#g las!ik sebagai ba)a#
embu#gkus ya#g me#,aai a#gka 10/1;1. *ari 3umla) seba#yak i!u, sama)
las!ik ya#g dima#&aa!ka# sebagai ba)a# baku daur ula#g )a#ya seki!ar <1 sa3a.
/ 6arga#ya rela!i& mura)/ ba)ka# beberaa 3e#is las!ik embu#gkus, seer!i las!ik
embu#gkus mi, embu#gkus maka#a# lai##ya !idak ber)arga sama sekali.
/ Memba#!u ma#ga!asi masala) e#,emara# li#gku#ga# da# emisi gas karb(# ya#g
di!imbulka# (le) sama) las!ik. Kare#a erlu dike!a)ui, sama) las!ik selai#
daa! me#,emari li#gku#ga# di !a#a), 3uga ber(!e#si sebagai e#yumba#g emisi
gas karb(# ke udara. *ari se!ia 1 kg sama) las!ik ya#g dibakar aka#
7
me#g)asilka# < kg gas karb(#. *e#ga# me!(da ir(lisis de#ga# 3umla) sama)
las!ik ya#g sama, )a#ya di)asilka# 0,<0 kg gas karb(#. *a# selama i#i , membakar
sama) las!ik dia#gga ,ara ali#g e&ek!i& da# ya#g ali#g seri#g dilakuka# (le)
masyaraka! dalam me#gura#gi akumulasi sama) las!ik.
/ Berdasarka# == 4(.10 T) 7000, Te#!a#g $P> - $?!e#ded Pr(du,er >es(#sibili!y .
, se!ia r(duse# kemasa# maka#a# da# mi#uma# dari las!i, 2a3ib me#g(la)
sama) las!i, ya#g di)asilka##ya. @!au me#girim ada !ema! e#g(la)a# sama)
las!i, ya#g di!u#3uk emeri#!a). Pera!ura# diberlakuka# 10 !a)u# se3ak Pera!ura#
Pemeri#!a) dikeluarka# u#!uk daa! dilaksa#aka#.
/ Tek#(l(gi e#g(la)a# sama) las!i, me#3adi BBM !ela) berkemba#g me#3adi
i#dus!ry ya#g r(sek!i& se,ara ek(#(mi.
Perusa)aa#/erusa)aa# ya#g me#gemba#gka# !ek#(l(gi i#i a#!ara lai# seer!i
!erli)a! ada !abel beriku!%
*om+a"#,D$-$.o+$r Locat!o" Proc$ss!"/ T$c%"o.o/# Bus!"$ss Mod$. *urr$"t Status
Bal,(#es Auel
Te,)#(l(gy
Li!!le >(,k,
@rka#sas
Pr(du,es B&uel ,ubesB
&r(m 2as!es
5#!er#alCC(#sul!i#
gC"ales
C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
Plas!(&uel/ *r. Jim
Gar!), e! al
"!a!e C(llege,
P@
Eas!e las!i, )ea!ed
e?!rusi(# die
Li,e#si#g >esear,) a#d
*evel(me#!
E((d >esiduals
"(lu!i(#s
M(#!ell(,
Eis,(#si#
$?!ruded 2((d &iber
elle!s 2i!) ag las!i,
5#!er#al *evel(me#! a#d
C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
@gri/Plas7Crude Br((ks, +reg(# T)erm(/re,lama!i(# via
sealed rea,!(r vessels
5#!er#alCLi,e#si#gC
"ales
*evel(me#!
Cy#arPl, -(2#ed by
+Dm(!e,).
L(#d(#,
$#gla#d
LiFue&a,!i(#, yr(lysis,
a#d dis!illa!i(#
5#!er#alC
Li,e#si#gC"ales
C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
>+GC+/$H +il
Ge#era!(r
Bei3i#g, C)i#a Aar 5#&rared 5##er
6ea!i#g
Li,e#si#gC"ales C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
P/Auel -u#der.
agreeme#! 2i!)
>+GC+.
Ii,!(ria,
@us!ralia
Aar 5#&ared 5##er 6ea!i#g Li,e#si#gC"ales C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
+D(m(!e,) Ii,!(ria,
@us!ralia
LiFue&a,!i(#, yr(lysis,
a#d dis!illa!i(#
Li,e#si#gC"ales C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
$PA/ *r. @lka
Hadga(#kar
4agur,5#dia >a#d(m de/
(lymeriDa!i(# via
rea,!(r vessel
=#k#(2# >esear,) a#d
*evel(me#!
6 J G P(lymers
Gr(u -e?,lusive
ve#d(r &(r P$A".
Aederal Eay,
Eas)i#g!(#
P(lymer $#,asula!ed
Auel ")ee! -P$A". via )(!
air mel!i#g
C(#sul!i#gCLi,e#si
#gC"ales
C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
Gl(bal Ai#es! M(&&a! Bea,),
@us!ralia
Ara,!i(#al
*e(lymeriDa!i(#
5#!er#alCLi,e#si#gC
"ales
C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
Plas!i,7+il 4iagara Aalls, Pyr(lysis Ca!alys! Li,e#si#gC"ales C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
<
+#!ari( >ea,!(r
P(lymer $#ergy
-ve#!ure 2i!)
4(r!)er#
Te,)#(l(gies..
Cir,le Pi#es,
Mi##es(!a
Ca!aly!i, Pyr(lysis C(#sul!i#gCLi,e#si
#gC"ales
C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
$#vi(# +il Ge#era!(r Eas)i#g!(#,
*C
T)ermal, #(#/,a!aly!i,,
va,uum ,ra,ki#g
Li,e#si#gC"ales *evel(me#! a#d
C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
4a#(Auel Te,)#(l(gy
-ve#!ure 2i!) G$$P.
Barrie, +#!ari( *e(lymeriDa!i(# 2i!)
,a!alys!s made &r(m
#a#(ar!i,les
5#!er#al C(mmer,ialiDa!i(#
&. Sasara" P$"$.!t!a"
Pe#g(la)a# sama) las!ik me#3adi BBM si#!e!is de#ga# me!(da ir(lisis di)araka# daa!
di3adika# sebagai sala) sa!u ,ara ya#g (!e#sial dalam me#,ari r(duk e#ergi al!er#a!i& ya#g
daa! me#gura#gi emakaia# e#ergi mi#yak dari ba)a# bakar &(sil.
*isami#g daa! me#gura#gi damak e#,emara# li#gku#ga# ya#g di!imbulka# (le) sama)
las!ik, e#eraa# ir(lisis i#i !er)ada sama) las!ik daa! me#,i!aka# laa#ga# ker3a bagi
masyaraka! ya#g ,uku beragam, mulai dari )ulu -ara emulu#g. )i#gga )ilir -ara !ek#isi
abrik..
0. Tu1ua"
Tu3ua# e#eli!ia# i#i adala)%
/ u#!uk me#guba) sama) las!ik me#3adi mi#yak me#!a) si#!e!is ya#g daa! di(la) sebagai
ba)a# bakar al!er#a!i& u#!uk me#ga#!isiasi masala) krisis e#ergi di #egara ki!a/ !eru!ama
dalam kai!a##ya de#ga# semaki# me#iis#ya ke!ersediaa# ba)a# bakar &(sil di 5#d(#esia .
/ Me#gu3i sesi&ikasi , mu!u da# ki#er3a BBM dari las!ik bila dikai!ka# sebagai ba)a# bakar
e#gga#!i be#si# , s(lar a!auu# ker(si#
2. M$todo.o/!
"ama) las!ik K !eru!ama dari 3e#is (ly(le&i#/ daa! di(la) melalui r(ses ir(lisis me#3adi
se#ya2a )idr(karb(# ya#g (!e#sial sebagai ba)a# baku r(duk BBM da# elumas Pr(ses
ir(lisis adala) r(ses eme,a)a#Ceruraia# se#ya2a berm(lekul besar me#3adi se#ya2a
berm(lekul ke,ilCseder)a#a de#ga# ,ara ema#asa# !a#a ke)adira# (ksige#.
Pr(ses Pir(lisis disebu! 3uga sebagai *is!ilasi Keri#g. Kare#a ri#si ya#g diakai miri
de#ga# me!(da dis!ilasi, yak#i uaCgas ya#g keluar dari r(ses ema#asa# didalam reak!(r,
dik(#de#sasika# de#ga# ala! k(#de#s(r, kemudia# r(duk dis!ila! di!amu#g sebagai r(duk
mi#yak ir(lisis . "eda#gka# ba)a# baku ya#g di(la) ada r(ses ir(lisis i#i , umum#ya
berua ba)a# ada! da# buka# ,aira#.
9
*ari )asil e#eli!ia# e#da)ulua# ya#g er#a) kami lakuka#, ada r(ses ir(lisis las!ik
kresek da# embu#gkus mi ada su)u (!imal seki!ar <8;
(
C K 900
(
C selama 2ak!u ema#asa#
170 me#i! , k(#versi r(duk dis!ila! ya#g di)asilka# seki!ar :01. "eda#gka# dari
dis!ilasiCemisa)a# mi#yak ir(lisis i#i me#3adi &raksi/&raksi BBM da# se!ela) dilakuka#
e#gu3ia# sesuai sesi&ikasi u3i r(duk BBM dike!a)ui ba)2a &raksi/&raksi BBM mi#yak las!ik
memiliki sesi&ikasi ya#g (!e#sial u#!uk di3adika# BBM k(mersial.
3. L!"/u+ P$$r1aa"
Li#gku eker3aa# i#i me#,aku e#gumula#Cembelia# ba)a# baku sama) las!ik
(ly(le&i#, !eru!ama 3e#is las!ik (lye!)yle#e/ seer!i las!ik kresek, las!ik embu#gkus
maka#a# dsb. /dari e#geulCemulu#g sama). Kemudia# sama) las!ik i#i diu3i si&a! &isik
da# kimia#ya. "e!ela) i!u , sama) las!ik di(la) de#ga# ala! r(ses ir(lisis ya#g !erdiri dari
reak!(r ya#g dile#gkai eleme# ema#as ya#g disambu#gka# de#ga# ala! k(#de#s(r ser!a
e#amu#g )asil r(duk ir(lisis.
Pr(duk )asil ir(lisis didis!ilasi de#ga# ala! TBP -True B(ili#g P(i#!. @"TM */7097 ya#g
dile#gkai k(l(m de#ga# la! !e(ri!is 1;, re&luks ra!i( 1%; , u#!uk dia#alisa 1 k(m(sisi !ia
&raksi#ya -ma!erial bala#,e. a#!ara lai#, &raksi C1/C9, C;/100,100/1;0, 1;0/100, 100/7;0, 7;0/
<;0, <;0/$#d (i#!.
6asil !ia &raksi diu3i si&a! karak!eris!ik#ya sesuai si&a! u3i r(duk/r(duk BBM . "elai# i!u
r(duk ir(lisis di a#alisa 3uga 3e#isC!ie se#ya2a mi#yak#ya -Crude (il ,lassi&i,a!i(#.
berdasarka# me!(da La#e Gar!(# Classi&i,a!i(# -=". Bureau a#d Mi#es. me#ggu#aka# ala!
*is!ilasi 6emel.
Pe#gu3ia# BBM be#si# da# disel dari las!i, de#ga# me!(da u3i Be#,) Tes! sebagai BBM
e#gga#!i be#si# da# s(lar diasara#.
"er!a u3i Ki#er3a ada Be#,) !es! dari ble#di#g BBM dari las!i, de#ga# BBM dari &(sil
4. K$.uara" 5 Output 6
Keluara# dari e#eli!ia# i#i me#,aku kemamua# Lemigas dalam me#guasai da#
me#gemba#gka# ala! ser!a !ek#(l(gi e#g(la)a# sama) las!ik me#3adi r(duk BBM, ya#g
meruaka# r(duk ya#g sa#ga! s!ra!egis.
Terbuka kemu#gki#a# u#!uk me#daa!ka# a!e# ada e#eli!ia# i#i, me#gi#ga! belum ada#ya
uaya e#g(la)a# sama) las!ik me#3adi BBM k(mersial ser!a belum dike!a)ui#ya 3e#isC!ie
mi#yak )asil ir(lisis i#i bila di!i#3au dari klasi&ikasi mi#yak bumi -,rude (il ,lassi&i,a!i(#. .
7. Has!. 5 Outcome 6
6asil dari e#eli!ia# seara) de#ga# berbagai kebi3aka# ya#g dibua! emeri#!a). @#!ara lai#,
;
me#ggalakka# e#gemba#ga# e#ergi al!er#a!i&, sebagai e#gga#!i e#ergi ba)a# bakar dari &(sil,
dima#a saa! i#i 3ami#a# as(ka# da# r(duksi mi#yak ki!a suda) sa#ga! !erba!as.
). Ma"8aat 5 Benefit 6
Ma#&aa! dari e#eli!ia# i#i adala) me#gura#gi ke!erga#!u#ga# emakaia# e#ergi ba)a# bakar
&(sil ser!a me#g)ema! emakaia# devisa #egara. "elai# i!u )asil e#eli!ia# i#i daa! memba#!u
me#gura#gi damak e#,emara# limba) las!ik di berbagai k(!a.
9. Dam+a 5 Impact 6
*amak dari )asil e#eli!ia# i#i !er,i!a#ya elua#g kesema!a# ker3a bagi semua laisa#
masyaraka! mulai dari )ulu -emulu#g Ce#geul. )i#gga )ilir -!ek#isi abrik. ser!a elua#g
i#ves!asi bagi siaau# dalam me#gemba#gka# abrik BBM si#!e!is dari limba) las!ik.
:
11. Tata:atu P$"$.!t!a"
Tabel 2. Tatawaktu Pelaksanaan Penelitian
No
Ta%a+a"
P$$r1aa"
&'12
K$t$ra"/a"
;a",8$b Mar,a+ M$!,1u ;u.,a/t. S$+,ot No-.,d$
1. Pe#yiaa# ba)a#
BakuCkimia
7. @#alisa si&a! &isikC
kimia ba)a# baku
sama) las!ik
< Pera#,a#ga#Cembu
a!a# @la! Pir(lisis
9. =3i ,(ba @la!
;. Pelaksa#aa#
Pe#eli!ia#
: *is!ilasiCemisa)a#
r(duk mi#yak
ir(lisis me#3adi
&raksi BBM
8. @#alisa si&a!
karak!eris!ik &raksi
BBM mi#yak
ir(lisis
0. @#alisis da!a J
embua!a# la(ra#
8
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