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CHNG TRNH GING DY KINH T FULBRIGHT

CV12-11-73.0

29/11/2012

V THNH T ANH
HONG PHNG

TH TRNG IN THOI DI NG VIT NAM


Vo nm 1993, chi ph s dng in thoi di ng Vit Nam rt cao. Gi cc dnh cho thu bao di
ng tr sau l 8.000 ng/pht (tng ng 0,75 USD), v ph thu bao hng thng l 20 USD. Vo
thi im , dch v in thoi di ng ch c ph sng bn th l H Ni, H Ch Minh
(HCM), Bin Ha v Vng Tu. Sau gn 20 nm, n nm 2012, gi mt pht di ng ch cn xp x
1.000 ng (tng ng 0,05 USD), ph thu bao ch cn 49.000/thng, cn sng c ph khp c
nc.
S chuyn bin v cng tch cc ca th trng vin thng Vit Nam ni ring v th trng di ng ni
chung bt u t Ch th 58 ca B Chnh tr Vit Nam vo u nm 2000. Ch th ny yu cu chng
c quyn, m ca th trng i vi th trng vin thng vi mc tiu Vit Nam phi c cht lng
v gi cc dch v vin thng tng ng hoc thp hn cc nc trong khu vc. T y, chnh ph
Vit Nam bt u xa b c ch c quyn v m ca rng ri hn i vi ngnh vin thng.
Cho ti u thp nin 2.000, th trng di ng Vit Nam vn ch bao gm hai cng ty cung cp dch v
di ng l Mobifone v Vinaphone. Mobifone c Tng cng ty Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam
(VNPT) thnh lp vo nm 1993 tr thnh mng di ng u tin Vit Nam theo cng ngh GSM.
Hai nm sau Mobifone hp tc vi Cng ty Comvik Vietnam AB thuc Tp on Kennevik theo hnh
thc hp ng hp tc kinh doanh (Business Cooperation Contract - BCC) t vn pht trin cho
Mobifone. Vinaphone c thnh lp nm 1996 v l chi nhnh hch ton ph thuc ca VNPT. Do
hai nh cung cp ny u thuc s hu ca VNPT nn trong sut gn 10 nm (t nm 1993 n 2003
khi nh cung cp dch v di ng th ba xut hin) th mc cc ch gim nh i cht so vi 1993,
trong khi ph thu bao vn mc 200.000 ng/thng. Khi y, c ba vng cc ph, trong vng cao
nht vn l 8.000 ng/pht.
Sau khi c ch trng v l trnh m ca th trng vin thng, vo nm 2003 nh cung cp dch v di
ng u tin khng thuc VNPT l S-Fone ra i. S-Fone l cng ty hot ng theo hnh thc BCC
gia tp on SLD Telecom (l lin doanh gia SK Telecom, LG Electronics v DongA Elecom Hn
Quc) v Cng ty dch v Bu chnh Vin Thng Si Gn, s dng cng ngh CDMA vi tng s vn
u t 230 triu USD. Thng 7/2003, S-Fone chnh thc cung cp dch v vi cng ngh hin i, tnh
nng vt tri so vi cng ngh GSM hin c v mc cc ban u kh hp dn so vi 2 mng cn
li, trong tin phong l tnh cc block 10 giy cho khch hng, cc ph ch cn mt vng v nhiu
gi cc khc nhau. Trong qu trnh trin khai, S-Fone cng c than phin mt s kh khn v kt ni
vi VNPT, ng k nht l n 1 nm ri sau khi ra mt, thu bao S-Fone mi c th nhn tin c cho
cc thu bao khc ca VNPT. Tuy nhin, mc d c cng ngh mi v gi cc thp nhng vng ph
sng ca S-Fone tng i hn ch, vo thi im khai trng nm 2003 ch gm 12 tnh (n nm 2005
nng ln 37 tnh), thua xa so vi phm vi ph sng 61 tnh ca hai mng cn li. Bn cnh , v c t
Tnh hung ny do V Thnh T Anh, ging vin Chng trnh Ging dy Kinh t Fulbright v Hong Phng, tr l nghin
cu bin son. Cc nghin cu tnh hung ca Chng trnh Ging dy Kinh t Fulbright c s dng lm ti liu cho tho lun
trn lp hc, ch khng phi a ra khuyn ngh chnh sch.
Bn quyn 2012 Chng trnh Ging dy Kinh t Fulbright.

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

mu in thoi v khng s dng sim nn vic ng k s dng phc tp. V vy, trong nm u tin,
S-Fone ch thu ht c 60.000 thu bao. Cng trong nm 2003, VNPT cho ra i mng in thoi di
ng ni vng Cityphone vi mc cc ch bng mt phn t so vi mng di ng khc nhng ch ph
sng ni vng H Ni v TP. H Ch Minh. Mng ny vi vng ph sng hn ch trong hai th ln v
gi cc khng hp dn cng khng thu ht c nhiu khch hng. Trong ng thi vi s ra i
ca S-Fone, Mobifone v Vinaphone cng gim gi cc v chun b nng cp ln cng ngh 2.5G
cung cp cc dch v gia tng GPRS/MMS cnh tranh vi tc vt tri ca cng ngh CDMA.
Mc d s ra i ca S-Fone v Cityphone nh du mt s chuyn bin trong th trng dch v
di ng, nhng phi ch n gn cui nm 2004 khi Viettel bt u xut hin trn th trng th s t
ph mi thc s din ra. Viettel l thng hiu thuc Tp on vin thng Qun i, trc khi tr thnh
nh cung cp dch v di ng kinh doanh dch v vin thng quc t VoIP, Internet v in thoi c
nh. Khi chnh thc ra i vo thng 8/2004, dch v di ng ca Viettel s dng cng ngh GSM
vi vng ph sng rt rng, bt u vi 52 tnh ri m rng ngay trn phm vi ton quc ch 6 thng
sau , vi mc cc thp hn khong 30% so vi Mobifone v Vinaphone, ng thi p dng phng
php tnh cc t ph theo block 6 giy. thu ht thu bao mi, Viettel cn cho cc thu bao mi
chn s trong gn mt nm sau khi khai trng (tr s p c bn u gi). Ch sau 5 thng ra i
n cui nm 2004, Viettel nhanh chng thu ht c hn 150.000 thu bao. Di p lc ca Viettel
v S-Fone, Mobifone v Vinaphone phi gim cc, chuyn sang tnh cc block 30 giy v thng
nht ch cn mt vng gi in. S ra i ca Viettel bt u cuc ua khuyn mi cho cc thu bao ha
mng mi vi nhiu hnh thc khc nhau: gim ph ha mng, tng cc thu bao dch v cho thu bao
tr sau, tng cc th np cho thu bao tr trc, h tr tin mua in thoi hay tng my khi ng k
dch v.
S cnh tranh trn th trng dch v di ng bt u din ra quyt lit vo nm 2005. Vo dp tt
Nguyn n nm ny, cc nh mng Vinaphone v Mobifone tip tc b mt uy tn do cc s c nghn
mch vn ko di tr nn trm trng hn trong dp Tt. Cng ty gp bt li ln nht l Vinaphone v
gp phi nhiu s c nghim trng nht - ch yu l do s thu bao ca mng ny ang ln nht nhng
k hoch tng s trm pht sng li khng theo kp din bin tng thu bao. V vy, trong sut 6
thng u nm 2005 h khng th thc hin cc chng trnh khuyn mi rm r thu ht thu bao
mi. Tn dng thi c ny, c Mobifone v Viettel bt u cc chng trnh khuyn mi ha mng: u
tin kh nh nhng l tng 50% ph ha mng cho thu bao tr trc v tr sau. V cui nm, Viettel
bt u chy ua m rng cc hnh thc khuyn mi. Ban u l vo thng 9/2005, Viettel tung ra
chng trnh khuyn mi 50 triu cuc gi min ph: min cc cuc gi ni mng u tin trong ngy
bt k thi gian gi v bt u tng khuyn mi cho thu bao mi: min ph ha mng tr sau v nhn
i ti khon ha mng tr trc.
Khuyn mi ln ny lm cho Mobifone v Vinaphone cng khai ch trch Viettel trn cc phng tin
thng tin i chng l Viettel ang bn ph gi dch v in thoi. S ch trch ny khin B
Thng Mi lc phi vo cuc, v cui cng phn x rng Viettel khng bn ph gi. T , c
Mobifone, Vinaphone v c S-Fone m rng khuyn mi hn trc: Vinaphone tng mc tng tin
ti khon tr trc ha mng t 30% ln 50%, S-Fone min ph ha mng tng 300.000 ng cho
thu bao mua my mi, Mobifone tng tin vo ti khon cho thu bao gii thiu thu bao khc. Sau khi
tung ra chng trnh 50 triu cuc gi min ph, Viettel bt u gp s c nghn mng khi khch hng
gi rt nhiu vo gi bui ti 19h 21h khin Viettel phi xin li khch hng.
Vo nm 2006, cnh tranh ca cc cng ty dch v mng tip tc v gay gt hn: Vinaphone, Mobifone,
Viettel cng gim cc ha mng tr trc, tng t 10% - 30% cho t ba n nm th np tip theo ty
cng ty. Bt u t thi gian ny, vic mua mt sim v ly ti khon s dng r hn nhiu so vi
mua mt th co tr trc v np tin. n thng cui nm, Viettel li m rng khuyn mi ha mng.
i vi thu bao tr trc l nhn i gi tr b ha mng tr trc (mt b ha mng tr gi 69.000

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Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

VND s c ti khon 119.000), tng 30.000 vo ti khon cho 5 thng tip theo, nhn i ba th np
tin tip theo. i vi thu bao tr sau, min cc ha mng v cc thu bao 6 thng. c bit trong
nm 2006, tnh tng thi gian khuyn mi di cc hnh thc khc nhau th Viettel c hn 6 thng
khuyn mi trn tng s 12 thng ca mt nm. Qua n nm 2007, hnh thc khuyn mi trn tr
thnh thng l chung cho tt cc nh mng khi thu ht thu bao tr trc ha mng: tt c u ng
b gim gi KIT ha mng vi ti khon ln hn s tin b ra mua, nhn i/tng 50% ti khon
i th 1,2,3 hoc 2,3,4 tip theo v cng thm tin trong 3-6 thng tip theo.
Cuc ua khuyn mi ha mng dn n tnh trng thu bao o m rng trn cc mng GSM,
thm ch c lc 50% s thu bao mi pht sinh l thu bao o. Cc nh cung cp dch v bt u sp
cn kit kho s v phi xin m rng s di ng ln 11 ch s t 10 ch s. Cc hnh thc khuyn mi
cng c iu chnh theo khi tng thi gian tng tin ln 6 12 thng nhm gi khch hng li vi
mng lu hn, tng cng cc t tng 100% th np cho cc thu bao tr trc (thng ko di 3
ngy, nh k 1 thng 1-2 ln) h khng chuyn sang dng sim thay th np. Tuy nhin khi c b
Thng tin - Truyn thng cho m rng kho s ln 11 ch s th cc bin php khuyn mi ha mng
vn c duy tr, thm ch cn tng ln n mc nhn ba ti khon ha mng. Lc , B Thng tin Truyn thng cng phi vo cuc yu cu tt c cc thu bao tr trc phi ng k t ngy 1-1-2008
hn ch tnh trng thu bao o. Nhng bin php ng k t ra khng hiu qu, khi ngi dng c th
ng k thng tin thu bao tr trc qua tin nhn n nh mng, hoc thng qua website m khng cn
kim chng thng tin ng k c trung thc hay khng. Vic ny khin b Thng tin - Truyn
thng thay i khng cho php ng k thng qua website hay tin nhn na m phi qua mu bng vn
bn. Nhng ch n thng 6/2009, tc mt nm ri sau , hai nh mng ln Mobifone v Viettel
hon thnh 100% ng k thu bao tr trc, nhng trn thc t, nhiu trng hp khng phi l thng
tin tht khi cc i l kch hot v ng k thng tin cho khch hng. Do , tnh trng thu bao o
vn khng thay i thm ch trong nm 2009 cc nh cung cp dch v thng k n 80% s lng
thu bao mi l thu bao o1. n ni mt lnh o nh cung cp dch v cn cho rng khch hng
di ng tr trc Vit Nam nghin khuyn mi rt mnh n mc dng khuyn mi l doanh thu s
nh tr ngay. n khi B Thng tin - Truyn thng yu cu n ht ngy 31-12-2009, cc thu bao tr
trc phi ng k thng tin c nhn trn giy c km mt bn ph-t chng minh nhn dn v mi c
nhn c s dng ti a ba s trong mi mng, sit cht khuyn mi ha mng mi khi yu cu cc
nh cung cp dch v gim gi sim. Nh , tnh trng thu bao o gim ng k.
Ngoi cuc cnh tranh khuyn mi, cuc canh tranh gim gi cc v dch v gia tng din ra cng kh
quyt lit, to nn mt mt bng chung kh tng ng nhau gia ba nh mng ln. u tin l v gi
cc, trong gn 5 nm b dn dt v gi cc, vo nm 2009 mc d Viettel trnh phng n vi B
Thng tin - Truyn thng c ph duyt, nhng c Mobifone v Vinaphone gim gi cc nhiu
hn Viettel 10 ng trn mi pht cho tt c cc gi cc tng ng ch sau 3 ngy. Trong nm
2010, Viettel cng mt ln na gim gi trc v vi ngy sau c hai nh cung cp mng cn li ca
VNPT cng nhanh chng gim theo vi mc thp hn 10/pht. T nm 2010 n nay cc nh mng
dng khng gim gi na do mc doanh thu bnh qun trn mt thu bao (ARPU) gim xung
mc ngang vi khu vc v s lng thu bao cng dn bo ha, khng tng na. Vic gim gi cc
khng nhng khng thu ht c nhiu khch hn m cn c th lm gim doanh thu ca cc nh
mng. Hoc dch v mi nht c nhiu ngi s dng hin nay v c cc nh mng u t kh
nhiu l dch v d liu Internet 3G th gi cc v lng d liu min ph ti v cng tng ng
nhau. Xt cc dch v gia tng nh tin nhn, GPRS/EDGE 2.5G, nhc chung ch, chuyn vng quc
t gi cng tng ng nhau. Mt mt bng gi dch v in thoi di ng c to ra v duy tr
n nh.

http://vnexpress.net/gl/kinh-doanh/2009/10/3ba140e2/

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Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Trong s pht trin ca cc nh cung cp dch v chim lnh th trng, cng c s ra i ca nhiu
nh cung cp dch v nh. Ngoi S-Fone ra i nm 2003, nm 2006 mng in thoi di ng khc
di tn gi l E-Mobile ca Tp on Vin thng in lc EVN-Telecom v HT Mobile thuc Cng
ty c phn Vin Thng H Ni (Hanoi Telecom) hp tc vi tp on Hutchison (Hng Kng) theo
cng ngh CDMA cng chnh thc ra i. Nhm thu ht khch hng, hai nh cung cp dch v ny vn
tp trung vo bin php gim gi thnh v khng mang li nhiu thnh cng. n nm 2007, HT Mobile
dng khai thc dch v theo cng ngh CDMA, chuyn sang dng cng ngh GSM v chuyn cc
thu bao cho S-Fone. Th phn ca E-Mobile cng rt khim tn, n nm 2011 sau khi EVN-Telecom
gp thua l v s h tr ca EVN khng cn, ton b hot ng EVN-Telecom c chnh ph yu
cu chuyn sang cho Viettel. n nm 2008, Tng cng ty Vin thng Di ng Ton cu thuc B Cng
An v tp on VimpelCom (Nga) chnh thc thnh lp mng di ng Beeline. Beeline cng tin phong
trong vic cung cp cc gi cc c trng nhm n mt s nhu cu ca khch hng m cc nh
cung cp mng dn u khng tht s quan tm.
Di sc p cnh tranh ln, S-Fone sau thi gian khng thnh cng vi cng ngh CDMA th i tc
Hn Quc chnh thc rt khi hp ng kinh doanh v giao li ton b cho i tc Vit Nam. Cc
hot ng khuyn mi v gim gi cc ca ba nh cung cp dch v chim th phn chi phi Viettel,
Mobifone v Vinaphone khin mt s nh cung cp dch v khc lm vo tnh trng kh khn nhng
ng thi cng kch thch h m thm cc cc gi cc c trng. iu ny cng khin ba nh cung cp
dch v dn u cng phi thay i mt s chin lc kinh doanh ngn chn cc nh mng nh hn
chim ly th phn. u tin phi k n thng 3/2006, S-Fone bt u tung ra gi cc mi Forever, vi
gi cc ny cc thu bao khng gii hn thi gian nghe gi nu ch cn gi mt ln trong nm. Gi
cc ny khin Viettel tung ra gi cc Tomato cng c thi gian nghe khng gii hn km theo
mt cuc gi n v i pht sinh trong ba thng. Hai gi cc ny thu ht cho c Viettel v SFone mt lng thu bao ng k. Sau u nm 2008, Vietnammobile tung ra dch v km VM24 vi
5.000 ng mt ngy c th nhn tin min ph v gi ni mng min ph 6 ting. Vo u nm 2009,
Beeline ra mt gi Big Zero min ph cc ni mng t pht 2 n 20, ri S-Fone a ra gi cc 1
ng cho 1 giy ni mng. Tuy nhin, cc gi cc ny cng khin ba nh cung cp dch v ln phi
cung cp mt s dch v gim gi ni mng cnh tranh (Xem ph lc).
S cnh tranh quyt lit ca cc nh mng cng dn n cn nhiu s can thip v qun l ca B Bu
chnh - Vin thng. u tin l quyt nh 217/2003/Q-TTg v qun l gi cc dch v bu chnh,
vin thng, theo cc doanh nghip th phn chi phi s phi ng k gi cc vi B v c B ph
duyt trc mi ln gim gi cc. Cc doanh nghip c th phn khng chi phi c chn gi cc ty
v ch phi thng bo n b vic thay i gi cc. iu ny, khin cc doanh nghip mi gia
nhp th trng d dng thc hin cc chin lc v gi cnh tranh. n nm 2005, khi Viettel pht
trin mnh, cc thu bao ca h lin tc gp kh khn trong vic kt ni vi thu bao ca VNPT th
Viettel cho rng VNPT ch p ng c 50% dung lng yu cu ca h trong khi 80% cuc gi ca
h l n cc thu bao VNPT2. Mt vi quan chc ca VNPT li cho rng do Viettel pht trin thu
bao qu nhanh v khng u t c s h tng y nn cc cuc gi n thu bao khng thc hin
c.
n thng 7/2005, Viettel gi cng vn khiu ni n B Bu chnh Vin Thng, v B ny phi vo
cuc phn x v thnh lp mt T cng tc chuyn ngnh hai bn c th tha thun v thc hin cc
vic kt ni. n thng 10/2005, Viettel mt ln na bo co vi B Bu Chnh Vin Thng v vic
khng kt ni n cc thu bao c nh VNPT min Bc v mt ln na B qun l phi phn x.

http://suckhoedinhduong.nld.com.vn/121328p0c1002/viettel-nan-nhan-moi-cua-ong-doc-quyen-vnpt.htm
http://vietbao.vn/Kinh-te/Viettel-co-nguy-co-pha-san-neu-VNPT-khong-thao-nut-co-chai/45159811/87/
http://sgtt.vn/Ban-doc/110886/Viettel---VNPT-Khau-chien-nay-lua.html
2

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Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Cc s kin ny khin B Bu Chnh Vin Thng trong nm 2006 ban hnh Quyt nh quy nh
vic kt ni gia cc mng Vin Thng khc nhau.
Vo nm 2006 khi hin tng thu bao o pht trin mnh, B BCVT cng xy dng mt biu mu
chung cc cng ty cung cp dch v di ng khai bo thu bao qun l tt hn cc dch v. Sau ,
nm 2007 B BCVT cng kim tra bt buc cht lng di ng, so snh vi tiu chun quc t v
cng b rng ri to iu kin cho ngi tiu dng tham kho. Khi mng di ng ua khuyn mi thu
ht thu bao mi, th B cng ban hnh quy nh lm gim ng k tnh trng thu bao o nh trn.
n nay, th trng di ng Vit Nam n ngng bo ha v bt u chuyn sang dng nhiu hn
cng ngh mi 3G. Cht lng v gi c cng c thay i ng k, c li hn rt nhiu cho ngi
tiu dng. Nh thi im nm 2003 2006, nghn mch dp tt Nguyn n l vic c xem l ng
nhin, sau nm 2009 khng cn din ra na. Vng ph sng c m rng n ton quc mt
cch nhanh chng ri gi cc dn tim cn n mc gi chung ca khu vc. T l thm nhp thu
bao di ng ca Vit Nam cng ang mc rt cao so vi khu vc. Trong sut qu trnh gn 8 nm t
lc m ca th trng, th trng di ng thc s pht trin rt tt.

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Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 1. Mt vi s liu c bn ca ba nh mng ln nht


2004

2008

2009

2010

2011

5.008

11.317

22.643

36.300

Li nhun trc thu ng (t VN)

T l doanh thu dch v gia tng

14.500

17.500

28.860

36.034

38..000

5.860

6.260

7..000

Li nhun trc thu ng (t VN)

3.100

5.600

T l doanh thu dch v gia tng

18%

25%

6.941

11..000

14..000

20.519

28..000

28..000

Doanh thu di ng (t VN)


Vinaphone

2007

1.764

Doanh thu di ng (t VN)


Mobifone

2006

93

Doanh thu di ng (t VN)


Viettel

2005

40%

Li nhun trc thu ng (t VN)

3.360

T l doanh thu dch v gia tng

15%

21%

40%

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Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 2. Lch trnh tng s trm pht sng ca ba nh mng ln nht

Ngy cng b
S trm pht sng
Viettel

2G

01/09/2006

25/10/2007

01/07/2008

31/12/2008

01/01/2010

20/08/2010

19/01/2011

200

1.200

2.400

5.555

8.000

14.000

20.000

23.000

26.000

18/12/2009

09/09/2010

19/01/2011

10.000

14.000

16.000

02/06/2010

03/02/2011

3G

Ngy cng b
S trm pht sng

2G

01/07/2004

22/05/2005

24/04/2006

15/11/2007

14/10/2008

31/12/2009

1.000

1.300

3.000

5.780

10.000

16.000
05/12/2009

Ngy cng b
S trm pht sng

3G

Ngy cng b
S trm pht sng
Vinaphone

23/04/2005

Ngy cng b
S trm pht sng

Mobifone

02/04/2004

2G

2.400

21/07/2011
7.600

07/05/2004

24/02/2005

20/10/2006

15/11/2007

09/12/2008

19/10/2009

31/12/2010

23/06/2011

700

1.100

2.000

2.800

6.000

12.000

22.000

23.000

19/10/2009

31/12/2010

23/06/2011

7.500

10.000

Ngy cng b
S trm pht sng

20.000
20.000 cho
2G v 3G

3G

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Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 3. Gi cc v cc chng trnh khuyn mi

3 mng nh

Big Save

Beeline
Big and
T ph 2!
Kool

Ni mng

700

200 + 700 x s
pht

Ngoi mng
Thng tin
gi cc

t khuyn mi

50% gi tr
np tin

Big Zero

Vietnammobile
Maxi Talk Plus
Heart2heart

2.230/ngy
min ph

1.350/block 20
pht

6.500 VND cho 6


ting gi min ph

1.500

1.650

1.350

990

1.500

t khuyn mi

ngng cung
cp gi cc

Gi cc c
nhn

2.160 cho
pht th 1. 60
(TK chnh),
1.080 (TK
ph) t pht
th 2
2160

Tr trc

Ni mng
Tr sau
Ngoi mng
Thu bao
Tnh nng ca mng

S-Fone
1 ng

20.000 VND
ph cp s gi
min ph

Block 1 giy

Min ph
90.000

Khng c tr sau

75.000
Cng tin cho thi gian nghe ngoi mng, chuyn gi cc n
gin, nhiu khuyn mi nhn i 100%. Ph sng 50 tnh thnh,
cha c 3G

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Ph sng ton quc, nhiu khuyn mi nhn i


100%

S dng cng
ngh CDMA,
c 3G

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 4. So snh cng ngh GSM v CDMA


Th h cng ngh di ng
Tn cng ngh
Tc download ti a l
thuyt

2G

2.5G

2.75G

3G

GSM

GPRS

EDGE

HSDPA

9,6Kbps

171,2Kbps

384Kbps

14,4Mbps

L cng ngh 3G. Nhng thng


c qung co nh 2.75G.

c im

Thng c qung co cc nc
nh cng ngh 3.5G. Thc cht l
cng ngh 3G cho GSM ci tin.

GSM
c im chung GSM

S lng mng GSM chim a s, do d dng cho ngi dng chuyn vng (roaming) khi di chuyn t nc ny n nc
khc. GSM vt tri hn CDMA v n s dng th SIM, linh hot, bo mt v an ton cao. Ngi dng c th tho th SIM trn
my in thoi ny lp vo my khc mt cch d dng. Ngi dng c nhiu t do trong vic la chn thit b u cui.

S dng Vit Nam

c s dng hu ht Vit Nam tr S-Fone, E-Mobile. c nng cp ln cng ngh 3G t nm 2009. GRPS bt u c
cung cp Vit Nam t nm 2004. GPRS, EDGE c cung cp nh dch v gia tng Vit Nam cho n trc khi c cng ngh
3G HSPDA c cung cp.

Th h cng ngh di ng
Tn cng ngh
Tc download ti a l
thuyt

2.5G

3G

CDMA 2.000 1x

CDMA 2.000 1xEV-DO Rev.0

CDMA 2.000 1xEV-DO Rev.A

144Kbps

2,4Mbs

3,1Mbps

c im

c S-Fone cung cp lc mi ra mt

c im chung GSM

Vi hiu sut ti s dng tn s tri ph cao v iu khin nng lng nn CDMA cho php qun l s lng thu bao cao gp 520 ln so vi GSM. Cht lng cuc gi c ci tin: CDMA cung cp cht lng m thanh trung thc v r rng hn h thng
di ng s dng cng ngh khc. Tnh bo mt cao. t tn pin, thi gian m thoi lu v kch thc my nh hn. Cung cp
nhiu dch v cng thm v truyn d liu vi tc cao. Bn knh ph sng ca trm gc ln hn GSM.

S dng Vit Nam

Lc mi ra mt khng c sim nn vic ng k s dng phc tp, vng ph sng cc mng CDMA Vit Nam rt hn ch trong
sut thi gian hot ng so vi GSM. S lng mu my u cui t so vi my cng ngh GSM.

CMDA

Trang 9/19

c S-Fone s dng t nm 2005.


E-Mobile v HT Mobile s dng.

Cha c cung cp Vit Nam

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 1. Thay i gi cc ca cc nh mng trong giai on 2.000 2010

Vinaphone v Mobifone
2.000

2001

Ni vng

3.500

Lin vng

6.000

Cch vng

8.000

Thu bao

200.000

Ni vng

3.500

Lin vng

5.000

Cch vng

6.500

Thu bao

2003
Tr sau
01/05/2004

Ni vng

3.300

Ngoi vng

4.200

Ni vng

1.800

Ngoi vng
Tr trc

01/08/2004

Tr sau

p dng Mt
vng

120.000

Ni vng

3.000
100.000

Ni vng

1.700

Ngoi vng

2.400

Tr trc

3.000

Tr sau

1.700

2005

1/10/2005

Tr sau
p dng Block
30 giy + 6 giy

p dng
Block 6 giy
+6

Tr trc

Tr sau

Ni mng
Ngoi mng

2.490
2.790

Thu bao

69.000

Ni mng

1.490

Ngoi mng

1.390

SMS

400

80.000
1.454

Tr trc

2.600

Thu bao

60.000

Tr sau

01/08/2004

3.300

Thu bao

Thu bao
01/02/2005

2.700

Thu bao
Ngoi vng
Gim cn 2 vng,
p dng Block 30
giy

Cha ra i

150.000

Tr trc

2004

Viettel

1.600

Trang 10/19

01/09/2005
Cn li khng thay i

Thu bao

59.000

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

SMS

01/06/2006

2006

01/10/2006

Block 6 giy + 1
chung Ni v
Ngoi mng

Gim Ni mng

CV12-11-73.0

Tr trc

2.600

Ni mng

350

Ngoi mng

400

Thu bao
Tr sau

1.336

Tr trc

2.272

Tr trc

2.160

Tr sau

1.300

SMS Ni VNPT
01/05/2007

Gim Ni mng
Tr trc

2007
15/12/2007
Tr sau
03/06/2009

Tr trc
Tr sau

2009

01/08/2010

2010

Tr sau

01/06/2006

Tr trc

2.000

Tr sau

1.227

Ni mng

1.750

Ngoi mng

1.990

Ni mng

1.080

Ngoi mng

1.200

Ni mng

1.380

Ngoi mng

1.580

Thu bao

49.000

Ni mng

1.080

SMS
26/07/2007

Tr trc
Tr sau

01/06/2009

Tr trc

Tr sau

980

Ni mng

1.180

Ngoi mng

1.380

Thu bao

Tr trc

Tr sau

350

Ngoi mng
Tr trc

60.000

880

Ngoi mng

980

Trang 11/19

1.990

Ngoi mng

2.190

Thu bao

59.000

Ni mng

1.390

Ngoi mng

1.290

Ni mng

300

Ngoi mng

350

Ni mng

1.690

Ngoi mng

1.890

Ni mng

1.090

Ngoi mng

1.190

Ni mng

1.390

Ngoi mng

1.590

Thu bao

50.000

Ni mng

1.090

Ngoi mng
26/07/2010

Tr trc

49.000

Ni mng

Ni mng

Ni mng

1.190

Ni mng

1.390

Ngoi mng
Tr sau

990

50.000

Ni mng

890

Ngoi mng

990

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 2. Th phn thu bao di ng ca Vit Nam 2007 - 2011 (%)

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Viettel

30.00%

40.45%

34.90%

33.82%

36.72%

Mobifone

31.50%

27.78%

29.00%

27.15%

29.11%

Vinaphone

32.00%

25.21%

28.30%

27.19%

28.71%

Sfone

3.00%

6.56%

6.50%

4.67%

0.53%

E-Mobile

2.50%

1.30%

0.90%

1.59%

Vietnamobile

1.00%

0.00%

4.11%

3.18%

0.00%

2.16%

0.17%

Beeline

Trang 12/19

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 3. S lng thu bao di ng Vit Nam (triu thu bao)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

19

45

75

98

116

131

n v: Triu thu bao


Ngun: Sch trng Cng Ngh Thng Tin v Truyn Thng Vit Nam 2009 2011

Ph lc 4. Doanh thu hot ng di ng Vit Nam

Doanh thu dch v di ng Vit Nam


Doanh thu dch v ni dung s mng trn mng di ng

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

1547

2307

3251

4033

5742

383

572

n v: Triu USD
Ngun: Sch trng Cng Ngh Thng Tin v Truyn Thng Vit Nam 2009 2011
Ghi ch: n v triu USD theo t gi 31/12/2010 ca Ngn Hng Nh Nc Vit Nam

Trang 13/19

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 5. T l thm nhp in thoi di ng mt s nc chu

2008

2010

Singapore

173%

196%

Hong Kong

155%

144%

Vit Nam

67%

126%

112%

125%

Malaysia

92%

121%

i Loan

101%

119%

New Zealand

113%

117%

Thi Lan

97%

110%

Hn Quc

95%

106%

Nht Bn

83%

96%

Philippines

77%

94%

60%

88%

Sir Lanka

56%

83%

Trung Quc

46%

63%

Indonesia

30%

61%

Pakistan

52%

59%

Bangladesh

29%

49%

Trung Bnh

68%

47%

Trang 14/19

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 6. T l thu bao tr trc v tr sau ca mt s nc chu nm 2008 v nm 2010

Tr Trc

Tr sau

Tr Trc

2008

Tr sau

2010

Pakistan

98%

2%

98%

2%

98%

2%

98%

2%

Bangladesh

98%

2%

97%

3%

Philippines

97%

3%

98%

2%

Indonesia

96%

4%

84%

16%

Sri Lanka

94%

6%

93%

7%

Thi Lan

90%

10%

90%

10%

Vit Nam

88%

12%

98%

2%

Trung Quc

81%

19%

72%

28%

Malaysia

78%

22%

81%

19%

New Zealand

67%

33%

67%

33%

Singapore

48%

52%

49%

51%

Hong Kong

48%

52%

50%

50%

41%

59%

44%

56%

i Loan

13%

87%

19%

81%

Nht Bn

1%

99%

2%

98%

Hn Quc

1%

99%

1%

99%

Trung bnh

84%

16%

74%

26%

Trang 15/19

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 71. Gi hiu dng trung bnh mt pht in thoi mt s nc chu


2004

2008

2010

Nht Bn

0.45

0.43

0.42

0.51

0.40

0.40

0.24

0.21

Hn Quc

0.14

0.13

0.12

i Loan

0.12

0.11

0.37

0.25

0.11

Singapore

0.10

0.09

Malaysia

0.13

0.09

0.08

Thi Lan

0.03

0.03

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.21

0.06

0.01

0.06

0.01

Indonesia

0.04

0.02

0.01

Vietnam

0.18

0.10

0.05

New Zealand

Philippines

Trung Quc
n
Pakistan
Bangladesh

n v: USD
Ghi ch: Gi ny c tnh bng tng doanh thu thoi t tt c cc khch hng chia cho tng s pht gi ca tt c cc khch hng.

Trang 16/19

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 82. T l thm nhp in thoi di ng Bng thng rng mt s nc Chu (s thu bao bng thng rng trn tng dn s)
2005

2010

Hn Quc

26%

91%

Nht Bn

23%

88%

3%

84%

Hong Kong

9%

74%

Singapore

7%

74%

i Loan

5%

69%

New Zealand

3%

66%

Malaysia

1%

28%

Philippines

0%

16%

Vit Nam

0%

14%

Sri Lanka

0%

9%

India

0%

9%

China

0%

3%

Thi Lan

0%

3%

Indonesia

0%

1%

Pakistan

0%

1%

Bangladesh

0%

0%

Trang 17/19

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 93. Th phn in thoi di ng ca cc nh cung cp dch v mt s nc chu nm 2010


Nh cung
cp s 3

Nh cung
cp s 2

Nh cung
cp s 1

Cc nh
cung cp
khc

Trung Quc

69%

20%

11%

New Zealand

48%

43%

10%

Philippines

53%

30%

16%

1%

Hn Quc

50%

32%

18%

1%

Singapore

44%

29%

26%

41%

32%

27%

Nht Bn

47%

27%

20%

6%

Thi Lan

43%

30%

24%

3%

Malaysia

40%

32%

25%

3%

Vit Nam

36%

29%

28%

6%

Bangladesh

41%

26%

23%

10%

n D

45%

21%

19%

14%

Sir Lanka

39%

23%

18%

20%

i Loan

35%

23%

23%

19%

Pakistan

31%

24%

20%

26%

Hong Kong

26%

24%

22%

27%

Indonesia

20%

17%

17%

47%

Trang 18/19

Th trng in thoi di ng Vit Nam CV12-11-73.0

CV12-11-73.0

Ph lc 14: Doanh thu trung bnh trn mi thu bao Vit Nam
2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

18

12

6.5

5.52

n v: USD

Ph lc 15: Doanh thu trung bnh trn mi thu bao mt s nc chu nm 2010
Nht Bn

58.06

Hoa K

49.91

47.27

Hn Quc

33.63

Phn Lan

33.52

Singapore

33.01

Malaysia

16.04

Trung Quc

10.44

Thi Lan

6.29

Indonesia

4.62

4.26

Philippines

4.01

Vietnam

5.00

n v: USD

Trang 19/19