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2020 Proposal Plan 1

Campus Composting Plan and the


Use of Plate Scrapings Collection
Stockton University
ENVL 4300 - Environmental Issues
Dr. Tait Chirenje
Emily Palumbo & Leah Wallerstein
17 March 2015

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

MISSION STATEMENT ............................................................................................................... 3


ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... 3
STATEMENT OF NEED ............................................................................................................... 3
PROJECT RATIONALE ................................................................................................................ 4
PROJECT NARRATIVES ............................................................................................................. 4
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................... 4
PROPOSED ACTIVITIES AND SCHEDULING ................................................................................. 4
Short Term Activities (1-2 years): ...................................................................................... 4
Medium/Long Term Activities (2-5 years): ........................................................................ 5
Long term (5+ years): ......................................................................................................... 5
FUNDING AND COSTS ................................................................................................................ 6
Phase 1: Small Compost Bin in Campus Garden................................................................ 6
Phase 2: Three Collection Bin and One Micro Compost Bin in Lake Lodge..................... 6
Phase 3: Worm Compost Bin for Campus Garden ............................................................. 6
RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................... 6
EVALUATION............................................................................................................................... 7
OUTREACH ................................................................................................................................... 7
SUSTAINABILITY ........................................................................................................................ 7
WORKS CITED ............................................................................................................................. 8
APPENDIX ..................................................................................................................................... 9
BUDGET CALCULATIONS ........................................................................................................... 9
Phase 1 - Small Basic Bin (3' by 3') at Campus Garden: .................................................... 9
Phase 2 - Add Three Collection Bins & Small Basic Bin at Lake Lodge: ......................... 9
Phase 3 (Option 1) - Worm Compost Bin in Campus Garden:........................................... 9
Labor Cost Per Worker to Build: ...................................................................................... 10
CONTACTS ............................................................................................................................... 10

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MISSION STATEMENT
Composting is a beneficial and sustainable option for Stockton University to practice for
dealing with extra food waste. Providing an on-campus composting system will be useful by
preventing unnecessary cost of relocating food waste and by creating the presence of a
sustainable conscious atmosphere.
ABSTRACT
The objective of this project is to create a stationary compost bin for Stockton University
to collect the extra food waste from the various food providers on campus. Stockton University is
known for its sustainability efforts through its bachelor's program and various projects from the
environmental clubs. The food providers at the campus are connected with an independent
organization that collects most of the food waste, but the extra waste that is otherwise taken to a
landfill still accumulates to a decent amount from the large student body. With the help of the
various environmental clubs and volunteers, this extra waste can be used for the college farm in
the form of compost from the hand built compost bins made by volunteers. The use of creating
compost from extra food waste will be used for organic fertilizer to help the soil, provide
education about sustainable horticulture practice, and be beneficial for the environment.
STATEMENT OF NEED
The student restaurant, N-Wing, at Stockton University has a contract with an
independent organization to collect most food waste. However, there is still a decent amount of
food waste left that instead of being collected goes to the landfill area. The items, such as coffee
grounds and food scraps, accumulates and are wasted going to disposal. There can be a better use
for this extra food waste that are not collected by the outside organization. By providing a
compost system in the school area it will not only decrease the food waste, it will be educational
to any student who wishes to learn sustainable horticulture.
Composting is a topic that addresses a real-world issue and installs a sense of
environmental stewardship among the students. Using food waste as a compost agent is a unique
concept. It has a high moisture content and low physical structure; it is important to mix food
waste with a bulking agent that will absorb some of the excess moisture as well as add structure
to the mix.
The food waste that is not composted generally goes directly to a landfill. More than 13
million tons of food scraps were generated in 1990s and accounted for the 9 percent of the
municipal solid waste stream in the US. The 72 percent of the materials that goes into the land
fill can be diverted through composting (UGA, 2012). The environmental benefits for
composting food waste include a reduction in water pollution, economical benefits to the
landscapers and the Stockton garden can be substantial. For Stocktons campus, the benefits can
be the "reduction of solid waste disposal fees, educating students on the benefits of food waste,
close the food waste loop by returning it back to agriculture, and reduce the need for more
landfill spaces" (UGA, 2012).

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PROJECT RATIONALE
Through our research on the current waste management practices of Stockton University,
we discovered a highly underused resource. Composting is currently not being done on campus
mainly because food waste generated by Stocktons dining facilities is contracted by Chartwells;
which has all organic garbage taken to pig feed farms. There are also the issues of sanitation to
consider food waste bins specifically for compost pose a potential health hazard by attracting
vermin.
However, our plan aims to sustainably compost without the issues of contract and risk to
student health. By utilizing separate bins for plate scrapings, which are disposed of in a landfill
with the rest of the universitys garbage, Stockton College can still have the benefits of
composting without past issues that have stood in the projects way. Food waste that is taken to a
landfill can be seen as being wasted due to the fact that it can provide economic benefit to
Stockton University.
There are many well-known benefits to composting. The first, as mentioned above, is the
economic benefit. What would normally go to waste can be used in the place of (potentially
harmful) fertilizers on the campus garden; as well as providing a low cost alternative? Compost
also decreases the need for water (less water goes a longer way) and pesticides (epa.gov,
Composting Benefits).
Compost also helps improve the quality of soil in a number of ways. It can enrich nutrient
poor or damaged soil by increasing the amount of humus (fertile organic layer) available, which
can in turn suppress plant diseases and pests, reduce or eliminate the need for chemical
fertilizers, and promote higher agricultural yields (epa.gov, Composting Benefits).
Composting also has the indirect effect of preventing pollution. By disposing of food
waste the amount of methane produced in landfills ultimately decreases. Methane is a known
greenhouse gas; and landfills are the third largest producer of methane emissions in the United
States (epa.gov, Methane Emissions). Carbon emissions are also indirectly cut by removing the
need to transport food waste to landfill sites.
Our project aims to help Stockton University become more sustainable as whole and to
implement a simple composting program to benefit the campus garden. The program as we have
outlined it has potential to be economically beneficial, educational, and a way to engage the
student body towards a more environmentally friendly future.
PROJECT NARRATIVES
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The goal of our composting project is to implement a small scale campus composting
system that can later be expanded upon if successful. Because Stockton University has
never implemented compost waste management practices, small changes will need to be
made before composting becomes a possibility. We believe starting with composting
activities centered on the campus garden and a few micro bins have the most potential for
implementation.
PROPOSED ACTIVITIES AND SCHEDULING
Short Term Activities (1-2 years): These are the objectives that can be easily and
realistically met in 1-2 years time we will refer to this as Phase 1. We propose that

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coffee grounds normally collected as waste by Chartwells be left to use on campus as
compost. Coffee grounds provide very little nutrients and therefore do not have much
added benefit as swine feed. Phase 1 requires estimates of how many coffee grounds will
be produced each day and a student volunteer to transport the grounds to the garden daily.
This student may be any interested person or member of the environmental organizations
on campus. Outreach to student environmental clubs is also to take place to foster further
involvement in the composting program. Phase 1 also calls for the construction of a small
composting unit on-site at the campus garden.
Medium/Long Term Activities (2-5 years): This part of the program will be referred to
as Phase 2. This phase begins with collecting coffee grounds from other establishments
on campus (the Beans List, Au Bon Pain, Dunkin Donuts, etc.). Student volunteers or
interested club members may be needed to pick up and transport additional influx of
coffee grounds.
It is during this phase that one micro bin be placed in The Lodge to collect plate
scrapings. Students will be encouraged to place food waste in the bin; and will need to be
educated (through use of some sort of graphic either on the bin or near it) what not to
place inside it (plastic/paper waste). This receptacle will need to empty daily to avoid
contamination issues. This duty can fall on a number of parties:
a.) Student volunteer educated on proper disposal technique
b.) Club volunteer involved with compost project familiar with proper disposal
technique
c.) Full-time student intern
The campus garden plan calls for employment of a full-time student intern. However, at
the present time one has not been in use. Many of the duties relating to compost can be
relegated to the student intern if Stockton University sees fit; depending on when the
intern is implemented.
If needed the existing compost unit may need to be expanded to accommodate larger
amounts of waste.
Long term (5+ years): Phase 3 of the project seeks to expand the plate scraping
receptacles to N-Wing Cafeteria. Plate scraping bins will be added alongside existing
waste bins; again with some kind of informative graphic on what is safe to put into them.
Current practices at N-Wing involve cafeteria workers taking plates to be cleaned with
food waste still intact. Training workers to scrape food waste off of plates into separate
bins would also be simple to implement.
A full time intern or student worker will be needed to manage the multiple collection
sites at this point, alongside any interested number of volunteers. Phase 3 would be ideal
with the use of the student intern planned for the garden.
The on-site compost unit will need to be expanded at this point, if it has not been already.
Effective composting practices for large amounts of waste, such as worm composting or
can be cheaply and easily be put into practice.

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FUNDING AND COSTS
All of the costs are based on the prices at Lowes, Wal-Mart, Home Depot, or a common
large hardware store. The correct measurement for the lumber cuts can be provided by
the lumberman themselves.
The labor cost for building these constructions from the volunteers will be about $4.00
for safety goggles. There is a one-time payment for each of the phases since there will be
two volunteers for each phase. The cost of the gloves will be $4.25 for the six (6) pairs
which is enough for the volunteers to borrow. The gloves are a one-time payment and the
two volunteer safety goggles (View Calculation in the Appendix).
Phase 1: Small Compost Bin in Campus Garden
The cost it takes to create a small 3' by 3' wooden compost bin for the Campus
Garden is about $27.55, given the consideration of the extra cost for the extra amount
of the nails in the 1 lb package. This is a one-time payment (View Calculation in the
Appendix).
Phase 2: Three Collection Bin and One Micro Compost Bin in Lake Lodge
The cost it takes to buy three (3) collection bins is about $59.34 total. This is based on
the lowest cost at Wal-Mart for a 8.5" x 9.0" x 11.0" Eco Kitchen Compost Pail
product (View Calculation in the Appendix).
The cost it takes to add another micro compost bin in the Lake Lodge is the same as
creating the small 3' by 3' wooden compost bin that is in the Campus Garden, but is a
lesser amount due the using the extra nail supply. The cost is $23.31 based on the
Lowes prices. This is a one-time payment (View Calculation in the Appendix).
Phase 3: Worm Compost Bin for Campus Garden
The cost for making the Worm Compost Bin is about $51.31 based on the 4' by 8'
construction. This is a one-time payment (View Calculation in the Appendix).
The cost for adding the worm component of the bin is $33.17 for a certain continuous
time period, every each 1/2 lb of food waste inputted. This is a multiple time payment,
possibly weekly or bi-weekly (View Calculation in the Appendix).
The way to accumulate the needed money for each of the phases can be done through
fundraising from environmental clubs that want to be involved in compost operations.
RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT
Because Phase 1 of our project aims to start small one or two student volunteers
should be sufficient to collect coffee grounds from The Lodge. This student(s) can use
their own personal vehicle for transport of material to the garden. However, as the project
expands a school vehicle may be required to handle increased amounts of waste. This
duty will most likely be assigned to the intern; but can be given to any student certified

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through the Brightfleet program. Safe handling and disposal techniques should be taught
to the volunteer or intern to minimize risk of spills and other accidents. If composting
operations expand to a more campus-wide initiative Custodial Services can take over
most of the collection duties.
Our project can be effectively managed by any willing SUST or ENVL faculty
member, or by the faculty member currently managing the garden operations. Optimally
students will be educated on the composting operations taking place on campus, and have
the ability to get involved. Interested environmental organizations can also play a role in
management of the composting program, such as by delegating volunteers and spreading
awareness on campus.
EVALUATION
The success of our plan can be evaluated by each phase being met on schedule. For
example, if the goal of composting coffee grounds from The Lodge is met within 1-2 years, the
objectives will be considered met. Although the project is not paid for itself during these three
phases, it should be easily affordable. The total cost for the whole project is $202.43, with the
costs divided into three phases and labor fees. The University is well known for its sustainable
methods and the concept of composting is a relatively inexpensive choice. By adding an
additional component to collect other food waste, it will continue to improve Stockton's
reputation.
OUTREACH
The awareness of this program will be presented by getting the Water-Watch club and
SAVE club involved with maintaining the collection bins for the designated compost unit. There
will also be an announcement about the process of building the compost bins when the need
arises to attract sustainability students, Water-Watch members, and SAVE members for a group
of volunteers to participate in each of the building phases. Advertisements of having a compost
bin for the Stockton Campus will be placed on the Various TVs throughout the campus and in
social media such as the colleges Facebook page.
SUSTAINABILITY
This proposal idea provides a strong concept of sustainability themes. Composting extra
food waste that other organizations do not collect decreases overall waste generated by the
college. It provides a way to use to food waste for beneficial usage in the Campus Garden. The
topic of sustainability is becoming an important issue across the world, especially for a college
environment. Having Stockton University to provide more systems to follow the sustainability
practices is beneficial for creating a more increased awareness on decreasing the maximum food
waste for environmental protection. Building a compost bin to be placed in the campus will
provide awareness for the concept of sustainability for the environment to keep its integrity
healthy for the present and the future time.

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WORKS CITED
Environmental Protection Agency. (2014, June 14). Environmental Benefits | Composting.
Retrieved March 9, 2015, from <http://www.epa.gov/composting/benefits.htm>
Environmental Protection Agency. (2012, January 1). Methane Emissions. Retrieved March 9,
2015, from <http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/ch4.html>
Hoffman. (2015). Hoffman 15503 Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss, 10 Quarts. Retrieved from
www.amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Hoffman-15503-Canadian-SphagnumQuarts/dp/B0000CBITW/
Home Depot. (2014). 2 in. x 2 in. x 8ft. #1 Pressure-Treated Lumber. Retrieved from
www.homedepot.com: http://www.homedepot.com/p/WeatherShield-2-in-x-2-in-x-8-ft1-Pressure-Treated-Lumber-302477/100023713
Home Depot. (2015). #11-1/2 x 2 in. 6D Hot Galvanized Steel Common Nail. Retrieved from
www.homedepot.com: http://www.homedepot.com/p/Grip-Rite-11-1-2-x-2-in-6D-HotGalvanized-Steel-Common-Nails-1-lb-Pack-6HGC1/202308522?N=5yc1vZc2dx
Kaloko, H. (2015, February 13). Questions Regarding Compost on Campus [Personal interview].
Lowes. (2015). #2 Prime Pressure Treated Lumber (Common: 2 x 6 x 10; Actual: 1.5-in x 5.5-in
x 10-ft. Retrieved from www.lowes.com: http://www.lowes.com/pd_197849-457OG2P20610-AG_0__?productId=4564618
Roesch, D. (2015, February 16). Campus Food Composting [Personal interview].
Song, R. (2015, March 1). Water-Watch Opinion of Compost on Campus [Personal interview].
UGA. (2012). Food Waste Composting: Institutional and Industrial Application. Retrieved from
Extension.uga.edu: http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.cfm?number=B1189
Uncle Jim's Worm Farm. (2015). Uncle Jim's Worm Farm 1000 Count Red Wiggler Live
Composting Worms. Retrieved from www.amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/UncleJims-Worm-Farm-Composting/dp/B000Q5S7RM
Wal-Mart. (2013). MCR Safety Economy Cover Safety Goggles. Retrieved from
www.walmart.com: http://www.walmart.com/ip/Crews-Safety-Goggles-Over-GlassesClear-Lens/16890885
Wal-Mart. (2014). Hands On 6 Pair Value Pack, Poly/Cottom Blend Brown Jersey Glove.
Retrieved from www.walmart.com: http://www.walmart.com/ip/6-Pair-Value-Pack-PolyCotton-Blend-Brown-Jersey-Glove/38236315
Wal-Mart. (2015). Eco Kitchen Compost Pail with Carbon Filter, Green. Retrieved from
www.walmart.com: http://www.walmart.com/ip/Eco-Kitchen-Compost-Pail-with-3Carbon-Filters-Green/19241479

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APPENDIX
BUDGET CALCULATIONS
Phase 1 - Small Basic Bin (3' by 3') at Campus Garden:
Material
Quantity
Cost
2 x 6 (cut 3' length) treated
7
~ $15.36
Wood
2 x 2 or 4 x 4 (cut 3'length)
4
~ $7.95
28
~ $4.24*
Metal Galvanized nail (2 & 3/4" long)
Total Cost for Singular Bin
~ $27.55
Total Cost for (1) Bin(s)
* 4.24 (per lb); (Per lb: 101 quantity): nails (Home Depot, 2015)
(Lowes, 2015)
(Home Depot, 2014)
Phase 2 - Add Three Collection Bins & Small Basic Bin at Lake Lodge:
Material
Quantity
Cost
1
~ $19.78
Collection Bins
Total Cost for (3) Bins
~ $59.34
Small Bin: Material
Quantity
Cost
2 x 6 (cut 3' length) untreated
7
~ $15.36
Wood
2 x 2 or 4 x 4 (cut 3'length)
4
~ $7.95
28
~ $0*
Metal Galvanized nail (2 & 3/4" long)
Total Cost for Singular Bin
~ $23.31
Total Cost for (1) of Bins
* Uses the extra supply from the first nail purchase
(Wal-Mart, 2015) (Home Depot, 2014) (Lowes, 2015) (Home Depot, 2014)
Phase 3 (Option 1) - Worm Compost Bin in Campus Garden:
Worm: Building Material
Quantity
Cost
4-x-8-foot sheet of 1/2-inch exterior plywood 1
~$20.25
12-foot length of 2 x 4 lumber
1
~$5.08
16-foot length of 2 x 4 lumber
1
~$7.67
16d galvanized nails
1/2 lb
~ $4.33*
6d galvanized nails
2 lb
~ $8.48
galvanized door hinges
2
~ $5.50
Total Cost ~ $51.31
Worm Situation
Quantity
Cost
Red Worms
1 lb (per 1/2 lb of food)
~ $24.95
Bedding for Worms
Shredded Newspaper or
~ $0
1 Package (recycle)
Shredded Cardboard
~ $0
Peat Moss 1 Bag
~ $8.22
Brown Leaves Gathered from Ground
~ $0
Total Cost ~ $33.17**
* $4.33 is 1 lb of 16d Nails
** Will be a Continuous Cost
(Hoffman, 2015)
(Uncle Jim's Worm Farm, 2015)

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Labor Cost Per Worker to Build:
Equipment
Quantity
Cost
1 per Worker
~ $2.00
Protection Safety Glasses
Total Cost for Singular Person ~ $2.00
General Equipment Require to Have
1
Measuring Tape
May be provided from
1
Heavy Hammer
the Physical Plant or the
1
Adjustable Wrench
Sustainability
1
Saw
Workshop.
1
Drill
6
~ $4.25
Gloves
For Phase 1
For Phase 2
For Phase 3

Total Cost for (2) of People ~ $4.00


Total Cost for (2) of People ~ $4.00
Total Cost for (2) of People ~ $4.00
(Wal-Mart, 2014)
(Wal-Mart, 2013)

CONTACTS
Humu Kaloko. Head of Custodial Services.
o Humu.Kaloko@stockton.edu. Ext. 3495.
David Roesch. Supervisor of Landscape Maintenance.
o David.Roesch@stockton.edu. 609-626-5527.
Ruby Song. Student, Secretary of Water-Watch.
o songr@go.stockton.edu. 201-328-5956.