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KINETIC

S
How Fast Does A Reaction Occur?

Energy Diagrams
Reactants

always
start a reaction so
they are on the left
side of the
diagram.

Products

right.

are on the
Reactants Products

Exothermic Reactions
The

exothermic
reaction gives
off heat
because the
products are at
a lower energy
level than the
reactants.

Graph of an
Exothermic Reaction

Graph of an
Exothermic Reaction
In

an exothermic
graph, the
reactants have
greater energy
than the products.

The

change in
energy (H) is a
negative value.

Reactants Products

Exothermic Reactions
When

climbing a
ladder, you are
more stable near
the bottom than at
the top.
In an exothermic
reaction, products
are more stable
because they are
lower in energy.

Exothermic Reactions
For

an exothermic reaction, heat is a


product and is found on the right side
of the arrow in a chemical reaction.
H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g) + heat

Endothermic Reactions
The

endothermic
reaction
absorbs heat
because the
products are at
a higher energy
level than the
reactants.

Graph of an
Endothermic Reaction

Graph of an
Endothermic Reaction
In

an endothermic
graph, the products
have greater
energy than the
reactants.

The

change in
energy is a
positive value.

Reactants Products

Endothermic Reactions
In

an endothermic reaction, reactants


are more stable because they have
lower energy.

Endothermic Reactions
For

an endothermic reaction, heat is a


reactant and is found on the left side of
the arrow in a chemical reaction.

heat + C (s) + H2O (g) CO (g) + H2 (g)

Exothermic And
Endothermic Reactions
Scientists

have observed that the energy


released in the formation of a compound
from its elements is always identical to
the energy required to decompose that
compound into its elements.

Energy Diagrams
Activation

energy
is the minimum
amount of energy
that reacting
particles must have
to form the
activated
complex.

Activation activated
energy
complex

Energy Diagrams
The

activated
complex is a shortlived, unstable
arrangement of
atoms that may
break apart and reform the reactants
or may form
products.

activated
complex

Energy Diagrams
Activation
energy
To calculate

the
activation energy,
take the top of the
peak and subtract
the reactants.

Energy Diagrams
The

enthalpy or
heat of reaction
(H) is the amount
of heat released or
absorbed in the
reaction.

Enthalpy/heat of
reaction (H)

Energy Diagrams
To determine

H,
take the energy of
the products and
subtract the energy
of the reactants.

Enthalpy/heat of
reaction (H)

Problem
1) The heat content
of the reactants of
the forward
reaction is ______
kilojoules.
(80)

Problem
2) The heat content
of the products of
the forward
reaction is ______
kilojoules.
(160)

Problem
3) The heat content
of the activated
complex of the
forward reaction is
about _____
kilojoules.
(240)

Problem
4) The activation
energy of the
forward reaction is
_____ kilojoules.
(240 80 = 160)

Problem
5) The heat of
reaction (H) of
the forward
reaction is _____
kilojoules.
(160 80 = 80)

Problem
6) The forward
reaction is
(endothermic or
exothermic).
(endothermic products are
higher in energy;
H is positive)

Problem
7) The heat
content of the
reactants of the
forward
reaction is
______ kJ.
(40)

Problem
8) The heat
content of the
products of the
forward
reaction is
about ______
kilojoules.
(20)

Problem
9) The heat
content of the
activated
complex of the
forward
reaction is
about _____
kilojoules.
(100)

Problem
10) The
activation
energy of the
forward
reaction is
about _____
kilojoules.
(100 40 = 60)

Problem
11) The enthalpy
change (H) of
the forward
reaction is ____
kilojoules.
(20 40 =

20)

Problem
12) The forward
reaction is
(endothermic or
exothermic).
(exothermic products are
lower in
energy; H is
negative)

Problem
13) The heat
content of the
reactants of the
reverse
reaction is
______
kilojoules.
(20)

Problem
14) The heat
content of the
products of the
reverse
reaction is
______
kilojoules.
(40)

Problem
15) The enthalpy
change (H) of
the reverse
reaction is ____
kilojoules.
(40 20 = + 20)

Forward or Reverse Favored?


Remember

that enthalpy is the heat of


the reaction (products minus reactants).

The

enthalpy factor favors the forward


reaction (the products) if H is negative
because the products are lower in
energy and are thus more stable.

The

reverse reaction is favored if H is


positive.

Forward or Reverse Favored?


Entropy

is the degree of randomness


or disorder.

The

entropy factor favors the side of


the reaction more gas molecules
because gases have more entropy than
liquids and solids.

Forward or Reverse Favored?


The

forward reaction (product side) is


favored if there are more gas molecules
on the right side of the arrow.

The

reverse reaction (reactant side) is


favored if there are more gas molecules
on the left side of the arrow.

Problem
2H2O (l) 2H2 (g) + O2 (g)
H = +572 kJ
16) Does the enthalpy factor favor the
forward or the reverse reaction? Why?

(H is positive. Reactants are lower in


energy and thus more stable.
Reactants are favored, so enthalpy
favors the reverse reaction.)

Problem
2H2O (l) 2H2 (g) + O2 (g)
H = +572 kJ
17) Does the entropy factor favor the
forward or the reverse reaction? Why?

(There are 0 gas moles on the left.


There are 3 gas moles on the right.
Entropy favors the side with more gas
moles. Therefore, the product side is
favored, i.e. the forward reaction.)

Problem
CO (g) + NO2 (g) CO2 (g) + NO (g)
H = - 226 kJ
18) Does the enthalpy factor favor the
forward or the reverse reaction? Why?

(The forward reaction is favored


because H is negative. Products
are lower in energy and thus more
stable. )

Problem
CO (g) + NO2 (g) CO2 (g) + NO (g)
H = - 226 kJ
19) Does the entropy factor favor the
forward or the reverse reaction? Why?
(There are 2 gas moles on the left.
There are 2 gas moles on the right.
Therefore, neither side is favored.)

Problem
H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g) + heat
20) Does the enthalpy factor favor the
forward or the reverse reaction? Why?
(Heat is a product which means the
reaction is exothermic The forward
reaction is favored because H is
negative. Products are lower in
energy and thus more stable. )

Problem
H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g) + heat
21) Does the entropy factor favor the
forward or the reverse reaction?
Why?
(There are 2 gas moles on the left.
There are 2 gas moles on the right.
Therefore, neither side is favored.)

Energy Diagrams
The

activation energy can be lowered by


adding a catalyst.
effect of
the
catalyst

Energy Diagrams
The

catalyst lowers the activation energy by providing


an alternate pathway for the reaction to occur.
Enzymes are biological catalysts.

Expressing Reaction
Rates
As

you know, some chemical reactions


are fast and others are slow; however,
fast and slow are inexact, relative terms.
Chemists often need to be more specific.

Expressing Reaction
Rates
We

generally define the average rate of


an action or process to be the change in a
given quantity during a specific period of
time.
The rate of a reaction can be described
by the increase in the concentration of the
products with time or the decrease in the
concentration of the reactants with time.

Expressing Reaction
Rates
Reaction

rates cannot be calculated from


balanced equations as stoichiometric
amounts can.
Reaction rates are determined
experimentally by measuring the
concentrations of reactants and/or
products in an actual chemical reaction.

Collision Theory
According

to the collision theory, atoms,


ions, and molecules must collide with
each other in order to react.

Collision Theory
The

following three statements


summarize the collision theory.
1. Particles must collide in order to
react.

Collision Theory
2.

The
particles
must collide
with the
correct
orientation.

Collision Theory
3.

The particles must


collide with enough
energy to form an
unstable activated
complex, also called a
transition state,
which is an
intermediate particle
made up of the joined
reactants.

Collision Theory

activated
complex

Collision Theory
The

minimum amount of energy that


colliding particles must have in order to
form an activated complex is called the
activation energy of the reaction.
Particles that collide with less energy
than the activation energy cannot form an
activated complex.

Collision Theory
In

an exothermic reaction, molecules


collide with enough energy to overcome
the activation
energy barrier,
form an activated
complex, then
release energy
and form products
at a lower energy
level.

Energy

Reactants
Products
Reaction coordinate

Energy

Activated
Complex or
Transition State

Reactants
Products
Reaction coordinate

Energy

Activation Energy
Reactants
Products
Reaction coordinate

Energy

Reactants

Overall energy
change
Products
Reaction coordinate

Collision Theory
In

the reverse endothermic reaction, the


reactant molecules lying at a low energy
level must absorb
energy to
overcome the
activation energy
barrier and form
high-energy
products.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
The

reaction rate for almost any chemical


reaction can be modified by varying the
conditions of the reaction.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
1)

The reactive nature of the reactants


affects the rate of a chemical reaction.
Some reactions are naturally slow
because the bonds involved are strong
and unreactive or the electrons are
tightly held.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
1)

cont., The greater the number of bonds


being broken and made (like double or
triple bonds), the slower the reaction.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
2)

Another important factor that affects the


rate of a chemical reaction is the
concentration of the reactants.
Reactions speed up when the
concentrations of reacting particles are
increased. Increasing the number of
reactants increases probability of
collisions.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
2)

continued. The rate of gaseous


reactions can be increased by pumping
more gas into the reaction container.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
3)

Surface area of the reactants affects


the rate of a chemical reaction.
Increasing the surface area of reactants
provides more opportunity for collisions
with other reactants, thereby increasing
the reaction rate.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
4)

Temperature affects the rate of a


chemical reaction. Generally, increasing
the temperature at which a reaction
occurs increases the
reaction rate. Raising
the temperature raises
both the collision
frequency and the
collision energy.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
5)

Adding a catalyst affects the rate of a


chemical reaction. A catalyst is a
substance that increases the rate of a
chemical reaction without itself being
consumed in the reaction. In fact,
catalysts are not included in the
chemical equation.

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
A catalyst lowers the activation energy
of a reaction by
providing an
alternate
pathway for the
reaction to
occur (the
blue line).

Factors Affecting
Reaction Rates
6)

Compressing gases affects the rate of


a chemical reaction. When two gases
react, compressing the gases
(increasing the pressure) generally
increases the rate of the reaction.