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TELEVISIONS

EFFECTS ON
EMOTIONAL
REGULATION
Lindsay Birchall
EDPS 650

OUTLINE:

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-TV HOW MUCH TIME DO WE


REALLY SPEND?
-WHAT IS EMOTIONAL
REGULATION?
-TV NEGATIVE IMPACTS
(THEORY AND REALITY)
-INFANTS
-CHILDREN
-ADOLESCENTS
-ADULTS
-TV POSITIVE INFLUENCES
-THE CONNECTION TV &
EMOTIONAL REGULATION
-QUESTIONS?

Text Box Question's

AGENTS OF MEDIA

Print
-

books- newspapers,
flyers, pamphlets, magazines

Electronic
Television-Radio

New Age Media-Internet

Cell Phones, Tablet, Social Media (Twitter,


Facebook, Instagram, etc.), Webcasts
(Anderson & Hanson, 2009)

MEDIA THE TIMELINE

1920-Radio
1927 Talking
Pictures
1940-Television
1950 press
1990 Internet
(remember )
2000 Social Media

HOW MUCH TIME DO


WE REALLY SPEND?
Age

Screen Time
- Reality

Screen Time
Recommended

0-1

1 hr

1-2

2 hrs

2-5

2-4

>1 hr

5-8

3-5

>2 hr

8-18 7
(ACTIVE HEALTHY KIDS CANADA REPORT CARD, 2012)

>2 hr

OUR CHILDRENS GRADES


(ACTIVE HEALTHY KIDS CANADA REPORT CARD, 2012)

THE CRTC

(CANADIAN RADIO TELEVISION


AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION)
HTTP://WWW.CRTC.GC.CA/ENG/INFO_SHT/B317.HTM
Broadcasters responsibilities and industry
codes of conduct
Canada's broadcasters follow codes that:
prevent the showing of gratuitous or glamorized
scenes of violence on TV
declare a 9 PM cut-off time for showing violent
scenes. Programs aired before 9 PM cant show
violent scenes that are intended for adult
audiences
establish rules for children's programs, that limit
and control any depictions of violence
establish rules for scenes of violence that appear
on news and public affairs programs
require written advisories and announcements at
the beginning of any program that may contain
violent scenes, as well as similar advisories
throughout the program

Parents responsibilities
Canadian broadcasters give content ratings for
children's programming, drama, "reality-based"
shows and feature films.
If youre not familiar with a show, watch for
the on-screen rating that appears at the
beginning of the show, and after every
commercial break.
If your TV has the V-chip, you can use the
technology to block programs you dont want.
If you see something on TV that you think is
inappropriate, contact the Canadian
Broadcasting Standards Council ( CBSC) with
your concerns.
If you subscribe to digital broadcasting
services (on cable or direct-to-home (DTH)
satellite, for example) you can use the
blocking features in your set-top converter
box. Check your manual for instructions on
how to block a program, or ask your TV
service provider for details.

WHAT IS EMOTIONAL REGULATION?


Extrinsic and intrinsic
processes responsible for
monitoring, evaluating, and
modifying emotional reactions

EMOTIONAL DYSREGULATION?
Difficulties in controlling the
influence of emotional arousal on
the organization and quality of
thoughts, actions, and interactions

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EVIDENCE
TV
NEGATIVE
IMPACTS

TEXT BOX
WHAT DOES RESEARCH OFTEN MEASURE
WHEN THEY ARE INVESTIGATING TELEVISIONS
EFFECT ON BEHAVIOURS?
(ANDERSON & HANSON, 2009)

A. Amount?
B. Content (violence, educational, etc.) ?
C. Form (TV, Internet, iPad, cartoons, real
life, etc.) ?

THEORY TV & VIOLENCE


Social Cognitive
Theories
desensitization
(Carnagey, Anderson &
Bushman, 2007)

Heroic
Figures
(Christakis, 2009)

Social
Learning
Theory
(Bandura, 1961)

Mental Modes
Behavioural Scripts
(Carnagey, Anderson &
Bushman, 2007)

Pacefrequent
action sequences
rapid scene
changes
(Christakis, 2009)

Exposure to Violence= Functional Impairments

GENERAL AGGRESSION MODEL


(ANDERSON & BUSCHMAN, 2002)

EVIDENCE INFANTS/TODDLERS 0-2 YRS


(Anderson & Hanson, 2009) (Screenfree.org)

no evidence that infants younger than approximately 18


months of age can integrate visual information (p. 1211)

There is no credible evidence that any type of screen time


is beneficial to babies and toddlers and some evidence
that it may be harmful

Foreground Television (Child Content)

vs. Background Television (Adult Content)

1 year olds: varying experiences

1 year old Children:

learn from interaction, not television

56% of parents believe educational videos promote brain


development in babies
Theory Video Deficit
(Anderson & Pempek,
2005)

EVIDENCE YOUNG CHILDREN (2-4 YRS)

Operationalizing Poor Infant Emotional Regulation:


excessive fussing, poor self soothing, difficulties
with state changes, such as sleep
Poorer Language Development
Attention Deficit (age 7)
Cognition
Theory -frequent shot
and scene changes
Executive Functioning
contribute to later
School Achievement
inattention
Psychosocial Adjustment
Irregular Sleep Patterns

(Radesky, Silverstein, Zuckerman & Christakis, 2014; Fitzpatrick, Barnett &


Pagini, 2012; Anderson & Hudson, 2009; Screenfree.org; Christakis, Zimmerman,
DiGuiseppe & McCarty, 2004)

Poor
Emotional
Regulation

Attention/Hyperactivity

Media
Consumption

(Radesky, Silverstein, Zuckerman & Christakis, 2014; Anderson & Hudson, 2009)

EVIDENCE - CHILDREN (4-9 YRS)

Flaggs (1978) Eye Tracking


General Content

Teacher Reported Antisocial symptoms


Emotional Distress

Inattention
Negative Attitudes Towards School
Lower Academic Achievement long term
Higher BMI/Obesity (increased high
energy foods, low nutrition foods & fast
foods)
Irregular sleep patterns

Conduct problems

Cartoon Violence

Adverse Behaviours

(BROWN & HAMILTON-GIACHRITSIS, 2005; THAKKAR,


GARRISON & CHRISTAKIS, 2002; CHRISTAKIS,
ZIMMERMAN, DIGUISEPPE & MCCARTY, 2004(

Real Life Harm Force Aimed at


another person Aggression

Television Consumption:

Predicted little in positive or negative


outcomes

Action Violent Television

Antisocial Behaviours
Lower grades in high school (girls)
Emotional Distress

Violent Television

Aggressive Behaviours
Reduced intrinsic motivation
Depression
Anxiety
Poor Social Skills
Antisocial Behaviours (Cold and Uncaring behaviours
within peer relationships)
Lower Academic Achievement

Negative Affect Symptoms


Distractibility/Inattention

Worry

(FITZPATRICK, BARNETT & PAGINI, 2012;


ANDERSON, HUSTON, SCHMITT, LINEBARGER,
& WRIGHT, 2001)

Theory
Desensitization

Evidence

Neurological
(Cortisol)

(Fitzpatrick, Barnett & Pagini, 2012)

Text Box
What television content
would you consider Violent?

TheTELEVISION?
Research (op defn)
WHAT IS VIOLENT

Natural Disasters?
Death?
War/Military?
Crashes? (car, plane,
boat)
Destruction? (things
blowing up)
Hostility/Anger/Fear?
Crime?

Physical Violence (one


human against another
injure or kill threat to
injure or kill)

Text Box
If children are watching TV, what are
they not doing?
(Screenfree.org)

ADOLESCENTS THE REAL STORY

Socialization & Identity Devt


Values
Ideologies
Behaviour models
20 hours a week
61% tv violent content
91% of movies violent content
3-5 acts of violence per hour
in prime time TV
Video Games
2 hours a day!
Boys 1 more hour then girls.

(In Madan, Mrug & Wright, 2014)


(Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card, 2012)

EVIDENCE - ADOLESCENTS

TV in Room?
Less physical activity
Less healthy dietary habits

Worse school performance


Fewer family meals

Anxiety & Distress (Fear, worry, tension)


Aggressive Behaviours
Obesity (Food advertisements)
Depression
Sleep Disturbances
Poor Homework Completion
Poor Grades
Long-term academic failure
Negative attitudes toward school
Concentration Difficulties
Late Adolescence - College

(Anderson & Hanson, 2009; Madan, Mrug


& Wright, 2014; Fitzpatrick, Barnett &
Pagini, 2012; Screenfree.org)

Theory Desensitization
insensitivity and less
sympathy for victims of
crime and those that are
suffering Low fear
reaction

Physiology repeated
exposure to violent
content diminished
heart rate response

ADOLESCENTS OBESITY
(ACTIVE HEALTHY KIDS CANADA REPORT CARD, 2012)

EVIDENCE - ADULTS

Emerging Adulthood
30

hours/week
More violent content
Rated R

Cortical Areas
Long Lasting Fears and Anxiety

(In Madan, Mrug & Wright, 2014; Anderson & Hanson, 2009)

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POSITIVE EFFECTS

POSITIVE EFFECTS?
Educational-Informative
Enhance Spatial Cognition
Language
Academic Skills (Pre-K)
English, math, science
Sesame Street Book reading
High School Grades
Culture
Positive values and life lessons
Social skills
Documentaries critical thinking
Music and Art
(Anderson & Hanson, 2009; Anderson, Huston, Schmitt, Linebarger, & Wright, 2001; MediaSmarts.ca).

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

Media Diet set


limits

Monitor Content

Reduce Accessibility
(i.e. internet, tv, iPad,
phones, etc.)

(Screen Free.org)

CONCLUSION
Multitude of influences that may change over time (e.g.
adolescents peers - hormones) to contribute to emotional
dysregulation Anderson & Hudson (2009)

No longitudinal research not ethical


(we dont really know the long term effects
of watching violent television)

Discussion Topics

OPERATIONALIZING EMOTIONAL-REGULATION

Media
Negative Affect

Conflict
Violence

Aggression
Trauma

Fear

Health Emotional Distress


Risks
Stress/Anxiety Anger
Negative
Thought
Low Self esteem
Processes
Depression
Low Motivation

Emotional
Dysregulation
Irritability

Interpersonal
Difficulties
Aggression

Avoidance

Outbursts/Tantrums
Heart Rate
Blood Pressure

Social
Rejection
Reduced Academic
Achievement

Do those children and adolescents with


poorer social skills, poor emotional
regulation, anxiety, depression,
inattention, etc. just watch more tv? And
more violent tv?

REFERENCES
Active Healthy Kids Canada (2012). Is Active Play Extinct? The Active Healthy Kids
Canada 2012 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Toronto: Active
Healthy Kids Canada. Retrieved from:
http://dvqdas9jty7g6.cloudfront.net/reportcards2012/AHKC%202012%20-%20Report%2
0Card%20Long%20Form%20-%
20FINAL.pdf
Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of
Psychology, 53, 2751.
Anderson, D., R. & Hanson, K., G. (2009). Children, Media and Methodology,
American Behavioural Scientist, 52, 1204. DOI: 10.1177/0002764209331542
Anderson, D. R., Huston, A. C., Schmitt, K. L., Linebarger, D. L., & Wright, J. C.
(2001). Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: The Recontact
Study. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 66(1), 1-143.
Anderson, D. R., & Pempek, T.A. (2005). Television and very young children.
American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 505-522.

REFERENCES
Bandura, A., Ross, D. & Ross, S., A. (1961). Transmission of Aggression Through
Imitation of Aggressive Models, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582
Browne, K., D. & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. (2005) The influence of violent media
on children and adolescents: a public-health approach, Lancet. (365)702710.
Canadian Radio -Television Communications Commission (CRTC) Retrieved from:
http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/info_sht/b317.htm
Carnagey, N., Anderson, C. & Bushman, B. (2007) The effect of video game
violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence, J Exp Soc Psychol.
(43)489496.
Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGuiseppe, D. L., & McCarty, C. A. (2004).
Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children, Pediatrics,
113, 708-713.
Christakis, D., A. (2009). The effects of infant media usage: what do we know and
what should we learn? Acta Paediatr, (98)8 16.

REFERENCES
Fitzpatrick, C., Barnett, T., & Pagani, L., S. (2012). Early Exposure to Media Violence
and Later Child Adjustment, J Dev Behav Pediatr (33)291297
Flagg, B. N. (1978). Children and television: Effects of stimulus repetition on eye
activity. In J. W. Senders, D. F. Fisher, & R. A. Monty (Eds.), Eye movements and the higher
psychological processes (pp. 279-291). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Madan, A., Mrug, S. &Wright, R., A., (2014). The Effects of Media on Anxiety in Late
Adolescence, J Youth Adolescence(43)116-126
MediaSmarts.ca, Retrieved from: http://
mediasmarts.ca/television/good-things-about-television
Screenfree.org
Thakkar, R., R., Garrison, M., M. & Christakis, D., A. (2006). A systematic review for the
effects of television viewing by infants and preschoolers, Pediatrics, (118)20252031.
Radesky, J., S., Silverstein, M., Zuckerman, B. & Christakis, D., A. (2014). Infant SelfRegulation and Early Childhood Media Exposure, Pediatrics, (133)1172. DOI:
10.1542/peds.2013-2367