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MT S M HNH TRONG C HC V M HNH HOEK BROWN

M hnh n hi
Vi khi n hi, cc trng thi ng sut xut hin trong khi cha gy ra cc
tc ng ha do hay ph hy hoc n gin l xem ng x nh vt liu n hi tun
theo cc nh lut n hi c bn, y l nh lut Hook.
M hnh n hi do
Khi gi tr ng sut t n mt gii hn no , ng x ca vt liu chuyn sang do.
ng x n hi v do c th d dng nhn thy trn biu ng cong quan h ng
sut bin dng khi nn n trc. i vi , trong iu kin ng sut ng hng b,
hu nh ch c bin dng n hi, iu ny th hin thng qua ng cong nn n mu
. Khi th nghim trong iu kin p lc bung ln trong th nghim nn ba trc, mu
xut hin bin dng do.

Hnh 1.

T tri sang phi: mu nguyn dng; bin dng 20% di p lc

xung quanh 280 atm.; bin dng 20% di p lc xung quanh 460 atm.
Trong thc t, khi o ng hm su trong khi , do nh hng ca iu kin thi
cng v di tc dng ca ng sut t nhin, xung quanh ng hm xut hin mt
vng t t nhiu b xo trn ti xp v y s xut hin do (vng I, II trong hnh
2). Pha ngoi su trong khi , vn gi trng thi n hi vng III. Trong vng do,

cc ng sut php tip xc v ng sut php hng bn knh r s gim dn t trng


thi n hi (ng nt ri) sang trng thi ng sut do (ng nt lin) nh minh ha.
Nu khng c chng v t c bn km, vng do s pht trin theo thi
gian v c th dn ti ng hm b ph hoi di dng st nc hm, bc tch lp ti
mt hng hm hoc n (rockbursts) thm ch c th dn ti sp lp hm. Nu chu
ng c trng thi ng sut mi, ng hm s dn n nh (hnh 2b)

Hnh 2. S lc, vng bin dng do v phn b ng sut quanh hm (a)


n nh ng hm theo thi gian (b)
M hnh n hi nht
Cc kt qu nhn c cho thy rng trong khi n hi nht, trng ng sut
khng thay i theo thi gian, tng t nh cho mi trng n hi nhng qu trnh bin
dng cng nh dch chuyn va ph thuc vo ta va ph thuc vo thi gian, tuy
nhin theo thi gian cc i lng bin dng v chuyn v t gi tr hu hn. Qu trnh
xy ra thc cht l qu trnh t bin.
Vi cc gi thit khi xung quanh cng trnh ngm c biu hin n hi nht, khi
trong sut thi k s dng s khng c qu trnh ph hy hay ha do xut hin.
Khi n hi nht do
Vi gi thit khi l n hi nht, cc qu trnh bin i c hc cho thy quy lut
bin i theo thi gian. ng nhin do kh nng chu ti ca khi l hu hn, nn
cng c th xut hin hin tng ha do hoc ph hy trong vng xung quanh khong
trng ngm, khi cc tiu chun bn hay ph hy b vi phm. Khi c th chuyn t
trng thi n hi nht sang trng trng thi n hi - nht - do ty theo biu hin hay
bn cht c hc vi nhng din bin phc tp.

Nhn xt: Nh vy, i vi nhng cng trnh trong , m hnh c chn la s


dng hp l phc v tnh ton nn l m hnh n hi do. L do: c trng c l
phc v tnh ton d dng thu thp trong iu kin th nghim thng thng (khi m cc
thng s v tnh nht hay cc thng s v t bin cha c nghin cu v trin khai
rng ri nc ta). Hn na, m hnh n hi - do s cho php nh gi mc bin
dng hp l hn khi trng thi ng sut vt qu gii hn n hi m m hnh n hi
khng m phng chnh xc c.
Mt trong nhng m hnh hin i trong C hc hin nay l m hnh Hoek
Brown, c s dng rng ri nh nhng u im ca n.

1. CC PHNG TRNH C BN
gii bi ton t ra trc ht cn xy dng cc phng trnh c bn, bao gm
phng trnh cn bng, phng trnh lin tc ca bin dng v cc iu kin bin. Cc
phng trnh ny ph thuc vo c tnh ca m hnh c chn xy dng cho khi .
Phng trnh cn bng
Do tnh i xng v lin tc v phn b ng sut nn phn t chu tc dng ca cc
thnh phn ng sut nh trn hnh 3.

Hnh 3. Cc thnh phn ng sut v dch chuyn ti phn t th tch dV

V sau khi o khong trng, khi trong vng xung quanh cng trnh ngm
chuyn sang trng thi cn bng mi, do vy phn t c kho st cng phi trng thi
cn bng tnh. Nh vy tng hp cc lc tc dng ln mt trc bt k phi trit tiu hay
bng 0. C th nu chiu ln trc hng tm i qua trng tm ca phn t, t iu kin
tng cc thnh phn lc tc dng hng tm Pr=0, nhn c:

d r
d

0 r .r.d r
dr (r dr)d 2 .dr.
0
dr
2

d
d r
d
r r r ; r
0; r r 0
dr
dr
r
dr

(1-1)

y:
- ng sut php theo phng tip tuyn.
r - ng sut php theo phng hng tm.
Cc phng trnh trong (2-1) l cc cch vit khc nhau ca phng trnh cn bng
cho phn t dV. Cc phng trnh cng thng c vit di dng

d
r r
dr

(1-2)

Phng trnh cn bng trn cho thy r quy lut ph thuc gia hai thnh phn ng
sut c bn r v . Thnh phn ng sut th 3 y (dc theo trc y) c xc nh t
iu kin l trong qu trnh bin dng mt ct ngang ti y=const lun phng, ngha l bin
dng ti mi im dc trc y ca mt ct ny l hng s hay bng 0 (y =const).
Phng trnh lin tc ca bin dng
Hnh 3 biu din s dch chuyn ca phn t th tch dV. Di tc dng ca cc thnh
phn ng sut, cnh trong d-c ca phn t dch chuyn i mt on bng u v mt ct
ngoi a-b dch chuyn i mt on bng u+du. Nh vy, lc u chiu di cnh l dr, sau
khi dch chuyn, bin dng c di l dr+du.
T hnh 3 c th thit lp c mi quan h gia bin dng tng i theo phng
hng tm v bin dng t i theo phng tip tuyn (vng) ca cnh trong theo cc
phng trnh sau:

dr du dr du

dr
dr

ds1 ds (r u )d rd u

ds
rd
r

(1-3)

Nh vy, t u = r, c:

d
du d (r )

r
dr
dr
dr

(1-4)

Hay

r r

d d r
;

0
dr dr
r

Cc phng trnh trong (2-4) c gi l phng trnh lin tc ca bin dng, cng
cn gi l phng trnh tng thch bin dng.
iu kin bin
Theo s ca bi ton, c iu kin bin sau:

r (r ) Po H
r (r R) Pi

(1-5)

Trng hp cng trnh ngm khng c kt cu chng, hoc khng chu p lc nc t


pha trong, tng ng vi Pi = 0. Nu cng trnh l ging ng (cng trnh thng ng t
mt t), khi cc kt qu nhn c vn ng vi cho mi lt ct ngang qua trc z,
ngay c khi h s p lc ngang khc 1, c th Po=Koz.
Cc phng trnh t (2-1) n (2-5) c coi l cc phng trnh c bn ca bi ton
kho st qu trnh bin i c hc trong khi xung quanh cng trnh ngm (khong
trng ) tit din trn, bn knh bng ri.

M HNH KHI N HI
nh lut Hooke
Trong h to trc mi quan h gia cc thnh phn ng sut v bin dng ca khi
n hi thun tu c dng (i xng trc):

1
r ( y )
E
1
( r y )
E
1
y y ( r )
E

(1-6)

y: E module n hi ca
h s poisson
Xt trng hp bin dng phng y =0, nhn c:

z ( r )

(1-7)

V t c:

1 2
E

1 2

E

1 r

(1-8)

Trong trng hp =0,5 phng trnh (1-8) tr thnh:

3
r
4E
3
r

4E

Phng trnh (2-8) gii theo ng sut c dng:

(1-9)

E
r
(1 2 )(1 )
1
1

r
E r

(1 2 )(1 )
1

(1-10)

Trong trng hp tng qut, khi l khng ng nht (t nhin, hay do iu kin
cng ngh) cc tham s c hc E v c th m phng dng hm s ca ta , ngha
l :
E=(r,); =(, )

(1-11)

Sau y ch xt trng hp n gin nht vi gi thit khi l ng nht vi cc


gi tr E v khng i.
Li gii ca Kirsch
Kirsch (1898) cho li gii bi ton phn b ng sut theo hai hng quanh ng
hm tit din trn trong mi trng n hi ng cht ng hng (hnh 4). Jaeger &
Cook nu chi tit lp cc biu thc xc nh ng sut ,r, r nh sau:
Cc thnh phn ng sut ti im M(r,):
ng sut php xuyn tm:
1

r z (1 k )(1 2 ) (1 k )(1 4 2 3 4 )cos 2


2

(1-12)

ng sut php tip xc theo chu vi ng hm tip tuyn:


1

z (1 k )(1 2 ) (1 k )(1 3 4 )cos2


2

(1-13)

ng sut ct:
1

r z (1 k )(1 2 2 3 4 )sin 2
2

Trong :
k h s p lc hng, k=

h
z

(1-14)

a bn knh ng hm
= a/r

Hnh 4. ng sut trong l trn quanh vt th n hi


(Kirsch-1898; Jaeger v Cook -1976)
Cc thnh phn ng sut chnh trong mt phng ct hnh 4 ti im M (r,):
ng sut chnh ln nht:

1
1

1 ( r ) ( r ) 2 r2
2
4

1/ 2

(1-15)

ng sut chnh nh nht:

1
1

2 ( r ) ( r ) 2 r2
2
4

1/ 2

(1-16)

nghing vi ng thng ng, :

tan 2

2 r
( r )

(1-17)

T hnh thy rng, ti mt quanh ng hm, r = a, r = = 0 nn:

zo (1 k o ) 2(1 k o ) cos 2

(1-18)

Ti nh v y hm ( = 00 v = 1800):

zo (3k o 1)

(1-19)

Ti hng v nh hm ( = 900 v 2700):

zo (3 k o )

(1-20)

Cc quan h c th hin trn hnh

Hnh 5. Bin thin ng sut ti nh, y v hai hng hm trn bin i theo k
(Hoek,1980)
T hnh 5, khi k=0, ng sut ti nh v y hm chu ko, khi k=0,33 th ti
nh v y hm bng 0, khi k>0,33 th trn ton mt hm u l nn. Do vy ng sut
ti hng hm hon ton gim t gi tr ln nht 3z khi k=0 n 2z khi k=1.
Kt qu l khi o xong ng hm t chng , ng sut nn ln nht trn mt hm
c th t 2z n 3z v ng sut ko khng vt qu z v tr tuyt i.
ng sut hnh thnh quanh ng hm khng ph thuc hng s n hi (E,) v
kch thc ng hm. Tuy nhin c th lu rng khi ng hm c cng khu ln
trong cng khi , trng thi ng sut quanh ng hm ln v nh c th nh nhau
song tnh n nh ca chng khng hn nh nhau v khi cc ng hm c khu cng
ln th xc sut gp cc khuyt tt c hc (t gy, khe nt,) cng nhiu v do vy tnh
n nh km i.

M HNH KHI N HI DO DA TRN TIU CHUN PH HOI


HOEK BROWN
Tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown (phin bn nm 2002)
Tiu chun Hoek-Brown ban u (1980) c nh ngha bi cng thc sau, l mi
quan h gia cc ng sut chnh lc ph hoi:

3'

ci mi
s
ci

'
1

1/ 2

'
3

(1-21)

Trong :
''l cc ng sut chnh c hiu ln nht v nh nht vo lc ph hoi.
ci l cng nn n trc ca vt liu nguyn trng; mi v s l cc hng s vt

ng sut chnh 1

liu, trong s = 1 i vi nguyn trng.

ng sut chnh 3

Hnh 6. Quan h gia cc ng sut chnh ln nht v nh nht cho cc tiu chun HoekBrown v Mohr-Coulomb tng ng.

Nh bit, nhiu bi ton a k thut, c bit l cc vn n nh mi c, li


c gii quyt thun tin hn nh ng sut ct v ng sut php. Do , y l mt
trong nhng kh khn ny sinh ngay t thi gian u.
Ngoi s thay i v cng thc, Hoek, Wood, Shah, Kaiser v Bawden cn a ra
Ch s bn a cht GSI. Ch s bn a cht GSI tip tc c m rng cho cc loi
yu bi Hoek, Marinos v Benissi. Mc ch l thay th cho ch s RMR ca
Bieniawski v RMR khng hon thin trong vic lin h tiu chun ph hoi vi cc
quan trc a cht ti hin trng, c bit l vi cc rt yu. (Gii thiu v GSI xem
ph lc 1)
Di y s tp trung trnh by trnh t tnh ton do Hoek, Carranza-Torres v
Corkum xut p dng tiu chun Hoek-Brown tng qut ha cho nt n.
Tiu chun Hoek-Brown tng qut ha
Phng trnh c bn ca tiu chun ny c biu din nh sau:

'
ci mb 3 s
ci

'
1

'
3

(1-22)

Trong mb l mt gi tr chit gim ca hng s vt liu mi, v c cho bi:

GSI 100
mb mi . exp

28 14 D

(1-23)

s v a l cc hng s ca khi v c tnh theo:

GSI 100
s exp

9 3D
a

1 1 GSI / 15
e
e 20 / 3
2 6

(1-24)

(1-25)

D l h s ph thuc vo mc xo trn m khi phi tri qua do h hi n mn


v gii phng ng sut. Gi tr D bin i t 0 i vi khi ti ch khng b xo trn
ti 1 i vi khi b xo trn rt mnh. Hng dn la chn D xem ph lc 2.
Cng nn n trc nhn c bng cch cho = 0 trong cng thc (1-22), ta
c:

c ci .s a

(1-26)

v cng chu ko l:

s ci
mb

(1-27)

Cng thc (1-27) nhn c bng cch cho 1 = 3 = t trong cng thc (1-12).
Lu rng gi tr chuyn mch ti GSI = 25 i vi cc h s s v a (Hoek &
Brown, 1997) b b i trong cng thc (1-24) v (1-25) khin cho vic thay i ca
di gi tr GSI tr nn lin tc v trn.
ng sut php v ct c lin h vi cc ng sut chnh bi cc cng thc
ca Balmer:


'
n

1' 3'
2

( ).
'
1

'
3

1' 3' d 1' / d 3' 1

. '
2
d 1 / d 3' 1
d 1' / d 3'

(1-28)

(1-29)

d / d 1
'
1

'
3

trong :

d 1' / d 3' 1 amb (mb 3' / ci s) a 1

(1-30)

Module bin dng ca khi


Module bin dng ca khi c cho bi:

D ci

E m (GPa ) 1
.10 GSI 10 / 40
2 100

(1-31)

Cng thc (1-31) ng i vi ci 100 MPa. Vi ci > 100 MPa, phi dng cng
thc (1-32) di y:

D
E m (GPa ) 1 .10 GSI 10 / 40
2

(1-32)

M hnh khi n hi do da trn tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown


Phng php phn tch
phn tch m hnh khi n hi do, cn thit phi c cc phng trnh cn
bng, iu kin bin tng thch, mi quan h gia ng sut v bin dng n hi, vng
do, cc quy lut v tnh lin tc. ng sut v chuyn v trong vng n hi c th c
xc nh bng cch quan trc tnh lin tc ca ng sut hng tm v s chuyn v ca
mt tip xc n hi do. Trong vng do th da vo tiu chun v vng do, s lin
tc hay khng lin tc v gc trng n .
Vi iu kin bin dng phng i xng trc, bin dng v chuyn v c biu din
nh sau:

u r u r (r ), u 0, u z 0

ur
ur , , z 0
r
r

(1-33)
(1-34)

Trong cc i lng r, v z l cc thnh phn hng knh, tip tuyn v dc trc.


Vi cc iu kin tng thch:

(r ) r hay
0
r
r
r

(1-35)

Hoc c biu din di dng phng trnh vi phn:

d t t rt

0
dr
r

(1-36)

Vi bin dng v cng b, tng bin dng c phn ra hai thnh phn n hi v
do:

ij ije ijp

(1-37)

Trong cc i lng e v p ch cc thnh phn n hi v do. Ngoi ra, bin dng


n hi cn c chia ra hai thnh phn chuyn v lch v thnh phn th tch
(Timoshenko & Goodier, 1970):

ije ije e ij

(1-38)

Trong eij = thnh phn bin dng lch, e = thnh phn th tch n hi (1/3ekk)
v ij = hng s Kronecker, =1 (i=j), =0 (ij). Trong i, j = 1,2,3 hay ,r,z.
Tng t, thnh phn ng sut ij c chia thnh 2 thnh phn: ng sut lch v
thnh phn th tch:

ij ij' o ij

(1-39)

Trong ij = thnh phn ng sut lch, o = thnh phn ng sut th tch (1/3kk)
Do cc phng trnh lin quan n cc thnh phn lch v th tch ca ng sut v
bin dng n hi c a ra:

ije

1 '
ij
E

(1-40)

1 2
o
E

(1-41)

Trong : E l module n hi v l h s Poisson.


S lin tc ca quy lut dolin h vi s gia tng bin dng do pij v th nng do
Q c a ra:

ijp

Q
ij

(1-42)

Mi quan h gia ng sut bin dng n hi do v s gia tng ng sut bin dng
c th hin trong cng thc trn thng c dng. S chn la tiu chun ph hoi
(do) v kh nng pht trin vng do c cp n trong phn sau.
Tiu chun do
Quy lut chy do xy ra c xem nh tun theo tiu chun ph hoi phi tuyn Hoek
Brown. Trong gii php cho ng x n do ny, tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown
phin bn mi nht c gii thiu nm 2002 c chn cho m hnh ng x ca khi
.
Tiu chun Hoek Brown cho nguyn khi c l mi quan h gia ng sut
chnh ln nht v nh nht (1 v 3) ti thi im ph hoi:

1 3 ci mi 3 1
ci

1/ 2

(1-43)

Trong :
l cc ng sut chnh ln nht v nh nht vo lc ph hoi.
ci l cng nn n trc ca vt liu nguyn trng.
mi l hng s vt liu ph thuc vo loi (thng 5 mi 40). Cc gi tr mi v
ci c th c xc nh t kt qu nn ba trc (Hoek & Brown 1980, Hoek 1995).
Tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown sau c m rng xc nh cng
khng ct ca khi . Dng ca m hnh n do c xem nh tiu chun ph hoi
Hoek Brown tng qut ha trn quan im bn lc ph hoi (Hoek 1994 v Hoek &
Brown 1997):

1 3 ci mb 3 s
ci

(1-44)

Cc hng s mb, s v a trong cng thc (2-53) v (2-54) l cc hng s vt liu c


trng cho khi .
Trong thc t, cc thng s ny lin quan n ch tiu nh gi cht lng khi
(RMR- Rock Mass Rating) v gn y nht l ch tiu bn a cht (GSI- Geological
Strength Index (Hoek 1994, Hoek & Brown 1997). Bng ch tiu ny (GSI) thay i
trong khong tu 6 n 90 v c th tnh c t th v da trn cu trc ca khi
v cc biu hin trn b mt khi (Hoek & Brown 1997, Hoek, Marinos & Bennisi
1998).
Trong bn cp nht mi nht ca tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown, mi quan h
gia cc hng s mb, s v a trong cng thc (2-54) v GSI c a ra nh sau (Hoek
2002):

GSI 100
mb mi . exp

28 14 D

(1-45)

GSI 100
s exp

9 3D
a

(1-46)

1 1 GSI / 15
e
e 20 / 3
2 6

(1-47)

Hnh 7. m t tiu chun ph hoi Hoek & Brown vi cc cht lng khc nhau
(GSI=100, 50 v 5):

c tnh nguyn khi:


ci=10MPa
mi=15
c tnh khi :
a) GSI = 100
mb = 15
s=1
a = 0,5
b) GSI = 50
mb = 2.515
s = 3,866x10-3
a = 0,506
c) GSI = 5
mb = 0,504
s = 2,605x10-5
a = 0,619

Hnh 7. Tiu chun ph hoi Hoek & Brown vi cc cht lng khc nhau
(a). nguyn khi
(b),(c). Khi vi gim ca gi tr GSI
Trong cng thc (1-45) v (1-46), D l mt h s m n ph thuc vo mc
xo trn m khi phi tri qua do h hi n mn v gii phng ng sut. N bin
i t 0 i vi khi ti ch khng b xo trn ti 1 i vi khi b xo trn
rt mnh. Tng t, tiu chun ph hoi Hoek & Brown cho cc thng s bn d c
th c nh ngha nh sau:

1 3 ' ci m'b 3 s'


' ci

a'

(1-48)

Cc hng s c bn tin v cc gi tr d (trc khi ph hoi post peak) ca khi .


Hnh 8 th hin cc nh ngha v cc gi tr thi im ph hoi (nh peak) v d

ng sut

theo cc hng s Hoek & Brown.

Bin dng
1) Cc thng s ti thi
im nh (ph hoi):
ci, mb , s, a
2) Cc thng s sau khi
ph hoi (d):
ci, mb , s, a

Hnh 8. Cc ng bao ti thi im ph hoi v sau khi ph hoi vi tiu chun ph


hoi Hoek & Brown tng qut ha
Cc ng x sau lc ph hoi (cc thng s d residual parameter) c c trng
bi s lin tc (flow rule) lin quan n bin dng do. i vi m hnh vt liu do
hon ton, khng c s suy gim bn bn sau khi ph hoi; do , trng thi do
tip tc xy ra cp ng sut khng i lc ph hoi. Tuy nhin, ng x yu i ca
bin dng thng c quan st c nhng ni cc ng x trc khi ph hoi c s
ph thuc ca bin dng (strain dependent).
M hnh n hi dn do l mt loi ca ng x c m t trn v c c
trng bi s suy gim bn t ngt ti thi im ph hoi (peak) c th hin hnh
8. Tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown vn c p dng mc d bn trc khi ph
hoi suy gim.
Thc cht vic m rng vng ph hoi ph thuc vo cc gi tr d ca bn
nguyn khi (Hoek & Brown 1980, Brown 1983, Indraratna & Kaiser, 1990a, CarranzaTorres, 2004). Do , nh hng ca bn nn ca phi c trong cc gi tr d bi v

s mt mt cc gi tr ban u bi do s suy gim ng sut hoc s gia tng bin dng.


T l suy gim ng sut do c th c xem bng:

' ci S. ci

(1-49)

Trong S i din cho s mt mt bn t bn ca trong trng thi nguyn


khi n trng thi d (residual) hoc l o lng cp mt mt bn xy ra tc thi
sau khi t n trng thi ph hoi (peak). Thng s S c trng cho gin (d gy) ca
: do, ha mm v dn.
ci

Hoa
n toa
n de
o
Bie
n dang ho
a me
m
Do
n

Hnh 9. bn trc lc ph hoi ca cc m hnh khc nhau


Theo , S s thay i trong phm vi 0<S<1. Khi S = 1 th khng c s mt mt v
bn v trng thi do hoc l hon ton do. Ngc li, S=0, trng thi dn
(n hi dn do) vi cc gi tr nh nht c th cho bn d (v d 1=3) nh ch
ra trong hnh 9.
ng sut trong vng do
Kt hp gia cc phng trnh cn bng v tiu chun ph hoi cho kt qu phng
trnh vi phn sau:

d r r

0
dr
r

r 0 (i xng trc)

(1-50)

(1-51)

'
' ' r ' ci m'b r s'
' ci

a'

(1-52)

a'

' ci m' b r s'


' ci
d r

dr
r

(1-53)

ng sut ct (r) ti im bt k theo phng hng tm = 0 cho trng hp bin


dng i xng trc trong iu kin bin dng phng. Khi gng o cha c chng
trong thnh phn trng lng neo = 0 v xt cc iu kin bin r = ri, r = 0, kt qu
ca phng trnh khng tuyn tnh (1-53) c a ra:

s'
m' b
' ci

r
s' (1 a ') m' b (a'1) ln
ri

(1-54)

1
1 a '

(1-55)

Mt s kt qu nghin cu trc y thng da vo phng php hn ch s hi t,


dng thnh phn p lc bn trong nh l mt thnh phn ca lc chng tc dng ln
bin hm. Trong trng hp ny, v ng c tnh, p lc chng phi gim dn
khi s hi t tng ln. Vi trng hp ny, kt qu ca phng trnh khng tuyn tnh (153) c chp nhn vi iu kin bin r = ri, r = Pi:

s'
' ci
r
m' b
' ci

r
(1 a ')
(1 a ')
m'b Pi ' ci s'
m'b (a'1) ' ci
ln
ri

(1-56)

1
1 a '

(1-57)

ng sut trong phm vi n hi


Trong phm vi n hi, s phn b ng sut c a ra bi li gii ca Lame:

2
2
re 2
re
re
Po ( Po re ) hay Po 1 re
r
r
r

2
2
re 2
re
re
r Po ( Po re ) hay r Po 1 re
r
r
r

(1-58)

(1-59)

Trong re l ng sut php tuyn ti mt n hi do.


S phn b ng sut trong vng n hi tng ng vi gng o c bn knh ln r e
c chng bi ng sut bn trong re di cng trng ng sut bn ngoi, re l
khong cch theo phng hng tm m ti l gii hn bin do xung quanh gng
o.
Ti bin gia hai min n hi do (r = re), ng sut bn trong c a ra di dng
l thnh phn ca vng do:

s'
m' b
' ci

r
s' (1 a ') m' b (a'1) ln e
ri

(1-60)

1
1 a '

(1-61)

T thnh phn ca min n hi ti r = re, cng thc (1-58) v (1-59) c th c sp


xp li nh sau:

e re 2( Po re )

(1-62)

e re 2Po

(1-63)

S dng tiu chun v bn ti thi im ph hoi (nh) cho bin do v n hi:

e re ci mb re s
ci

T hai phng trnh (1-62) v (1-64), ta c:

(1-64)

2( Po re ) ci mb re s
ci

(1-65)

Li gii chnh xc cho phng trnh trn ch c th thc hin c vi a = 0,5. Tuy
nhin, vi cc phng php s (li gii gn ng), nh phng php Newton Raphson,
c th cho cc li gii xp x i vi phng trnh (1-65) (Press, Flannery, Teukolsky, &
Vettering, 1994). V sau, phng trnh (1-65) c gii mt cch c lp khi a = 0,5.

re Po

mb ci 1

16 Po mb ci mb2 ci2 16 ci2 s


8
8

(1-66)

B thnh phn c du m trong phng trnh trn v rt gn:

re Po M ci

(1-67)
1

2
2 mb
Po
1 mb
M
s
mb
2 4
ci
8

(1-68)

Bn knh ca phm vi vng do


Bn knh ca phm vi vng do re c th c xc nh bng cch cho rng ng sut
theo phng hng tm lin tc ti bin n hi do. Cng gi thit rng cc bin ca
min xt l xa so vi gng o, nh th nh hng ca chng i vi kt qu ca r e
l khng ng k:
Cn bng (1-60) v (1-66) (cho re ti r = re), bn knh vng do c th c suy ra t
cng thc sau:

re
eX
ri

s'
X

(1 a )

(1-69)

P m' m m'
m'
s' o ' b b b' ci b' 16 Po mb ci mb2 ci2 16 ci2 .s
ci
8 ci
8 ci

mb' (a'1)

Phn tch chuyn v v bin dng


a. Bin dng trong phm vi n hi

1 a '

(1-70)

nh lut Hook c th c p dng xc nh bin dng theo phng hng tm


v tip tuyn trong vng n hi xung quanh phm vi bin dng do (Timoshenko &
Gooder, 1970):

1 2
r
E


r 1

(1-71)

1 2

E


1 r

(1-72)

1
r
G

(1-73)

Vi iu kin i xng trc:

z 0, zx zy 0, r 0 v r 0

(1-74)

zx zy 0

(1-75)

Kt hp vi cc phng trnh tnh ng sut trong phm vi n hi (phng trnh 1-58


v 1-59), thay vo phng trnh (1-71) v (1-72), cho c trng bin dng di iu
kin bin dng phng:

( Po ) re
M ci re
(1 2 )
(1 2 )
r
Po re
Po


2G
2G
2G
2G r
r

( Po ) re
M ci re
(1 2 )
(1 2 )

Po re
Po


2G
2G
2G
2G r
r

(1-76)

(1-77)

Trong : G m un chng ct.


b. Bin dng trong phm vi do
Tng bin dng trong phm vi do c to thnh t cc bin dng trong vng n
hi v vng do c a ra trong phng trnh (1-47). nh lut Hook v s lin tc
c p dng tnh ton bin dng n hi v do. M rng phng trnh (1-37) di
iu kin bin dng phng:

t e p

(1-78)

rt re rp

(1-79)

Trong cc bin dng n hi c xem nh l rt nh so vi bin dng do.


Xc nh cc bin dng n hi trong phm vi vng do:
Dng nh lut Hook (1-71 v 1-72), vi cc ng sut trong phm vi do (cng
thc 1-52 v 1-54):

1
s'
e
'
a'
r
(1 2 )
ci

2G
mb'
'


ci

(1-80)

1
s'
e
'
a'

(1 2 )
(1 ) ci

2G
mb'
'


ci

e re

1
' ci a '
2G

(1-81)

(1-82)

Xc nh cc bin dng do trong phm vi do:


Thay cc phng trnh (1-80) v (1-81) vo phng trnh bin dng (cng thc 135), kt hp vi iu kin lin tc (1-42) cho c phng trnh vi phn khng tuyn
tnh sau:

r
d p ' ci (1 a ')

m' b (a'1) ln
s'
dr
2G.r
ri

a'

1 a '
(1 2 ) a' m' b (1 )

a'

' ci (1 a ')
1 p
r 1 a '
(1 N )
s'
m' b (a'1) ln
0
r
2G
ri

iu kin bin c dng gii phng trnh (2-93):

(1-83)

M ci
ti r = re
2G

(1-84)

Phng trnh phi tuyn (1-83) c th c gii bng cc phng php s. Kt qu


cho phng trnh (1-83) vi iu kin bin c m t trn:

1
r

1 N

M ci 1 N

2G re

'
re
ci (1 )(2 a' m ' ) r N 1 s '1 a ' m ' (1 a' ) ln r

b
b
r
2G
i
r

a'

1 a '
dr

(1-85)

C th thy t cng thc (1-85), hm s tch phn c trong kt qu ca phng


trnh vi phn. Li gii hon chnh c th c chp nhn vi phn tch phn trong
cng thc (1-85) c gii bng phng php s (phng php gn ng).
c. Trng chuyn v hng tm
Trng chuyn v c th nhn c thng qua mi quan h gia chuyn v - bin
dng tha mn cc iu kin sau:

u r 1 u
.
r r

(1-86)

u r
r

(1-87)

Cc iu kin ca bin dng phng vi cc bin dng i xng (r) cho thy tng
bin dng c lp vi cc thnh phn bin dng theo phng tip tuyn. Do ,
trng chuyn v theo phng hng tm c th c biu din nh sau:

ur
t hay u r rt dr
r
Trng chuyn v c a ra di dng:

(1-88)

M
(1 2 ) s ' (1 ) ' ci a ' 1 N ci re1 N
m' b

r
ur
1

' ci
r
2G

re
1

N 1 a '
'
'

(1 N ) ci (1 )( 2 a ' mb ) r

. dr
r
r

(1-89)

Trong c th c rt ra t cng thc (1-45):

r
s' (1 a ') m' b (a'1) ln
ri

1 a '

1 sin

tan 2 45 , : gc trng n.
1 sin
2

(2-65)

(1-90)

V sau, s hi t ca b mt n hi do ca hm c th c xc nh bng cch


thay r = ri trong cng thc trn:

M ci 1 N

a'
(
1

'
s
'

re

ci
1 N

ri
ur
1

re

ri
2G 1

(1 N ) ci' (1 )( 2 a' mb' ) r N 1 . a ' dr


ri

ri

(1-91)

B qua bin dng n hi do n rt nh so vi bin dng do, cng thc trn c


th c n gin thnh:

M ci 1 N

1 N re

ur
1 ri

re

ri 2G 1

(1 N ) ci' (1 )( 2 a' mb' ) r N 1 . a ' dr


ri

(1-92)

NHN XT
M hnh n hi do da trn tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown cn c trn c s
kt qu th nghim hng lot cc mu v thit lp c ng bao c dng phi tuyn.

Trn c s ny, cc phng trnh m t trng thi ng sut bin dng ra i cho php
nh gi, m phng cc bi ton xy dng thc t trong ph hp hn.
Cc c trng c l ca (ci, mb, s, a) trong tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown c
th thu thp c da trn kt qu th nghim mu (ci) v kt qu kho st hin
trng (mb, s, a) thng qua gi tr GSI t c th m phng tnh ton chnh xc v
ph hp hn.

TRNG THI NG SUT BIN DNG TRONG MI TRNG


XUNG QUANH NG HM
Bng 1. Kt qu tnh ton ch tiu khi nn theo tiu chun ph hy Hoek-Brown
Loi

Cc thng s tnh ton

IA2

IB

IIA

IIB

granite

Khng nn mu , MPa

20

65

87

100

Ch s cng a cht, GSI

30

40

60

70

Hng s Hoek-Brown, mi

29

29

29

29

H s ph hy, D

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Gc ma st trong khi , o

35

48

57

61

Lc dnh khi , C MPa

0,4

0,7

1,2

1,8

Khng nn khi , MPa

2,8

10,7

24,2

36,3

Moun bin dng khi , MPa

485

2124

10000

18590

Khng nn mu , MPa

20

70

90

100

Ch s cng a cht, GSI

35

40

55

60

Hng s Hoek-Brown, mi

28

28

28

28

H s ph hy, D

0,5

0,5

0,5

0,5

Gc ma st trong khi , o

36

48

56

58

Lc dnh khi , C MPa

0,45

0,7

1,1

1,3

Khng nn khi , MPa

2,8

11,3

21,7

27,4

Moun bin dng khi , MPa

600

2825

9556

14270

bin
cht
gneiss

Vic tnh ton c thc hin nh s tr gip ca phn mn Phase2 (Rocscience


Canada) trn c s m hnh theo tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown. Do b tr ng
hm su 100m nn chu p lc a tng do ct t vi gi tr xp x 27kN/m3 x100m
= 2,7MN/m2. S m phng c m t nh trong hnh v vi cc s liu a cht u
vo c tnh ton trong on ng hm gn ca nhn nc nm trong granite.

Hnh. M hnh tnh ton cng trnh ngm ak Mi 3 trong giai on thi cng

Bng 2. S liu tnh ton theo tiu chun Hoek Brown cho nguyn khi
Loi

Cc thng s tnh ton

IA2

IB

IIA

IIB

Khng nn mu , ci (MPa)

20

65

87

100

Ch s cng a cht, GSI

30

40

60

70

Hng s Hoek-Brown, mi

29

29

29

29

H s ph hy, D

0,5

0,5

0,5

0,5

M un n hi, Mpa

1000

15000

25000

30000

mb

1,035

1,666

4,317

6,95

0,0001

0,0003

0,0048

0.0183

0,522

0,511

0,503

0,501

Granite

Do cng trnh khng c th nghim o hm ngang nn s liu tnh ton cho vng
b ph hy (bin dng do) c tnh ton da vo ch tiu cng a cht GSI c
suy ra t nguyn khi theo cng thc sau: GSIr = GSI.e-0.0134GSI . y, GSIr l ch
tiu cng a cht trong vng b ph hy (bin dng do). S liu cho trong bng
3.3.
Bng 3. S liu tnh ton theo tiu chun Hoek Brown cho ph hy
(bin dng do)

Loi

IA2

IB

IIA

IIB

Khng nn mu , ci (MPa)

20

65

87

100

Ch s cng a cht, GSI

20

23

27

27

Hng s Hoek-Brown, mi

29

29

29

29

H s ph hy, D

mb

1,666

1,854

2,139

2,139

0,0001

0,0002

0,0003

0,0003

0,544

0,536

0,527

0,527

Granite

Kt qu tnh ton m phng bng chng trnh on cng v na cng th


hin cc hnh.

Hnh 4. Gi tr ng sut chnh 1 v3 trong cng IIA.

Hnh 5. Vng do xung quanh bin cng trnh

Chuyn v max = 0.0003944m


Hnh 6. Gi tr chuyn v xung quanh cng trnh

Hnh 7. Gi tr ng sut chnh 1 trong IA2 na cng.

Hnh 8. Gi tr ng sut chnh 3 trong IA2 na cng.

Chuyn v max = 0.025429m


Hnh 9. Gi tr chuyn v xung quanh cng trnh.

Hnh 10. Vng do xung quanh bin cng trnh.


NHN XT

Phn b ng sut chnh nh nht xung quanh cng trnh ngm trong cng v na
cng l nh nhau: gi tr ng sut chnh nh nht tng dn n gi tr ng sut ca ct
n phm vi nh hng cch vch hm 2,5 ln ng knh (15m).
Trong mi trng cng, khi trng thi ng sut cha vt bin do, ng x ca
mi trng trong phm vi n hi, iu kin n nh v bin dng c m bo. Do
bin php gia c cng trnh c th khng cn thit hoc c gim thiu ng k.
Trong mi trng na cng, vng do xut hin trong phm vi 3m k t vch cng
trnh: ng sut chnh ln nht c khuynh hng b st gim trong khi ng sut chnh
nh nht nh trong mi trng n hi. Do s xut hin vng do xung quanh cng
trnh trong na cng, chuyn v ca xung quanh v hm c gi tr ng k v
lm yu khi . Trong trng hp ny, cc bin php gia c nh neo trong hoc
kt cu b tng chu lc phi c b sung m bo iu kin lm vic n nh ca
cng trnh.
Chuyn v ca tnh ton theo m hnh n hi do ph hp vi ng x thc t v
c gi tr ln hn ng k so vi trng hp xem l mi trng n hi nn c th
gy nt n bin chu vi cng trnh.
M hnh n hi do da trn c s tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown (phin bn
nm 2002) cho php nh gi cc thnh phn ng sut v bin dng hp l khi trng
thi ng sut ca mi trng vt qu phm vi n hi v khc bit ng k so vi
trng hp xem l mi trng n hi.

PH LC 1: GII THIU V H THNG PHN LOI THEO CH


TIU BN A CHT GSI (GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX)
Hoek v Brown nhn ra rng tiu chun ph hoi ca khi s khng c gi tr thc
tin no nu nh n khng lin quan n cc quan st, nh gi a cht ti hin trng,
cng vic m c th c thc hin d dng bi cc k s a cht ti cng trng. H
xem xt s pht trin mt h thng phn loi trong qu trnh pht trin tiu chun vo
nhng nm cui ca thp nin 70 nhng h t b nh v trong thi gian ny c
h thng phn loi khi RMR ca Bieniawski a ra t nm 1974 v c cng
nhn trong gii c hc . H thng RMR (v c h thng phn loi Q) c pht trin
nh gi cht lng khi trong qu trnh thi cng v gia c chng cng trnh
ngm, v trong n bao gm mt s cc thng s khng cn thit cho vic nh gi c
tnh v cht lng khi . Nc ngm v cc thng s v hng cu trc trong RMR;
nc ngm v cc thng s v ng sut trong Q c gii quyt tt hn bng phng
php s v cc thng s ny khng lin quan trong vic nh gi cht lng khi . Do
, thng ch bn thng s u trong h thng RMR ( bn khi , nh gi RQD,
chiu rng vt ct, v cc tnh cht ca vt ct) l c dng cho vic nh gi cht
lng khi .
Trong thi gian u th h thng phn loi RMR c s dng rt hiu qu bi v hu
ht cc vn u c p dng vi khi c cht lng tng i tt (30<RMR<70)
di iu kin ng sut trung bnh. Tuy nhin, sm nhn ra rng h thng phn loi
RMR khi p dng i vi cht lng xu th rt kh khn v khng ph hp. Mi
quan h gia h thng RMR v cc hng s m v s trong tiu chun ph hoi Hoek
Brown khng c thch hp lm trong khi yu v c nhiu t gy.
C hai h thng phn loi RMR v Q u ph thuc nhiu vo phn loi RQD (phn
trm thu hi nn khoan) c gii thiu bi Deere (1964). Do gi tr RQD trong khi
yu hu nh bng khng hoc khng c ngha, do cn thit phi xem xt mt h
thng phn loi khc thay th. H thng phn loi mi s khng cn gi tr RQD, m s
ch yu da vo cc quan st, nh gi a cht thng thng ca khi , phn nh tnh
cht vt liu, cu trc v lch s a cht ca khi . H thng ny s c pht trin
nh gi cc c tnh, tnh cht ca khi ch khng ch l dng cho chng v gia
c hm. H thng phn loi mi ny, ngy nay gi l GSI, bt u c pht trin
Toronto vi cc thng s a cht t David Wood (Hoek et al. 1992). Bng phn loi v

ng dng n trong tiu chun ph hoi Hoek Brown c tip tc pht trin bi Hoek
(1994), Hoek et al. (1995) v Hoek & Brown (1997) nhng i vi cng th n vn
tng ng vi h thng phn loi RMR. K t nm 1998, trong qu trnh gii quyt
cc kh khn gp phi khi thi cng ng hm Hy Lp, Evert Hoek v Paul Marinos
pht trin h thng GSI nh ngy nay trong c c vic nh gi cht lng khi
yu (Hnh PL1-1) (Hoek et al. 1998; Marinos v Hoek 2000, 2001). Bn cnh h cng
m rng p dng cho khi khng ng nht (hnh PL1-2) (Marinos v Hoek 2001).

CU TRC

CU TRC PHN KHI - C cu trc


phn khi cht ch hnh lp phng to
bi b 3 vt ct

CU TRC PHN KHI MNH


Phn khi , khi khng nguyn trng
to thnh bi cc phn khi tam gic
giao ct nhau do bi 4 hay nhiu vt ct
PHN KHI/KHNG NGUYN
TRNG/ NT - Un np vi cc phn
khi tam gic c to thnh bi rt
nhiu cc vt nt giao ct nhau. Lu dn
to thnh phn lp hay phin
PH HY - Cu trc lin kt yu, khi
to thnh bi s pha trn gia cc
khi tam gic v trn

RT YU - B mt b phong ha mnh vi cc lp st
mm bao ph hay lp nht

YU - B mt b phong ha mnh vi cc mnh vn bao


ph hay lp nht

TRUNG BNH - Bng phng, phong ha trung bnh v b


mt b thay i

TT
Cng, b phong ha t, b mt c mu nu st

CHIU GIM CHT LNG B MT

CHIU GIM CA S LIN KT GIA CC KHI

NGUYN KHI HAY C CHC Cc mu nguyn khi hay c chc


hin trng cng vi mt vi vt ct

RT TT
Rt cng, b mt khng b phong ha

TRNG THI B MT KHI

CH TIU BN A CHT CHO KHI


NG NHT
(Hoek v Marinos, 2000)
T cc iu kin thch hc, cu trc v b mt
khi v tnh lin tc, c tnh gi tr GSI trung
bnh. ng qu c gng chnh xc. Chng hn
nh nm trong khong 33 n 37 th hp l hn l
chn vi GSI =35. Ghi ch rng bng ny khng
p dng cho cu trc kim sot s ph hoi.
Nhng ni m cc mt t gy c hng bt li
khi o s lm nh hng ti ng x ca . Sc
chng ct ca b mt s gim khi c nc. Khi
nh gi khi trong vng trung bnh n rt
yu th vi iu kin m t nn dch chuyn qua
bn phi. p lc nc ngm s c gii quyt
bng vic phn tch ng sut c hiu.

PHN PHIN MNG/B CT Khng c s kt dnh do cc phin


mng hay nhiu mt phng ct.

Hnh PL1- 1. Bng c tnh gi tr GSI chung cho cc quan st, nh gi a cht

NH GI B MT KHI V

KHNG LIN TC (mt phn lp)

C. Ct
kt xen
ln bt
kt.

Bin dng sau qu trnh kin to

G. Cc phin bt kt
hay c cha st khong
b xen k c hay
khng c vi rt t cc
lp ct kt.

C, D, E v G nu to np nhiu
hay t hn m t nhng khng thay
i cng . Bin dng kin to,
t gy hay mt s lin tc th
chuyn xung F v H

B. Ct kt
xen ln cc
lp bt kt
mng.

th lm mt n nh.

E. Phin bt
kt yu hay c
cha st xen
ln cc lp ct
kt.

H. Cc phin bt kt hay c cha st


to thnh cu trc hn n. c cha
nhiu ti st. Cc lp ct kt mng
bin i thnh cc mu nh.

F. Bin dng kin to, un np


mnh/t gy, cc phn bt kt hay
c cha st xen ln vi cc lp ct
kt bin dng, khng lin tc to
thnh cu trc hn n.

D. Phin
bt kt xen
ln cc lp
ct kt.

lp l khng ng k. Trong cc ng hm nng hay mi dc, cc mt phn lp ny c

A. Phn lp dy, ct kt phn khi mnh. nh hng ca lp lp nht gia cc mt phn

THNH PHN V CU TRC

CH TIU BN A CHT CHO KHI KHNG NG NHT , PHN TNG


(Hoek v Marinos, 2001)
T cc iu kin thch hc, cu trc v b mt khi v tnh lin tc, c tnh gi tr GSI
trung bnh. ng qu c gng chnh xc. Chng hn nh nm trong khong 33 n 37 th
hp l hn l chn vi GSI =35. Ghi ch rng tiu chun ph hoi Hoek-Brown khng p
dng cho cu trc kim sot s ph hoi. Nhng ni m cc mt t gy c hng bt li
s lm nh hng ti ng x ca . bn ca mt s khi s gim khi c nc ngm.
Khi nh gi khi trong vng trung bnh n rt yu th vi iu kin m t nn dch
chuyn qua bn phi. p lc nc ngm khng lm thay i gi tr GSI v s c gii
quyt bng vic phn tch ng sut c hiu.

RT YU - B mt b phong ha
mnh vi cc lp st mm bao ph
hay lp nht

YU - B mt b phong ha mnh
vi cc mnh vn bao ph hay lp
nht

TRUNG BNH - Bng phng, phong


ha trung bnh v b mt b thay i

TT
Cng, b phong ha t, b mt c mu
nu st

RT TT
Rt cng, b mt khng b phong ha

Hnh PL1- 2. Bng c tnh gi tr GSI cho khi khng ng nht, phn lp.

V ngoi ca khi

Gi tr D
khuyn ngh

M t khi
N mn c kim sot cht
lng rt tt, hoc o bng c
gii bi my khoan hm TBM
s gy nn xo trn rt nh cho

D=0

khi b nn p ba chiu xung


quanh hang hm.

o c gii hoc bng th cng


trong

cht

lng

km

D=0

(khng n mn) gy ra xo trn


rt nh cho khi bao quanh.
Nu iu kin nn p
(squeezing) gy ra bng nn

D = 0,5

ln, th xo trn c th l

Khng lm

nghim trng, tr phi c thi

vm nga

cng mt vm nga tm thi


(nh trong nh).
Vic n mn cht lng rt ti
trong mt hm cng s sinh
ra ph hoi cc b nghim
trng, phm vi c th su n
2m hay 3m vo khi xung
quanh.

D = 0,8

V ngoi ca khi

M t khi

Gi tr D
khuyn ngh

N mn quy m nh ti cc mi
dc cng trnh dn dng gy ra
h hi khi trung bnh, c
bit l nu c s dng k thut

D = 0,7

n mn c iu khin nh th N mn tt
hin trn phn bn tri ca bc D = 1,0
nh. Tuy nhin, vic gii phng

N mn ti

ng sut s gy ra mt s xo
trn nht nh.
Cc mi dc m khai thc l
thin rt ln s phi chu s xo D = 1,0
trn kh ln do n mn i tr
N mn i tr
khi lng ln v cng do s
gii phng ng sut t vic o
b lp t ph bn trn.
Trong mt s loi mm, c
th tin hnh o bng cch
bc x v san i nh mc
h hi n cc mi dc s gim

D = 0,7

i.

o bng c
gii

Bng 1: Hng dn xc nh h s xo trn D