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PENGAJARAN & PEMBELAJARAN IPTA

MONO G R A F
2

STRATEGI DAN KAEDAH


PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN
..... ...................

liti Modal Insan


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sir i M ONO GR A F
PENGAJARAN & PEMBELAJARAN IPTA

STRATEGI DAN KAEDAH


2
PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN
C

12-14 Disember 2007


Hotel Palace of the Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor
Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA

Koleksi eksklusif kertas kerja Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di


Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 (CTLHE07)

Monograf 1
Pembangunan Modal Insan
Monograf 2
Strategi dan Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Monograf 3
Teknologi dan Inovasi dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Monograf 4
Polisi dan Pengurusan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Monograf 5
Isu Semasa dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Pengajian Tinggi

Buku Abstrak
Ke Arah Peningkatan Kualiti Modal Insan

ISBN 978-967-960-222-7

© 2007 Pusat Pembangunan Akademik (CADe), Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Semua Hakcipta Terpelihara.


Tiada bahagian terbitan ini boleh diterbitkan semula, disimpan untuk
pengeluaran atau ditukarkan ke dalam sebarang bentuk atau dengan
sebarang alat juga pun, sama ada dengan cara elektronik, gambar serta
rakaman dan sebagainya tanpa kebenaran bertulis dari penulis artikel
dan Pusat Pembangunan Akademik (CADe), Universiti Putra Malaysia
terlebih dahulu.

Diterbitkan oleh

Pusat Pembangunan Akademik (CADe)


Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Tel: 603-8946 6112/6175


Fax: 603-89466043
Web: www.cade.upm.edu.my
SIDANG EDITOR

Monograf
Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007

Ketua Editor
Sidek Hj. Ab. Aziz

Sidang Editor
Mohd. Majid Konting Hamidah Meseran
Mansor Ahmad Mohd. Farid Jaafar
Zaidan Abdul Wahab Marzanah A. Jabar
Mohd. Kamil Yusof Fatimah Sidi
Rusli Abdullah Nor Azirawani Man

Editor Teknikal

Juraidah Mohamad Amin Hasmah Abdul Wahab


Lailawati Bakar Saiful Ramadzan Hairani
Muhammad Asrul Abd. Salam Muhammad Khairuddin Yusuf
Azura Adam Mohd. Ridzuan Ishak
Nurhafizah Mat Sah

i
Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA

Koleksi eksklusif kertas-kerja Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran


di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 (CTLHE07) di Hotel Palace of Golden
Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, pada 12-14 Disember 2007.

Pembangunan Modal Insan


Strategi dan Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Teknologi dan Inovasi dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Polisi dan Pengurusan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Isu Semasa dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran PengajianTinggi
Ke Arah Peningkatan Kualiti Modal Insan (Buku Abstrak)

ii
PRAKATA
Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA merupakan koleksi
eksklusif kertas kerja Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Pering-
kat Pengajian Tinggi 2007 (CTLHE07) yang berlangsung pada 12-14
Disember 2007 di Hotel Palace of Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selan-
gor. CTLHE07 dianjurkan bersama Universiti Putra Malaysia dan Majlis
Ketua Pusat Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Institut Pengajian Tinggi
Awam Malaysia di bawah naungan Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malay-
sia.

Pembangunan modal insan merupakan salah satu teras dalam Misi


Nasional dan Rancangan Malaysia Kesembilan bagi meningkatkan
keupayaan pengetahuan, kreativiti dan inovasi serta memupuk minda
warga kelas pertama. Institut Pengajian Tinggi (IPT) merupakan saluran
utama penjanaan modal insan negara yang berpendidikan, berkemahi-
ran, kreatif, inovatif, bersikap progresif dan berfikiran kritis. Kini pelbagai
inisiatif dan usaha penambahbaikan secara menyeluruh ke atas sistem
penyampaian sistem pendidikan dan latihan, peningkatan kualiti sistem
pengajaran dan pembelajaran secara holistik sedang giat dijalankan di
peringkat IPT untuk melahirkan graduan yang berkualiti dan berdaya
saing.

Usaha kerajaan adalah untuk mewujudkan universiti bertaraf antara-


bangsa dan memastikan pendidikan dan latihan di peringkat tertiari
berkualiti tinggi bagi memenuhi prospek kerja dan keperluan majikan.
Kerajaan juga menyediakan lebih banyak peluang dan akses kepada
pendidikan, latihan dan pembelajaran sepanjang hayat di semua pering-
kat pendidikan. Inisiatif Hasil Pembelajaran merupakan langkah awal IPT
bagi menyediakan pelajar kepada pengalaman pembelajaran dan pendi-
dikan yang lengkap sebelum mereka bergelar graduan bagi menempuh
alam pekerjaan. IPT turut berhasrat untuk menjana graduan yang memi-
liki kemahiran yang komprehensif dan seimbang bukan sahaja dari sudut
kualiti kognitif bahkan juga dari segi kemahiran insaniah yang merang-
kumi pelbagai aspek insani seperti sikap dan akhlak.

Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA dibahagikan kepada 6


bahagian iaitu:
1. Pembangunan Modal Insan
2. Strategi dan Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
3. Teknologi dan Inovasi dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
4. Polisi dan Pengurusan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
5. Isu Semasa dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Pengajian Tinggi
6. Ke Arah Peningkatan Kualiti Modal Insan (Buku Abstrak)

Semoga penerbitan siri monograf ini dapat dimanfaatkan oleh semua


pihak terutama dalam usaha kolektif menjana modal insan negara yang
berkualiti serta melonjakkan kualiti pendidikan Malaysia ke peringkat
global dan dapat bersaing di arena antarabangsa.

- EDITOR -

iii
PENGHARGAAN
Sekalung penghargaan kepada

Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia (KPT)


Naib Canselor, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Timbalan Naib Canselor (Akademik dan Antarabangsa)
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Majlis Ketua Pusat Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Institut Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia
Puncak Niaga (M) Sdn Bhd
Anjung Visi Solution Sdn Bhd
Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA)
Aniotek Sdn Bhd
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
Koperasi UPM Berhad
Mavisco (M) Sdn Bhd
Kospeta Printing Bhd

Setinggi penghargaan dan terima kasih kepada individu-individu


yang terlibat secara langsung dan tidak langsung dalam usaha
menerbitkan Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA ini.

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Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007
KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

KANDUNGAN

BIL TAJUK M/S

Sidang Editor i

Siri Monograf Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran IPTA ii

Prakata iii

Penghargaan iv

1) A Contextual Approach, using Problem-Based, to the Teaching 1


and Learning Statistics in the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn
Malaysia (UTHM)
Nafisah Kamariah Md Kamaruddin, Wan Mohd Rashid Wan
Ahmad, UTHM

2) Impact on the Implementation of Bilingualism in Science and 10


Mathematics in Higher Education
Mohini Mohamed, Aziz Nordin UTM

3) Hubungan Pengajaran Pensyarah dan Minat Pelajar dengan 19


Kefahaman Konsep Moral: Kajian di UUM
Mohamad Khairi Haji Othman, Abdull Sukor Shaari, UUM

4) Teachers’ Use of Questions in ESL Classrooms 28


Kalyani a/p Rajoo, Institut Perguruan Darulaman

5) Gaya Pembelajaran, Kemahiran Generik dan Motivasi Pelajar 39


Merentasi Bidang Sains Tulen, Kejuruteraan dan Sains Sosial di
UTM
Abdul Rahim Hamdan, Mohamad Najib Ghaffar,
Azlina Kosnin, Jamaluddin Ramli, Mahani Mokhtar,UTM

6) Multiple Intelligence: The Reliability of MyMICA in Identifying 52


Teaching and Learning Strategy
Siti Rahayah Ariffin, Rusminah Musliman

7) The Importance of Law in Sports and Physical Education from A 66


Pedagogic Perspective
Zaidi Hassim, UKM

8) Tema-tema dalam Pembelajaran Bersepadu: Implikasi kepada 79


Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
¹Ling Siew Eng, ²Siti Rahayah bt. Ariffin, ²Saemah bt Rahman
¹Uitm, ²UKM
Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007
KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

9) Implementation of Outcome-Based Education Delivery System at 90


Pre-University Level
Balbir Singh Mahinder Singh, Chong Fai Kait, Hasnah M Zaid
UTP

10) Outcome-Based Curriculum: Its Implementation in the Teaching 100


of English Language Proficiency Courses
Shahrina Md. Nordin, Subarna Sivapalan, UTP

11) A PBL Approach for Acquiring Global Project Experiences in 111


Architectural / Engineering / Construction Education
Rahinah Ibrahim, UPM

12) Predicting Successful Completion of MBA Study Using e-Miner 125


Izwan Nizal Mohd Shaharanee, Chooi-Leng Ang, UUM

13) Facilitating Graduate Level-Learning: A Case Study of the 134


“Newfoundland Strategy”
Normah Haji Omar, UiTM

14) Penilaian Kemahiran Teknikal Berasaskan Model Kompetensi 148


bagi Sumber Guna Tenaga Menerusi Pendekatan Pendidikan
Teknikal dan Vokasional di Malaysia
Kahirol Mohd. Salleh, Nor Lisa Sulaiman, UTHM

15) Persepsi Pelajar terhadap Pembelajaran Akses Kendiri melalui 158


Penggunaan Laman Web dan Kesannya terhadap Mata
Pelajaran Sejarah
Ahmad Rafaai Ayudin, Norhasni Zainal Abidin

16) Facilitator and Learner’s Understanding on Roger’s Core 167


Conditions of a Person Centered Counseling (And Learning) in
the Student Centered Learning Environment
Mansor b Abu Talib, UPM

17) Managing Diversity Training for Medical Students 176


Harlina HS, Ruzanna Z, Juriza I, Siti Mariam B, Nabishah M
UKM

18) Instilling Moral Values in Report Writing Course 180


Hajah Siti Akmar Abu Samah, UiTM

19) Persepsi Pelajar terhadap Aktiviti di dalam Kelas Bahasa Arab: 189
Tinjauan di USIM
Lubna Abd Rahman, Wan Azura Wan Ahmad, Arnida A.Bakar
USIM

20) Writing a Case as a Teaching Tool 199


Zainal Abidin Mohamed, UPM
Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007
KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

21) Analisis Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar Baru Universiti Malaysia 211


Terengganu
Nur Amirah Amiruddin, Fauziah Abu Hasan
Wan Abd Aziz Wan Mohd Amin, UMT

22) A Study of Visual Ability Based on Gender Differences with 223


First -Year UiTM Chemistry Students
Sharipah Ruzaina Syed Aris, Nesamalar V. Kantasamy
Mashiah Domat Shaharudin, Badariah Abu Bakar, UiTM

23) Pembelajaran Kolaboratif: Bekerja Sebagai “Satu Kumpulan” 233


atau “Bekerja dalam Kumpulan”?
Wan Zah Wan Ali, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd.Ayub, Rosnaini Mahmud
Mokhtar Hj.Nawawi, Rusli Abdullah, UPM

24) Penggunaan Kamus Arab-Melayu dalam Pengajaran dan 248


Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab
Tasnim binti Mohd Annuar, UDM

25) Knowledge and Interest on Traditional Medicine among UiTM 258


Pharmacy Students
Ibtisam Abdul Wahab, UiTM

26) Tahap Kefahaman Kemahiran Mereka Bentuk Eksperimen dan 266


Kemahiran Mengeksperimen di Kalangan Pelajar Tahun Dua
Program Pendidikan Fizik Merentas Jantina
Noor Anita binti Ali, Shaharom bin Noordin, UTM

27) Board Game: Nun-Forecaster Fast Forward into the Corporate 276
Future – What Lies Ahead of You?
Rozainun Abdul Aziz, UiTM

28) Pelaksanaan Kaedah SCL dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran 286


Kursus Kenegaraan Malaysia di Universiti Putra Malaysia dan
Kesannya ke atas Gred Pencapaian Pelajar
Zarina Muhammad, UPM

29) Pendekatan Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab Pelajar China di Xi’an 297


International Studies University (XISU): Suatu Tinjauan di USIM
Arnida A. Bakar, Lubna Abd. Rahman, Wan Azura Wan Ahmad
USIM

30) Enhancing Environmental Engineering Curricula through 311


Intensification of Field Course
Sumiani Yussoff, Onn Chiu Chuen. UM

31) Freemind for the Teaching and Learning of Electrical Machines 321
Mohd Fakhizan bin Romlie, UTP

32) Pengajaran Kursus Pemikiran Kritis Berteraskan Al-Qur’an di 332


Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi: Satu Cadangan
Mohd Fauzi Hamat, UM
Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007
KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

33) Facilitating Graduate Level-Learning: A Case Study of the 344


“Newfoundland Strategy”
Normah Haji Omar, UiTM

34) Cikgu, Gambarajah Ini Menyusahkan Saya! 357


Johari Surif, Nor Hasniza brahim, Mohammad Yusof Arshad
UTM

35) The Impact of Coorperative Learning Method in Increasing 371


Student’s Academic and Soft Skill Performance. An Exploratory
Study in UMS
Caroline Geetha, Vivin Vincent Chandran, UMS

36) Online Interaction: Quantitative versus Qualitative Approach 379


¹Mohd Fadzli bin Ali, ²Gordon Joyes
¹UTM, ²University of Nottingham

37) Explication of Tacit Knowledge in Higher Education Instituitional 387


Research through the Criteria of Professional Practice Action
Research Approach: A Focus Group Case Study at an Australian
University
Edward Wong Sek Khin. UTAR

38) Implementation of Outcome-Based Education (OBE) in Universiti 402


Putra Malaysia: A Focus on Student Learning Outcomes (SLO)
Mohd Ghazali Mohayidin, Turiman Suandi, Ghazali Mustafa
Roselan Baki, Norfaryanti Kamaruddin, Nor Azirawani Man
Azura Adam, Siti Norziah Abdullah, UPM

39) Program Peningkatan Profesional: Pemantap Pegawai 427


Akademik Institusi Pengajian Tinggi
Mansor Ahmad, Juraidah Mohamad Amin, Haryati Abdullah
UPM
Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007
KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

A CONTEXTUAL APPROACH, USING PROBLEM-BASED, TO THE


TEACHING AND LEARNING STATISTICS IN THE UNIVERSITI TUN
HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA (UTHM)

ABSTRACT - The Mathematics Department,


NAFISAH KAMARIAH MD Centre for Science Studies in the Universiti Tun
KAMARUDDIN Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) has adopted the
MOHD RASHID WAN AHMAD contextual teaching and learning approach. In the
contextual approach, by using the problem-based
Centre for Science Studies
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn method, students engage in the problem-solving
Malaysia (UTHM) investigation that integrates skills and concept
from many content areas. Students will be
nafisah@uthm.edu.my working in teams to perform tasks and the
lecturer will facilitate them. Vygfotsky emphasized
that cognitive development results from a
dialectical process whereby a child learns
through the problem-solving experiences shared
with someone else, usually a parent or teacher
but sometimes a sibling or peer. In addition,
according to Vygotsky, when children were tested
on tasks on their own, they rarely did as well as
when they were working in collaboration with an
adult as the process of engagement with the
adult enabled them to refine their thinking or their
[
performance to make it more effective . This is
what the social constructivism emphasizes on
which meanings and understanding grow.The
implementation of contextual approach in the
UTHM is already more than four years; however
there is no proper module of teaching and
learning mathematics contextually. Thus, this
research is to study the effectiveness of the
contextual approach. This study will be
conducted on the second year engineering
students taking statistics. In this research, a
quasi-experimental research design is used. The
research instruments will consist of 2 sets of
questionnaires, 3 quizzes and a standard test.
Likert scale will be used as a form of
© Universiti Putra Malaysia measurement for the questionnaires. Solomon’s
2007. Semua Hak Cipta Four-Group Design will be used where the
Terpelihara. Prosiding students will be divided into four groups: 2 control
Persidangan Pengajaran dan groups and 2 treated groups as shown in the
Pembelajaran di Peringkat attachment. This design allows the researcher to
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi
assess whether there is an interaction between
(CTLHE07), The Palace of
Golden Horses, Seri the treatment and the pretest. This design
Kembangan, Selangor, combines two basic experimental designs.This
12-14 Disember 2007 research will produce a proper implementation of
the contextual approach in the teaching and

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learning mathematics in higher learning


institutions. Hence it will help students to learn
mathematics and most importantly to apply it in
their engineering subjects.

Keywords: Social Constructivism, Problem-


based Learning, Contextual, Statistics

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In 1997, the Technical Education Department under the Ministry of


Education, Malaysia, introduced the contextual approach in the teaching and
learning mathematics, additional mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology in
all Malaysian technical secondary schools. After one month of the
implementation of this approach to selected technical schools, a pilot test was
done to see the effectiveness of this approach. The students were divided into
two groups: control and treated groups. The contextual groups used the
contextual module, watched the contextual video and did the laboratory
activities. After watching the video, the students started to realize the use of
mathematics in real life situations. The students enjoyed the laboratory activities
and they were more involved with the lesson. The students were more motivated
because they started doing their homework given by the teachers. Weak
students who did not like mathematics tended to appreciate mathematics. It
seemed that the barrier between them and mathematics had been broken. A
good student commented that she would still understand the concept by either
method but she understood faster with the contextual approach. After a month,
these two classes were given the same test. Due to the result of the study where
the findings were very positive (11% increase in performance) and hence the
implementation of the contextual learning in mathematics, additional
mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology subjects in the year 1998 for all
[3]
vocational /technical secondary schools . Starting from the year 2001, the
contextual approach has been used for learning and teaching applied
mathematics in the Malaysian community college, Ministry of Education, so that
students will be able to understand abstract concepts through concrete
experiences.

From 1998 to 2000 more than 80% of the UTHM intake was from
Malaysian Technical Secondary Schools. Thus it is the UTHM’s obligation to
introduce this program as a continual process in higher learning institutions. In
2002, the contextual approach in the teaching and learning mathematics was
introduced in the Centre for Science Studies in UTHM. The implementation of
contextual approach in UTHM is already more than four years; however there is
no proper module of the teaching and learning mathematics contextually and
there is no proper experimental research that has been done to study whether
this method has been effective. Thus, this research is to study the effectiveness
of the contextual approach.

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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Contextual Learning

The contextual learning means one that incorporates examples


that are drawn from everyday experiences in personal, societal and
occupational life which provide concrete hands-on applications of
[3]
material to be learned . In the first project by the Ohio State University
College of Education and Bowling Green State University, the definition
of the contextual teaching and learning was developed as the conception
of the teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter
content to real world situations and motivates students to make
connection between knowledge and its applications to their lives as
family members, citizens, and workers; and engage in the hard work that
[4]
learning requires . The contextual approach was introduced for students’
technical and career preparation or Tech Prep by the Center for
Occupational Research and Development, Texas, USA. The contextual
approach is one of the Tech Prep elements.

In the contextual approach, by using the problem-based method,


students engage in the problem-solving investigation that integrates skills
and concept from many content areas. Students will be working in teams
to perform tasks and the lecturer will facilitate them. Vygfotsky
emphasized that cognitive development results from a dialectical process
whereby a child learns through problem-solving experiences shared with
someone else, usually a parent or teacher but sometimes a sibling or
[1]
peer . In addition, according to Vygotsky, when children were tested on
tasks on their own, they rarely did as well as when they were working in
[2]
collaboration with an adult . He added that it was always the case that
the adult was teaching them how to perform the task, but the process of
engagement with the adult enabled them to refine their thinking or their
[2]
performance to make it more effective .

2.2 Contextual Learning Key Elements

2.2.1 Develop Subject Matter CONTENT

Students learn best if we can relate to their past


experiences. According to constructivism, students construct
their own knowledge by testing ideas based on prior knowledge
and experiences, applying these ideas to new situation, and
integrating the new knowledge gained with preexisting
[3]
intellectual constructs .

2.2.2 Involve Students in DOING

According to Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory, the


[5]
students learn best by thinking and doing . In the contextual

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approach, the lab activities or mathematical experiments help


students to study by this method. The old way of teaching is a
one-way communication. We cannot assume students accept
and understand everything that is taught by the teacher. By
looking at the notes that the students copied from the
blackboard, we can see that certain students copied differently
from what was given to them and that means they understand
the concept wrongly. By using the lab activities or mathematical
experiments in the contextual approach, it helps them to
understand the concept better as the concept of experiential
learning explores the cyclical pattern of all learning from
Experiences through Reflection and Conceptualizing to Action
[5]
and on further Experience .
2.2.3 Make The CONNECTION Between Context and Practice

According to.Kolb and Hull in the Center of Curriculum


Development, Malaysian Ministry of Education (2001), the
contextual approach makes the learning connect with all kinds of
experiences in social, culture, physical and psychological
[6]
contexts . This theory encourages educators to choose or
generate surrounding that get good learning outcomes. The uses
of motivational video programs take students into workplace and
demonstrate the use of mathematics on the job. Through the
video presentation and the class discussion, students associate
and recognize the mathematical skills needed in the rapidly
changing workplace. After watching the video, the students
started to realize the use of mathematics in real life situations.
Studies done by Zaidi in KUiTTHO shown that the technical
students agreed that the application of multimedia using
simulation, illustration with video attracted their attention during
the lesson and this approach was able to motivate them to focus
[7]
on the lessons . In addition, the research done by Baharudin
and NurHaiza who used Learning Styles Questionnaires (LSQ)
by Honey & Mumford , reflector is the main learning style for the
[8] [9]
technical teachers and students . The teaching and learning
activities which were effective for this group were to stimulate
them by watching video or giving them time to think before react,
giving conclusion without pressure which was being focused in
the contextual approach.
2.2.4 Practice Cooperative Learning

The contextual approach helps students to learn in a


group where this approach will encourage them to ask
questions, discuss and solve problems together. Students will
practice cooperative learning while the teacher serves as a
guide. According to Zahariah et all, cooperative learning
promoted positive relations among students and there was a
tendency to be more cooperative among the peer members in
[10]
discussing and solving problems . The main goal for schools is

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to prepare the students for work. Thus it is important that the


students work together because in real life situations they have
to work with other workers. They will learn to do things in a
working environment. They will need to communicate with each
other and this will increase their communication skills.
Cooperative learning helps learners acquire the curriculum the
[11]
basic cooperative attitudes and values . However cooperative
learning does not mean students achieve better academically as
in Messier research, the overall achievement scores were higher
in the traditional lecture-based groups (control) than the
[12]
cooperative lecture groups (treatment) .
2.2.5 Carry out Learning in Workplace Setting, Where
Possible

Workplace lab activities created by business and


industry focus on measurement and computation, and help
students to develop critical thinking skills. Students relate the
formulas and theories that are taught in the classroom to their
everyday lives or their future jobs. If we can bring students to the
real life atmosphere let say a company then they can see the
real thing. However if we cannot, we need to simulate the
workplace. In the experiment besides making them understand
the concept, the students also work in environment or group
projects that simulate the workplace. This is a good practice
because there is a lot of complain from companies that the
students who graduated from higher learning institution cannot
perform well in the workplace. In the contextual approach, by
using the problem-based method, students engage in the
problem-solving investigation that integrate skills and concept
from many content areas or by using the project-based learning,
students work autonomously to construct their own learning, and
[13]
culminate in realistic products .

2.2.6 Problem-based Learning

There are also many definitions of the problem-based


learning (PBL). Fogarty defined PBL as a curriculum model
designed around real-life problems that are ill-structured, open-
ended, or ambiguous. In problem based learning students go
through many stages which are defining the problem, gathering
known facts, generating questions, hypothesizing, eventually
generating alternatives, advocating solutions and justifying
[14]
recommendations .

Many researchers have found out that PBL is very


effective and helps the students, not only in understanding the
concepts but also in developing themselves. According to
[15]
Vygotsky in Cole, understanding is social in origin . In addition,
in a study by Acar et al., they found that PBL provided the basis

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[16]
for the development of systems engineers . Sometimes
students are not able to connect what they learn in class with the
real world. PBL will be a good method of learning as the creation
of most PBL classes is built around the delivery of the real-world
[17]
learning experience to the students . Traditional method is a
one-way method of teaching and the students are expected to
just accept what the teacher teaches. However in PBL, there is a
connection between the teaching method and the depth and
complexity of the learning, as the students may be expected to
reach the level of analytically complex comprehension through
the problem-based work that is not done in the traditional
[18]
method of teaching .

The success of this method will depend on many


aspects such as the experience of the lecturers, the
implementation of PBL, the evaluations of the students’
performances, etc. This variation in PBL design would occur as
[19]
the use of PBL is increasing . Lecturers should be aware of the
problems that may occur when implementing PBL. For example,
the students would get a lot of information all at once and found
difficulty to plow through the concepts or the introductory
application with less theory makes the computation more
[20]
difficult .

3.0 SCOPE

This reasearch will focus on the contextual approach, using problem-


based, in the teaching and learning statistics for the second year degree
engineering students, UTHM As it is important that the students know the
importance of statistics and the application of statistics in engineering, this
research will focus on statistics subject. The duration of this research is 3 years.

4. 0 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

The objectives of this research are as follow:

1. To determine whether using statistics video clips embedded in


power point presentations in learning statistics help students to
understand the statistics concepts

2. To determine whether using the mathematical lab using SPSS in


learning statistics helps students to understand the statistics
concepts

3. To determine whether the class activities using problem-based


learning helps students to understand the statistics concepts.

4. To determine whether there is a significant difference between


the test result of the contextual group with the non-contextual
group.

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5.0 METHODOLOGY

In this research, a quasi-experimental research design is used. The


research instruments will consist of 2 sets of questionnaires, 3 quizzes and a
st
standard test. The 1 set of questionnaires which will consist of 5 main sections
: Background, Teaching and learning approach, Video, Class activities, Statistics
nd
lab. The 2 set of questionnaires will consist of 3 main sections: creativity,
criticality and team working. Likert scale will be used as a form of measurement.
Before the questionnaires are given to the respondents, a pioneer test will be
done where ten degree students will be randomly selected to answer the
questionnaires. The pioneer test is to find the value of the Alpha-Cronbach, that
is to determine the validity of the questionnaires. Solomon’s Four-Group Design
will be used where the students will be divided into four groups: 2 control groups
and 2 treated groups as shown in the attachment. This design allows the
researcher to assess whether there is an interaction between the treatment and
the pretest. This design combines two basic experimental designs.

Solomon’s Four-Group Design : R Group A Pretest Treatment Posttest


R Group B Pretest No Treatment Posttest
R Group C Treatment Posttest
R Group D No Treatment Posttest

The study will focus on the teaching and the learning that provide
concrete hands-on application of materials to be learned. It will investigate
whether the contextual approach in using mathematics lab, statistics video clips
embedded in power point presentations and class activities is effective, that is,
the degree technical students are able to understand the mathematics concepts
and apply the concepts in their engineering subjects.

Independent t-test is used with the achievement test as the independent


variable for the Grouping Variable and the students’ marks as the dependent
variable for the Test Variable. All data will be collected through the questionnaire
survey and 3 quizzes on these technical students after they do the class
activities, watch the mathematics video and they do the mathematical lab. The
treated groups will do all the three activities that are contextually design while the
2 control groups will do all the 3 activities that is non-contextually design. After
they do all the activities, a common test will be given to all students. This
research will produce a proper implementation of contextual approach in the
teaching and the learning mathematics in higher learning institutions and the
research findings will indicate whether the technical students understand
mathematics concept better by using the contextual approach

Frequency and percentage will be used to answer the first three research
questions. Inference statistics will be used to study the effectiveness of
understanding mathematical concept using contextual approach. The research
hypothesis is as below:
Ho : µcontrol = µtreated

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Ha : µcontrol ≠ µtreated

An observations of the activities and interview will be also carry out to


complement the quantitative study.

CONCLUSION

This research will produce a proper implementation of contextual


approach in the teaching and the learning mathematics in higher learning
institutions. Hence it will help students to learn mathematics and most
importantly to apply it in their engineering subjects.

REFERENCES

[1] Funderstanding (2001). Vygotsky and Social Cognition.


http://www.funderstanding.com/vygotsky.cfm. Retrieved 12 July, 2007.
[2] Atherton J. S. (2005). "Learning and Teaching".
http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/constructivism.htm.
Retrieved 12 July, 2007.
[3] First Tech Prep National Convention, organized by Technical Education
Department, Malaysian Ministry of Education in September, 1997.
[4] National Conference on Teacher Quality, Department of Education.
Washington D.C., USA in January, 2000.
[5] Kolb, D. A. Experiential Learning : Experience As The Source of
Learning and Development. (Englewood : Prentice Hall, 1985).
[6] National Conference on Teacher Quality, Department of Education.
Washington D.C., USA in January, 2000.
[7] Mohd Zaidi Abdul Hamid and Nafisah @ Kamariah Md Kamaruddin A
Survey Of The Application Of Multimedia In The Process Of Teaching
th
And Learning In Kuittho, Malaysia.4 International Conference On
Technology In Teaching And Learning In Higher Education. Beijing,
China : 2005.
[8] Baharuddin Aris, Jamaluddin Hj Harun, Noraffandy Yahya, and Zaidatun
Tasir, “Teknologi Pendidikan : Modul Pembelajaran Johor” (Univeristi
Teknologi Malaysia, 2000).
[9] Nurhaiza Abd Wahab and Nafisah @ Kamariah Md Kamaruddin.).
Learning Styles Of Form Four Electrical Engineering Students In Three
Technical Schools In Malaysia. 3rd International Seminar on Learning
and Motivation. Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, 2005.
[10] Zahariah Mohd Zain, Geetha Subramaniam, and Arlinah Abd Rashid.
2004. Cooperative Learning in an Economic Classroom. INCULT 2004 :
International Conference on University Learning & Teaching. UiTM Shah
Alam, Malaysia. Unpublished.
[11] Borich G. D., Effective Teaching Methods. (New Jersey : Prince-Hall
Inc., 1996).
[12] Messier, William P. Traditional Teaching Strategies verses Cooperative
Teahcing Strategies : Which Can Improve Achievement Scores in
Chinese Middle Schools? US-China Education Review, ISSN1548-
6613,Volume 2, No1(Serial No.2). Jan 2005,USA.

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Persidangan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat Pengajian Tinggi 2007
KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

[13] Berns, Robert G and Erikson, Patricia. (2001). “Contextual Teaching


and Learning.” The Higlight Zone : Research @ Work No . 5. The
National Centers for Career and Technical Education, USA.
[14] Fogarty, Robin ( 1997). Problem-based Learning & Other Curriculum
Models for the Multiple Intelligences Classroom. SkyLight Training and
Publishing Inc.
[15] Cole, Michael and Wertsch, James V. (2001). Beyond the Individual-
Social Antimony in Discussion of Piaget and Vygostky.
http://www.massey.ac.nz/%7Ealock/virtual/colevyg.htm. Retrieved 12
July, 2007.
[16] Acar, B. S. and Newman, I. A. "Students as Tutors – Learning Problem-
Solving Skills by Tutoring PBL", International Journal Engineering
Education, Vol, 19, No.5, pp 712-716 (2003).
[17] Cockayne, W., Feland III, J. M. and Leifer L. (2003)Using the Contextual
Skills Matrix for PBL Assessment. International Journal Engineering
Education, Vol, 19, No.5, pp 701-705.
[18] De Graaff, E. and Kolmos, A. Characteristics of Problem-Based
Learning. International Journal Engineering Education, Vol, 19, No.5, pp
657-662.
[19] Zolin, R., Fruchter, R. and Levitt, R. (2003). Reaslism and Control:
Problem-Based Learning Programs as a Data Source for Work-Related
Research. International Journal Engineering Education, Vol, 19, No.6, pp
788-798.
[20] Nasr, K and Thomas, C. (2004). Student-centered, Concept-embedded
Problem-based Engineering Thermodynamics. International Journal
Engineering Education, Vol, 20, No.4, pp 660-670.

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IMPACT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BILINGUALISM IN SCIENCE AND


MATHEMATICS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

ABSTRACT - Understanding bilingualism


in science and mathematics education
MOHINI MOHAMED and developing a principled instruction is
AZIZ NORDIN a pressing issue in Malaysian system of
Department of Science and
Mathematics Education, Universiti
education. With the implementation of
Teknologi Malaysia government policy of teaching science
and mathematics in English starting from
mohainimohd@yahoo.com year 2003, an increasing number of
p-mohini@utm.com.my students are affected with this policy. It is
vital to examine the view of instructors
from tertiary level, who are bilingual
themselves, about their views in the
implementation of this policy. An initial
study has been undertaken to examine
the view of instructors from two public
universities in Malaysia. A total of 175
respondents comprise of professors,
associate professors and lecturers from
eleven faculties participated in the
research. It is important to gather
theoretical and practical information from
a variety of societal context in order to
empower educators to see possibilities
beyond their own constraints and to be
able to perform their role appropriately. In
the context of Malaysia, even though the
dilemma was due to governmental
initiatives, it is important to raise the
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. consciousness of the bilingual educator
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. and to liberate their view of bilingual
Prosiding Persidangan education beyond a simple governmental
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian Tinggi
definition or a single societal perspective.
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden
Horses, Seri Kembangan, Keywords: Bilingualism, Science and
Selangor, 12-14 Disember 2007 Mathematics Education, Current Issues In
Higher Education

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Globalization is impacting on education system in many countries
throughout the world. One aspect of this process is the language usage in the
teaching of science and mathematics. This is particularly true in the context of
Malaysia. The phenomenon where knowledge, value, principle and curricular
developed in a local context gaining a global adherence is perceived as being an
inevitable outcome. (Clarkson,. 2004). At the beginning of the 1970’s, the main
medium of instruction of Malaysian school system was changed from English to
Malay, the national language. This was done in some way for political reason and
motivated by the call of patriotism and moving away from colonial influence.
However from 2003 onwards, the government has launched a reform in
education system where all first year primary, secondary and Malaysian
matriculation college has to use English in teaching science and mathematics as
well as related subjects. The level that started to be affected with this policy were
year 1 in primary school, form 1 in lower secondary schools and form 6 for higher
secondary and matriculation level. The level that were affected increased
gradually and culminated to all level affected by year 2008 including the tertiary
level. Public university in Malaysia has mandated that English is to be used as a
medium of instruction for all science and mathematics related courses starting
from semester 1 for 2005/6 session and all first year courses beginning 2006/7
session. The implementation of this policy brings obvious ramification in the
teaching of mathematics in higher education.

2.0 ENGLISH AS GLOBAL ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS


EDUCATION

Students are required to take English exam as a compulsory requirement


for entrance to public university. MUET (Malaysian undergraduate English Test)
result for new entry student for the 2007/8 intake at one public university which
can be considered as a typical sample for other public university indicated that
most students scored below the satisfactory level in English competency. From
the population of 2916 new students’ intake at a public university, about 72.7%
has a score of band 1, 2 and 3. (FIGURE 1)

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1800

1600 1526

1400

1200

1000
UTM
800
667

600 544

400

200 127
51
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6

FIGURE 1: MUET score for 2007/8 student’s intake


Courtesy of Centre for Teaching & Learning, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
(2007)

After four years of implementation of the policy, it is obvious that the


incoming students that were admitted to university and other higher institution still
have low proficiency in English. This scenario sends alarming signal and brings
the Malaysian education system in great turmoil. The greatest dilemma of
Malaysian education system has been its inability to understand the ethno
linguistic complexity of bilingual education and its impact on student, classroom
and society in such a way as to enable teacher and instructor to make informed
decision about practice in classroom setting. There is a need in Malaysian
education system for information about sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic
issues that surround bilingualism in science and mathematics education. It is
important to gather theoretical and practical information from a variety of societal
context in order to empower educators to see possibilities beyond their own
constraints and to be able to perform their role appropriately. In the context of
Malaysia, even though the dilemma was due to governmental initiatives, it is
important to raise the consciousness of the bilingual educators and to liberate
their view of bilingual education beyond a simple governmental definition or a
single societal perspective (Baker, 1996).
A common assumption is that mathematics is a universal language and
as such mathematical symbols cut across nations, ethnicity and cultures with
different languages. However a study by Aziz et al (2000) showed that there is a
strong correlation between test score in science and mathematics with English
test score. The result indicated that student with high proficiency in English were
more likely to achieve high scores in their science and mathematics test. In other
word, the findings revealed that students with low proficiency in English are

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somewhat deprive of achieving high score in science and mathematics. This


raise the issues of equity and language gap which is tantamount to creating
performance gap in education.

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The data for the research were collected from two public universities in
Malaysia. A total of 175 respondents comprise of professors, associate
professors and lecturers from eleven faculties had participated in the research.
Questionnaires were used as the instrument for data collection and later
analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for social science) software. The
statistics used in the research were frequencies and percentages.

4.0 FINDINGS

The study indicated that some of the reasons behind the use of English
in classroom setting for most of the respondent in order of importance were as
below:

a. contributes to the internationalization of the university


b. is necessary for competition in the job market
c. is meaningful for Malaysian students, since it provides training in
an internationalized context
d. makes it possible for students from many cultures to learn
together

There is an innate wish among the respondents to contribute to the


internationalization of their university by conducting their courses in English
(Table 1). By doing so, the respondents feel that they can provide platform in
enhancing the proficiency of English among their student. The reason for using
English can be seen as utilitarian in nature because they hope by acquiring and
mastering English among their students can improve their prospect in the job
market. The government is exerting effort to make Malaysia as the center of
learning in the world map. In line with this aspiration, public universities has
received enrollment from international students from various countries especially
from the Middle East and Africa. The respondents feel that it is important to
conduct their course in English in order to facilitate the students from different
countries and cultures to learn together with the local students.

TABLE 1: Positive views

Items on positive views M Disag Ag


1. contributes to the internationalization of
the university 2.81 10 152
(6.17) (93.83)
2. makes it possible for students from many 2.73 18 140
cultures to learn together (11.39) (88.61)
6. is meaningful for Malaysian students, 2.73 11 137
since it provides training in an (7.43) (92.57)

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internationalized context
8. is unavoidable given the prevalence of 2.21 32 73
the English language (30.48) (69.52)
10. is necessary to compete with the world 2.69 16 135
(10.60) (89.40)
11. is necessary for competition in the job 2.80 11 151
market (6.79) (93.21)

Despite the low English proficiency among Malaysian university


students, their instructors strongly feel that Malaysian students are able to
compete internationally. However, there are negative arguments as well, such
as, Malaysian students are more passive than other international students
namely Africans, Bosnian or other Asian students (Table 2 and Table 3). Given
their low English proficiency, 81.25% of the respondent viewed that Malaysian
students have insufficient training in stating their opinion in English. Naturally, the
student who has a good command of English tend to dominate the class
discussion. However, this seem to be an elite group because less than 10
percent of Malaysian population has good command of English and are
comfortable in using it as a form of communication(Johari et al., 2006).

TABLE 2: Positive views for courses taught in English

M Disag Ag
1. It is livelier than a regular course 1.84 30 38
(44.12) (55.88)
5. It is exciting since there are many different 2.07 13 71
opinions (15.48) (84.52)
12. Malaysian students can compete 2.50 6 125
internationally (4.58) (95.42)

TABLE 3: Negative views for courses taught in English

M Disag Ag
2. Malaysian students are more passive than 1.87 37 52
other Asian Students (41.57) (58.43)
3. Malaysian students are more passive than
other non-Asian foreign students (Africans, 1.84 35 56
Bosnians, etc) (38.46) (61.54)
4. It is difficult since the needs of the students 1.64 34 58
are diverse (36.96) (63.04)
5. It is exciting since there are many different 2.07 13 71
opinions (15.48) (84.52)
6. It is difficult to find teaching material since
there are few English publications that 1.16 122 11
share your viewpoint (91.73) (8.27)
7. The students whose first language is English 2.16 26 89
tend to dominate the discussions (22.61) (77.39)

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10. Malaysian students have insufficient training 2.24 24 104


in stating their opinion in English (18.75) (81.25)
11. Malaysian students have insufficient training
in explaining about their country to non- 1.87 39 58
Malaysians (40.21) (59.79)

The study also give evidence that university instructor prefers to write papers in
English (Table 4). The main reason is because they perceived that the paper
written in English will be read more widely in the world (Table 5). Writing in
English for bilingual instructor is of course not without its hurdle. Admittedly, they
have difficulties in writing articles in correct grammatical sentences and it
became a common challenge for most English learner.

TABLE 4: Writing and publishing papers

ITEM 15 Freq %
1. I write almost all of my papers in English but I also try to 117 66.86
publish in Malay
2. I write mostly in Malay, but I also try to publish in English 32 18.29

3. It is not necessary to publish in English in my area


4 2.29
4. Other (Please explain: ______________________) 19 10.86

TABLE 5: Reasons for preference to write in English

ITEM 16 Freq %
1. The paper will be read more widely in the world that way
125 71.43
2. There are not that many academic journals in the national
55 31.43
language in which I can publish
3. People that write in English are more highly considered
35 20.00
even within the country
4. Other (Please explain: ________________________)
67 38.29

5.0 IMPLICATIONS

Unlike the situation that occurs in some western countries, bilingual


education in Malaysia is not the needs of minority students but the massive
population of student. English is the second language of almost all of the
students while their first language maybe Malay, Mandarin or Tamil. How can
instructors meet the language development needs of these students while at the
same time providing all of them the opportunity to fully develop their science and
mathematics knowledge at the requirement level? There is no immediate,

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absolute or universal answer. All university programs have to be adapted


according to the local context.

Students need access to multicultural environment, appropriate use of


first language and use effective English method of content instruction as well as
opportunity to show their competence in a variety of ways. In an active integrated
learning environment, the development of language proficiency, thinking skills
and science and mathematics knowledge are all intertwined. In the beginning,
the use of instruction time for mathematics might be insufficient because of the
emphasis of language development. However one can imagine a range of
instructional emphasis as in FIGURE 1.

Instructional emphasis

Use of science and mathematics to Use of English to develop science


develop English and mathematics

FIGURE 2: A continuum of instructional emphasis

Situations arise in which end of the continuum maybe appropriate for an


instructional emphasis in bilingualism education. And as a continuum, there is not
always a clear demarcation between the language focus and the content focus.

The concurrent approaches, the switching back and forth in one lesson
between two languages are the most common approach. Concurrent approach is
actually a skill that needs to be developed. The rationale for the skilled use of
concurrent approach is to make the lesson comprehensible to all students and is
accessible in an intellectually challenging ways. However, because of the
primacy of language as a vehicle for cognitive and academic development, how it
is used in the bilingual classroom can have a significant impact on the question
of the learning environment. The following is a summary of recommendations
brought forth from this study:

• Implementation of bilingualism should be grounded in the context of


socio cultural, economic and ideological realities
• Instead of focusing on deficiencies, instruction should build on the
background and interests that student brings to classroom.
• Bilingualism instruction has to provide a balance and integrated
environment in developing thinking skills, science and mathematics
knowledge as well as language proficiencies.
• Concurrent approach or a skilled use of both languages may become a
part of teaching process in science and mathematics instruction.

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6.0 CHALLENGES

This initial study emphasized that the implementation of bilingualism in


science and mathematics raise several dilemmas and issues. The instructors
need to cope in situations where they will not have full control of their situation.
Intake of students to public university who are low proficiency in English
compelled instructors to switch back and forth from their mother tongue to
English. Instead of being frown upon, this practice could create opportunities for
bilingual learners to flourish. There is a need to shift to other socio cultural
perspective in countering the obstacles of bilingualism in science and
mathematics learning. A socio cultural perspective shift away from deficiency
models of bilingual learner and instead focuses on describing the resources
bilingual students use to communicate mathematically (Moschkovich). By
refusing to shift to socio cultural perspective, may result in designing instructional
policy that neglects the experiences and competencies of student that they bring
to science and mathematics classroom. If all we see are students, who don’t
speak English, mispronounce English words, incapable to discuss in English,
instruction will focus on this deficiencies. If, instead, we learn to recognize the
science and mathematical ideas this student express in spite of their accents,
code-switching, or missing vocabulary, then instruction can build on students’
competencies and resources. How to implement socio cultural perspective in
order to better understand the processes underlying bilingualism in learning
science and mathematics needs further exploration.

CONCLUSION

Understanding the complexity of bilingual science and mathematics


education and developing a framework for bilingual education in science and
mathematics instruction is a pressing practical issue in Malaysia. When the
government mandated the policy of using English in teaching science and
mathematics, there followed an unquestioned aggressiveness on the part of
some administrator of schools and higher education institutions in implementing
the rule. An increasing number of students who enter public university will have
to face the dilemma of learning science and mathematics and other related
courses entirely in English. It is crucial for teachers and educators to make an
informed decision and performed an appropriate role in supporting bilingualism in
a changing classroom setting.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to appreciate and extend my gratitude to Research


Management Center of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for the full support of this
research. I am also indebted to Professor Rosnani Hashim for her help in
distributing and analyzing the data from various faculties at International Islamic
University of Malaysia.

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REFERENCES

[1] Barwell, R. & Clarkson, P. “Researching Mathematics Education in


Multilingual Contexts: Theory, Methodology and the Teaching of
th
Mathematics.” Proceedings of the 28 Conference of the International
Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, vol. I (pp.227-256)
(2004)
[2] Clarkson, P.C. Teaching Mathematics in Multilingual Classrooms: The
Global Importance of Contexts. In I.P.Cheong, H.S.Dhindsa, I.J.Kyeleve
& O.Chukwu (Eds.), Globalisation Trends in Science, Mathematics and
Technical Education (pp.9-23). Brunei Darussalam: Universiti Brunei
Darussalam (2004)

[3] Clarkson, P.C. Language, Logical Thinking and Communication in


School Mathematics: Whose Responsibility. In H.S.Dhindsa, L.S.Bee,
P.Achleitner & M.A.Clements (Eds.), Studies in Science, Mathematics
and Technical Education (pp.99-116). Brunei Darussalam: Universiti
Brunei Darussalam (2003)
[4] Clarkson, P.C. & Atweh, B. More Perspective on The Impact of
Globalisation on Mathematics Education in Higher Education in Australia.
In L.Bragg, C.Campbell, G.Herbert & J.Mousley (Eds.), Mathematics
Education Research: Innovation, Networking, Opportunity (pp.238-245).
Geelong, Vic.: Mathematics ducation Research Group of Australia (2003)
[5] Ester J. de Jong Effective Bilingual Education: From Theory to Academic
Achievement in a Two-Way Bilingual Program. Bilingual Research
Journal, vol. 26 (1) (2002)
[6] Moshkovich, Judith To appear in N.Nassir and Cobb (Eds.) Diversity,
Equity, and Access to Mathematical Ideas. Teacher College Press (In
press)

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HUBUNGAN PENGAJARAN PENSYARAH DAN MINAT PELAJAR DENGAN


KEFAHAMAN KONSEP MORAL

ABSTRAK - Pengetahuan dan kefahaman


moral akan menimbulkan kesedaran dan
MOHAMAD KHAIRI HAJI penghayatan kepada pelajar tentang
OTHMAN pelbagai isu moral yang seterusnya
ABDULL SUKOR SHAARI menguasai dan mempengaruhi amalan dan
tindakan seseorang. Pensyarah merupakan
Fakulti Sains Kognitif dan
Pendidikan,Universiti Utara
faktor terpenting dalam mempengaruhi
Malaysia persepsi dan kefahaman pelajar tentang
moral. Kertas kerja ini akan membincangkan
hasil kajian yang berkaitan dengan
hubungan pengajaran pensyarah dan minat
pelajar dengan kefahaman konsep moral.
Kajian ini dijalankan melalui kaedah tinjauan
dengan mengedarkan soal selidik kepada
305 orang pelajar Universiti Utara Malaysia.
Fokus utama kajian ini adalah untuk
mengenal pasti tahap kefahaman moral
dalam kalangan pelajar dan adakah terdapat
hubungannya dengan pengajaran pensyarah
dan minat pelajar. Hasil kajian mendapati
secara keseluruhannya, kefahaman konsep
moral responden kajian ini didapati adalah
tinggi dan dimensi agama menunjukkan
tahap kefahaman yang paling tinggi
berbanding dimensi-dimensi lain. Dapatan
kajian juga menunjukkan terdapat hubungan
yang signifikan antara pengajaran pensyarah
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. dan minat pelajar dengan kefahaman konsep
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. moral dalam kalangan responden. Walaupun
Prosiding Persidangan begitu, masih ada perkara yang perlu
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di diperkemaskan bagi meningkatkan lagi mutu
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian Tinggi pengajaran dan pembelajaran kursus-kursus
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden berkaitan etika dan moral di IPTA khususnya
Horses, Seri Kembangan,
Selangor, 12-14 Disember 2007
untuk merealisasikan agenda negara dalam
aspek pembangunan modal insan.
Sehubungan itu, implikasi dan cadangan
juga turut diperbincangkan dalam kertas
kerja ini untuk dikongsi bersama.
1.0 PENGENALAN
Dalam sistem pendidikan di negara kita penumpuan terhadap dasar
pendidikan untuk melahirkan insan yang baik, menyeluruh dan bersepadu dari
segi jasmani, emosi, rohani dan intelek adalah jelas berdasarkan apa yang
tersurat pada Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan. Elemen akhlak dan moral
adalah merupakan salah satu unsur yang penting dalam memastikan hasrat
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan ini tercapai. Al-Attas (1980) dan Ashraf (1985)

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telah menegaskan bahawa pembangunan insan yang baik adalah menjadi


matlamat yang utama di dalam sistem pendidikan negara. Menurut mereka,
insan yang baik dengan sendirinya akan melahirkan warganegara yang baik
manakala warganegara yang baik tidak semestinya melahirkan insan baik.
Pendidikan akhlak dan moral adalah amat penting kepada mereka khususnya di
kalangan generasi muda. Oleh itu, setiap pelajar perlu memahami, menghayati
dan mengamalkan kesemua prinsip-prinsip akhlak dan moral.
Dalam era globalisasi ini, amalan nilai dan akhlak telah menjadi begitu
kompleks dan ini telah menimbulkan persoalan dan mungkin mengelirukan
tentang apakah yang dianggap baik dan betul dalam pemikiran dan tingkahlaku
pelajar. Dalam media sering memaparkan situasi di mana pelajar-pelajar terlibat
dalam kegiatan yang bukan hanya membahayakan nyawa dan kemuliaan sendiri
tetapi juga orang lain seperti gengsterisme, buli-membuli, mencuri, kehamilan,
pelacuran, dadah dan sebagainya. Ini semuanya akibat mereka yang tidak
menghiraukan tentang akhlak dan moral yang baik.
Sesungguhnya penampilan manusia yang berakhlak dan bermoral
merupakan sesuatu yang diharapkan oleh masyarakat. Tanpa ada kefahaman
yang sebenar tentang konsep akhlak dan moral sudah tentu ia amat sukar untuk
dihayati dan diamalkan dalam kehidupan. Dalam hal ini, para pelajar perlu
mempunyai kefahaman yang mantap terhadap konsep akhlak dan moral
seterusnya dapat berakhlak mulia dan bermoral pada setiap masa dan dimana
jua.

2.0 PENYATAAN MASALAH


Masyarakat sering membincangkan tentang masalah keruntuhan akhlak
terutama dalam kalangan remaja khususnya para pelajar di sekolah dan di
institusi pengajian tinggi. Remaja sering dikatakan tidak berakhlak, tidak pandai
membuat pertimbangan dan pelbagai lagi ciri negatif (Lihanna, 2001). Masalah
sosial yang melibatkan golongan remaja dengan budaya lepak, curi, dadah,
bohsia dan sebagainya telah didedahkan kepada kita setiap hari menerusi
akhbar, radio dan televisyen. Mengikut kenyataan Napsiah (Berita Harian, 3
Februari 1993) dalam Azizi dan Yusof (2001) bilangan remaja yang rosak akhlak
masih tinggi. Pada tahun 1988 sebanyak 3, 978 kes dicatatkan, 4,111 kes pada
tahun tahun 1989, 3,763 kes pada tahun 1990 dan 2658 kes sehingga Oktober
1996. Selain daripada itu, pihak Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia telah mengakui
bahawa terdapat 76, 300 pelajar di negara ini terlibat dalam pelbagai masalah
disiplin termasuk juga kegiatan samseng (Utusan Malaysia, 3 September 2003).
Tidak dapat dinafikan lagi masalah keruntuhan akidah dan sosial seperti
gejala murtad, keruntuhan akhlak, zina, rogol, serta kegagalan remaja untuk
melaksanakan tuntutan asas sebagai seorang insan telah menimbulkan pelbagai
pandangan dan persepsi di dalam masyarakat terhadap sejauhmana kefahaman
konsep akhlak dan moral dalam kalangan remaja.
Pendidikan akhlak dan moral adalah penting kerana ianya dapat
membantu pelajar merungkai pelbagai situasi dan isu moral yang mungkin
mereka hadapi dalam kehidupan harian mereka. Kepentingan mata pelajaran ini
menjadi lebih ketara memandangkan peningkatan gejala sosial dalam kalangan
remaja kini. Walaupun beberapa pendekatan dan langkah telah diambil oleh

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pihak berwajib termasuk menerapkan nilai murni merentas kurikulum, masalah


gejala sosial dalam kalangan remaja masih tidak dapat dibendung secara
berkesan (Asmawati, Rahyl & Abdul Rahman, 2001).
Dalam kajian Ab. Halim dan Zarin (2001) yang bertujuan melihat
persepsi pelajar terhadap konsep akhlak mendapati ada responden yang
mendefinisikan orang yang berakhlak adalah individu yang mempunyai dan
mengamalkan sifat-sifat mulia yang tidak menghubungkaitkan definisi-definisi
tersebut dengan nilai-nilai keagamaan yang menjadi teras akhlak di dalam Islam.
Keadaan ini mungkin timbul disebabkan kefahaman mereka yang menganggap
“orang yang berakhlak” sama dengan “orang bermoral”. Kekeliruan ini harus
segera diperbetulkan kerana nilai-nilai akhlak dalam Islam adalah berteraskan
kepada al-Quran dan Sunnah yang bersifat tetap, universal dan tidak berubah-
ubah. Manakala nilai-nilai moral pula berasaskan kepada pemikiran rasional,
tidak tetap dan berubah-ubah mengikut suasana dan masa.
Kajian Ab. Halim dan Zarin l (2002) juga mendapati sejumlah kecil
responden tidak dapat menghubungkaitkan keimanan kepada Allah (s.w.t) serta
ilmu agama yang ada pada seseorang dengan kepentingan pelaksanaan nilai-
nilai akhlak dalam kehidupan mereka. Maka, definisi-definisi mereka kurang
menepati konsep akhlak dalam Islam kerana ilmu, keimanan dan pelaksanaan
perlu disepadukan bagi menyempurnakan ketaqwaan dan kepatuhan kepada
Allah dan kesempurnaan keimanan seseorang individu.
Sementara itu Asmawati, Rahyl dan Abdul Rahman (2001) dalam
kajiannya mendapati kebanyakan responden kurang memahami dengan tepat
makna moral yang mana dapatan menunjukkan bahawa 83.6% responden
menyatakan orang bermoral ialah orang yang sentiasa mematuhi peraturan dan
undang-undang masyarakat dan 79.9% menyatakan orang bermoral ialah orang
yang berkelakuan baik dalam semua situasi.
Begitu juga kefahaman yang tidak jelas tentang aspek penerapan nilai-
nilai murni dan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran juga wujud dalam kalangan
guru-guru baru dan lama (Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum, 1992).
Dapatan-dapatan ini memberi gambaran tentang kefahaman terhadap
akhlak dan moral dalam keadaaan yang bermasalah dan faktor pengajaran
pensyarah dan minat pelajar memainkan penting dalam kefahaman berkaitan
dengan konsep etika dan moral. Justeru, kertas kerja ini cuba ingin
mengenengahkan dapatan kajian berkaitan dengan kefahaman konsep moral di
kalangan mahasiswa dan adakah faktor pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar
mempengaruhi kefahaman konsep moral di kalangan responden.
2.1 SOALAN KAJIAN
1. Apakah tahap kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep moral?
2. Adakah terdapat hubungan antara pengajaran pensyarah dan
minat pelajar dengan kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep
moral?

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3.0 METODOLOGI KAJIAN


Kajian ini berbentuk kuantitatif dengan menggunakan kaedah tinjauan
berdasarkan soal selidik yang dijawab oleh responden. Populasi sasaran
penyelidik ialah semua pelajar Universiti Utara Malaysia yang mengambil kursus
Sains Pemikiran dan Etika Semester Kedua Sesi 2005/2006 iaitu seramai 1327
orang pelajar. Sampel kajian ini adalah seramai 305 orang pelajar yang dipilih
secara rawak mudah.
Kajian ini akan menggunakan borang soal selidik sebagai instrumen. Ia
dibentuk berpandukan adaptasi daripada kajian-kajian lepas. Instrumen
‘Kefahaman Moral’ mengandungi 4 item bagi setiap dimensi. Soalan-soalan ini
dibentuk dan diubahsuai berpandukan kajian oleh Arlene (1980), Nageswararav
(1991) dan Nur Surrayyah (1999). Instrumen aspek pengajaran pensyarah Sains
Pemikiran dan Etika terdiri 9 item dan aspek minat terhadap kursus Sains
Pemikiran dan Etika atau Pendidikan Moral juga terdiri 9 item. Soalan-soalan
dibentuk dan diubah suai berpandukan kajian Ab. Halim dan Khadijah (2003)
dan Haryati (2004). Item-item tersebut menggunakan skala Likert yang terdiri
daripada empat pilihan jawapan iaitu 1 = sangat tidak setuju, 2 = tidak setuju, 3
= setuju dan 4 = sangat setuju.
Kajian rintis telah dijalankan terhadap 40 orang pelajar minor
Pendidikan Moral Fakulti Sains Kognitif dan Pendidikan Semester Kedua Sesi
2005/2006. Data daripada kajian rintis tersebut digunakan untuk menentukan
tahap kebolehpercayaan instrumen dan memantapkan item-item soal selidik.
Ujian Cronbach Alpha dijalankan dan didapati nilai alpha bagi setiap bahagian
item berada di atas 0.7 dan ini menunjukkan instrumen tersebut mempunyai
kebolehpercayaan yang boleh diterima untuk menjalankan kajian ini.
Data kajian sebenar dikumpulkan dan dianalisa dengan menggunakan
perisian Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS). Statistik deskriptif
digunakan untuk melihat frekuensi, peratus dan min. Ujian Korelasi Pearson
digunakan untuk menentukan hubungan pengajaran pensyarah dan minat
pelajar terhadap kursus Sains Pemikiran dan Etika dengan kefahaman moral.
4.0 DAPATAN KAJIAN
Tahap kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep moral
Berdasarkan Jadual 1, tahap kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep moral
secara keseluruhannya adalah tinggi iaitu berada pada min 3.22 (SD = .31).
Seterusnya, Jadual 1 menunjukkan kefahaman responden dianalisis mengikut
setiap dimensi. Dimensi Agama menunjukkan min yang paling tinggi (min = 3.57,
SD = .46), diikuti dimensi tradisi (min = 3.27, SD = .41) dan dimensi universal
(min = 3.01, SD = 51). Min yang paling rendah mengikut dimensi ialah dimensi
relatif (min = 3.01, SD = .40)

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Jadual 1 : Ringkasan Statistik Deskriptif Kefahaman Konsep Moral


Mengikut Dimensi dan Keseluruhan

Bil. Item Min S.D.

Dimensi Agama 4 3.57 .46

Dimensi Tradisi 4 3.27 .41

Dimensi Universal 4 3.02 .51

Dimensi Relatif 4 3.01 .40

Konsep Moral 16 3.22 .30


Keseluruhan

Hubungan antara pengajaran pensyarah dan minat pelajar dengan


kefahaman konsep moral.
Daripada Jadual 2 dibawah, dapatan menunjukkan terdapat hubungan
yang positif dan signifikan antara pengajaran pensyarah dengan kefahaman
moral (r=0.33, p<0.01). Dapatan juga menunjukkan minat pelajar terhadap
kursus-kursus etika dan moral mempunyai hubungan yang positif dan signifikan
dengan kefahaman konsep moral (r = 0.37, p<0.01).
Jadual 2 : Korelasi Pengajaran Pensyarah dan Minat Pelajar
dengan Kefahaman Konsep Moral

Pembolehubah Kefahaman Moral p


Nilai r*

Pengajaran 0.33** .001


pensyarah

Minat terhadap 0.37** .001


pendidikan
moral / Sains
Pemikiran Etika

**p<0.01, * p<0.05

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5.0 PERBINCANGAN
Secara keseluruhannya tahap kefahaman konsep moral dalam kalangan
responden adalah tinggi iaitu min 3.22. Kajian ini juga mendapati kefahaman
konsep moral mengikut dimensi menjelaskan bahawa dimensi agama
menunjukkan tahap kefahaman yang tinggi, diikuti dimensi tradisi, dimensi
universal dan yang terakhir dimensi relatif. Dapatan kajian ini bersesuaian
sebagaimana pendapat (McGregor, 1977) menjelaskan bahawa moraliti bererti
nilai-nilai yang bersifat mutlak dan tatahukum, peraturan dan kod-kod nilai-nilai
moral yang tetap. Selain itu, dapatan menunjukkan kefahaman moral dimensi
agama adalah tinggi berbanding dimensi-dimensi lain dan ini selari dengan
pandangan Peters (1973) yang menjelaskan bahawa kod-kod nilai moral dan
peraturan yang bersifat tetap merupakan garis panduan untuk tingkahlaku
bermoral dalam masyarakat. Peters (1973) juga menyatakan bahawa konsep
moraliti seumpama ini pada hakikatnya berasal daripada ajaran dan dogma
agama, malah kadangkala pendidikan moral sering dihubungkaitkan dengan
pendidikan agama yang tidak boleh dipersoalkan kewibawaannya.
Sementara itu, dalam melihat perkaitan antara pengajaran pensyarah
dengan kefahaman konsep moral. Dapatan kajian ini menjelaskan bahawa
terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara pengajaran pensyarah dengan
kefahaman konsep moral (r = 0.33, p<0.01). Kajian ini menyokong dapatan
kajian Asmawati, Rahyl dan Abdul Rahman yang mendapati pensyarah
merupakan faktor penting dalam mempengaruhi persepsi dan kefahaman pelajar
tentang moral. Kajian Rohayi Majzub dan T. Subahan (1993) pula menjelaskan
bahawa proses pengajaran yang dibantu oleh sifat guru yang positif, komitmen
guru, cara penyampaian guru, aktiviti yang dilaksanakan oleh guru dan kaedah
pengajaran guru mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan dengan kecemerlangan
akademik dan tahap kefahaman pelajar. Begitu juga Cantrell (1977) menjelaskan
bahawa pengetahuan, sikap dan ciri-ciri lain yang ada pada guru mempunyai
hubungan dengan proses pengajaran guru dan seterusnya mempengaruhi
kefahaman pelajar.
Sementara itu, Azizah (1999) menyatakan seorang guru yang berkesan
seharusnya mengetahui segala aspek yang terkandung dalam silibus dan perlu
menguasai ilmu. Bukan sahaja mahir dalam ilmu yang hendak diajar tetapi perlu
mempelbagaikan kaedah dan strategi pengajarannya. Azizah juga menjelaskan
antara sifat guru berkesan ialah mesra, bertanggungjawab, bekerjasama dengan
guru lain, sayangkan pelajar, sabar dan kreatif. Hopkins dan Stern (1996; 501)
menjelaskan tentang beberapa ciri guru berkesan ialah ;
The key characteristics of high quality teachers highlighted by
the study are : commitment, love of children, mastery of subject
didactics and multiple models of teaching, the ability to
collaborate with other teachers and a capacity for reflection.
Begitu juga dalam aspek minat terhadap kursus Pendidikan Moral
terdapat hubungan yang signifikan dengan kefahaman konsep moral. Dapatan
ini adalah selari dengan kajian Crow dan Crow (1980), Abu Zahari (1988) dan
Abu Seman (1997) yang mendapati bahawa terdapat hubungan antara minat
dalam mata pelajaran dengan pencapaian. Kajian ini juga menyokong kajian
yang dibuat oleh Nurhizan dalam Haryati (2004) yang mendapati bahawa minat
pelajar terhadap bahasa Inggeris mempunyai hubungan dengan pencapaian

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bahasa Inggeris tingkatan dua. Ini menjelaskan bahawa semakin pelajar minat
terhadap sesuatu kursus atau mata pelajaran akan meningkatkan kefahaman
dan pencapaian pelajar dalam kursus yang dipelajari.
Aspek yang agak penting dalam meningkatkan minat pelajar dalam
pembelajaran adalah suasana persekitaran yang memberangsangkan dan
suasana pembelajaran yang kondusif. Isahak dan rakan (1988) menyatakan
tempat atau bilik darjah perlu strategik dan jauh dari sebarang gangguan seperti
kebisingan, pertembungan kelas dan lain-lain. Pelajar perlu diberi suasana kelas
yang berlainan dari biasa dan bersesuaian dengan tajuk yang akan dibincangkan
pada hari itu. Tindakan ini akan lebih membantu mempercepatkan pemahaman
pelajar terhadap isi pelajaran disamping menimbulkan semangat baru dalam diri
pelajar. Dapatan kajian Noorlia (2000) menjelaskan bahawa pelajar boleh
belajar dengan baik dalam pelbagai situasi pembelajaran dan pelajar lebih
cenderung untuk belajar dengan suasana pembelajaran pelbagai cara.

KESIMPULAN
Hasil kajian ini diperlihatkan tahap kefahaman konsep moral adalah baik
dan dimensi agama menunjukkan tahap kefahaman yang paling tinggi
berbanding dimensi-dimensi lain, justeru program dan projek-projek berbentuk
keagamaan haruslah diperhebatkan lagi oleh semua pihak ke arah
meningkatkan dan memantapkan moral di kalangan pelajar.
Selain itu, dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang
signifikan antara kepentingan kursus Pendidikan Moral atau Sains Pemikiran dan
Etika serta minat pelajar dengan kefahaman konsep moral, justeru kursus seperti
ini perlu diberi perhatian serius dan diwajibkan kepada semua pelajar sebagai
teras universiti.
Dapatan kajian ini juga menjelaskan bahawa pengajaran pensyarah
mempunyai hubungan yang siginifikan dengan kefahaman konsep moral dalam
kalangan pelajar. Justeru, para pensyarah haruslah meningkatkan
keprofesionalisme ke tahap yang lebih tinggi. Para pensyarah hendaklah
sentiasa mengamalkan amalan pendekatan pengajaran yang lebih baik ,
berkesan dan bersifat andragogi. Siri bengkel berkala perlu diadakan bagi
tenaga pengajar untuk tujuan mengemaskini pengetahuan pengkuliahan, bahan
bacaan dan mempertingkatkan kefahaman tentang ilmu berkaitan strategi
pengajaran yang berkesan atau aspek pedagogi dan andragogi.

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Readings in Malaysian education. Kuala Lumpur : Penerbit Universiti
Malaya.
[21] Nageswararav Ramamoorthy. (1991). Persepsi guru-guru sekolah
rendah terhadap pendidikan Moral di Daerah Klang dan Kuala Langat.
Tesis Sarjana Pendidikan, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya. (Tidak
diterbitkan).
[22] Noorlia T. Goolamally. (2000). Hubungan antara gaya belajar dengan
pencapaian Matematik dan pencapaian akademik di kalangan pelajar.
Tesis Sarjana Pendidikan, Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Malaya.
[23] Nur Surrayyah Madhubala Abdullah. (1999). The understanding of
moral education among form four Moral education teachers in the federal
territory. Tesis Master of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia. (Tidak
diterbitkan)
[24] Nur Surrayyah Madhubala Abdullah, Izah Isa dan Zakaria Kasa. (2001).
Perceptions of pre-service teachers from the Faculty of Educational
Studies on the need for Moral education. Kertas kerja Persidangan
Kebangsaan Pendidikan Moral Dalam Dunia Globalisasi, Fakulti
Pendidikan Universiti Malaya, 23 – 25 Mei.
[25] Rohayi Mohd Majzub dan T. Subahan Mohd Meerah. (1993). Satu
tinjauan sahsiah dan tingkah laku pendidik yang berkaitan dengan
embelajaran. Jurnal Pendidikan, 15, 125-135.
[26] Peters. R. S. (1973). Reason and compassion. London : Routledge
and Kegan Paul.
[27] Sufean Hussin. (1989). Pengajaran nilai dalam kurikulum. Petaling
Jaya : Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.
[28] Utusan Malaysia, (September 3, 2003).

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TEACHERS’ USE OF QUESTIONS IN ESL CLASSROOMS

ABSTRACT - Oral questions play a


significant role in the language classroom.
KALYANI RAJOO Despite arguments that classroom questions
Language Department, Darulaman do not reflect questions that are asked in real
Teacher Training Institute, conversations outside the classroom and
06000 Jitra, Kedah. whether language teaching methodologies
kelly_rajoo @yahoo.com
need the sort of interaction produced by
questions (Chaudron, 1988), language
teachers regard questions as an effective tool
to initiate the target language and to help
students’ learning by providing them
opportunities to practice the target language.
This paper reports on a qualitative study
exploring the use of display and referential
questions and their effect on students’
responses. The aim of the study was also to
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. investigate the use of probing questions to
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. follow-up and extend the students’
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran responses. Data was collected from 2 ESL
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat classrooms in a teacher training institute by
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi means of classroom observations. This paper
(CTLHE07), The Palace of discusses the results of the study and
Golden Horses, Seri concludes with recommendations for ESL
Kembangan, Selangor teachers on ways of utilizing questions
12-14 Disember 2007
effectively in the language classroom.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the aims of teaching English as a second language (L2) is to


facilitate opportunities for second language learners to use the language for oral
communication and maximize opportunities for language acquisition to take
place. In the classroom, teachers have long used questions to stimulate student
thinking, facilitate student learning, and to initiate teacher-student interaction.
Using questions and answers to challenge assumptions, expose contradictions,
and to lead to new knowledge and wisdom is an undeniably powerful teaching
approach. Thus the technique of questioning forms an integral part of instruction
in the classroom.
Gall (1984) claimed that 80% of all school time is devoted to questions
and answers. Brown and Edmonson (cited in Borich, 1992) found that an
average of 100 to 150 questions per class hour were asked in the typical
elementary and secondary classrooms. Teachers teaching at all grade levels
regard the act of asking questions as an effective way of transferring factual
knowledge and conceptual understanding, as well as to facilitate the learning
process. Teacher-pupil interaction in the classroom is usually by means of the

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teacher eliciting pupils’ responses through questioning. Ferris (cited in


Basturkmen, 2001), found that 79% of students considered ‘in-class questions’
as the category of talk most often required in courses of study. Such perceived
usefulness of questions has led to its widespread use as a contemporary
teaching technique in the classroom. However, research by Gall (1970) and
Stubbs (1983) indicate that through questioning, teachers dominate the available
talking time in the classroom, thus limiting pupils’ opportunities to participate.
Good and Brophy (1987) contend that discussions initiated by questions are
parrot-like and boring with teachers asking a question, students giving a
response, and the teacher redirecting or asking another question and so forth.
Related studies on the relationship between teachers’ questions and
students’ responses in L2 classrooms have been inconclusive and contradicting
findings have been reported. Both Brock (1986) and Nunan (1987) claimed that
the use of referential questions elicited longer responses. Nunan also argued that
despite the learners’ insufficient proficiency in L2, there was an increase in length
and complexity of students’ turns. These findings were, however, contradicted by
Wu (1993) who argued that irrespective of their type, an overwhelming number of
responses to the questions solicited restricted responses. In fact, Wu takes the
position that referential questions were less effective as a means of eliciting
response. However, Wu cited factors like cultural values, students’ attitudes and
interpersonal variables on answering behaviour as possible reasons for students’
reluctance in responding to questions

Using these studies as a point of departure, the present study was


intended to investigate teacher questions and student responses in two ways: (1)
the initial questions that were asked by the teachers and the responses the
questions elicited, and (2) the probing questions used by the teachers to follow
through the students’ responses to enable them go beyond their initial
responses. A comparison was also made to find out if the use of probing
questions could improve student responses in terms of language output. Hence,
this study sought to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the types of questions asked by teachers in the ESL


classroom?
2. What type of student responses are initiated by the questions?
3. What types of probing questions are used by teachers to enable
students to extend and improve their responses?
4. Do responses elicited by the probing questions indicate an
improvement to the students’ initial responses?

2.0. THE FRAMEWORK OF QUESTIONS

This study adopted Long and Sato’s Model (1983) where teacher
questions are categorized using the terms referential and display. A referential
question refers to a question to which the response is not known by the teacher.
In asking this question, an information gap exists between the teacher and
student. On the other hand, a display question is a question to which the asker
knows the answer and the purpose of this question is to get students to
demonstrate some previously-learned knowledge. The terms display and

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referential are commonly referred to in research (Brock, 1986; Nunan, 1987; Wu,
1993) on teachers’ use of questions in L2 classrooms. However, based upon the
findings in these studies, the researcher felt that classifying teacher questions as
simply display and referential seemed inadequate in investigating the
effectiveness of teacher questions on student responses. Thus, in this study,
both referential and display questions were further sub-categorised into open or
closed types which is the simplified version of the Barnes Model as cited in Kerry
(1982).
The Barnes Model classifies questions based on their elicitation
functions. Questions are identified as factual, reasoning, open, non-reasoning
and social based on the functions and the linguistic demands of the questions.
Factual questions where student responses can be limited to one-word or short
responses are categorized as closed questions, and reasoning questions which
require students to explain, interpret and construct a logical organized sequence
are referred to as open questions.
This study, also adopted Turney’s (cited in Kerry, 1982) framework for
identifying probing questions as it would enable the researcher to identify the
probing questions based on their functions. A probing question follows students’
responses and attempts to stimulate student’s to think through their initial
responses, thus helping students to expand and develop the quality of their
response.

3.0 TEACHER QUESTIONS AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

In the second language classroom, the act of answering questions is


known to engage the students in interaction and provide opportunities for the use
of the target language (TL). Studies by Mizon and Early (both cited in Chaudron,
1988) found that questioning was used more by teachers with students who are
non-native speakers (NNS) than with native speakers (NS). Long and Sato
(1983), for example, found that the most frequent use of teachers’ questions in
the classroom was concerned with comprehension checks, and that such
questions are actually never asked in NS-NNS interaction outside the classroom.

Long and Sato (1983) also found that ESL classrooms were
characterized by display questions. This, they say does not occur in naturalistic
NS discourse. Research by Brock (1986) and Pica and Long (1986) also found
that ESL teachers used significantly fewer referential questions than display
questions. Mehan (cited in Brock, 1986) claimed that the use of known-
information questions generated discourse which does not reflect the demands of
discourse that occurs outside the classroom. Brock (1986) contends that as
opposed to display questions, the use of referential questions increases the
amount of learner output, and that an increased use of referential questions by
teachers may create communication that occurs outside the classroom.

Despite changes and innovations in the curriculum and in L2 teaching


and learning, there seems to be no distinct improvement in the ways teachers
ask questions. For teacher questions to be effective in the language classroom
and help achieve the aims of L2 learning, there is a need for teachers to examine
and improve their questioning practice. Brown (1997) considers the initiation of

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interaction by the teacher as an important key to creating an interactive language


classroom, and one of the best ways to develop the teacher’s role as an initiator
and sustainer of interaction is for teachers to develop a repertoire of questioning
strategies.

4.0 METHODOLOGY

4.1 Method of Data Collection


This study adopted a qualitative methodology. The primary
source of data was the classroom observations carried out by the
researcher. Audio recording equipment was used during the observation
to record the lessons. The researcher was also present to take field
notes. Semi-structured interviews with the teachers and students was
also conducted as ‘method triangulation’ (Borg and Gall, 1989). The
interviews enabled the researcher to further understand the teachers’
and students’ attitudes and perceptions on engaging in asking and
answering questions in the language classroom. Also, to remove bias in
reporting and to determine accuracy in interpreting, some patterns of
questioning behaviour of the participants were put forth to the
participants themselves to obtain explanation and verification.

4.2 Research Sample


This study was carried out in a Teacher Training Institute and the
study sample was made up of two lecturers from the English Studies Unit
of the Language Department of the institute. The method and procedure
identified for data collection limited the number of participants who could
be accommodated in this study, and thus led to purposive sampling (Gay
and Airasian, 2003). Both lecturers selected for this study were teaching
the English Language Proficiency component. Two classes taught by
these lecturers were also identified for this study. The students in both
these classes were enrolled in the pre-service courses offered in the
institute and were majoring in various subjects. The English Language
Proficiency component is a compulsory subject for all major pre-service
courses.
4.3 Research procedure
The data collection started with the classroom observations. The
recordings of the two lessons were first transcribed. The researcher
adopted a verbatim transcription as it would allow for excerpts from the
transcripts to be used for the purposes of reporting, discussing and
interpreting the findings.
The classroom transcripts were then inductively analysed based
on the research questions. Topics were generated from the corpus of
data for the purpose of reporting the findings. This, together with data
derived from the teacher and student interviews was used for the
discussion and interpretation of the results.

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5.0. FINDINGS

Asking and answering questions seemed central in the classroom


discourse of both Teacher A (TA) and Teacher (TB). Between them, both
teachers had asked a total of 248 questions for the whole duration of their
lessons, thus, indicating that questions are still commonly favoured as a means
of eliciting learner language and involving students in the lesson. The questions
asked by the teachers during the course of their lessons included those that were
repeated, rephrased, redirected as well as questions used for prompting and
probing.

TA, who conducted a discussion- based aural-oral lesson had selected a


theme for the lesson. Discussion about the theme was generated primarily
through the use of teacher questions. On the other hand, TB, who conducted a
reading comprehension lesson had used questions to work through the
understanding of the reading text. As observed in the transcripts of the two
lessons, initial questions (Q1) asked by the teachers consisted of both referential
and display questions. Most of the initial questions asked by TA were of the
referential-closed type. Similarly the ‘closed’ model featured significantly in
Teacher B’s use of display questions. In comparing the students’ responses
elicited by referential questions and display questions, no distinct changes were
noted in terms of length, structure and the quality of the responses. Regardless
of the questions being display or referential, students’ responses were often
limited to one-word or short phrases as in the following examples:
Example 1 (TA lines 69 – 70)
(The teacher was seeking the student’s opinion)
Teacher: When you are alone, do you feel bored?
Student: No.

Example 2 (TA lines 49 – 1.50)


(The teacher was seeking the student’s opinion)
Teacher: What do you think happens when people are lonely?
Student: They cry.

The ‘closed’ nature of the referential question in Example 1 constrained


the student’s response to providing the monosyllable “No” response. Similarly, in
Example 2, the referential question by the teacher to seek the student‘s opinion
was met with a short response. Since the closed-referential question had
functioned to seek factual information, the short response had sufficed in
answering the question. Similarly, a significant number of the display questions
by TB elicited only short responses. Although the material the teacher used had
provided students with content information and linguistic help, students had
opted to supplying short responses to the questions. Again this was largely due
to the nature of the display questions as evident in the example below:

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Example 3 (TB lines 9 – 10)


(The teacher was checking the student’s knowledge)
T: What is the condition of the car?
S: Damaged.

The closed-ended questions used to elicit factual information contained


in the text had effectively constrained the students’ responses to supplying one-
word answers. The responses however met the requirements of the questions
and the teacher had judged the responses as appropriate and seemed satisfied
with them.
In TA’s lesson, the instances where the referential questions produced
long responses were few and far between. In fact throughout the lesson, there
were only three instances where the referential questions solicited longer
responses from the students. An example from TA’s lesson is provided below:
Example 4 (TA lines134 -135)

(The teacher was asking the student to relate her experience)

T: Sally, tell me your experience when you first came to this


college. Why did you cry?
S: Because I came from far away. I cannot adapt …the food was
spicy …
The student’s response to the referential question had demonstrated that
the ‘open’ nature of the question had allowed the student to engage in her
cognitive process and the manner in which the student responded also reflected
that she had attempted to structure a complex response. Similarly, there were
also a few instances when responses to the display questions in TB’s lesson
succeeded in eliciting longer responses. This is demonstrated in the example
provided below:
Example 5 (TB lines101 – 102)
(The teacher was seeking student’s opinion about the causes of
accidents)

T: Now, why do you think drivers like to speed?


S: To reach their destination faster.

Although dealing with known or predictable information, the ‘open’ nature


of the display questions had succeeded in eliciting longer response. The display
question may not have engaged the student in the same cognitive process as the
use of the referential question, but at least there was some improvement in terms
of language output. Despite the significant number of display questions asked by
TB, the few instances that referential questions were used in the lesson had
generated discussions that were more interesting as reflected in an example
below:

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Example 6 ( TB lines 176 – 177)


(The teacher was seeking the student’s opinion)

T: Are you happy plastic surgery is around?


S: Yes, can make the nose look better.

The use of the referential questions had allowed the teacher to venture
beyond textual information, factual knowledge as well as information known to
the teacher. In asking these questions, the teacher had been genuinely
concerned with seeking information from her students and the communication
seemed more ‘real’ than that structured by the use of display questions.
One of the strategies employed by both teachers to enhance the
questioning-answering sequence in their classroom was the use of probing
questions as follow-up to students’ initial responses as in the example below:

Example 7 (TA lines 59 – 64)

(The teacher was asking for the student’s opinion)


T: Aik, do you like spending time alone? Yes or no?
S: Sometimes.
T: When do you like being alone? Is there a particular time?
Normally, when do you want to be alone?
S: When angry. When have assignments.
T: When do you like being with people?
S: When I need to discuss things.

In the above example, the teacher’s initial question was followed up with a
number of probing questions which were aimed at seeking clarification based on
the student’s responses. Data from the transcripts also showed that both
teachers had employed probing questions to raise consciousness about TL use
as in the example below:

Example 8 (TA lines 37 – 44)


(The teacher was evaluating the student’s knowledge about the subject
of
mental health)
T: Can you tell me one problem that people with mental health
have?
S: Psychic.
T: Is that the right response? I mean if someone is having a mental
problem, what is the effect?
S: Suicide.
T: Have you had friends who committed suicide?
S: Yes.
T: Really? Commit suicide is to kill yourself. Have you had friends
who committed suicide?
S: No.

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Here, the teacher had used a number of probing questions to enable the
student to think through and assess his response and to enable student to form a
clearer implication his own response. Such exchanges initiated by questions had
prolonged teacher-student interaction and made the discussion interesting.
This study found that both referential and display questions could be
followed-up with probing questions. However, student responses to the use of
probing questions did not show any pronounced changes in terms of quality or
length of structure. This again was a result of the characteristics of the questions.
The use of ‘What’ or ‘When’ questions that dealt with factual or known
information elicited only short responses. Open questions such as ‘How’ and
‘Why’ questions elicited improved responses in terms of length and the quality of
the students’ response.

6.0 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In studying the contrast between the use of referential and display


questions, the researcher observed that the choice of questions used by
teachers was largely determined by the nature of the lessons and their
instructional objectives. In the reading comprehension lesson, a significant
number of display questions were asked by the teacher. As display questions
were associated with factual questions, they were used for comprehension
checks. In explaining her choice of questions, TB who had conducted the reading
comprehension lesson said that her primary concern had been to get her
students to understand the textual information in the reading material. Her choice
of questions, she asserted, enabled her to ascertain whether the lesson fulfilled
her objectives of getting her pupils to comprehend the textual information.
Although some research (Brock, 1986; Holmes, 1986; Nunan, 1987)
dismiss the use of display questions as ineffective in the language classroom, the
researcher shares Shoomosi’s (2004) view that they have a place in the Reading
Comprehension lessons for checking students’ comprehension and for asking
students to recall facts from the text. However, this does not mean that referential
questions cannot be used in the reading comprehension lesson. With careful
planning of classroom instructions, teachers can allow the use of more referential
questions and achieve instructional gains at the same time.
Long and Crookes (cited in Nunan, 1987) for example, suggested that
increasing the use of referential questions over display questions is likely to
stimulate a greater quantity of genuine classroom communication. Data from this
study also seemed to suggest that referential questions used in the aural-oral
lesson had stimulated more interesting discussions as in the example below:
Example 9 (TA lines134 -135)
T: When you first came to college, did you feel lonely?
S: Yes, Sally cried.
T: Sally, tell me your experience when you first came to this
college. Why did you cry?

The use of referential question had allowed for topic nomination by the
learners. It is clearly evident that the next question by the teacher was based on

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the student’s response. Similarly, it was observed that in the two instances that
TB had employed referential questions in her reading comprehension lesson, the
discussion had been more interesting and had reflected genuine communication.
This research also found that students’ responses improved when open
questions were asked. Both the open display and open referential questions
elicited improved responses as opposed to the closed questions. The quality of
the students’ responses too depended on the types of probing questions used.
For example, the “Why” and “How” types of probing questions produced
improved responses in terms of length and complexity of structure compared to
the “What”, “Who” or “When” types of questions. It was also noted that the use of
probing questions enhanced interaction and prolonged communication between
teacher and pupil thus supporting Kerry’s (1982) view that probing is beneficial
because it can help students to express more fully and more clearly what they
have in mind.
One of the teachers in this study viewed probing questions as questions
that were able to ‘provoke’ the students’ linguistic capabilities. According to him,
using probing questions can bring about improvement to students’ responses as
well as influence them to reflect on their responses. His view was shared by the
other teacher who said that using probing questions does not only directly affect
the particular responder, but can facilitate other students’ thinking as well.
Despite these views, the data seemed to suggest that probing questions were
seldom employed by the teachers. In fact, Groisser’s (cited in Good & Brophy,
1987) statement that teachers seize upon the first answer given, and often react
to it with a comment or move on to asking another question seems to hold much
truth.
Therefore, this study makes the following recommendations to enable
teachers to utilize questions effectively in the language classroom.
1. Questions should have relevance to the objectives of the lesson.
Each context requires an appropriate strategy for itself.
However, the objectives should not impose a strict restriction on
the types of questions used. Both referential and display
questions can be utilized irrespective of the type of lesson and
the method of instruction selected by the teacher. With careful
planning teachers can effectively use more referential questions
to generate greater interest to the topic and lesson.
2. The use of questions should ensure that it increases student
participation and student talk in the classroom. As such,
teachers should employ more ‘open’ questions than ‘closed’
questions. Closed questions have been found to constrain and
limit students’ responses as these questions can be answered
by one word, often “yes” or “no”, or by using very short phrases.
Open-ended questions, on the other hand, elicited much more
thinking or information and required complex responses from the
students.
3. Teachers need to determine their learners’ needs in order to
achieve the sort of balance needed in using the different types of
questions. For example, data from the students’ interview

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showed that some students preferred open questions as they


said the questions allowed them to supply a variety of answers.
Also the students said that they preferred questions that required
more than just needing them to provide the correct answers,
though they admitted that their low proficiency in the language
imposed restrictions in being able to answer appropriately.
4. Using good questioning strategies such as asking probing
questions will guide students to figure out their answers and also
stimulate the questioning process. As questioners, teachers
should also be able to further explore students’ responses to
enable them to apply their knowledge and encourage them to
think through their responses. In using probing questions,
teachers will also be able to show students how to extend their
responses as subsequent questions are formed based on the
students’ responses.
CONCLUSION

In the language classroom, teachers’ questions have important functions


in facilitating language learning. One of the objectives of the ESL curriculum is to
promote speaking and expressing in the TL. Therefore, this study implies that
teachers’ questioning behaviour, and a greater awareness regarding the use of
questions can foster a conducive climate for language learning. As questioners,
there is a need for teachers to realize that there are different types of questions,
and that some types of questions can limit or constraint students’ responses. As
questioners, teachers have to realize that much of the quality and quantity of the
information that they are going to receive depends on how it is asked in the first
place. Since teacher questions are regarded by both teachers and students as a
valuable tool in the language classroom, there is a need for it to be exploited
appropriately to maximize teaching and learning.

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GAYA PEMBELAJARAN, KEMAHIRAN GENERIK DAN MOTIVASI


PELAJAR MERENTASI BIDANG SAINS TULEN, KEJURUTERAAN DAN
SAINS SOSIAL DI UTM

ABSTRAK - Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk


ABDUL RAHIM HAMDAN
MOHAMAD NAJIB GHAFFAR mengenalpasti amalan gaya pembelajaran
AZLINA BT. KOSNIN pelajar, kemahiran generik, motivasi belajar
JAMALUDDIN RAMLI dan pencapaian akademik pelajar-pelajar
MAHANI BT. MOKHTAR tahun tiga fakulti-fakluti dari disiplin Sains,
Sains Sosial dan Kejuruteraan Universiti
Jabatan Asas Pendidikan Teknologi Malaysia. Seramai lima ratus orang
Fakulti Pendidikan pelajar telah dipilih secara rawak dari semua
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia fakulti sebagai sampel kajian. Kajian ini juga
81310 Johor Bahru
mengenalpasti perbezaan amalan gaya
p-rahim@utm.my pembelajaran pelajar, kemahiran generik,
motivasi belajar dan pencapaian akademik
pelajar. Kajian deskriptif berbentuk tinjauan
ini menggunakan siri soal-selidik untuk
mendapatkan maklumat yang berkaitan.
Perbandingan nilai min dan ujian-t digunakan
sebagai asas dapatan. Dapatan kajian
menunjukkan bahawa amalan gaya
pembelajaran yang berorientasi
pembelajaran dalaman adalah sederhana
dan amalan gaya pembelajaran yang
berorientasi pembelajaran luaran adalah
tinggi. Bagi kemahiran generik pula didapati
bagi aspek komunikasi, kemahiran kerja
dalam kumpulan, pembelajaran sepanjang
hayat, kemahiran kepimpinan, beretika dan
berintegriti adalah tinggi manakala bagi
aspek kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007.
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. dan kemahiran keusahawanan adalah
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran sederhana. Pelajar mempunyai motivasi
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat belajar secara intrinsik yang tinggi dan
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi motivasi belajar ekstrinsik yang sederhana.
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Dari segi pencapaian pelajar didapati secara
Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, keseluruhannya sebahagian besar pelajar-
Selangor . pelajar berada pada aras kelas dua tinggi.
12-14 Disember 2007 Secara perbandingannya didapati pelajar-
pelajar yang datang dari disiplin yang
berbeza mengamalkan gaya pembelajaran
yang berbeza, kemahiran generik yang
berbeza dan motivasi yang berbeza.
Keadaan ini menunjukkan pelbagai langkah
perlu diambil secara pro-aktif untuk
menyeimbangkan dan meningkatkan

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KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

keupayaan pelajar sebagai graduan yang


kompeten dari pelbagai aspek untuk
memenuhi cabaran globalisasi.

Kata Kunci: Gaya Pembelajaran, Kemahiran


Generik, Motivasi dan Pencapaian Akademik

1.0 PENGENALAN

Pencapaian akademik merupakan alat ukur kepada kejayaan pelajar


mengikuti sesuatu kursus di universiti. Walau bagaimanapun tahap kesediaan
pelajar untuk mengharungi dunia luar selepas mengikuti kursus dengan jayanya
di universiti telah menjadi persoalan yang hangat dibincangkan sejak akhir-akhir
ini. Perbagai persoalan timbul berkaiatan dengan bagaimanakah pelajar itu
belajar, apakah kemahiran generik yang telah di terapkan dan apakah yang
memotivasikan mereka untuk belajar dan apakah kaitannya dengan pencapaian
mereka.

Ilmu pengetahuan hendaklah disertai dengan tahap kemahiran yang


tinggi untuk mencapai sesuatu kerja yang bermutu tinggi. Kemahiran adalah
salah satu unsur yang penting dalam kehidupan manusia. Lebih banyak bidang
kemahiran yang dapat dikuasai, ia akan mendatangkan lebih banyak faedah
dalam kehidupan. Dalam konteks pembelajaran dan pekerjaan, para pelajar
perlu didedahkan dengan kemahiran generik yang merupakan kemahiran utama
yang perlu ada untuk memudahkan pelajar melaksanakan tugas dalam pelbagai
situasi di alam pembelajaran, kehidupan dan pekerjaan seharian.

Dalam konteks menuntut ilmu, universiti adalah merupakan sebuah


pusat penyebaran ilmu pengetahuan yang terkemuka. Para pelajar dapat
mempelajari berbagai-bagai bidang baru yang ditawarkan di universiti.
Kewujudan universiti telah memberi peluang kepada semua pelajar-pelajar yang
berkelayakan untuk melanjutkan pelajaran di dalam bidang yang diminati.
Pelbagai bidang atau mata pelajaran dirancang dan disediakan untuk memenuhi
keperluan para pelajar di peringkat universiti.
Kajian ini akan cuba melihat perkaitan antara kemahiran generik, gaya
pembelajaran dan motivasi pelajar yang datang daripada disiplin program yang
berbeza di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
1.1 Objektif Kajian

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk melihat tahap kemahiran generik, gaya belajar
pemilihan dan bentuk motivasi pelajar-pelajar tahun 3 kesemua 10 fakulti,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Antara objektif kajian yang akan dijalankan adalah :


i. Mengenalpasti tahap pencapaian akademik pelajar-pelajar tahun
3 dari teras disiplin yang berbeza iaitu Sains, Kejuruteraan dan
Sosial Sains di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

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ii. Mengenalpasti tahap kemahiran generik dikalangan pelajar-


pelajar tahun 3 dari teras disiplin yang berbeza iaitu Sains,
Kejuruteraan dan Sosial Sains di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

iii. Mengenalpasti tahap pendekatan belajar pelajar-pelajar tahun 3


dari teras disiplin yang berbeza iaitu Sains, Kejuruteraan dan
Sosial Sains di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

iv. Mengenalpasti bentuk motivasi pelajar-pelajar tahun 3


dari teras disiplin yang berbeza iaitu Sains, Kejuruteraan dan
Sosial Sains di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

v. Menentukan adakah terdapat perbezaan kemahiran generik,


gaya belajar dan motivasi antara pelajar-pelajar dari teras
disiplin yang berbeza (Sains, Kejuruteraan dan Sains Sosial).

2.0 KAJIAN LITERATUR

Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (1995) dalam konteks sistem


persekolahan di Malaysia telah menggariskan bentuk kemahiran generik untuk
pelajar adalah seperti berikut:

1. Kemahiran berkomunikasi
2. Kemahiran menggunakan teknologi
3. Kemahiran merancang dan mengelola aktiviti
4. Kemahiran bekerja dengan orang lain dan dalam kumpulan
5. Kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah
6. Kemahiran mengurus, memilih dan menganalisa maklumat
7. Kemahiran memahami budaya
8. Kemahiran menggunakan idea dan teknik metematik

Menurut Gibbs et al.(1994), kemahiran generik melibatkan kemahiran


personal dan interpersonal yang diperlukan untuk komunikasi dan bekerja secara
koperatif dan kolaboratif dalam kumpulan. Gibbs et al.(1994) dan Blumhof et al.
(1996) menyatakan, kemahiran generik merupakan satu kemahiran di mana
seseorang itu boleh bekerja dengan baik secara berdikari mahupun dalam
kumpulan. Industri kini memerlukan graduan dapat menjadi pekerja yang
mempunyai kepelbagaian jenis kemahiran. Oblinger dan Verville (1998)
menyatakan bahawa graduan yang berjaya adalah mahir dan pakar dalam
bidang mereka, walaupun begitu mereka haruslah melengkapkan diri mereka
dengan kemahiran generik untuk membolehkan mereka menyesuaikan diri
mereka dengan alam pekerjaan.

Michelle Tullier (2000), menjelaskan bahawa kemahiran-kemahiran yang


sering dilihat oleh majikan ialah kemahiran berfikiran secara kreatif dan kritis,
kemahiran komunikasi, kemahiran interpersonal, kemahiran mengurus, memilih
dan menganalisis maklumat, kemahiran memahami budaya dan kemahiran
bekerjasama dengan orang lain. Sijil sahaja tidak menjamin seseorang itu
berjaya dipilih untuk bekerjaya. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) telah
menggariskan bentuk kemahiran generik yang akan diterapkan kepada pelajar-

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pelajarnya adalah berdasarkan kepada atribut graduan selaras dengan misi


Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia. Atribut inilah yang digunakan penyelidik
sebagai 7 daripada kemahiran generik yang di kaji. Berikut merupakan
kemahiran generik yang disasarkan UTM beserta dengan ciri-ciri bagi setiap
kemahiran:

1. Kemahiran Komunikasi
2. Kemahiran bekerja secara kumpulan
3. Kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah
4. Kemahiran mengurus dan menganalisa maklumat
5. Kemahiran usahawan
6. Kemahiran kepimpinan
7. Beretika dan berintegriti

Dari kajian-kajian lepas, terdapat dua perbezaan kumpulan pendekatan


gaya belajar iaitu pendekatan dalaman dan luaran untuk pembelajaran yang
telah dibangunkan oleh Entwistle et al. dalam program kajian di Lancaster
1983). Pendekatan dalaman bergantung pada penggunaan hubungan makna
pembelajaran antara konsep dalam ’semantic-long term memory’. Makna dari
bahan dicipta melalui jaringan di antara perhubungan, yang mana akan
melibatkan ’episodic’ seperti ’schemata semantic’ dari pengalaman peribadi.
Ausubel (1978) mengatakan, adalah penting sekali bahawa memori batas waktu
panjang akan tidak terbatas dalam saiz dan waktu lamanya. ’Scemata’ dan imej
dari peristiwa lepas disimpan dalam memori batas waktu panjang, ia juga
mengandungi konsep untuk menyediakan cara dari memeluap makna. Ini
menunjukkan bahawa pendekatan dalaman melibatkan tujuan untuk memahami
dan mencuba untuk menceritakan maklumat yang datang untuk pengetahuan
yang dahulu dan pengalaman dalam aturan untuk mengutip makna peribadi.
Pendekatan luaran berasaskan pada pembelajaran menghafal melalui
ulangan dalam memori batas waktu yang singkat sehingga kata demi kata
perwakilan daripada bahan terancang dalam episodic memori batas waktu
panjang. Tujuannya adalah untuk memenuhi permintaan tugas, yang mana
memimpin untuk memperingatkan hanya dari pandangan yang diperlukan oleh
guru. Ausubel (1978) juga menyatakan bahawa memori batas waktu singkat
nampak terbatas dalam saiz dan waktu lamanya. Proses menggunakan ulangan
untuk melakukan memori bahan yang sama diterangkan oleh Ausubel sebagai
“pembelajaran menghafal”.
Pendekatan kepada pembelajaran adalah merujuk kepada perbezaan
motif dengan kesamaan strategi yang pelajar gunakan untuk berjaya melakukan
berbagai-bagai tujuan berkaitan kepada pembelajaran. Entwistle & Ramsden
(1983) menyatakan hubungan diantara pendekatan kepada pembelajaran dan
pencapaian akademik, penemuan khas adalah korelasi negatif diantara
pendekatan luaran dan pencapaian. Pendekatan dalaman adalah lebih kepada
menyukai kepada mengaitkan kepada kecemerlangan akademik dalam tahun
dari kursus ijazah dan bila prosedur pengkajian secara terus dihadiahkan
demonstrasi pemahaman tentang konsep, tapi gabungan pendekatan luaran dan
strategik mungkin berguna kepada pelajar sains dan walau apa fakta
berorientasikan penggunaan pengkajian (Entwistle, et al. 2000).

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Dalam kajian kepada pencapaian akademik pelajar psikologi pada


perbezaan peringkat dalam program pengajian mereka, Sadler-Smith (1997)
menemui kesignifikanan dan korelasi yang positif diantara prestasi dan
pendekatan dalaman (r = 0.26) dalam sampel pelajar-pelajar perniagaan.
Keputusan ini mencadangkan hubungan sederhana diantara pendekatan
pembelajaran dan prestasi.

Abdul Rahim (2004), menemui hubungan yang lemah antara pendekatan


dalaman (r = 0.05) dan pendekatan luaran (r = 0.12) dengan pencapaian
akademik pelajar dalam kajiannya ke atas pelajar-pelajar Perdana PTV, UTM.
Manakala kajiannya ke atas pelajar-pelajar PKPG PTV, UTM pula hubungan
yang diperolehi antara pendekatan dalaman (r = 0.43) dengan pencapaian
akademik adalah sederhana. Pendekatan luaran (r = 0.25) dengan pencapaian
akademik pula adalah rendah.

Teori dua faktor herzberg menyarankan bahawa terdapat dua faktor


motivasi iaitu ’dissatisfier’ dan ’satisfier’. Faktor ’dissatisfier’ mewakili faktor
ekstrinsik terhadap pekerjaan seperti upah, suasana kerja polisi pengurusan dan
lain-lain. Herzberg percaya bahawa faktor-faktor ini tidak menjadi faktor secara
terus sabagai motivasi tetapi sebagai tambahan kapada motivasi iaitu sesuatu
yang perlu sahaja. Kehilangan salah satu faktor motivasi ini mungkin
menjejaskan motivasi tetapi kehadiran semiua faktor akan menyebabkan muncul
motivasi kedua iaitu ’satisfier’ yang menjelaskan tahap motivasi seseorang.
Faktor ’satisfier’ meliputi kerja itu sendiri iaitu kompetensi, pengiktirafan, dan
perkembangan.

Motivasi boleh dikategorikan kepada dua iaitu motivasi intrinsik dan


motivasi ekstrinsik. Motivasi intrinsik berpunca daripada dalam diri seseorang,
manakala motivasi ekstrinsik adalah berpunca dari luar diri seseoarang dan ia
berkait rapat dengan pengukuhan.

3.0 METODOLOGI KAJIAN

Kajian ini adalah berbentuk deskriptif iaitu kajian yang menerangkan


sesuatu fenomena atau bagi mendapatkan maklumat mengenai sesuatu
peristiwa yang sedang berlaku (Majid, 1990). Kajian ini dijalankan di semua
fakulti, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor iaitu;

i. Fakulti Sains (FS)


ii. Fakulti Pendidikan (FP)
i. Fakulti Alam Bina (FAB)
ii. Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia (FPPSM)
iii. Fakulti Sains Komputer (FSK)
iv. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam (FKA)
v. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik (FKE)
vi. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal (FKM)
vii. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia Sumber Asli (FKKSA)
viii. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi (FKSG)

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Sampel yang digunakan ialah Pelajar-Pelajar Tahun Tiga Pendidikan


Fakulti-fakulti dalam disiplin Sain Tulen, Kejuruteraan dan Sains Sosial UTM iaitu
seramai 500 orang pelajar. Oleh itu, kaedah persampelan tidak rawak-sampelan
bertujuan telah digunakan. Soal selidik digunakan untuk mendapatkan maklumat
yang dikehendaki. Menurut Mohamad Najib (1999), penggunaan soal selidik
dapat meningkatkan ketepatan dan kebenaran yang diberikan oleh sampel
kerana ia tidak dipengaruhi oleh pengkaji. Set soal selidik yang digunakan
mengandungi dua bahagian iaitu bahagian A dan bahagian B. Bahagian A
mengandungi perkara yang berkaitan biodata responden. Manakala bahagian B
pula tiga sub yang berkaitan iaitu pendekatan belajar, kemahiran generik dan
motivasi. Kajian rintis tidak dijalankan kerana kajian ini menggunakan instrumen
yang dibina oleh Abdul Rahim Hamdan (2004) dalam kajiannya ke atas pelajar-
pelajar PKPG dan perdana Pendidikan Teknik dan Vosional yang bertajuk
“Student Study Approach Preferences and Motivation in Teacher Training in
Malaysia”. Nilai Alpha Cronbach untuk item soalan pendekatan dalaman adalah
0.89 manakala untuk item soalan pendekatan luaran adalah 0.73.
Hasil analisis bahagian A akan ditunjukkan dalam bentuk jadual
peratusan. Bahagian B pula, pengkaji akan menganalisis setiap persoalan kajian
yang dikemukakan mengikut aspek kajian yang ditentukan. Kaedah yang
digunakan bagi memproses data-data yang diperolehi adalah berdasarkan
kepada min. Pertimbangan Skor Min dibuat mengikut aras rendah, sederhana
dan tinggi. Ujian Anova Satu Hala pada aras signifikan, p=0.05 digunakan untuk
menunjukkan perbezaan antara pemboleh ubah yang digunakan terhadap
pelajar-pelajar dari berlainan disiplin.

4.0 DATA DAN PERBINCANGAN

Jadual 4.1 di bawah menunjukan jumlah dan peratusan responden bagi


setiap fakulti yang telah di ambil sebagai sampel untuk tujuan kajian ini, pada
dasarnya reponden tersebut merupakan wakil keseluruhan pelajar yang
mengikuti pengajian difakulti-fakulti berkaitan.
Jadual 1: Taburan Responden Mengikut Fakulti

Bil Fakulti Jumlah Peratusan


Responden
1. Fakulti Pendidikan 79 15.8
2. Fakulti Alam Bina 47 9.4
3. Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber 40 8.0
Manusia
4. Fakulti Sains 92 18.4
5. Fakulti Sains Komputer 26 5.2
6. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam 41 8.2
7. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal 39 7.8
8. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik 59 11.8

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9. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains 46 9.2


Geoinformasi
10. Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia dan 31 6.2
Sumber Asli
Jumlah 500 100

Tahap pencapaian akademik pelajar-pelajar mengikut fakulti, pada


dasarnya ramai pelajar dari setiap fakulti berada dalam kedudukan CGPA 3.00
hingga 4.00. Sebagai contohnya Fakulti Pendidikan (87.3%), Fakulti Alam Bina
(70.3%), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam (90.3%), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
(59%), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi (73.9%), , Fakulti Kejuruteraan
Elektrik (86.4%), Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia (72.5%), Fakulti Sains
Komputer (73.1). Walaubagaimanapun terdapat fakluti yang mempunyai
pencapaian yang agak rendah berbanding dengan fakulti-fakulti lain iaitu Fakulti
Kejuruteraan Kimia dan Sumber Asli (54.9%) dan Fakulti Sains (39.1%). Pelajar-
pelajar masih lagi mempunyai 3 semester lagi untuk mengekalkan prestasi atau
meningkat prestasi sebelum tamat pengajian. Bagi pelajar-pelajar Fakulti Sains
pula mereka yang diambil sebagai sampel kajian ialah merupakan pelajar tahun
akhir pengajian memandangkan pada tahun pengambilan pelajar-pelajar tahun
tiga fakulti-fakulti laian, fakulti sains tidak membuat pengambilan. Secara
keseluruhannya, 69.6% pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti adalah berada pada
kedudukan CGPA 3.00 hingga 4.00 dan ini memberikan gambaran yang baik
terhadap pencapian pelajar. Rajah 1 menunjukkan carta bar kedudukan CGPA
pelajar mengikut fakulti.

Pencapaian Akedemik Mengikut Fakulti

CGPA
60
2=2.00 - 2.49
3=2.50 - 2.99
4=3.00 - 3.49
50 5=3.50 - 4.00

40

30

20

10

0
1=FP 3=FKA 5=FKSG 7=FKKSA 9=FPPSM
2=FAB 4=FKM 6=FS 8=FKE 10=FSK

Rajah 1: Carta Bar Pencapaian Akademik Mengikut Fakulti berdasar


peperiksaan akhir semester 1 2006/2007 pelajar tahun 3

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Tahap kemahiran generik pelajar-pelajar tahun 3 bagi semua fakulti di


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Secara keseluruhannya semua pelajar dari setiap
fakulti mempunyai tahap yang tinggi untuk bahagian kemahiran komunikasi iaitu
berada di antara tahap min 3.7-3.9 dan min keseluruhan ialah 3.82.

Untuk kemahiran menyelesai masalah pula Fakulti Pendidikan, Fakulti


Alam Bina, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik dan Fakulti
Mekanikal mempunyai tahap min yang tinggi iaitu diantara 3.67 hingga 3.8.
Manakala bagi Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi, Fakulti Sains, Fakulti
Kejuruteraan Kimia dan Sumber Asli, Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia dan
Fakulti Sains Komputer mempunyai tahap yang sederhana iaitu min diantara 3.4
hingga 3.66. Secara keseluruhannya tahap kemahiran menyelesai masalah
adalah pada tahap sederhana iaitu dengan min 3.65.

Bagi kemahiran bekerja dalam kumpulan pula didapati pelajar-pelajar


dari semua fakulti mempunyai tahap min yang tinggi iaitu di antara 3.9 hingga 4.2
dan min keseluruhannya ialah 4.08. Pembelajaran sepanjang hayat dan
kemahiran pengurusan maklumat juga menunjukkan pelajar-pelajar dari semua
fakulti berada pada tahap min yang tinggi iaitu di antara di antara 3.9 hingga 4.2
dan min keseluruhannya ialah 4.07.

Bagi kemahiran Keusahawanan pula di dapati pelajar-pelajar dari tiga


fakulti (Fakulti Kejuruteraan Sains Geoinformasi, Fakulti Sains Komputer dan
Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia) yang mempunyai tahap min yang tinggi
iaitu diantara 3.68-3.81. Manakala kemahiran keusahawanan pelajar dari fakulti-
fakulti lain berada pada tahap sederhana iaitu di antara min 3.11 hingga 3.66
dan ini mempengaruhi min keseluruhan menjadi sederhana iaitu 3.49 sahaja.

Bagi Kemahiran Kepimpinan pula menunjukkan hanya pelajar-pelajar


dari tiga fakulti (Fakulti Sains, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia dan Sumber Asli dan
Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber Manusia) menunjukkan tahap min yang sederhana
iaitu di antara 3.61-3.64, manakala fakulti-fakulti lain semuanya berada pada
tahap min yang tinggi iaitu diantara 3.67 hingga 3.92dan ini mempengaruhi min
keseluruhan bagi Kemahiran Kepimpinan iaitu 3.73 untuk berasda pada tahap
tinggi.

Kemahiran Beretika dan berintegriti, pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti


menunjukkan mereka berada di tahap yang tinggi iaitu di antara 3.8 dan min
keseluruhan kategori ialah pada tahap min 4.20. Secara keseluruhannya, semua
pelajar dari semua fakulti mempunyai tahap kemahiran generik yang tinggi iaitu
pada tahap min 3.86.

Dari aspek pendekatan pembelajaran pula di dapati pelajar-pelajar dari


Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam dan Fakulti Sains Komputer mengamalkan
pendekatan pembelajaran luaran pada tahap yang tinggi iaitu pada aras min
3.72 dan 3.77, manakala pelajar dari fakulti-fakulti lain hanya mengamalkan
pembelajaran pada tahap sederhana iaitu antara 3.45 hingga 3.66 sahaja.
Keadaan ini menunjukkan secara keseluruhannya pelajar-pelajar dari semua

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fakulti mengamalkan pembelajaran luaran secara sederhana iaitu pada tahap


min 3.56.

Bagi amalan pembelajaran dalaman pula didapati Fakulti Pendidikan,


Fakulti Alam Bina dan Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam menunjukkan pelajar-
pelajarnya berada pada tahap min yang tinggi iaitu dalam lingkungan min 3.68
hingga 3.72, manakala pelajar-pelajar dari lain-lain fakulti berada pada tahap
sederhana iaitu di antara min 3.32 hingga 3.66 dan ini secara keseluruhannya
menunjukkan amalan pembelajaran secara dalaman juga berada pada tahap
sederhana iaitu dengan min 3.58 tinggi sedikit berbanding min untuk
pembelajaran secara luaran.

Dari aspek motivasi belajar pula di dapati pelajar-pelajar dari semua


fakulti mempunyai tahap motivasi intrinsik yang tinggi iaitu diantara min 3.74
hingga 4.15 dengan min keseluruhannya yang tinggi iaitu min 3.95. Bagi motivasi
ekstrinsik pula didapati pelajar-pelajar dari semua fakulti mempunyai tahap
motivasi intrinsik yang sederhana iaitu pada min 3.32 hingga 3.53 kecuali Fakulti
Kejuruteraan elektrik yang berada pada tahap tinggi dengan min 3.67. Secara
keseluruhannya didapati tahap motivasi ekstrinsik adalah pada tahap sederhana
dengan minnya 3.47.

Berdasarkan analisis Anova Satu Hala Kemahiran Generik Pelajar, nilai


signifikan yang diperolehi ialah 0.001 iaitu lebih kecil daripada nilai signifikan
yang ditentukan iaitu p<0.05, oleh itu hipotesis yang menyatakan tidak terdapat
perbezaan kemahiran generik pelajar dari fakulti-fakulti yang berbeza adalah
ditolak. Analisis ini menunjukkan bahawa terdapat perbezaan kemahiran generik
di antara pelajar-pelajar dari fakulti yang berbeza. Pada dasarnya keupayaan
kemahiran generik pelajar adalah berbeza dan ini dapat dilihat berdasarkan plot
perbezaan yang signifikan dari jadual 2.

Jadual 2 Plot Perbezaan Kemahiran Generik pelajar antara fakulti di UTM


FP FAB FPPSM FS FSK FKA FKM FKE FKSG FKKS
A
FP / /
FAB / /
FPPSM / / / /
FS / / / /
FSK /
FKA / / / /
FKM
FKE /
FKSG / /
FKKSA /
/ : Perbezaan Kemahiran Generik yang paling signifikan antara fakulti

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Nilai signifikan yang diperolehi bagi gaya belajar dalaman pelajar adalah
0.000 dan ia adalah lebih kecil berbanding dengan nilai signifikan p<0.05,
hipotesis nol adalah di tolak, di mana terdapat perbezaan dari segi gaya belajar
secara dalaman pelajar-pelajar dari berlainan fakulti. Bagi Gaya belajar Luaran
pula,nilai signifikan yang diperolehi adalah 0.001 dan ia adalah lebih kecil
berbanding dengan nilai signifikan p<0.05, hipotesis nol juga adalah di tolak, di
mana terdapat perbezaan dari segi gaya belajar secara luaran pelajar-pelajar
dari berlainan fakulti.Pada dasarnya gaya belajar sama ada secara dalaman atau
luaran pelajar adalah berbeza dan ini dapat dilihat berdasarkan plot perbezaan
yang signifikan dari jadual 3 dibawah

Jadual 3 Perbezaan penggunaan gaya belajar dalaman dan luaran pelajar


antara fakulti di UTM

FP FA FPPS FS FS FKA FK FKE FKS FKKS


B M K M G A
FP * /* /* /
FAB / / /
FPPS * * *
M
FS / / / /* /*
* *
FSK * /* * /* /*
FKA * /* * /* /
FKM * * /
FKE / / / /* *
* *
FKS /* * /
G
FKKS / / / / / /
A *

/ : Perbezaan gaya belajar Dalaman yang paling signifikan antara fakulti

* : Perbezaan gaya belajar Luaran yang paling signifikan antara fakulti

Analisis bagi Motivasi Belajar Intrinsik pelajar menunjukkan nilai


signifikan yang diperolehi adalah 0.001 dan ia adalah lebih kecil berbanding
dengan nilai signifikan p<0.05, hipotesis nol adalah di tolak, di mana terdapat
perbezaan dari motivasi intrinsik pelajar-pelajar dari berlainan fakulti. Manakala
nilai signifikan bagi Motivasi Belajar Ekstrinsik adalah 0.012 dan ia adalah lebih
kecil berbanding dengan nilai signifikan p<0.05, hipotesis nol adalah di tolak, di
mana terdapat perbezaan dari motivasi ekstrinsik pelajar-pelajar dari berlainan
fakulti. Walau bagaimanapun perbezaannya tidak sebesar motivasi intrinsik.
Pada dasarnya motivasi belajar pelajar juga adalah berbeza adalah berbeza dan

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ini dapat dilihat berdasarkan plot perbezaan yang signifikan dari jadual 4.4
dibawah.

Jadual 4 Perbezaan motivasi belajar pelajar antara fakulti di UTM

FP FAB FPPSM FS FSK FKA FKM FKE FKSG FKKSA

FP / / /* /

FAB / /

FPPSM / * /

FS / / * / /* / /* /

FSK / * /

FKA / /* / /

FKM / /

FKE /* /* * / * /*

FKSG / * /

FKKSA / / / / / /* /

/ : Perbezaan motivasi intrinsik yang paling signifikan antara fakulti


* : Perbezaan motivasi ekstrinsik yang paling signifikan fakulti

RUMUSAN

Kajian ini telah dijalankan ke atas 500 orang pelajar tiga dari sepuluh
fakulti di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan menggunakan kaedah soal selidik
sebagai instrumen untuk mengumpul maklumat berkaitan kemahiran generik,
pendekatan belajar dan motivasi belajar pelajar. Hasil daripada analisis yang
dijalankan, pengkaji mendapati tahap pencapaian akademik pelajar-pelajar tahun
tiga keseluruhannya berada pada tahap yang berbeza mengikut fakulti. Pelajar-
pelajar masih boleh memperbaiki keputusan mereka kerana mereka masih ada
tiga semester lagi untuk diharungi kecuali pelajar-pelajar dari Fakulti Sains yang
hanya tinggal satu semester sahaja lagi.

Pengkaji juga mendapati kesemua pelajar-pelajar tahun tiga dari semua


teras disiplin mempunyai tahap kemahiran generik yang sederhana walaupun
terdapat perbezaan di antara fakulti. Mereka juga mengamalkan pendekatan
belajar secara dalaman dan luaran dalam pendekatan belajar mereka semasa
belajar. Walaubagaimanapun pelajar harus bijak memilih kesesuaian pendekatan
kerana belajar diperingkat tinggi memerlukan ras kognitif pada tahap yang tinggi.

Dari segi motivasi belajar pula, dapat dirumuskan disini bahawa


keseluruhan pelajar mempunyai tahap motivasi intrinsik yang tinggi berbanding
motivasi ekstrinsik. Kedua-dua jenis motivasi adalah penting kepada pelajar
kerana kejayaan pelajar adalah berkait rapat dengan motif pelajar untuk

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mencapai sesuatu.

Pelajar-pelajar tahun tiga dari fakulti-fakulti di UTM mempunyai tahap


kemahiran insaniah, amalan belajar dan motivasi belajar yang tersendiri.
Walaupun ketiga-tiga elemen yang dikaji menunjukkan tahap yang sederhana,
kedudukan pencapaian akademik pelajar-pelajar ini boleh di perbaiki dari
semasa ke semasa dengan memberikan kesedaran terhadap kepentingan
kemahiran dan pencapaian apabila mereka graduan kelak.
Selain itu, adalah diharapkan agar hasil kajian ini dapat digunakan oleh
pihak-pihak yang terlibat untuk memperbaiki kelemahan-kelemahan yang dikenal
pasti dapat menangani masalah pembelajaran pelajar agar pada masa akan
datang lebih ramai lagi pelajar akan memperolehi pencapaian Kepujian Kelas
Pertama bagi melahirkan generasi dan masyarakat yang kaya dengan ilmu
pengetahuan dan cemerlang di dalam bidang akademik dan boleh bersaing
dengan graduan-graduan dari universiti-universiti lain dalam dunia yang semakin
kompetetif ini.

PENGHARGAAN

Setinggi-tingggi penghargaan diucapkan kepada Centre of Teaching and


Learning UTM kerana membiayai dana penyelidikan ini, dekan-dekan fakulti-
fakulti yang terlibat kerana memberikan kebenaran menjalankan kajian, pelajar-
pelajar tahun 3 yang telah menjadi sampel kepada kajian, pensyarah-pensyarah
yang memberikan kebenara untuk pelajar-pelajar mereka menjawab soal-selidik
dan tidak ketinggalan kepada rakan-rakan dalam kumpulan penyelidikan ini yang
telah berusaha dan sama-sama mengembeleng tenaga dan buah fikiran dalam
melaksanakan kajian ini.

RUJUKAN

[1] Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (1995), ”Kemahiran Generik.” Kuala


Lumpur : Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

[2] Gibbs G., Rust, C., Jenkins, A., & Jaques, D..(1994) ‘ Devoloping
Students’ Transferable Skills’. Oxford.

[3] Blumhof, J., Honeybone, A., Pearlman, D., & Pink, K. (1996). “Tackling
the Problem of Skills Development in a modular degree programme”
; the skillswise project. In G. Gibbs (Ed. “, Improving student Learning
: Using Research to Improve Student Learning (pp. 328 – 339). OxFord,
UK : OxFord Centre For Staff Development.

[4] Oblinger, D. G and Verville, A.L (1998) ‘What Business Wants From
Higher Education’. Phoenix, The Oryx Press

[5] Michelle Tullier (2000) ‘The Skills You Have, The Skills They Want’.
Tidak diterbitkan.

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KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

[6] Entwistle, N. J. (1983). Understanding Student Learning. London.


Nichols Publishing Company.

[7] Ausubel, D. P., J. S. and Anesian, H. Novak (1978) Educational


nd
Psychology: A Cognitive View (2 Ed). New york. Holt, Rinehart and
Wilson.

[8] Entwistle, N. J. and Ramsden, P. (1983) Understanding Student


learning. London: Croom Helm

[9] Entwistle, N., Tait, H., & McCune, V. (2000). Patterns of response to an
approaches to studying inventory across contrasting groups and
contexts. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 15(1), 33-
48.

[10] Sadler-Smith, E. (1997). ‘Learning style’: Frameworks and instruments.


Educational Psychology, 17(1&2), 51-63.

[11] Abdul Rahim Hamdan (2004). Student Study Approach Preferences and
Motivation in Teacher Training in Malaysia. University of Surrey,
United Kingdom: Tesis PHD.

[12] Mohd Majid Konteng (1993), “Kaedah Penyelidikan Pendidikan,” Kuala


Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.

[13] Mohd Najib Abdul Ghafar (1999), “Penyelidikan Pendidikan,” Johor


Bharu : Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

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MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE : THE RELIABILITY OF MyMICA IN IDENTIFYING


TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGY

ABSTRAK - The purpose of this study is to


examine the reliability and construct validity of
Multiple Intelligence Checklist for Adult
SITI RAHAYAH ARIFFIN (MyMICA), that incorporates the theory and
RUSMINAH MUSLIMAN practice of Multiple Intelligences. The instrument
was developed by a group of researchers from
Malaysia led by Siti Rahayah Ariffin (2004).
MyMICA which has 80 perception items using 5
point Likert Scale comprises nine constructs
namely: (i) verbal-linguistics (vl), (ii) logical
mathematic (lm), (iii) bodily-kinesthetic (kb), (iv)
music (mz), (v) spatial (vr), (vi) interpersonal (ie),
(vii) intrapersonal (ia), (viii) naturalist (na) and
(ix) spiritual (kr). There were 526 respondents
from secondary schools involved in this study.
The data collected was analysed using computer
programme Winsteps version 3.63.0 which
applied Rasch Model based on Item Response
Theory (IRT) Models. The instrument reliability
was examined by analysing item reliability index.
The construct validity was examined by analysing
the point-measure correlation index. The findings
showed that the item reliability of 9 constructs
were between 0.97 and 1.00. Construct validity
analysis showed that every item in the constructs
© Universiti Putra Malaysia
2007. Semua Hak Cipta
were correlated positively to measure a single
Terpelihara. Prosiding underlying construct. Hence, MyMICA with a high
Persidangan Pengajaran dan reliability and construct validity is a vital tool in
Pembelajaran di Peringkat helping educators to discover the unique
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi potential of each student as well as the areas of
(CTLHE07), The Palace of challenges. The awareness on the individual’s
Golden Horses, Seri unlimited potential in the different area helps
Kembangan, Selangor educators to realign their pedagogy in order to
12-14 Disember 2007 meet students’ individual needs. As a
conclusion, MyMICA is a solution in helping
educators accommodate different learning styles
to better value the individual student.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Today’s classrooms present a number of new challengers to people in


the field of education. Students come from diverse backgrounds, have different
skills sets, possess various levels of background knowledge and represent
various learning styles. In order to cater the challengers, there is a need to
design instruments in assessing students strengths and weaknessess for the

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educaters to shape the teaching styles. Wright & Stone (1979) suggested that in
the construction of items which aim to measure person’s behaviour, it is very
important for instrument developer to be aware of the crucial task of constructing
high-quality items. A high quality items is related to the validity and reliability of
the instrument. Rasch analysis provides general guidelines to assist the
developers determine the validity and reliability of items developed. Developers
must assess whether all items work together to measure a single variable. This is
called a unidimentionality concept; an important touchstone in psychological
research. A unidimentionality concept can be assessed by examining the point
measure correlation value (PTMEA Corr) to see the correlation between items in
measuring a single underlying construct. A construct with a set of unidimentional
items should display a positive PTMEA Corr value. Any item which does not
show as measuring the single construct should be rewritten or excluded (Bond &
Fox 2001). Bond & Fox (2001) also suggested that an instrument with high item
reliability index indicates the replicability of item placements along the pathway if
these items were given to another sample with comparable ability levels.

2.0 METHODOLOGY

2.1 Research Design

This research has been carried out using a quantitative survey approach
in which the instrument were distributed to a group of secondary school students.
The aim of the study is to determine the construct validity and reliability of
Malaysian Multiple Intelligence Checklist for Adult (MyMICA).

2.2 Population and Sample

A total of 526 form four students from five daily schools were involved in
this research. Two hundred and fourty students are boys while the remaining
two hundred and eighty six are girls.

3.0 INSTRUMENT

The Malaysian Multiple Intelligence Checklist for Adult (MyMICA) is used


in this research. This instrument which was developed by Siti Rahayah et. al., is
based on the Multiple Intelligence theory by Howard Gardner (1983). Besides
the theory, the instrument development was also based on the in-depth and
focus group interviews as well as literature review. MyMICA consists of
perceptions and performance items from nine constructs that is verbal linguistics
(vl), logic mathematics (lm), spatial (vr), bodily kinesthetic (kb), music (mz),
interpersonal (ie), intrapersonal (ia), naturalist (na) and spiritual (kr). The face
and content validity of MyMICA had been validated by construct experts in the
nine fields and those with academic credentials. In this study, researcher used
80 likert scale perceptions items which comprises of 9 vl items, 9 lm items, 8 vr
items, 9 kb items, 9 music items, 9 ie items, 9 ia items, 9 na items and 9 kr items.

RESEARCH FINDINGS

The data was analysed using Winsteps 3.63.0 to determine the validity

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and reliability of the instrument. Rasch analysis provides item reliability and
construct validity as showed in the table. The item reliability index is between 0
and 1 whereby 0.8 and above is strongly acceptable (Fox and Jones 1998). A
construct with a set of unidimentional items should display a positive PTMEA
Corr value which means that the items are working together to measure a single
underlying construct. This is the basic step in measuring the construct validity
(Bond & Fox 2001).

Table 1 to 9 showed the item reliability of nine constructs. The item


reliability of nine constructs is acceptable which ranges from 0.97 to 1.00. The
item reliability of vl is 0.99, lm 1.00, vr 0.98, kb 0.99, mz 0.99, ie 0.98, ia 0.99, na
0.99 and kr 0.97.

Table 1 : Item Reliability : Verbal Linguistics

Summary of 9 Measured Items


RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ
ZSTD
MEAN 1890.2 523.0 .00 .06 .95 -1.0 .97 -.7
S.D. 169.3 .0 .50 .00 .28 4.3 .27 4.3
MAX 2072.0 523.0 1.06 .06 1.33 4.4 1.29 4.2
MIN -
1508.0 523.0 -.59 .05 .59 -6.9 .62
5.5
REAL RMSE .06 SEPARATION 8.28 ITEM RELIABILITY
.99
MODEL RMSE .06 SEPARATION 8.64 ITEM RELIABILITY
.99
S.E. OF student MEAN = .18

Table 2 : Item Reliability :Logic Mathematics


Summary of 9 Measured Items
RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ ZSTD
MEAN 1969.8 516.0 .00 .07 1.02 .0 1.00 -.4
S.D. 227.6 .0 1.11 .01 .26 3.9 .27 3.8
MAX 2245.0 516.0 1.71 .08 1.51 7.1 1.49 6.9
MIN 1603.0 516.0 -1.39 .07 .78 -3.8 .73 -4.1

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REAL RMSE .08 SEPARATION 14.65 ITEM RELIABILITY 1.00


MODEL RMSE .07 SEPARATION 15.56 ITEM RELIABILITY 1.00
S.E. OF student MEAN = .39

Table 3 : Item Reliability : Spatial


Summary of 8 Measured Items
RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ ZSTD
MEAN 1764.5 521.0 .00 .06 1.00 -.2 1.00 -.2
S.D. 119.9 .0 .48 .00 .22 3.3 .23 3.4
MAX 1932.0 521.0 .70 .07 1.53 7.5 1.55 7.7
MIN 1586.0 521.0 -.68 .06 .77 -4.1 .76 -4.2
REAL RMSE .07 SEPARATION 7.21 ITEM RELIABILITY .98
MODEL RMSE .06 SEPARATION 7.51 ITEM RELIABILITY .98
S.E. OF student MEAN = .18

Table 4 : Item Reliability : Bodily Kinesthetic

Summary of 9 Measured Items


RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ ZSTD
MEAN 1832.4 520.0 .00 .06 1.00 -.1 .99 -.3
S.D. 261.3 .0 .76 .00 .19 3.4 .20 3.3
MAX 2194.0 520.0 1.38 .06 1.34 5.4 1.33 5.0
MIN 1327.0 520.0 -1.14 .05 .63 -7.2 .64 -6.8
REAL RMSE .06 SEPARATION 13.27 ITEM RELIABILITY .99
MODEL RMSE .06 SEPARATION 13.68 ITEM RELIABILITY .99
S.E. OF student MEAN = .27

Table 5 : Item Reliability : Music

Summary of 9 Measured Items


RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ ZSTD
MEAN 1867.0 520.0 .00 .06 1.01 -.1 1.01 -.1
S.D. 254.8 .0 .79 .01 .24 4.0 .23 3.6

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MAX 2282.0 520.0 1.00 .07 1.32 4.7 1.35 5.1


MIN 1505.0 520.0 -1.38 .05 .66 -6.6 .70 -5.0
REAL RMSE .06 SEPARATION 13.41 ITEM RELIABILITY .99
MODEL RMSE .06 SEPARATION 14.18 ITEM RELIABILITY 1.00
S.E. OF student MEAN = .28

Table 6 : Item Reliability : Interpersonal

Summary of 9 Measured Items


RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ ZSTD
MEAN 1953.1 520.0 .00 .07 1.00 -.3 1.00 -.2
S.D. 96.9 .0 .54 .00 .23 3.3 .23 3.4
MAX 2120.0 520.0 .59 .08 1.54 7.1 1.57 7.6
MIN 1843.0 520.0 -.96 .07 .72 -4.8 .72 -4.7
REAL RMSE .08 SEPARATION 6.99 ITEM RELIABILITY .98
MODEL RMSE .07 SEPARATION 7.24 ITEM RELIABILITY .98
S.E. OF student MEAN = .19

Table 7 : Item Reliability : Intrapersonal

Summary of 9 Measured Items


RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ ZSTD
MEAN 1992.1 509.0 .00 .08 1.00 .0 .99 -.1
S.D. 108.5 .0 .66 .00 .06 1.0 .07 1.0
MAX 2157.0 509.0 1.21 .08 1.12 1.8 1.10 1.6
MIN 1787.0 509.0 -1.06 .07 .92 -1.3 .90 -1.4
REAL RMSE .08 SEPARATION 8.25 ITEM RELIABILITY .99
MODEL RMSE .08 SEPARATION 8.34 ITEM RELIABILITY .99
S.E. OF student MEAN = .23

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Table 8 : Item Reliability : Naturalist

Summary of 9 Measured Items


RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ ZSTD
MEAN 1896.7 517.0 .00 .07 1.01 -.1 1.00 -.2
S.D. 184.6 .0 .84 .01 .21 3.2 .21 3.0
MAX 2295.0 517.0 1.01 .08 1.42 5.9 1.40 5.7
MIN 1656.0 517.0 -1.93 .06 .70 -5.3 .70 -5.3
REAL RMSE .07 SEPARATION 12.13 ITEM RELIABILITY .99
MODEL RMSE .07 SEPARATION 12.69 ITEM RELIABILITY .99
S.E. OF student MEAN = .30

Table 9 : Item Reliability : Spiritual

Summary of 9 Measured Items


RAW COUNT MEASURE MODEL INFIT OUTFIT
SCORE ERROR MNSQ ZSTD MNSQ ZSTD
MEAN 1839.0 425.0 .00 .10 1.05 .6 .96 -.6
S.D. 68.6 .0 .60 .01 .20 2.5 .17 2.3
MAX 1939.0 425.0 1.05 .11 1.36 4.2 1.32 4.0
MIN 1711.0 425.0 -.96 .08 .76 -3.3 .69 -4.4
REAL RMSE .10 SEPARATION 5.81 ITEM RELIABILITY .97
MODEL RMSE .10 SEPARATION 6.15 ITEM RELIABILITY .97
S.E. OF student MEAN = .18

Table 10 – 18 display a positive PTMEA Corr value in every item examined. It


means that the items are working together to measure a single underlying
construct which shows a good construct validity. Therefore all MyMICA items are
acceptable (Bond & Fox 2001).

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Table 10 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Verbal Linguistics


INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5
categories 3.63.0
INFIT OUTFIT
ENTRY RAW MODEL PTMEA
COUNT MEASURE MNSQ MNSQ ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. CORR.
ZSTD ZSTD
4 1508 523 1.06 .05 1.19 3.3 1.27 4.2 .60 VL4
2 1740 523 .48 .05 1.27 4.1 1.28 4.1 .59 VL2
5 1805 523 .30 .05 1.01 .1 1.06 .9 .53 VL5
7 1903 523 .00 .05 1.09 1.3 1.09 1.3 .50 VL7
6 1949 523 -.15 .05 1.33 4.4 1.29 4.0 .58 VL6
1985 523 .05 - - .57 VL8
8 -.27 .60 .63
6.6 6.3
2017 523 .05 - - .57 VL9
9 -.38 .59 .62
6.9 6.5
2033 523 .05 - - .53 VL3
3 -.44 .75 .77
3.8 3.7
2072 523 .05 - - .53 VL1
1 -.59 .69 .71
4.9 4.7
MEAN 1890.2 523.0 -
.00 .06 .95 .97 -.7
1.0
S.D. 169.3 169.3 .50 .00 .28 4.3 .27 4.3
Table 11 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Logic Mathematics

INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5


categories 3.63.0
ENTRY RAW MODEL INFIT OUTFIT PTMEA
COUNT MEASURE ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. MNSQZSTD MNSQZSTD CORR
1603 516 - .74 LM8
8 1.71 .07 .79 -3.6 .78
3.78
7 1722 516 1.20 .07 1.51 7.1 1.49 6.9 .51 LM7
5 1772 516 .98 .07 .78 -3.8 .76 -4.1 .71 LM5
4 1883 516 .48 .07 .85 -2.6 .84 -2.7 .72 LM4

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6 1962 516 .11 .07 .90 -1.6 .91 -1.5 .63 LM6
3 2081 516 -.48 .07 .93 -1.1 .91 -1.5 .73 LM3
9 2229 516 -1.30 .08 1.30 4.5 1.37 4.4 .50 LM9
2 2231 516 -1.31 .08 .82 -3.1 .73 -3.9 .71 LM2
1 2245 516 -1.39 .08 1.29 4.3 1.20 2.5 .62 LM1
MIN 1969.8 516.0 .00 .07 1.02 0 1.00 -.4
S.P. 227.6 .0 1.11 .01 .26 3.9 .27 3.8

Table 12 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Spatial

INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5


categories 3.63.0
INFIT
ENTRY RAW MODEL OUTFIT PTMEA
COUNT MEASURE MNSQ ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. MNSQZSTD CORR.
ZSTD
1 1586 521 .70 .06 1.10 1.5 1.11 1.7 .66 VR1
1625 521 .06 - .73 VR3
3 .55 .93 .93 -1.1
1.1
1690 521 .06 - .67 VR6
6 .30 .84 .84 -2.8
2.7
7 1745 521 .09 .06 .99 -.2 .97 -.4 .70 VR7
1804 521 .06 - .68 VR4
4 -.15 .88 .89 -1.8
1.9
1807 521 .06 - .75 VR5
5 -.16 .77 .76 -4.2
4.1
8 1927 521 -.66 .07 .95 -.8 .93 -1.2 .68 VR8
2 1932 521 -.68 .07 1.53 7.5 1.55 7.7 .60 VR2
MEAN 1764.5 521.0 .00 .06 1.00 -.2 1.00 -.2
S.D. 119.9 .0 .48 .00 .22 3.3 .23 3.4

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Table 13 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Bodily Kinesthetic

INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5


categories 3.63.0
ENTRY RAW MODEL INFIT OUTFIT PTMEA
COUNT MEASURE ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. MNSQZSTD MNSQZSTD CORR.
3 1327 520 1.38 .05 1.34 5.4 1.33 5.0 .60 KB3
7 1672 520 .49 .05 .63 -.72 .64 -6.8 .75 KB7
9 1705 520 .40 .05 .98 -.3 .98 -.3 .59 KB9
2 1710 520 .39 .05 1.24 3.8 1.27 4.1 .59 KB2
8 1712 520 .39 .05 .98 -.2 1.04 -.6 .58 KB8
6 2015 520 -.49 .06 .90 -1.6 .90 -1.6 .61 KB6
5 2044 520 -.59 .06 1.05 .8 .98 -.3 .63 KB5
4 2113 520 -.83 .06 .92 -1.2 .84 -2.4 .61 KB4
1 2193 520 -1.14 .06 .98 -.3 .91 -1.2 .54 KB1
MEAN 1832.4 520.0 .06 1.00 -.1 .99 -.3
S.D. 261.3 .0 .00 .19 3.4 .20 3.3

Table 14 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Music

INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5


categories 3.63.0
ENTRY RAW MODEL INFIT OUTFIT PTMEA
COUNT MEASURE ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. MNSQZSTD MNSQZSTD CORR.
5 1505 520 1.00 .05 .76 -4.5 .89 -1.9 .67 MZ5
9 1668 520 .61 .05 .66 -6.6 .73 -4.9 .72 MZ9
2 1683 520 .57 .05 1.29 4.5 1.35 5.1 .50 MZ2
6 1699 520 .53 .05 1.30 4.7 1.33 4.9 .64 MZ6
3 1784 520 .31 .05 .99 -.2 .95 -.8 .64 MZ3
1 1930 520 -.09 .05 1.12 1.9 1.13 2.0 .60 MZ1
4 1995 520 -.29 .06 .74 -4.4 .70 -5.0 .68 MZ4
8 2257 520 -1.26 .07 1.32 4.2 1.16 1.9 .53 MZ8
7 2282 520 -1.38 .07 .95 -.6 .85 -1.9 .56 MZ7

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MEAN 1687.0 520.0 .00 .06 1.01 -.1 1.01 -.1


S.D. 254.8 .0 .79 .01 .24 4.0 3.6 3.6

Table 15 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Intrapersonal

INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5


categories 3.63.0
ENTRY RAW MODEL INFIT OUTFIT PTMEA
COUNT MEASURE ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. MNSQZSTD MNSQZSTD CORR.
9 1787 509 1.21 .07 1.09 1.3 1.10 1.5 .68 IA9
8 1880 509 .69 .08 .99 -.1 .9 -.1 .72 IA8
5 1934 509 .37 .08 1.00 .0 1.02 .3 .65 IA5
4 1940 509 .34 .08 1.12 1.8 1.10 1.6 .63 IA4
1 2036 509 -.25 .08 .94 -1.0 .93 -1.0 .69 IA1
7 2057 509 -.38 .08 .98 -.2 .98 -.3 .68 IA7
6 2068 509 -.45 .08 .92 -1.3 .94 -.9 .64 IA6
2 2070 509 -.47 .08 1.00 .0 .96 -.6 .67 IA2
3 2157 509 -1.06 .08 .94 -.9 .90 -1.4 .65 IA3
MEAN 1992.1 509.0 .00 .08 1.00 .0 .99 -.1
S.D. 108.5 .0 .66 .00 .06 1.0 .07 1.0

Table 16 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Interpersonal

INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5


categories 3.63.0
ENTRY RAW MODEL INFIT OUTFIT PTMEA
COUNT MEASURE ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. MNSQZSTD MNSQZSTD CORR.
1 1843 520 .59 .07 1.54 7.1 1.57 7.6 .54 IE
1869 520 - .73 IE
2 .46 .07 .72 -4.8 .72
4.7
1869 520 - .70 IE
3 .46 .07 .77 -3.8 .77
3.7
9 1879 520 .41 .07 1.00 .1 .78 -.4 .66 IE
8 1906 520 .27 .07 1.14 2.1 .97 2.1 .67 IE

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7 1985 520 -.15 .07 1.03 .5 1.14 .3 .69 IE


2026 520 .08 - .70 IE
5 -.39 .94 -1.0 1.02
1.1
2081 520 .08 - .66 IE
4 -.72 .93 -1.0 .92
1.4
6 2120 520 -.96 .08 .90 -1.5 .91 -.6 .62 IE
MEAN 1953.1 520.0 .00 .07 1.00 -.3 1.00.96 -.2
S.D. 96.9 .0 .54 .00 .23 3.3 .23 3.4

Table 17 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Naturalist

INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5


categories 3.63.0

ENTRY RAW MODEL INFIT OUTFIT PTMEA


COUNT MEASURE ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. MNSQZSTD MNSQZSTD CORR.

5 1656 517 1.01 .06 .83 -2.8 .83 -2.8 .74 NA5

6 1707 517 .81 .06 1.08 1.3 1.10 1.6 .63 NA6

2 1783 517 .52 .06 .83 -2.8 .85 -2.5 .73 NA2

4 1824 517 .35 .06 .70 -5.3 .70 -5.3 .74 NA4

3 1866 517 .18 .06 .98 -.3 .96 -.6 .71 NA3

8 1915 517 -.03 .07 1.42 5.9 1.40 5.7 .61 NA8

7 1948 517 -.17 .07 .98 -.3 1.00 .0 .66 NA7

1 2076 517 -.75 .07 .99 -.1 .95 -.8 .66 NA1

9 2295 517 -1.93 .08 1.26 3.7 1.25 2.6 .49 NA9

MEAN 1896.7 517.0 .00 .07 1.01 -.1 1.00 -.2


S.D. 184.6 .0 .84 .01 .21 3.2 .21 3.0

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Table 18 : Analysed PTMEA Corr : Spiritual


INPUT: 526 students, 9 items , measured : 526 students, 9 items, 5
categories 3.63.0
ENTRY RAW MODEL INFIT OUTFIT PTMEA
COUNT MEASURE ITEM
NO SCORE S.E. MNSQZSTD MNSQZSTD CORR.
5 1711 425 1.05 .08 1.36 4.2 1.32 4.0 .63 KR5
3 1743 425 .82 .09 .87 -1.7 .92 -1.1 .76 KR3
7 1815 425 .25 .09 1.05 .7 1.00 .01 .73 KR7
2 1839 425 .04 .09 .80 -2.7 .75 -3.5 .74 KR2
9 1857 425 -.12 .10 .76 -3.3 .69 -4.4 .74 KR9
1 1870 425 -.24 .10 1.17 2.1 .99 -.1 .69 KR1
4 1888 425 -.42 .10 1.07 .9 .92 -.9 .70 KR4
6 1889 425 -.43 .10 1.07 .9 .96 -.4 .65 KR6
8 1939 425 -.96 .11 1.33 3.8 1.09 .9 .61 KR8
MEAN 1839.0 425.0 .00 .10 1.05 .6 .96 -.6
S.D. 68.6 .0 .60 .01 .20 2.5 .17 2.3

DISSCUSSION AND IMPLICATION

Based on this research, it can be concluded that validity and reliability is


a very important aspect to be taken into consideration in the construction of
items. The examination on the validity and reliability of MyMICA proved that this
instrument is having a desirable quality to be used by parents and educationists.

The implication of the research is MyMICA is a truly Malaysian multiple


intelligence instrument that offer educaters a tool to view their students’
potentials and challengers. This is the basic step before educators structure
various teaching styles for practical application in the classroom in order to
ensure all students are achieving at their highest potential.

CONCLUSION

There are several methods in helping students achieving their highest


potentials. The researcher strongly suggests teaching and learning strategy
based on Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983) to be
absorbed in the field of education. The theory proposed eight different types of
intelligences with their own identifiable characterictics to distinguish certain skill
sets and behaviours from one another. Gardner (1993) is considering a new
intelligence relates to an existential intelligence. The basic step to view the
students potentials and challengers is measuring their multiple intelligences
using an instrument. Through the awareness of the students’ potentials and

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challengers as well as their specific profiles of intelligence, educators can then


work to tailor their teaching styles to best meet the specific needs of the
individual student. Differentiation is one way to ensure students’ achievement at
the highest potential. One uniform method of teaching students does nothing but
to limit their potentials. Lastly, it is hoped that with a smart way nurturing
students, there will be no “hopeless students” but rather that each child
interpretes the world and learns in a unique way as no scientist of yet has ever
found a limit to human potential.

REFERENCES
nd
[1] Amstrong, Thomas. 2000. Multiple intelligences in the classroom. 2 ed.
USA: ASCD Publications.

[2] Bond, T.G. & Fox, C.M. 2001. Applying the Rasch Model : Fundamental
measurement in the human sciences. London: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates Publishers.

[3] Gardner, Howard. 1983. Frames of mind : A theory of multiple


intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

[4] Gardner, Howard. 1993. Multiple intelligences : The theory in practice.


New York: Basic Books.

[5] Fox, C.M. & Jones, J.A. 1998. Uses of Rasch Modelling in counseling
psychology research. Journal of counselling psychology, 45(1), 30-45.

[6] Hanizah Hamzah. 2006. Kebezaan kefungsian item berkaitan gender


dalam item peperiksaan kebangsaan : Kewujudan dan perkaitan dengan
jenis item. Tesis Dr. falsafah, Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia.

[7] Lazear, David. 2004. Multiple intelligence approaches to assessment:


Solving the assessment conundrum. UK: Crown House Publishing
Limited.

[8] Linacre, J.M.. 2006. A User’s Guide to Winsteps. Chicago.

[9] Noraini Md. Yunos. 2006. Mengenalpasti kebezaan kefungsian item


dalam MAMIT menggunakan Model Rasch. Tesis Sarjana, Fakulti
Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

[10] Pallant, Julie. 2001. SPSS survival manual. Open University Press.

[11] Siti Fazriyah Raja Mohamed. 2005. Pengesanan perbezaan kefungsian


item dalam Ujian Kecerdasan Pelbagai Remaja Malaysia menggunakan
Model Rasch. Laporan Kertas Projek Sarjana, Fakulti Pendidikan,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

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[12] Wright, B.D., & Masters, G.N. 1982. Rating scale analysis. Chicago:
MESA Press. Wright, B.D., & Stone, M.H. 1979. Best test design.
Chicago: MESA Press.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF LAW IN SPORTS AND


PHYSICAL EDUCATION FROM A PEDAGOGIC PERSPECTIVE

ABSTRACT - Legal education in Malaysia has


ZAIDI HASSIM undergone a dramatic transformation with many
new additions to the traditional array of courses
Fakulti Undang-undang offered, for example Computer law, Space law
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
and Sports law. Many legal educators do not
regard sports law in Malaysia seriously but this
subject has proliferated throughout the United
States, United Kingdom and Australia.

Sports law has evolved as a popular elective


course in American and Canadian law schools
and legal scholars have produced numerous
books, treatises and articles exploring a wide
variety of legal issues generated in the context of
sports activities. This article will not only to
discuss the importance of introducing this course
but also to reflect some pedagogic trends of
teaching law in sports and physical exercise. It
reflects some pedagogic trends (PBL, Holistic
Approach etc) of teaching law for both educators
and instructors in other institutions for example,
Sports Academy in UPM, Sports Science and
Sports Education programme in UM, UiTM, UTM
and UPSI.

It is expected that this article will be a basic


reference for legal educators, teachers,
professional instructors and sports enthusiasts to
understand and apply legal concepts and legal
terms associated with sports and physical
education

“Law is not something immutable written on


tablets of stone but that law is to serve man, not
that man should serve the law, though of course
he should obey it. Law is a living thing that should
be kept under constant review, that it should be
brought up to date from time to time so that it will
always remain suitable for contemporary needs,
so that it can be used as an instrument for
satisfying the hopes and aspirations of the
people. Antiquated law must be constantly review
updated and improved for economic, social and
political advancement and create and increase

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his opportunities for prosperity and happiness”.

Tun Abdul Razak


Malaysian Law Conference, 1973

© Universiti Putra Malaysia


2007. Semua Hak Cipta
Terpelihara. Prosiding
Persidangan Pengajaran dan
Pembelajaran di Peringkat
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi
(CTLHE07), The Palace of
Golden Horses, Seri
Kembangan, Selangor
12-14 Disember 2007

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Malaysian National Education Philosophy (NEP) states that, education is


an on going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a
holistic and integrated manner so as to produce individuals who are intellectually,
spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious. Sport serves to
promote not only to a healthy competition, goodwill, tolerance, understanding and
the development of physical and moral quantities, but also provides a conductive
platform for integrating the various races in Malaysia. Thus, it deserves the same
recognition to enable the Government to achieve national development, unity and
continued stability.

The Ministry of Education via National Sports Policy 1988 provides


adequate time for sports and physical education (mass sports and high
performance sports) as well as develop and coordinate sports activities in
schools including the development of the leadership qualities in sports and
physical education with the cooperation and assistance of the Ministry of Youth
and Sports (KBS), the National Sports Council (NSC) and the national sports
association. In addition, the Education Ministry should also responsible to train
teachers with ability to teach sports and physical education.

More than that, the Ministry of Education should actively promote sport at
the various colleges and polytechnics while the Malaysian Universities Sports
Council (MASUM) will promote such activities at the institutions of higher earning.
Some schools (i.e. Bukit Jalil Sports School) will be designated as centers of
excellence for the promotion of certain sports and the National Sports Institute
should undertake research on sports sciences and train sportspersons, coaches,
sports administrators and other related sports personnel.

Acknowledging the critical importance of children and youth


development, KBS also coordinates the national youth policy to increase their

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participation in sports and cultural activities and has developed their leadership
qualities via program such as Rakan Sukan and Rakan Wajadiri. Thus, sport in
Malaysia through the implementation of National Sports Policy, National
Education Philosophy and National Youth Development Policy is more than
educational institutions.

2.0 SPORTS, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THE LAW: AN OVERVIEW

2.1 Sports and Physical Education

Sports and physical education uses physical activity to produce


holistic improvements in a person’s physical, mental and emotion
qualities. It treats each person as a unity, a whole being, rather than as
having separate physical and mental qualities that bear no relation to
.[1]
and have no effect on each other

Jesse Feiring Williams defines Physical Education as ‘the sum of


man’s physical activities selected as to kind, and conducted as to
outcomes. Its goal is not entirely physical but to influence all areas of
educational development, including the mental and social growth of the
[2]
students and athletes James A. Baley and David A. Field describe
Physical Education as ‘a process through which favourable adaptations
and learning – organic, neuromuscular, intellectual, social, cultural,
emotion and esthetic – result from and proceed through selected and
[3]
fairly vigorous physical activities

A sport is defined as all activities incorporating standard rules


and regulations, official regulatory bodies, learning of skills, strategies
[4]
and tactics, physical exertion and competition.

Sports may also be defined as an organised play with a distinct


i
code of ethics, rules and regulations. Its spectrum ranges from simple
friendly events to highly competitive and organised championships. The
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines sports as follows: (i)
physical activity for exercise or amusement, usually played in a special
area and according to fixed rules; (ii) meeting for athletic competitions
for example sports day; and (iii) particular game or pastime examples are
[6]
hockey, football and tennis.
Coakley comments sports as ‘an institutionalised competitive
activity that involves vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively
complex physical skills by individuals whose participation is motivated by
[7]
a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors . Sir Ludwig Guttman
states sports as ‘any physical activity, which has the character of play
and involves a struggle with oneself or others, or a confrontation with
natural elements. If this activity involves competition it must be
[80]
performed with a spirit of sportsmanship
The European Sports Charter defines sports as a term that
includes ‘all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised
participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mutual

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well being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition


[9].
at all levels

Legally, the definition of sports as provided in Section 2 of the


Sports Development Act 1997 which simply interpret sports as ‘any of
the activities listed in the First Schedule’ is not precise and needs more
physical and character interpretations to illustrate the importance of
sports as character-building.

However, the rise of sports science as one of the discipline in


sports and physical education show that sport holds a prominent place in
modern life where millions of people participate in sporting activities,
watch and read about them. The impact of sport makes it clear that sport
is a very legitimate field of academic study that has slowly crept into the
academic mainstream. In U.K. and U.S., several new titles and names
suggested for academic sports and physical education where higher
institutions and colleges wanted a more contemporary names for sports.
Among them are Movement Arts and Science, Kinesiology, Human
Physical Science, Physical Fitness, Athletics and Sports Science.

2.2 Law and Legal System

Law is an English term, which refers to a certain collection of


institutions and practices. It may be used in many different sense, and in
the context of its relationship to society, law denotes a set of defined
[10].
principles that govern and regulate human behavior

Precisely, law means a rule of action to which men are obliged to


make their conduct conformable; a command; enforced by some
sanction, to acts or forbearance of a class. And in the Malaysian context,
law may be referred as body of rules that is legally binding and
enforceable in the courts as found in the Acts of parliament, delegated
legislation and judicial precedents (case law).

A legal system is the framework of rules and institutions within a


nation and regulating the individual’s relations with others and between
them and the government. Examples of institutions are parliament,
courts, prisons and people generally involved in the law, notably,
lawyers, judges, magistrates and police.

Basically, there are two sources of Malaysian law, written and


unwritten law. Malaysian written law consists of legislation enacted by
the Parliament and the State Assemblies under powers conferred on
them by the respective constitutions; and subsidiary or delegated
legislation made by persons or bodies under powers conferred on them
[11].
by Acts of Parliament or Enactments of State Assemblies Laws made
by the Federal Parliament are referred to as Acts while those made by
[12].
the state Legislative Assemblies are referred to an Enactment

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The unwritten law of Malaysia comprises of judicial decisions of


the Superior Courts, namely the High Courts, the Court of Appeal and
the Federal Court. The common law and the rules of equity based on
English law principles also applicable as provided in section 3(1) of the
ii
Civil Law Act 1956. The doctrine of judicial precedent (case law or judge
made law) is documented and reported in various series of law reports
(Malayan Law Journal or Current Law Journal).

Islamic law is also one of the importance sources of Malaysian


law but it is only applicable to Muslims, which is administered by a
separate system of Syariah court. In addition, custom of the local
inhabitants, which has been accepted by the court, also could be
referred as a valid law. Judicial precedents of Commonwealth countries
are not binding on Malaysian courts but in cases where the law is pari
iii
materia, they will be given the greatest respect.

2.3 Sources of Law in Sports Context

In the context of sports, it involved not only the intervention of


local law but as well as international public law. It depends on the
popularity of the sports itself (such as football) and jurisdictional
boundaries. There are basically 6 levels of law that could regulate the
activities of sports in Malaysian.

1. Games Rules and Regulation or Rules of Play that regulate the


sports persons in that particular game;

2. Disciplinary Sanctions for referees and umpires to control and


sanction the indiscipline sports person for example, the given of
red card which result to the expulsion of the sports person in that
particular game;

3. Administrative law, as stated in the National Sports Body’s


Constitutional law and bye laws for fair and sensible control. It is
also supported by section 23 of Sports Development Act 1997
which gives discretionary power to the National Sports Bodies to
decide upon their own internal procedure for any disputes and
conflicts.

4. National governing laws, for example, Malaysian Contract Act


1950, Employment Act 1955, Copyright Act 1987. The laws were
enacted by the legislative body at the federal level and gazetted
by the Yang DiPertuan Agong. The national law will override
control for justice and fair play at all the above three levels.

5. International governing Body, for example: FIFA who controls


the international regulation for football.

6. English Common Law and Overseas National Laws: Section 3


and 5 of the Civil Law Act 1956 which was revised in 1972, are

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directly relevant to the reception of English law in Malaysia.


Section 3 deals with ‘general reception’ of English Common Law
th
and the rules of Equity as administered in England up to 7 April,
1956.

2.4 The Role of Law in Sport and Physical Education

Teaching sports and physical education is a risk profession. It


provides one of the few environments in which people can experience
[15]
risks in a control setting . Activities such as swimming and gymnastic
involve a high level of cognitive understanding of how one’s body will
react under certain environments. Physical skill capacity among the
sportspersons is variety and some sports may inherently dangerous for
overweight, poorly coordinated or ill-conditioned sportspersons. Thus,
professionals who engaged in the administration, supervision and
teaching of physical activity become more concern about the possibility
of being named as a defendant in the law suit. And they should prepare
themselves with information and safety planning to decrease the
possibility of negligence and injury.

Therefore, teachers and instructors especially at the school level


need to study some basic knowledge of law and able to examine the
situations in which the litigation might be anticipated. They are not
expected to become advocate and solicitor but at least they should be
able to explain their role and learn to design proper risk management
modules that will prevent injuries while supervising and teaching sports
and physical education.

Since the sports industry in Malaysia now is the big industry that
involve many sports sponsorships, franchising and international
organizing-events and sports marketing issues (patent / trade mark and
broadcasting), government takes the initiative to establish many sports-
related institutions for example National Sports Council of Malaysia
(NSC) to produce more professionals and educators in this field. Many
universities (UPM, UM, UiTM and UPSI) also take the same initiative to
introduce and offer sports-related syllabus to their students in Sports
Studies and Sports Science in variety of level namely certificate, diploma
and degrees. This subject was taught due to high demand by the
students and coaches who are interested in this field. Not only that,
many universities around the globe already offered the course.

Thus, in the higher level of learning law within the context of


sports and physical education, educators (lecturers) must understand
more juridification of sports. Juridification at a simple level merely
reproduces the traditional idea of private and public realism, with private
areas increasingly being subject to public or judicial control, a move from
[16].
voluntarism to legalism Hunt said that ‘the model of law as regulation
can be seen as a shift towards public law that focuses on the varied
means whereby extensive fields of social life are made subject to
[17]
regulatory intervention . For example, the commercialization of sport

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presents a palpable need for legal regulation. Many problems such as


drug use and sports violence are presented as ‘moral panic’ in need of
legal regulation.

There is vast variety of legal issues in sports. It does not only


concern the principle of tort (negligence) and contract but all sports
administration related issues such as product liability, stadium facilities,
risk management and sports equipment. In addition, legal aspects of
fundamental liberties (constitutional rights and litigation processes), drug
doping, sex discrimination and even spectators safety must also be
covered. More advanced sports-related issues such as patent,
trademark, sports broadcasting and sports marketing are also attractive
and interesting. Anyhow, it is all depends on how the teaching is carried
out by the educators.

3. 0 APPROCHES TO LEGAL TEACHING IN SPORTING CONTEXT.

Law teaching is conducted in a variety of ways. Lecturers may have their


own ideas about what constitutes a proper learning environment; some are
committed to student-directed learning and the integration of skills, other believes
that the more hours spent in the classroom the better will be the students results,
while yet others believe that a well produced set of learning materials with
minimum academician-student contact should be sufficient to ensure student
[18].
success

Teaching sports and physical education need both linguistic and physical
expression. And the students must successfully attain the learning objectives.
According to Benjamin Bloom, there are six hierarchical levels of learning
objectives that has been identified namely knowledge; comprehension;
[19].
application; analysis; synthesis and evaluation In teaching law in sports and
physical education, this cognitive learning as supported by Petter could be
summarized as ‘…it is necessary that they teach students (1) to know the law; (2)
to comprehend it; (3) to apply it to particular fact situations; (4) to break it down
into its components parts; (5) to reorganise it and apply it creatively to serve
clients’ interests; and (6) to evaluate the strength of its authority and its probable
[20]
impact upon clients

In teaching law in sports and physical education, educators and


instructors have to rethink the epistemological basis of their teaching, and to view
it as a reflexive and context-related activity. Although in skills-based legal
education theories, there are two dominant paradigms choice (outcomes
[21] [22]),
approach and capability approach but students in this sports science and
sports education programme are not expected to practice for litigation and
conveyancing.

Since sports law aims to protect all related sports-legal issues, the
educator do not aim students gain rote knowledge of many detailed legal rules
but rather, aims are concerned with the acquisition of legal principles, together
with the ability to apply those principles to sports-related problems and thereby
solve them. According to Grodecki, ‘legal education has always aimed at

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education rather than the simple imparting of information. It is less concerned


with rules and techniques than it is with the principles and ideas which underlie
them…it is less concerned with verbal precepts than with the legal concepts of
[23].
which they are a reflection

3.4 Holistic Approach

One of the approaches that may be used by the educators and


instructors in teaching law in sports and physical education is by socio-
practical approach. Law by its definition is not natural constructs, but a
[24]
product of a particular way of seeing the world and interacting with it.
Thus, students will be able to compare and analyse different
interpretations of legal rules and start to develop different phenomenon
understanding. Sports and physical education is one of the world
phenomena, based on social and culture of the people in this world.

In addition, this approach stresses reflective relationship


between theory and practice. Law is actually transformed by its
application to a particular situation in the context of legal issues.
Epistemologically, it builds on the assumption that legal education
constitutes a socio-practical field and allies law more with areas of study
such as medicine, philosophy and social activity (sports and physical
education).

Holistic approach stresses the practical use of legal


[25]
knowledge. It is also liberating, in the sense that it creates a capacity
for action. It is not enough to be able to think but one must be able to do.
Teaching someone to think does not of itself enable them to act. Sports
and physical education needs practical approach where the educators
and instructors must solve real human problems based on their
experience and life. Thus, a holistic approach sees learning as a
person’s lifelong process, which integrates prepositional, practical and
personal knowledge.

3.5 Experiential Learning Theory

According to Kolb, Experiential learning ‘offers the foundation for


an approach to education and learning as a lifelong process that is
soundly based in intellectual traditions of social psychology, philosophy,
and cognitive psychology. The theory pursues a framework for
examining and strengthening the critical linkages among education, work
[26]
and personal development’. Sports persons understand themselves
better as learners whose integrate their knowledge, skills, attitudes and
values. Thus according to Kolb, this learning process involves the whole
[27]
being by integrating thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving. While
teaching law in sports context, students have to be able to involves
themselves fully, reflect on and observe their sports experience from
legal perspective, create legal concepts that integrate their observations
into legal-rational theories, and use these theories to make decisions and

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solve problems.

Cowan, in his presentation, suggests four level of this theory.


First, students’ needs should be identified by reviewing their own prior
experiential learning. Second, after the learner has been offered the
opportunity to explore new concepts or experiences in further
experimental learning, he should be encouraged to reflect on that
experience, analyse it and generalise from it to formulate a sharper
definition of what has been learnt and what remains to be learned. Third
level is to consolidate and refine in order to prepare for the last level of
[28]
applying what you had learnt.

3.6 Problem Based Learning (PBL)


PBL is a learning driven by a problem as opposed to a teacher-
centered approach. PBL is defines as ‘encompassing characteristics like
student-centeredness, small group based collaborative learning and
[29]
interdisciplinary’.

PBL is a rapidly spreading learning strategy used internationally


in many social legal areas, management, medicine and even sports and
agriculture. It is a learning method more than a teaching method. It is
observed that the nurturing nature of PBL is to promote teamwork,
mentorship, critical thinking and reflection, which transcend cultural
differences and nationalities.

In PBL, the student is presented with a problem situation before


any subject-matter knowledge is acquired. He will form a small group,
analyse the problem, and identify resources for learning how to solve it.
The problem is presented to the student as a simulated client. Through a
real interview and investigation of facts, guided by an educator
[30]
(facilitator), the students meet the problem as in reality.

Three key principles, which form the foundation of PBL, are:


encouraging learning through building on prior knowledge; solving
authentic problems; and learning through reflection. In implementing PBL
in sports and law context, the problem related to athletes, and sports
administrators must be arose first which reflects a real-world situations
affecting their rights. It is also asserted that good problems are important
as the ‘pique students’ curiosity, require analysis and encourage
learning’. Since the problems analysed affecting their professional career
as sports persons, it then will motivate them to find out what they need to
know the problems presented.

In ensuring the success of the PBL implementation for teaching


law in sports, the students’ acceptance, commitment and readiness are
significant. However, the facilitator (educators and instructors) also plays
a critical role in providing good support infrastructure in order to enhance
the quality of learning in students. He must guide students in non-
directive ways, using questions at a metacognitive level, and help
students reduce their anxiety by developing their cognitive reasoning

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skills so that they can ease gradually into self-directed and independent
learning.

In terms of benefit, mature students or professional


sportspersons will take this approach better as they can relate it to their
prior experience as compared to young athletes. Thus, facilitators in
sports law may only pose a relevant question and communicating in a
language and terms use by sports students.

4.0 CONCLUSION FUTURE DIRECTION AND

Traditional legal education pedagogy through ordinary lecture-dictation


or tutorial format in teaching sports and physical education will undertake sports
programme students a limited range of activity only. A new learning approach
especially in enhancing their development in legal-skills based learning must be
adopted by any non-legal institutions, which offers this sports laws subject. It is
timely to change the sports-legal and practical pedagogy and not only to develop
skills sports courses at the lowest cognitive levels which offers sports students
with little of real legal intellect worth.

The sports related legal issues especially in the area of risk


management, sports insurance, sports patent and copyright, sponsorship and
broadcasting, contract employment and even criminal sports violence which
needs legal intervention must use more practical legal approaches involving
court litigation and contract-negotiation drafting. Thus, students must have clear
vision on how the judicial process takes place and the law applies in this country.

Bourdieu et al argued that, “…when we try to make teaching


more effective by clarifying its goals and the conditions needed
to improve its efficiency, we clash with the pedagogical
philosophy of academics, whose disdain for the ‘elementary’
nature of a reflexive pedagogy reflects the superior level of the
education system which they occupy. Their rejection of an
explicit teaching practice follows from a perception of the
student favoured by the professional craft, one which is armed
with all the certitudes and all the blindness of cultural
ethnocentrism. Defined by their lesser knowledge, students can
do nothing which does not confirm the most pessimistic image
that the professor, in his most professional capacity, is willing to
confess to: they understand nothing; and they reduce the most
brilliant theories to logical monstrosities or picturesque oddities,
as if their only role in life was to illustrate the vanity of the efforts
which the professor squanders on them and which he will
continue to squander, despite everything, out of professional
conscience, with a disabused lucidity which only redoubles his
[31]
merit”.

And according to Julian Webb, if we are to live with a system of mass


[32]
higher education, we need to adjust our pedagogy. Teaching law in sports and
physical education will also needs new paradigm to prepare the sports students

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from any possible litigation and sports liability.

REFERENCES
th
[1] William, H. F., Physical Education and Sport in a Changing Society, 4
Ed., New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992, p. 1.
th
[2] William, J.F., The Principles of Physical Education, 8 Ed., Philadelphia:
Saunders, 1964, p. 4.

[3] Baley, J.A. and Field, D.A., Physical Education and the Physical
nd
Educator, 2 Ed., Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1976, p. 4.

[4] Kwame A.B., Issues in Sport, Kuala Lumpur: Bina Minda Resources,
2002, p. 33.

[5] Teoh, T.L., A Conceptual Approach Towards a Policy of Sports for All,
presented at the Asean Universities Sports Seminar, 8-9 Nov 1984,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor.

[6] Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1996,


p.1237.

[7] Coakley, J.J., Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies, St. Louis:
Times Minor, 1986, p. 37.

[8] Guttman, L., Textbook of Sport for the Disabled, in Grayson E. Sports
nd
and the Law, 2 Ed. Butterworth & Co., 1994, p. xlviii.

[9] See European Sports Charter.

[10] Anwarul Yaqin, Law and Society in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur:


International Law Book Services, 1997, p. 1.
nd
[11] Wu Min Aun, The Malaysian Legal System, 2 Ed., Selangor: Pearson
Education Malaysia Sdn Bhd, 1999, p. 90.
[12] Ibid., pp. 93 – 94.

[13] See: Re Yap Kwan Seng’s Will (1924) 4 FMSLR 313; and Yong Joo
Lin v Fung Poi Fong (1941) MLJ 63.

[14] For example, Malaysia has enacted statutes modelled on those of


Commonwealth Countries in addition to England, the Penal Code and
Contracts Act are based on those of India, and the national Land Code is
based on the land law of South Australia. See: Director-General of
Inland Revenue v Kulim Rubber Plantations Ltd [1981] 1 MLJ 216.

[15] Clement, A., Law in Sport and Physical Activity, United States:
Benchmark Press, Inc. p. 4.

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[16] Foster, K., Development in Sporting Law, in Allison, L. (ed), The


Changing Politics of Sport, Manchester: Manchester UP, 1993, p. 108.

[17] Hunt, A., Law as a Constitutive mode of Regulation, in Explorations in


Law and Society: Towards a Constitutive Theory of Law, London:
Routledge, 1993, p. 307.

[20] Diana, T., How Students Learn, Julian, W and Caroline, M. (ed.),
Teaching Lawyers’ Skills, Butterworth, pp. 5 - 6.

[21] Read: Bloom, B. S., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive


Domain, Longmans, New York, 1956.

[22] n. 20. Diana, T., p. 11.

[23] This approach tends to be an assessment (through paralegal training)


whether he or she able to perform his or her job competently. This
approach enables students to focus on the product of learning, what
students should know and be able to do their job.

[24] Problem-solving methodology is where students are confident in their


ability to take effective and appropriate action even within unfamiliar and
changing circumstances.

[25] Grodecki, J., Legal Education: Dillemmas and Opportunities, Leicester


University Press, Leicester, 1977, in Julian, W. and Caroline, M. (eds.),
Teaching Lawyers’ skills, London: Butterworths, 1990, p. 353
[26] Julian, W., Why Theory Matters, in Julian, W. and Caroline, M. (eds.),
Teaching Lawyers’ skills, p. 39.

[27] Ibid., p. 40.

[28] D.A.Kolb., Experimental Learning: Experience as the Sources of learning


and Development, Prentice hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984, pp. 3-4.

[29] Ibid., p. 31.

[30] See: Cowan, J., A Model of Experiential Learning and its Facilitation’
Learning for Action, Standing Conference on Education Development,
Occasional Paper no. 51, c.f. Julian, W. and Caroline, M. (eds.),
Teaching Lawyers’ skills, p. 16.

[31] See: Tan Siok San, Introducing PBL in an Institute of Higher Learning:
th
Role of the Facilitator, 5 Asia-Pasific Conference on PBL, Singgahsana
Hotel, Petaling Jaya, 16-17 March, 2004.

[32] David, A. Cruickshank, Problem-based learning in Legal Education, in


Julian, W. Teaching Lawyers’ skills, p. 191.

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[33] Bourdieu, P., Passerson J.C., and Saint Martin, M, Academic Discourse:
Linguitic Misunderstanding and Professional Power (trans Teese, R.,
Polity Press, Cambridge, 1994, pp. 6 – 7, c.f. Julian, W., Teaching
Lawyers’ skills, p.30.

[34] Ibid.

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TEMA-TEMA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BERSEPADU: IMPILKASI KEPADA


PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN

ABSTRAK - Mod pembelajaran yang


SIEW ENG LING terkini dalam abad ke-21 merupakan mod
Fakulti Teknologi Maklumat dan Sains pembelajaran bersepadu. Mod ini
Kuantitatif, UiTM Kampus Sarawak, merupakan kombinasi terbaik daripada
lingse@sarawak.uitm.edu.my mod pembelajaran bilik darjah bersemuka
tradisional dan pembelajaran dalam
talian. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk
SITI RAHAYAH BT. ARIFFIN mendapatkan tema-tema dibawah mod
SAEMAH BINTI RAHMAN pembelajaran bersepadu di Malaysia.
Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti
Kertas ini membincangkan hasil kualitatif
Kebangsaan Malaysia
temu bual pengguna akhir dalam mod
sitira@pkrisc.cc.ukm.my pembelajaran bersepadu serta implikasi
saemah@pkrisc.cc.ukm.my tema-tema ini kepada pengajaran dan
pembelajaran. 53 orang peserta temu
bual yang terdiri daripada pelajar-pelajar
universiti yang mendaftar kursus
pembelajaran bersepadu serta fasilitator-
fasilitator yang terlibat dalam bimbingan
mod pembelajaran bersepadu terlibat
dalam kajian ini. Senarai mengenai
pembelajaran bersepadu hasil daripada
data kualitatif dikategorikan ke dalam
tema-tema umum. Tema-tema hasil
kajian ini adalah kandungan kursus,
teknikal, kefleksibelan, komuniti
pembelajaran, motivasi, perkongsian,
maklum balas, pelengkap dan agenda
peribadi. Implikasi kajian ini ialah para
pendidik boleh menggunakan tema-tema
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. ini dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran,
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. rekaan kurikulum pembelajaran
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran dan bersepadu serta menggunakan tema-tema
Pembelajaran di Peringkat Institusi
ini untuk membangunkan instrumen bagi
Pengajian Tinggi (CTLHE07),
The Palace of Golden Horses, mengukur tema-tema ini.
Seri Kembangan, Selangor Kata kunci utama: pembelajaran
12-14 Disember 2007
bersepadu, tema-tema, pengajaran dan
pembelajaran

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1.0 PENGENALAN
Era bimbingan instruktor (Instructor-led Era) telah bermula sejak 3000
tahun dahulu di mana pengajaran bersemuka tradisional merupakan cara
[1]
pemindahan ilmu yang utama dan ia masih merupakan kaedah pengajaran
[2].
yang dominan pada hari ini Penggunaan teknologi dalam pendidikan pula
bermula dengan perkembangan teknologi pada tahun 1960an dengan
perkembangan komputer mini dan kerangka utama. Kerangka utama yang
menyediakan pelantar yang pertama untuk pembelajaran mengunjurkan model
[1]
bimbingan instruktor dari segi masa dan ruang . Selain daripada itu, pelajar-
[1, 3].
pelajar dapat belajar mengikut kemampuan dan kadar yang tersendiri
Evolusi teknologi dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran melangkah lagi
[1]
dalam 70-an apabila penggunaan rangkaian video telah diperkenalkan . Era
Video Siaran Langsung ini dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan satelit di mana
pelajar-pelajar dalam lokasi berbeza berada dalam bilik darjah atau bilik kuliah
masing-masing menonton instruktor mengajar melalui televisyen. Menjejak tahun
80-an, teknologi melangkah lagi ke era yang baru apabila lahirnya komputer
peribadi (PC) yang pertama.
Dalam tahun 90-an, halaman web merupakan perkembangan terbaru
dan terpenting dalam teknologi. Kemaraan ini memandu Era Multimedia ke arah
Era Permulaan Web (Web Infancy Era). Dengan terlahirnya teknologi Internet,
pembelajaran elektronik (e-pembelajaran) menjadi gembar-gembur yang terbaru
[4]
dalam era itu . Keadaan ini mencetuskan gelombang yang pertama dalam e-
pembelajaran yang memfokus kepada kuantiti kursus yang ditawarkan [4].
Program-program dalam e-pembelajaran generasi pertama dipenuhi dengan
pelarik halaman isi kandungan dengan urutan yang panjang serta kuiz-kuiz yang
[5] [5]
menggunakan perkakas ‘tunjuk dan klik’ . Menurut Singh , ini hanya
merupakan penyusunan semula versi kursus-kursus berasaskan bilik darjah
dalam talian sahaja.
Daripada pengalaman yang didapati dalam e-pembelajaran generasi
pertama, para pendidik sedar bahawa satu mod penyampaian instruktur tidak
dapat memberi pertunjukkan, menyediakan pilihan, hubungan sosial, urusan,
kaitan dan konteks yang diperlukan untuk memudahkan kejayaan dalam
[5]
pembelajaran .
Orang ramai mula ragu tentang e-pembelajaran dan ini mencetuskan
gelombang e-pembelajaran yang kedua yang menolong kita mengimbangkan
semula pembelajaran dan menyedarkan kita bahawa e-pembelajaran sahaja
[4].
adalah tidak mencukupi Dalam gelombang e-pembelajaran yang kedua, lebih
ramai pereka pembelajaran mempunyai pengalaman dalam model pembelajaran
[5]
bersepadu yang merupakan kombinasi pelbagai mod penyampaian .
Institusi-institusi pengajian tinggi, universiti-universiti serta kolej-kolej
yang tradisional lambat menyedari keupayaan impak teknologi ke atas
[6]
pengajaran dan pembelajaran . Apabila kita melangkah ke millinium baru, para
pendidik sedang menghadapi cabaran yang berlainan dengan cabaran lepas.
“World Wide Web (WWW)” menukar cara kita mengajar untuk selama-lamanya
[3].
dalam semua tingkat pendidikan Kini, banyak antara instutusi-institusi
sedang berusaha untuk membangun dan menyampaikan kursus-kursus
[6].
berasaskan web

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Beberapa institusi pengajian tinggi di Malaysia sudah menawarkan


kursus dalam mod pembelajara bersepadu seperti Universiti Tunku Abdul
Rahman, Universiti Terbuka Malaysia dan Universiti Multimedia Malaysia.
Universiti-universiti awam tempatan pula mengadapatasikan teknologi
terutamanya penggunaan dalam talian dalam proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran.
Ramai penyelidik berpendapat kaedah pembelajaran bersepadu
diperkenalkan untuk mengekalkan kelebihan kedua-dua pembelajaran tradisional
[7-11].
dan pembelajaran dalam talian Dengan kelebihan mod pembelajaran
bersepadu yang dilaporkan, adakah Malaysia telah mula dengan revolusi ini?

2.0 PEMBELAJARAN BERSEPADU


Pelbagai definisi pembelajaran bersepadu terdapat dalam literatur.
[12]
Menurut, tidak terdapat konsistensi dalam mendefinisikan pembelajaran
bersepadu. Menurut beliau juga, pembelajaran bersepadu membawa maksud
yang berbeza untuk individu yang berbeza.
[13]
Menurut , kebanyakan definisi merupakan variasi bagi beberapa tema
umum dan beliau mengkategorikan definisi-definisi pembelajaran bersepadu ke
[2,5,14-16]
dalam tiga tema iaitu kombinasi media-media pengajaran kombinasi
[12, 17,18]
kaedah-kaedah pengajaran an kombinasi pembelajaran dalam talian dan
[11,19-23].
pembelajaran bersemuka
[24]
Grahamet al. memberi komen bahawa pembelajaran bersepadu
didefinisikan dengan terlalu meluas dalam dua tema yang pertama sehingga ia
merangkumi hampir kesemua sistem pembelajaran. Penyelidik-penyelidik ini
turut memberi komen bahawa definisi dalam dua tema pertama tidak dapat
membezakan konsep pembelajaran bersepadu dengan kombinasi pembelajaran
yang lain. Mereka mencadangkan tema ketiga kerana ia adalah lebih tepat
menggambarkan sejarah perkembangan bagi sistem-sistem pembelajaran
bersepadu. Kajian ini juga mendefinisikan pembelajaran bersepadu sebagai
pembelajaran yang mengkombinasikan mod pembelajaran bersemuka
tradisional dan pembelajaran dalam talian.
Literatur telah menunjukkan sebab-sebab untuk memilih pembelajaran
bersepadu di mana ia dikategorikan ke dalam kategori-kategori yang berikut :
[10,24]
i) Penambahbaikan pedagogi . Pembelajaran bersepadu
dikatakan boleh memberi pilihan pedagogi tambahan kepada
guru untuk membantu pelajar-pelajar menguasai kandungan
[24]
pelajaran dengan lebih berkesan. telah merumuskan faedah-
faedah pedagogi dalam persekitaran pembelajaran bersepadu
iaitu peningkatan dalam penggunan strategi pembelajaran aktif
[19,25,26]
perubahan dari pembelajaran yang lebih berpusatkan
[9, 27]
guru kepada pembelajaran yang berpusatkan pelajar , lebih
penekanan ke atas pembelajaran rakan sebaya Collis [26],
perubahan dari segi fakulti memperuntukkan masa,
membenarkan peningkatan bimbingan untuk pelajar secara
[28,29]
individu kemungkinan untuk berinteraksi dan berbincang

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dengan pakar-pakar kawalan jauh atau tinjauan projek-projek


[30].
oleh rakan-rakan kawalan jauh
ii) Peningkatan kefleksibelan. Dalam pembelajaran bersepadu,
pelajar-pelajar mempunyai lebih kemudahan dan kefleksibelan
[13]
mencapai bahan-bahan pembelajaran . Dalam pembelajaran
bersemuka tradisional, kekangan masa dan lokasi menyebabkan
[24]
pembelajaran tidak dapat dicapai secara pratikal .
Kebanyakan pelajar pula inginkan kemudahan dalam talian
tetapi tidak sudi mengorbankan interaksi sosial dan faktor
manusia seperti yang terdapat dalam persekitaran pembelajaran
[13]
bersemuka tradisional . Dalam pembelajaran bersepadu,
keadaan ini dapat diseimbangkan dengan meningkatkan
kemudahan dan pada masa yang sama, hubungan antara
[9,26]
manusia dapat dikekalkan dalam pertemuan bersemuka .
iii) Interaksi sosial / komuniti. Interaksi sosial memainkan peranan
yang penting dalam pembelajaran bersepadu. Persekitaran
pembelajaran bersepadu dilihat sebagai satu langkah untuk
mengimbangkan pembelajaran yang berdikari dalam
pembelajaran dalam talian dengan interaksi manusia yang
terdapat dalam pembelajaran bersemuka tradisional (Morgan,
Hartman, Dziuban & Moskal).
iv) Agensi Peribadi. Kajian paling awal dalam bidang rekaan
pengajaran melaporkan bahawa ahli-ahli teori telah
mengemukaan kepentingan ‘kawalan pelajar’ iaitu pelajar boleh
mengarahkan pembelajaran sendiri selain daripada menurut
arahan guru atau pereka. (Pask, 1969, cited in Osguthorpe et
al., 2003). Menurut Osguthorpe et al. (2003), pembelajaran
bersepadu boleh meningkatkan julat pilihan pelajar dan dengan
ini, pelajar diberi peluang untuk mengamalkan agensi peribadi
mereka.
v) Keberkesanan Kos. Penjimatan kos merupakan salah satu
matlamat institusi-institusi pengajian tinggi dan syarikat korporat
(Graham, 2004). Pembelajaran bersepadu membuka peluang
untuk menyampaian pembelajaran kepada pelajar dengan lebih
ramai dan berselerak secara global dalam masa yang singkat
dengan cara penyampaian yang konsisten (Graham, 2004).
Dengan ini, kos dapat dikurangkan.
vi) Mudah membuat penyemakan. Osguthorpe et al. (2003)
melaporkan, kebanyakan daripada persekitaran pembelajaran
bersepadu dibangunkan oleh guru atau instruktor kursus. Oleh
itu resos-resos kursus dalam talian secara relatif adalah ringkas,
senang diubah dan tidak memerlukan kemahiran penghasilan
audio dan video yang khas, grafik serta program-program yang
rumit. Keadaan ini berbeza dengan kursus dalam talian
sepenuhnya yang kompleks dan memerlukan bantuan pakar
dalam penyemakan rekaan dan teknologi. Instruktor dalam
pembelajaran bersepadu yang mengendalikan sesuatu kursus
boleh menukarkan apa sahaja yang diperlukan pada bila-bila

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masa walaupun kelas sedang berlangsung. Misalnya menjawab


soalan-soalan yang dikemukakan oleh pelajar-pelajar dalam
talian dan memberi komen-komen dalam talian. Kemudahan
penyemakan sistem pembelajaran bersepadu mempunyai
potensi untuk mewujudkan atmosfera pembelajaran yang
fleksibel, responsif dan spontan.
Adakah kategori-kategori dalam pembelajaran bersepadu ini juga
terdapat dalam pembelajaran bersepadu di Malaysia? Pengkaji menjalankan
kajian kualitatif ini untuk mengenal pasti faktor-faktor yang dapat menghasilkan
kepuasan dan kepentingan nilai kepada pelajar dalam mod pembelajaran
bersepadu dalam kalangan pelajar di Malaysia,

3.0 METODOLOGI
Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah kualitatif yang diadaptasi daripada
kaedah yang digunakan oleh Keeney (1999). Menurut Keeney (1999), kaedah
terbaik untuk mengetahui tanggapan pengguna ialah dengan menanya mereka.
Pengguna yang berbeza mempunyai tanggapan yang berbeza dan mereka akan
meluahkan dengan cara yang berbeza. Oleh itu, setiap pengguna boleh
memberi maklumat yang berharga.
Dalam menentukan satu set tema-tema pembelajaran bersepadu, soal
selidik kualitatif digunakan untuk mendapatkan tema-tema dalam pembelajaran
bersepadu. Metodologi dan struktur soal selidk adalah berpandukan kaedah
yang digunakan oleh Kenney (1992) dalam kajian beliau untuk mengumpul data
kualitatif nilai pengguna dalam membuat pembelian melalui Internet. Soal selidik
ini dibahagikan kepada dua bahagian. Bahagian pertama merupakan soalan
terbuka di mana pengguna diberi peluang untuk memberi pendapat mereka
tentang kelebihan dan kelemahan dalam pembelajaran bersepadu. Seterusnya,
soal selidik adalah lebih berstruktur untuk mestimulasikan pemikiran di mana
pengguna ditanya tentang pandangan yang mereka berikan sebelum ini.
Data kajian ini dikumpul daripada lima puluh tiga orang pelajar-pelajar
dan fasilitator-fasilitator daripada universiti-universiti tempatan yang menawarkan
kursus dalam mod pembelajaran bersepadu. Temu bual dalam kajian ini
berhenti selepas lima puluh orang responden ditemu bual kerana data didapati
sudah tepu dan mencukupi (Glesne & Peshkin, 1992)
Dapatan kajian ini kemudian diproses dengan mereduksikan data,
memaparkan data dan membuat kesimpulan seperti yang dicadangkan oleh
Miles dan Huberman (1994). Data kualitatif ini diproses dengan menggunakan
perisian NVivo.
4.0 DAPATAN DAN PERBINCANGAN
Senarai mengenai pembelajaran bersepadu hasil dapatan temu bual
setiap responden kemudian disatukan. Kombinasi senarai ini menghasilkan satu
senarai lengkap mengenai pembelajaran bersepadu. Seterusnya, senarai ini
dikategorikan ke dalam tema-tema dengan mengumpulkan penerangan
mengenai pembelajaran yang serupa di bawah satu tema umum. Senarai
mengenai pembelajaran bersepadu dalam kajian ini dikumpulkan ke dalam

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sembilan tema yang dinamakan sebagai kandungan kursus, teknikal,


kefleksibelan, komuniti pembelajaran, motivasi, perkongsian, maklum balas,
pelengkap dan agenda peribadi.
Dalam tema kandungan kursus, responden memberi faktor-faktor seperti
sukatan pelajaran, kemudahan mendapat bahan bacaan serta resos-resos lain
selain daripada buku teks, tutorial-tutorial atau latihan-latihan yang disediakan
dan soalan-soalan tahun lepas yang dimuatnaik. Responden juga mengatakan
kekerapan mengemaskini maklumat adalah penting serta peluang mereka dalam
memperlengkapkan diri melalui komponen dalam talian sebelum perjumpaan
bersemuka seterusnya. Tema ini adalah selari dengan cadangan yang
dikemukan oleh Driscol (2002) di mana beliau mencadangkan komponen-
komponen seperti menyediakan bahan-bahan rujukan, menghantar kerja dalam
talian dan melanjutkan pengalaman bilik darjah dimasukkan dalam mod
pembelajaran bersepadu. Faktor-faktor yang didapati dalam tema ini juga selari
dengan cadangan Chim (2004) yang membangunkan teori panduan rekaan
pengajaran untuk kursus-kursus pembelajaran bersepadu.
Di bawah tema teknikal, faktor-faktor yang dikenal pasti termasuk
pasukan sokongan teknikal, masalah akses , kemahiran menggunakan teknologi
maklumat dan komunikasi (ICT), reka bentuk antara muka pembelajaran, alamat
untuk sumber Internet (URL), masalah pelayan, perisian komputer, kemudahan
internet dan fon simbol dalam talian yang terhad. Dapatan ini adalah selari
dengan Levy [31] yang mencadangkan sokongan teknikal sebagai satu konstruk
dalam pembelajaran dalam talian. Dalam pembelajaran bersepadu, komponen
dalam talian merupakan komponen utama, maka teknikal perlu dipertimbangkan
apabila komponen dalam talian digunakan.
Kefleksibelan merupakan tema yang penting kerana literatur telah
menunjukkan bahawa salah satu sebab utama mereka memilih pembelajaran
bersepadu kerana kefleksibelannya (Graham et al.; 2003; Graham, 2004).
Dalam kajian ini, faktor-faktor yang dikumpulkan dibawah tema ini termasuk
kefleksibelan dari segi masa dan lokasi belajar. Di samping itu, pelajar boleh
belajar mengikut kadar tersendiri dan mengulangi pelajaran terakam seberapa
banyak kali yang diingin. Selain daripada ini, pelajar-pelajar juga boleh
menghubungi rakan-rakan dan fasilitator pada bila-bila masam seperti yang
dicadangkan oleh Collis (2003). Dapatan tema ini juga selari dengan dapatan
Leh (2002) di mana beliau mendapati jadual dan masa adalah sangat fleksibel
dalam pembelajaran bersepadu dan pelajar-pelajar boleh memilih keadaan yang
terbaik untuk belajar.
Komuniti Pembelajaran merupakan satu lagi tema yang dikenal pasti
dalam kajian ini. Antara faktor-faktor yang dikategorikan dibawah tema ini
termasuk peluang berinteraksi dengan rakan sebaya dan fasilitator, kemudahan
komunikasi yang terdapat dalam pembeljaran bersepadu, peluang
berkomunikasi dengan pelajar-pelajar dari kumpulan lain, peluang berkomunikasi
dengan rakan sebaya yang senyap. Melalui komuniti pembelajaran, rakan
sebaya yang senyap juga lebih peluang dalam memberi pendapat. Driscol
(2002) juga mencadangkan komponen ’menyediakan perhubungan’ dimasukkan
ke dalam komponen pembelajaran bersepadu. Selain daripada ini, Leh (2002)
juga mendapati pembelajaran bersepadu membenarkan pelajar-pelajar
berhubung lebih kerap dengan instruktor-instruktor dan rakan-rakan sebaya

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mereka. Osghtorpe (2003) pula melaporkan pembelajaran bersepadu


meningkatkan interaksi sosial dan komuniti Bailey (2002) melaporkan interaksi
antara rakan-rakan sebaya dan antara pelajar dengan fasilitator memberi impak
ke atas kepuasan pelajar dalam pembelajaran bersepadu. Ini menunjukkan
Komuniti Pembelajaran adalah penting di mana pelajar-pelajar berpeluang
berinteraksi dengan pelajar lain serta dengan fasilitator mereka.
Pelajar-pelajar dan fasilitator dalam kajian ini mengatakan proses-proses
pengajaran dan pembelajaran adalah lebih menarik, seronok dan selesa dalam
pembelajaran bersepadu. Faktor-faktor ini dikumpulkan di bawah tema Motivasi.
Dalam tema ini juga, pelajar-pelajar rasa keghairahan dengan pelajaran dan
mereka juga mempunyai lebih peluang memberi galakan sesama sendiri.
Selain daripada ini, pelbagai pendekatan pembelajaran yang disediakan dalam
pembelajaran bersepadu meningkatan minat untuk belajar dan dengan ini
mereka tidak rasa bosan dalam proses pembelajaran. Levy (2002) juga
mengatakan motivasi adalah penting dalam proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran dan mencadangkan motivasi sebagai satu konstruk dalam kajian
dalam talian. Oleh kerana pembelajaran bersepadu merupakan kombinasi
terbaik daripada komponen pembelajaran bersemuka tradisional serta
pembelajaran dalam talian (Morgon, 2002; Garnham et al., 2002; Haytko, 2001;
Young, 2002), maka dapatan komponen ini adalah sesuai dengan matlamat
pembelajaran bersepadu.
Perkongsian merupakan proses yang penting dalam proses
pembelajaran untuk membina makna baru (Finley, 2000). Kajian ini mendapati
peluang perkongsian adalah lebih tinggi dalam pembelajaran bersepadu. Melalui
perkongsian, mereka mendapat banyak maklumat baru serta berpeluang belajar
daripada rakan-rakan mereka. Proses perkongsian ini betul-betul memanfaatkan
mereka. Antara manfaat-manfaat termasuk lebih peluang dan tanpa kekangan
masa untuk berkongsi bahan-bahan pelajaran dengan rakan sebaya. Mereka
juga berpeluang mendapat bimbingan apabila perlu. Pada masa yang sama,
pelajar introvert berpeluang mengemukakan pendapat mereka. Perkongsian
dilihat sebagai elemen penting dalam proses pembelajaran dalam Mazhad
konstruktivisme sosial (Finley, 2000). Melalui perkongsian, pengalaman rakan
sebaya boleh membantu pelajar-pelajar membina makna yang baru.
Pembelajaran bersepadu yang merupakan satu pelantar pelajaran seharusnya
menyediakan peluang untuk pelajar-pelajar membina makna baru melalui
perkongsian. Driscoll (2002) juga mencadangkan penggunaan e-mel dan mesej
yang juga merupakan perkakas untuk perkongsian dimaksimumkan.
Maklum Balas merupakan salah satu komponen yang penting di dalam
pembelajaran dalam talian (Levy, 2003). Faktor-faktor tema Maklum Balas hasil
daripada kajian ini termasuk maklum balas dari segi masalah pelajaran,
perkembangan pelajaran, serta penilaian. Driscol (2002) mencadangkan
komponen penilaian dalam talian di masukkan dalam pembelajaran bersepadu.
Dengan ini, maklum balas segera dpat dilakukan. Dapatan beliau adalah selari
dengan dapatan tema ini.
Dalam pembelajaran bersepadu, kelemahan dalam pembelajaran
tradisional bersemuka dan pembelajaran dalam talian dapat melengkapkan
kelemahan yang terdapat dalam kedua-dua mod pembelajaran (Black, 2002;
Garnham & kaleta, 2002). Dengan ini, pembelajaran dikatakan merupakan

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kombinasi terbaik daripada kedua-dua mod pembelajaran tradisional bersemuka


dan pembelajaran dalam talian (Morgon, 2002; Garnham et al., 2002; Haytko,
2001; Young, 2002). Faktor-faktor yang termasuk dalam tema Pelengkap ialah
komponen dalam talian yang menyediakan maklumat tambahan kepada buku
teks, bahagian pelajaran yang kurang jelas dalam kelas bersemuka boleh
dijelaskan dalam perbincangan dalam talian, penerangan konsep yang abstrak
dapat dibantu dengan perisian yang interaktif dalam talian, masalah pelajaran
yang timbul diluar kelas-kelas bersemuka boleh diselesaikan dalam talian dan
rancangan pelajaran dapat diikuti dengan rapi kerana perbincang dalam kelas
bersemuka boleh dilanjutkan menerusi pembelajaran dalam talian.
Tema Agenda Peribadi termasuk pelbagai pendekatan pembelajaran,
pelbagai perkakas pembelajaran (learning tools), pelbagai teknik yang digunakan
dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran disediakan. Kemudahan-
kemudahan yang terdapat dalam pembelajaran bersepadu memberi pelajar-
pelajar kebebasan untuk memilih apa yang sesuai untuk mereka. Selain
daripada ini, pembelajaran bersepadu dikatakan boleh memberi peluang kepada
pelajar untuk belajar mengikut kadar yang tersendiri dan mereka juga boleh
memilih pembelajaran yang sesuai dengan gaya pembelajaran individu.
Menurut Young (2002), model terbaik dalam pengajaran adalah menyediaan
bufet seperti yang terdapat dalam pembelajaran bersepadu untuk memenuhi
gaya pembelajaran yang berbeza untuk individu yang berbeza. Dapatan ini
adalah juga selari dengan Osguthorpe et al. (2003) yang mengatakan
pembelajaran bersepadu boleh meningkatkan julat pilihan pelajar.
Tema-tema yang didapati dalam kajian ini adalah dalam konteks
Malaysia. Oleh itu, tema-tema ini boleh digunakan dalam rekaan kursus
pembelajaran bersepadu. Para pengguna akhir juga perlu diberi peluang untuk
mengemukakan pandangan mereka tentang tema-tema ini dalam kursus
pembelajaran bersepadu iaitu sama ada mereka rasa tema-tema tersebut adalah
penting atau tidak dan juga mengemukakan kepuasan mereka terhadap tema-
tema berikut. Berdasarkan pandangan pengguna akhir, maka penambahbaikan
kursus pembelajaran bersepadu boleh dilakukan. Oleh itu, pembelajaran
bersepadu perlu bergerak ke arah kepentingan dan kepuasan pengguna akhir
supaya mutu kursus pembelajaran bersepadu dapat dipertingkatkan.
Tema-tema ini juga boleh digunakan dalam pembinaan instrumen untuk
mengukur keberkesanan kursus pembelajaran bersepadu yang ditawarkan .
Melalui instrumen yang dibangunkan, peningkatan mutu berterusan kursus
pembelajaran bersepadu dapat dilakukan.

5.0 KESIMPULAN
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti tema-tema pembelajaran
bersepadu dan implikasinya dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Tema-tema
yang didapati bersama dengan literatur boleh dijadikan satu set ciri-ciri
pembelajaran bersepadu yang lengkap di Malaysia. Ciri-ciri ini seterusnya boleh
digunakan untuk membina instrumen untuk mengukur keberkesanan kursus
pembelajaran bersepadu di Malaysia.

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6.0 REFERENCES

[1] J. Bersin, The Blended Learning Book: Best Practices, Proven


Methodologies, and Lessons Learned. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
2004.

[2] R. Singh, & Reed, C., A White Paper: Achieving Success with Blended
Learning: Centra Software, 2001.

[3] G. Black, "A comparison of traditional, online and hybrid methods of


course delivery," Journal of Business Administration Online, vol. 1, 2002.

[4] H. Ron, "The second e-learning wave," Training, vol. 38, p. 96, 2001.

[5] H. Singh, "Building effective blended learning programs," Issue of


Educational Technology, vol. 34, pp. 51-54, 2003.

[6] J. McCormick, "The New School," Newsweek, vol. 135, pp. 60-62, 2000.

[7] C. Garnham and R. Kaleta, "Introduction to hybrid courses," Teaching


with Technology Today, vol. 8, 2002.

[8] D. L. Haytko, "Traditional versus hybrid course delivery sistems: A case


study of undergraduate marketing plaining courses," Marketing
Education Review, vol. 11, pp. 27-39, 2001.

[9] K. R. Morgon, "Blended Learning: A Strategic Action Plan for a New


Campus," Seminole, FL: University of Central Florida, 2002.

[10] R. T. G. Osguthorpe, C. R., "Blended learning environments: Definition


and directions," The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, vol. 4, pp.
227-233, 2003.

[11] J. R. Young, "Hybrid teaching seeks to end the divide between traditional
and online instruction," The Chronicle of Higher Education., p. A33,
2002, March 22.

[12] M. Driscoll, "Blended Learning: Let's Get Beyond the Hype," e-learning,
p. 54, March 1, 2002.

[13] C. R. Graham, "Blended learning system: Definition, current trends and


future direction," in Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives,
local designs, C. J. Bonk and C. R. Graham, Eds. San Francisco, CA:
Pfeiffer Publishing, 2004.

[14] Bersin and Associates, "Blended learning: What works?: An industry


study of the strategy, implementation, and impact of blended learning,"
Bersin & Associates 2003.

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[15] M. Orey, "One year of online blended learning: Lessons learned," in


Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Educational
Research Association, Sarasota, FL, 2002, February.

[16] I. Thomson, Thomson job impact study: The next generation of corporate
learning: Thompson Inc., 2002.

[17] R. House, "Clocking in column," in The Spokesman-Review, 2002,


January 8.

[18] A. Rossett, "The ASTD E-Learning Handbook," New York: McGraw-Hill,


2002.

[19] J. Reay, "Blended learning - a fusion for the future," Knowledge


Management Review, vol. 4, p. 6, 2001.

[20] J. E. Rooney, "Blending learning opportunities to enhance educational


programming and meetings," Association Management, vol. 55, pp. 26-
32, 2003.

[21] P. Sands, "Inside outside, upside downside: Strategies for connecting


online and face-to-face instruction in hybrid courses," Teaching with
Technology Today, vol. 8, 2002.

[22] C. N. Gunawardena and P. L. Duphorne, "Which learner readiness


factors, online features, and CMC related learning approaches are
associated with learner satisfaction in computer conferences?," in Paper
presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, Seattle, WA, 2001, p. 35.

[23] R. A. Robison, "Selected Faculty Experiences in Designing and


Teaching Blended Learning Courses at Brigham Young University," The
University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2004, p. 188 pages.

[24] C. R. Graham, S. Allen, and D. Ure, "Blended learning environments: A


review of the research literature," in Unpublished manuscript Provo, UT,
2003.

[25] L. M. Smelser, "Making Connections in Our Classrooms: Online and Off,"


in Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College
Composition and Communication, 2002, March 20-23.

[26] B. Collis, "Course redesign for blended learning: modern optics for
technical professionals," International Journal of Continuing Engineering
Education and Lifelong Learning, vol. 13, pp. 22-38, 2003.

[27] J. L. Hartman, C. Dziuban, and P. Moskal, "Faculty satisfaction in ALNs:


A dependent or independent variable?," in Paper presented at the Sloan
Summer ALN Workshops: Learning Effectiveness and Faculty
Satisfaction, 1999, August 16-18.

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[28] J. R. Bourne, "Net-learning: Strategies for on-campus and off-campus


network-enabled learning," Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks,
vol. 2, pp. 70-88, 1998.

[29] G. L. Waddoups, G. L. Hatch, and S. Butterworth, "Blended teaching and


learning in a first-year composition course," Quarterly Review of Distance
Education, vol. 4, pp. 271-278, 2003.

[30] S. L. Levine and W. K. Wake, "Hybrid teaching: Design studios in virtual


space," in Paper presented at the National Conference on Liberal Arts
and the Education of Artists SVA, New York, 2000, October 20.

[31] Y. Levy, "A study of learners' perceived value and satisfaction for implied
effectiveness of online learning system," Miami, Florida. (UMI No.
3126765): Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida International
University, 2003, p. 330.

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IMPLEMENTATION OF OUTCOME-BASED EDUCATION DELIVERY SYSTEM


AT PRE-UNIVERSITY LEVEL

BALBIR SINGH MAHINDER ABSTRACT - The Foundation Studies (FS)


SINGH, department at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
CHONG FAI KAIT,
(UTP) offers pre-university courses for
HASNAH M ZAID
YUSNIZA YAAKOP students who have completed their SPM or any
other equivalent qualifications. Students from
Foundation Studies Department, the engineering stream will be able to move into
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS their respective engineering programmes,
31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, namely Petroluem, Chemical, Mechanical, Civil,
Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan Electrical and Electronics Engineering, while
balbir@petronas.com.my students from the technology stream will move
into Information & Communication Technology
and Information System programmes after
completing their foundation studies. The FS
department adopted the Outcome-based
Education (OBE) delivery system for both the
engineering and technology streams. The move
towards using OBE is inline with the national
requirement for universities offering engineering
education. The approach used in OBE shifts the
focus from the instructor to the learner and it is
a student-centred system, where the
responsibility of learning is passed on to the
students. The instructor needs to master the
role of a facilitator, and there must be a genuine
shift towards using OBE based assessment
tools. One major change made to all the
courses were related to the weightage of
coursework marks. Most of the courses were
using the 40% coursework and 60% final exam
format, and to adopt the OBE approach, this
was changed to 60% coursework and 40% final
exam format. The decision to place more
emphasis on the continuous assessment, rather
than one final exam was indeed a radical
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007.
decision, as more tracking and monitoring effort
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. to ensure the integrity of the courses had to be
Prosiding Persidangan introduced. In this paper, statistical analysis of
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di the overall students’ performance was carried
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian out and one of the early yardsticks used to
Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of provide an overall view of the effectiveness of
Golden Horses, Seri this new approach was the CGPA. It was
Kembangan, Selangor noticed that percentage of students obtaining a
12-14 Disember 2007
CGPA of 3.00 and above increased by an
average of 15%.

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Keywords: Outcome based


Education, Student-Centered and
Assessment Tools

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The FS department at UTP offers pre-university courses for students


who have completed their SPM or any other equivalent qualifications. The
students are placed in the engineering and technology streams, based on their
qualifications and performance in the interview sessions. Students from the
engineering stream will be able to move into their respective engineering
programmes, namely Petroluem, Chemical, Mechanical, Civil, Electrical and
Electronics Engineering. Students from the technology stream will move into
Information & Communication Technology and Information System programmes
after completing their foundation studies. In the January 2007 semester, all the
academic programmes at UTP adopted the Outcome-based Education delivery
system. This is inline with the university’s corporate agenda, and also to fulfill the
national requirement for universities offering engineering education. The national
requirement is imposed, as it is part of the condition for Malaysia to be accepted
as the full member of Washington Accord (WA). The WA, which was signed in
1989, is an international treaty among bodies responsible for accrediting
engineering degree programs. Once the accreditation is obtained, Malaysia can
then be accepted as a full member of WA, from its current provisional status,
held since 2003. One of the benefits is that graduates of programs accredited by
any of the signatory bodies will be recognized by the other bodies as having met
the academic requirements for entry to the practice of engineering, in any of the
member countries. In Malaysia, the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) registers
graduates and professional engineers under the Registration of Engineers Act
1967. Only graduates from an accredited engineering programme are accepted
as member of BEM. It is therefore the responsibility of BEM to ensure the quality
of engineering programmes, so that a certain minimum standard comparable to
global practice is maintained. In 1996 National Accreditation Board (LAN) was
established to ensure the quality of all private Institute of Higher Learning (IHL)
and the Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) was established in the year
2000, which comprises of BEM, Institute of Engineering Malaysia, LAN and
Public Services Department (JPA). In Malaysia, EAC is fully responsible for
accreditation of engineering degree programmes and has been given the task to
prepare all the IHLs offering engineering education to adopt OBE, hence to
receive international accreditation status via WA.
The FS department embarked on the journey to move towards OBE,
starting from July 2006 semester, on a trial basis. An internal curriculum review
was conducted prior to that and expert opinions were sought from the external
examiners and advisers. The undergraduate departments served as the main
stakeholders, and the trial run was carried out for a period of one semester. In
the following semester, FS fully implemented the OBE curriculum.

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2.0 OUTCOME BASED EDUCATION

The quality of learning that takes place in any academic institution relies
heavily on the quality of the designed learning materials, the delivery methods
and also the modes of assessment used [1]. Traditional education is centered on
“inputs” where students are introduced to a specific content and time-based
course. At the end of the course, the students are required to sit for an
examination and grades assigned regardless of whether the students are able to
master the material. On the other hand, the “student-centered” educational
approach is focused on course “outcomes” consisting of a list of skills and
knowledge in which the students are coached to master and able to demonstrate
upon completion of the course [2]. These learning outcomes are designed to
inculcate a platform for life-long learning and they are finally assessed in terms of
set learning objectives [3]. The approach used in OBE shifts the focus from the
instructor to the learner, and can be considered as a student-centred system. In
a student-centred system, the responsibility of learning is passed on to the
students, and the instructor needs to master the role of a facilitator. In order to
move away from the traditional so called instructor-centred system, there must
be a genuine shift towards using OBE based assessment tools as well. The
impact can only be made, if significant changes are made to the curriculum,
delivery system and the assessment tools. These three main areas of concern
will be further deliberated in the next section.
Although OBE system is just being introduced in Malaysia, but this
concept is not something new. The early usage can be traced back to the
education reform model, “K-12”, mainly used at the primary and secondary
schools in the United States and Australia. It is believed that the concept was
conceived in the late 1970s. The need to embark on this new educational system
was to effectively measure student performance and the effectiveness of the
curriculum as well. The need to determine the actual performance of student
subjected to a particular curriculum was the primary focus, and at the same time
a reliable feedback system to further improve the education system had to be
certified by the stakeholders. Along the way, many other generic systems similar
to OBE surfaced, such as the standards-based education reform, mastery
education, systemic education restructuring, performance based education, high
performance learning, total quality management, transformational education and
competency-based education [3]. One of the countries that used OBE to reform
its national education system recently is South Africa. South Africa introduced its
own version of OBE to address the need to restructure the curriculum towards a
non-racial and democratic social order, resulting in the Curriculum 2005 concept
to be launched [4].

3.0 IMPLEMENTATION

As mentioned earlier, in the FS Department, the educational approach


used after implementing OBE is “student-centered” rather than “instructor-
centered”, as in the traditional education. The need to embrace this radical
change was to develop academic competency in the engineering and technology
feeder program and the program has only one main objective: “To produce

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students with sufficient knowledge in fundamental science and mathematics for


pursuing education in engineering and technology”.
Students in FS have to complete a total of 42 credit hours, and obtain a
minimum CGPA of 2.00. Altogether there are around 17 subjects to be taken
over a period of 2 semesters, which can be stretched to a maximum of 4
semesters. After an internal curriculum review was conducted, and changes
made using the OBE curriculum designing method, one major change made to
all the courses were related to the weightage of coursework marks. Most of the
courses were using the 40% coursework and 60% final exam format, and to
adopt the OBE approach, this was changed to 60% coursework and 40% final
exam format. The decision to place more emphasis on the continuous
assessment, rather than one final exam was indeed a radical decision, as more
tracking and monitoring effort to ensure the integrity of the courses had to be
introduced. The immediate respond to this was to re-look at the delivery and
assessment methods. All in all, the essential educational tools and delivery are
focused towards the achieving the following outcomes, which were common to all
subjects. The program outcomes formulated for the FS program are such that at
the end of the program, students should be able to:
• Apply knowledge of science and mathematics in problem solving
• Apply analytical skills to interpret and solve problems
• Communicate effectively in English
• Practice behavior that reflects good values in the learning process

3.1 Delivery methods

In order to initiate the shift in the educational approach to OBE


system, lecture classes were reduced from a few hundreds to a
maximum of 80 students while the tutorial classes to approximately 30
students. These changes were made so that active learning from
students can take place effectively and also enhance the student’s
participation in-group discussions. The move to reduce class size
allowed the use of cooperative learning, student-centred learning and
problem-based learning. The traditional lecture-method is still employed,
especially when delivering the theoretical facts. Usually, the theoretical
discussions are also interjected with problem-solving situations,
especially for technical subjects. The practical sessions are given equal
importance, whereby the limit per experimental set is 2 students. Modern
data capturing devices are used, to assist in the computerized practical
sessions. Since data-capturing time has been reduced, more emphasis
is placed on analyzing and reporting of results. In order to ensure that an
experiment is fully understood, a brief presentation and viva session are
made compulsory. In the non-technical subjects, presentations and case
studies are used widely, and all these efforts ensure the achievement of
all the program outcomes.

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3.2 Modes of assessment

Prior to OBE, the emphasis to gauge the performance of


students was heavily inclined to the outcome of the final examinations.
The move to reduce the weigthage of the final exam to 40% for most of
the courses shows that there is a genuine shift towards implementing
OBE. The performance of students is being assessed continuously by
using tests, frequent quizzes, assignments, presentations, case studies
and laboratory reports.

4.0 METHODOLOGY

In all curriculum design and implementation, the main stakeholder that


finally benefits from it is the student. The feedback from the students must be
considered as one of the most important input, for the purpose of continuous
quality improvement process. The need to use suitable measurement tools is
rather essential, and the usual standard measurement tools in OBE are the
course outcome survey and program outcome survey. Upon completion, exit
survey is considered as a reliable tool to further improve the program. In order to
carry out the investigations for preparing this paper, a questionnaire was
developed to identify the level of awareness and understanding of students on
OBE approach and also to provide feedback from them on OBE implementation.
The survey was conducted on a group of 352 respondents who had undergone
one semester of courses delivered in OBE approach. The other measure to
gauge the effectiveness of moving towards using OBE system was the overall
average CGPA obtained by the students.

5.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

As mentioned in the previous section, a survey was conducted on a


group of 352 respondents who had undergone one semester of courses
delivered in OBE approach. It can be seen from figure 1 that almost more than
70% students have scored excellent results in 4 of the main entry subjects to the
engineering stream. In fact the results for English is also very good. So therefore,
the outcome from the survey can be considered as reliable, as more than 80% of
the respondent have distinctions in all the 4 Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia(SPM)
examination subjects.

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Figure 1: The percentage of students who scored grades between 1 and 5


in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) examination for the year
2006.

Around 35.24% of respondent indicated that they were very satisfied


with their results, while another 32.38% were just satisfied. A total of 14.61%
respondent were somehow not pleased with their results, while another 17.77%
remained neutral. The results as shown in figure 1 can be taken to be an
acceptable level, coupled with around 67.62% of respondent who seems to be
satisfied with their achievements. There was also an attempt to get a feedback
related to the previous school system. A total of 67.15% of the respondents
agreed that the education system at school level is totally exam oriented, while
another 26.45% remained neutral and only 6.40% disagreed. The need to revert
back to traditional streaming system whereby students are placed in the
respective science, art and other streams based their exam results in form 3
received good response. Around 56.10% respondents agreed with the traditional
streaming system, and only 16.57% disagreed. The rest of them remained
neutral. Around 70.26% respondents went to agree that streaming could be
useful for early career path identification, while only 11.37% disagreed. So
therefore, around only around 37.46% agreed that the school system has
prepared for the engineering education, while another 24.78% disagrees. A total
of 37.75% of the respondents remained neutral, perhaps due to loyalty or
uncertain about the type of education received at school level. This high level of
neutral responses can clearly pose a problem to the OBE system, as the
students are not sensitive enough to the education environment that they have
been exposed to. This is clearly reflected in the results of the survey, which is
related to the understanding of the OBE philosophy. Again around 44.74% of
respondent were uncertain about the education system that they were subjected
to, while around 33.33% indicated that they fully understand OBE system. The
other 21.93% of respondents admitted that they do not understand what OBE is

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all about. All these responses are closely related, as shown in figure 2. Since
most of them were uncertain about the type of education system that they have
gone through, one of the ways to create awareness was through conducting
seminars and general briefings. This was carried out effectively, and hoped
would have created a difference. Some of the students that were later
interviewed indicated that they were better informed about the education
systems that they have followed.

The other positive indication was that around 47.49% students

Figure 2: The respond from the students regarding their


preparedness to go through engineering education and
their understanding of OBE system at UTP.

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The other positive indication was that around 47.49% students agreed
that in OBE system, there is a shift in the delivery form being “instructor-centred”
to “learner-centred”. But still around 42.18% respondent chose to remain neutral.
The assessment weightage using the 60% coursework and 40% final exam
approach was definitely well received, whereby 72.51% respondents agreed to
this distribution. Only a small number disagreed, while around 17.84% remained
neutral. Clearly this is an endorsement of the assessment method used under
the OBE system, which focuses on continuous assessment rather than final
examination. Although many respondents chose to remain neutral earlier
regarding the understanding of the OBE system, but it can be concluded that
they do understand to a certain extent the intend of this new system.

Figure 3: The respond from the students regarding the


delivery and assessment methods used in the
OBE system at UTP.

The feedback obtained regarding the delivery and assessment methods


were especially helpful and the results are shown in figure 3. It can be clearly
seen that the students do agree with the OBE system, although they might not
be directly aware of it. From figure 3, around 77.99% of students agree that
understanding and application of learning materials are more important than just
being materials for merely passing the examinations. Around 76.18% students
went on to agree that problem-solving approach is important rather than the
conventional teaching-style. But only 61.76% agreed that continuous assessment
is a better tool to monitor students’ understanding on the topics that they are
working on. In figure 4, the respond received towards implementation of lectures
in smaller class sizes certainly seems to be favourable among students, as
74.05% of them agree that it would be more beneficial. Ironically around 5.38%

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disagreed, while the rest remained neutral, although they have been exposed to
smaller groups previously in schools. But again only around 51.14% agree that
smaller classes means better lecturer-students interaction, while around 42.67%
remained neutral. Perhaps this is another area where the instructors have to put
in a lot of effort to enhance their professional relationship with the students to
further enhance the teaching and learning process using OBE.

Figure 4: The respond from the students on the class size and the
lecturer-students interaction is smaller class size.

CONCLUSION
In this paper, statistical analysis of the overall students’ performance was
also carried out and one of the other yardsticks used to provide an overall view
of the effectiveness of the OBE approach was the CGPA. It was noticed that
percentage of students obtaining a CGPA of 3.00 and above increased by an
average of 15%, between the last two cohorts. The latest cohort to complete the
foundation studies was subjected to the new system, while the previous one
follow the conventional instructor-centred system. Although it is not sufficient
enough to conclude using this measure alone, but the results from the survey
can somehow complement this outcome. This work can be taken to be the initial
effort to track the effectiveness of the implementation of this new system at the
FS department. The early indicators seems to be favorable for the system to be
continued, although a lot of initiatives, especially in creating awareness among
the FS community must be further enhanced. Any system can only be fully
functional, if everyone is fully familiar with it.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors would like to take this opportunity to thank the management
of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS for allowing them to complete and present
this paper at the CTLHE 07 conference.

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REFERENCES

[1] Bernstein, B., (1982), “On the classification and framing of educational
knowledge”, In: Challenge and change in the curriculum, Horton, T. and
Raggatt, R. (eds), Sevencake, Kent, Hodder & Stoughton in association
with the Open University, 157-176.
[2] McNeir, G., (1993), “Outcome-based Education”, ERIC Digest 85,
University of Oregon, 3-5.
[3] Malan, SPT, (2000), “The ‘new paradigm’ of outcome-based education in
perspective”, Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe,
28,22-28.
[4] Department of Education, (1996), South African Schools Act,
Government Gazette No.84, Pretoria, South Africa: Department of
Education.

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OUTCOME-BASED CURRICULUM: ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE


TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY COURSES

ABSTRACT - There is a major shift in


SHAHRINA BT. M NORDIN the education sector as outcome-based
SUBARNA SIVAPALAN education (OBE) has been widely
Management and Humanities adopted in a number of higher learning
Department institutions in Malaysia. The education
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak
reform has inevitably involved many
fields of study, among which is the field
shahrina_mnordin@petronas.com.my of second language teaching. The
subarna_s@petronas.com.my implementation of OBE requires a re-
designing and re-development of
teaching and learning practices which
need to be in line with the OBE
educational theoretical framework. This
paper will thus first discuss what OBE
curriculum is and how it is implemented
into the framework of English language
teaching in Universiti Teknologi
Petronas. Upon its implementation, the
approach currently emphasizes both on
the product and the process of language
learning. There has indeed been a line of
research findings that support such an
eclectic approach in English Language
teaching. This paper thus, will also
discuss the strength of such approach in
the context of OBE. A set of
questionnaires will be disseminated to
Foundation (semester 2) students to get
an insight on the effectiveness of such
approach in teaching language
proficiency. The results will be reported
and discussed in the paper. The findings
will also shed some light on some of the
pedagogical implications. The paper will
conclude with suggestions for future
research.

Keywords: outcome based education,


product and process approach, language
learning process

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

There has been a major shift in the Malaysian education sector with the
implementation of outcome-based education (OBE) in institutions of higher
learning. This move has affected public and private and institutions of higher
learning in the country. This move cuts across both technical and non technical
fields of study, one of which is the field of second language teaching and
learning. The implementation of OBE not only requires a re-designing and re-
development of teaching and learning practices, but is also inclusive of
curriculum realignments that must be in line with the OBE educational theoretical
framework. This paper will shed some light on the strategies carried out by
language practitioners of a private institution of higher learning in the
implementation of OBE in a Foundation level English language proficiency
course. The implementation of OBE in the said institution is within the
communicative language teaching (CLT) framework and entails a synthesis of
elements of two approaches, namely the product and process approach, that
form an eclectic approach to language teaching. The paper will highlight among
others, teaching and learning activities, teaching and learning support materials,
assessment and learner perceptions of the effectiveness of the applied
approach.

2.0 OUTCOME BASED EDUCATION – A BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Before delving into the study, it is first necessary to comprehend the


aims and principles of OBE. According to Spady ‘Outcome-Based Education
means clearly focusing and organizing everything in an educational system
around what is essential for all students to be able to do successfully at the end
of their learning experiences. This means starting with a clear picture of what is
important for students to be able to do, then organizing the curriculum,
[18]
instruction, and assessment to make sure this learning ultimately happens" .
As such, OBE can be viewed as an approach to coordinating and operating an
education system that is focused in and defined by the successful display of
learning sought from each student. OBE is rooted from competency-based
education, mastery learning as advocated by Block and Bloom and criterion-
referenced assessment as advanced by Masters & Evans and is a synthesis and
extension of these approaches.

OBE differs from the traditional form of education particularly in its overall
approach, the manner in which standards are assessed as well as the means in
[18]
which performance is determined. According to , an OBE curriculum advocates
the importance of beginning with the elements that are important for students to be
able to perform, followed by organizing the curriculum, instruction and assessment
to ensure that learning takes place. Upon establishing key factors that students
should understand and be able to achieve or the qualities they should build upon,
the curricula are designed to accomplish the capabilities or qualities identified. As
such, OBE embodies the notion that the most effective manner of learning is to
first determine what needs to be achieved. Upon the determination of the
outcome, the strategies, processes, techniques, and other means are put in place
to achieve the goal.

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OBE also involves designing, developing and documenting educational


instruction in relation to outcomes. OBE entails the reorganization of curriculum,
assessment and reporting practices in education with the objective of reflecting the
accomplishment of learning. The primary aim of OBE is to facilitate desired
transformations or changes within the learners, by increasing knowledge,
enhancing skills and/or positively influencing attitudes, values and judgment.

An educational system that is based upon OBE requires its learners as well as
educators to heed to the following:

1. Outcomes of learning of which learners must demonstrate that they


have achieved
2. The use of learning outcomes by educators as a focal point when
developing instructional decisions creating lesson plans

Outcomes are explained as the end product of a learning process.


Outcomes depict the results of learning over a duration of time, specifically the
results of what is learned versus what is taught. Outcomes are comprehensible
learning results that learners have to demonstrate at the end of significant
learning experiences. Outcomes are also actions or performances that represent
and reflect learner ability in using content, information, ideas and tools
successfully. As such, accountability mechanisms or learner assessment that
directly reflect student performance and assist learners become aware of what
[22]
they know are equally pertinent . Learning is deemed as successful when
students are equipped with the knowledge, skills and qualities required after they
exit the educational system.

As OBE places importance on planning, delivering and evaluating


instruction it is therefore pertinent that administrators, educators and students
focus their concentration on the desired results that are expressed in terms of
individual student learning. There are two common approaches to OBE, one
emphasizing on subject-related academic outcomes while the other on long-term
outcomes that are in line with the learner’s future roles upon completing their
education.

To be implemented successfully, an OBE would should entail a clear set


of outcomes that all students will achieve, extension outcomes for students who
progress beyond the minimum outcomes, detailed specification of the
prerequisites that students must master before attempting to achieve each new
outcome, plans for several different teaching strategies to help students achieve
the desired learning outcomes and an assessment process that is fair, valid,
reliable and reflective of the knowledge and skills that are most important for
students to learn.

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3.0 IMPLEMENTING OBE IN A PROFICIENCY LEVEL ENGLISH


LANGUAGE COURSE

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, a private institution of higher learning


offers courses at foundation, undergraduate and post graduate levels. The
university prepares students for engineering as well as technology based courses.
Students are also exposed to business, management and language courses
through courses offered by the Management and Humanities Department. The
language courses offered are at Foundation and Undergraduate levels and are
compulsory. The Foundation level language courses, i.e. English 1 and English 2
are proficiency level courses. Undergraduate students on the other hand are
required to complete Technical Writing and Professional Communication Skills.
The researchers would like to highlight that the implementation of OBE
encompasses both Foundation and Undergraduate language courses at the
university. For the purpose of this study however, the researchers will look into the
implementation of OBE in the Foundation level language proficiency courses,
specifically English 2.

3.1 The Framework of the Course

The emphasis of the English 2 course, implemented within the


framework of the OBE curriculum, is on the outcomes rather than the
input of the course. The outcomes, as per OBE guidelines, are
concretely measurable which include a range of skills and knowledge.
The measurable outcomes are imperative to ensure that the content and
skills covered in the course would be seen as the priority of the students
to be attained by the end of the course. Under the philosophy of OBE,
the outcomes are first specified which must be in line with the overall
objectives and outcomes at the program level (Foundation level). “What
kind of students is the course trying to produce?” was thus the first
question formed when tailoring the existing language proficiency course
according to the outcome-based curriculum guidelines. Three learning
outcomes for English proficiency course, pitched at level 2, are set. At
the end of the course, students should be able to:

1. Demonstrate their comprehension and communicative skills


in English Language.
2. Synthesize information whether linear or non-linear by using
various reading methods.
3. Develop creative and critical thinking skills.

3.2 Teaching and learning activities

To reflect the philosophy of the OBE, the kinds of teaching and


learning activities carried out move away from the traditional way of
teaching and explore other delivery methods. The main activities
involved in this course therefore do not only focus on teacher-centered
approach but also include task-based learning, problem-solving learning
and portfolio development. Activities such as dialogues, debates,

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discussion, drama and role-playing are also carried out in the class.

Through the OBE approach, teaching and learning activities


need to be geared towards meeting the learning outcomes identified.
The underlying approach underpinning the current teaching and learning
activities is communicative language teaching (CLT) which the goal of
[8]
the language teaching is what referred to as “communicative
competence”. Communicative competence is the ability to linguistically
apply the language correctly in authentic situations. In the language
classroom, with the advent of Communicative Language Teaching in the
1980s, the emphasis is onto the cultivation of the learner’s ability to
communicate through the complex interplay of the four skills of reading,
writing, listening and speaking. In a classroom adopting CLT, learners
are engaged in activities that require them to arrive to an outcome from
given information through some process of thought that was regarded as
a ‘task’. The activities in communicative language teaching (CLT) thus
focus on task-completion, moving away from teacher-centered teaching
approach as per the OBE teaching principle. In a CLT classroom, it is
necessary that the students be seated in groups to provide them with an
opportunity to communicate with one another, apart from interacting with
the teacher. Such setting allows collaborative learning and a proper
educator-learner and learner-learner interaction as envisaged by OBE.
Students are also expected to document significant learning activities
and experiences. They collect pieces of evidence from classroom
projects and activities. The portfolio is a collection of students’ work that
allows students to demonstrate academic achievement and record their
progress over time.

3.3 Teaching and learning support materials

A textbook is used as a teaching and learning support material.


The textbook focuses on the four skills emphasized in communicative
language teaching approach: reading, listening, writing and speaking. As
mentioned earlier, under the influence of CLT approach, ELT
practitioners discuss communication in terms of four communicative
[17]
skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing , which form part of the
learning outcomes of the course – communicative competence.

A workbook is used to further enhance the students’ acquired


knowledge and skills in the effort to attain the specified learning
outcomes of the course. The students are also exposed to literature
short stories written by prominent writers like Edgar Allen Poe and Kate
Chopin. The objective of such exposure is not only for the purpose of
appreciation of literature texts but also to guide learners to develop
creative thinking and critical thinking through critical analysis activities
carried out during the class. As stated earlier, developing creative and
critical thinking forms part of the learning outcomes of the course.
Computer assisted language learning (CALL) was also used to help
learners attain the learning outcomes by the end of the semester.
Students are to go to the lab to do the activities and complete them at

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their own pace. This is in line with what OBE propagates where students
work at their own pace at mastering the learning outcomes until he or
she succeeds which may result in lifelong learning.

3.4 Assessment

The assessment in courses that adopt outcome-based


education, such as the course described in this paper, focuses on
assessing learners’ learning process. Criterion-referenced assessment is
used which compares the learners’ work with the identified assessment
criteria. The outcomes of a particular student are therefore not affected
[6]
by the outcomes of other students , but instead using the learning
outcomes as the yardstick for achievement. Typical assessment
techniques of examination, quiz, reports, oral presentation, observation
etc. were employed throughout the course. The assessment was
however carried out in a continual basis as per the OBE guideline.

4.0 LEARNERS’ PERCEPTION OF THEIR ABILITY

To get an insight of the effectiveness of this approach, learners were


asked to give their perception on their own achievement in attaining the pre-
specified outcomes. A fair reflection of the outcomes was obtained at the end of
the semester. The students were to grade the outcomes attained according to 1-
7 scale (from poor to excellent). The descriptive data reported are as follows.

Table Q1:Demonstrate comprehension and communication skills in English


Total
Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Res. Population % Resp.
Frequency 0 1 4 27 37 119 117 305 305 100.0%
Percentage 0.0% 0.3% 1.3% 8.9% 12.1% 39.0% 38.4% 100%

Table Q2:Synthesize information whether linear or non linear by using various reading methods
Total
Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Res. Population % Resp.
Frequency 1 1 7 45 73 112 66 305 305 100.0%
Percentage 0.3% 0.3% 2.3% 14.8% 23.9% 36.7% 21.6% 100%

Table Q3: Develop creative and critical thinking


Total
Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Res. Population % Resp.
Frequency 1 0 7 35 63 120 79 305 305 100.0%
Percentage 0.3% 0.0% 2.3% 11.5% 20.7% 39.3% 25.9% 100%

The results show that 77.4 percent of the students believe that they have
attained the first learning outcome that is to demonstrate comprehension and
communication skills in English, at scales 6 and 7. The rating is towards the

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excellent extreme of the scale. This indicates that learners believe that they are
able to comprehend the language very well and at the same time they are able to
communicate using the language at an excellent level. In the context of this
paper, the communicative ability, as emphasized in the CLT approach in the
teaching and learning activities, include the four skills: reading, writing, listening
and speaking. At the end of the course, 58 percent of the students perceive their
ability to synthesize information, whether linear or non linear by using various
reading methods, at scales of 6 and 7. 53.5 percent of the students rate such
ability as average at the scales of 4 and 5. Learners undertaking the English 2
proficiency course are not only expected to read effectively but are able to read
from both linear and non-linear methods. Since the percentages of the students
for both at the excellent end and the average level are almost the same, the
instructors may want to give more emphasis to help learners attain the second
learning outcome. Majority of the students (65.2 percent) however feel that their
ability to develop critical and creative thinking skills is good or excellent (the
positive end of the scale).

The findings thus lend a degree of support to the value of this course in
its ability to produce students with the learning outcomes set at the beginning of
the course. The challenge remains in investigating whether the effect of the
learning outcomes at the foundation level will persist well into their long-term
undergraduate tertiary level. Further studies however need to be carried out to
analyze the academic scores of their tests, quizzes, examinations, portfolio and
other assessment methods used in determining the effectiveness of the course,
within the OBE framework.

5.0 PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

The implementation of OBE, which is widely adopted in a number of


higher learning institutions in Malaysia, has indeed caused a major shift in the
education sector. The re-development of the current curriculum with specification
of the learning outcomes proved to be an arduous task. It involved a major
revision in the education pedagogy. The education reform requires a re-
designing and re-development of teaching and learning practices which need to
be in line with the OBE educational principles. The language instructors for the
English 2 course are to re-design and adapt the current English 2 proficiency
course, which employs the process approach of communicative language
teaching, into the OBE framework which has a strong element of the product
approach to teaching language.

In the context of language teaching, outcome-based has elements of the product


approach to teaching English as second language. In such product-oriented
approach, the ends-means syllabuses focus exclusively on the outcomes of
instruction. Specifying the end points of learning is seen as crucial to the
curriculum designer. The objectives, materials and methodology of the product
approach are thus made before there is any encounter between teacher and
learner. The first model of a product approach was articulated by Tyler (1949). In
line with such approach, outcome-based teaching and learning is concerned with
curriculum design and ensuring that the contents, delivery, activities and
assessments are all aligned to help facilitate students to attain the pre-specified

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[23]
learning outcomes . Thus, like the product-oriented approach, outcome-based
education is a pedagogical approach which also focuses on the achievement of
certain specified results.

On the other hand, the communicative language teaching (the approach


originally adopted in the course) belongs to the family of the process approach to
teaching language, which stands in a stark contrast to the product approach.
With the implementation of the OBE, the CLT (process-oriented) has to be
adapted into the OBE framework (product-oriented). The difference is that
process syllabuses, such as CLT, allow for greater learner reinterpretation and
decision-making as usually there are no predetermined outcomes of the course.
Process oriented syllabuses focus on the means of gaining knowledge and skills,
not the outcomes.

Unlike the product approach (and OBE) the process approach to


syllabus design therefore has less emphasis on specifying the output of the
[5] [5]
syllabus . In an extreme case of process-oriented syllabuses, suggests “what
a syllabus consists of can only be discerned after a course is over, by observing
what was not planned, but what took place”, which is in total contrast to the
outcome-based curriculum, that is implemented in the current English 2 course.
The course however has all the while been adopting communicative language
teaching (a process approach). The course thus has been all along stressing on
“cognitive psychological processes through communicative language teaching
[16]
and task-based language learning” . Task-based language learning activities
form a strong component of the process approach as “a task-based syllabus is in
[7].
the family of process syllabuses” With the implementation of the OBE within
the CLT framework requires a synthesis of elements of two approaches (product
and process) that form an eclectic approach to teaching language in the course.
Such synthesis of the two approaches in the OBE framework thus
emphasizes both on the product (the outcomes) of the course and the learning
process that takes place in the course e.g. the process of negotiation of meaning
amongst the students when a carrying out a task and that such activity helps
learners to attain the learning outcomes of the task.
The OBE framework however differs from the product approach in its
evaluation. The linear model of the product approach, which has planning,
implementation and evaluation occur in sequential order as the learners’
performance is evaluated at the end of the semester. The evaluation of learners’
performance in the OBE curriculum is however done continually in stages. This is
in agreement with the process approach that has been employed in the current
[11]
language proficiency course. As mentioned by , “leaving evaluation until the
final stage of the curriculum process is rather like doing military intelligence after
the war is over – evaluation should take place at every stage”. Such approach to
evaluating learners’ performance facilitates students to gradually attain the
intended learning outcomes. This is based on the theoretical framework of OBE
that some students learn certain material faster than the others and all students
are capable of continuous improvements.

There has been a debate in the literature on the effectiveness of the


approaches. The process-product debate may pose a false dichotomy as it can

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be argued that there is no product in the absence of the process for getting there.
Similarly, there can be no process without resulting to some kind of a product.
Both the strength of the product approach and the process approach are
therefore synthesized into the teaching and learning of the English 2 proficiency
course, within the framework of OBE. According to the feedback from the
students reported in the previous section, such eclectic approach is beneficial to
the learners. The eclectic approach of the process oriented elements (in the CLT
approach adopted) and the product oriented elements (within the OBE
[19], [9],
framework) may be beneficial to the learners. As according to cited in the
OBE approach promotes the integration of various teaching and learning
strategies by instructors and educators in order to help learners attain the
specified learning outcomes.

6.0 CONCLUSION

Outcomes-based education can lead to successful student learning as it


encourages preparedness. Although this approach is more centered to students,
teachers play an equally vital role in terms of creating appropriate learning
opportunities for students. To facilitate learning, teachers should take the
following into account: What do we want students to learn? Why do we want
students to learn these things? How can we best help students to learn these
things? and, How will we know when students have learned? Establishing an
OBE system for education is the good way for learners to achieve and
accomplish the desired outcomes. While the role of the teacher is to enable and
encourage his or her students to achieve pertinent outcomes of the course, the
onus is on the student to actively participate and contribute during the learning
process. The researchers would like to note that the conclusion on the
effectiveness of the approach is however not conclusive. More empirical studies
need to be carried out to verify its effectiveness.

REFERENCES

[1] Block, J. H. (Ed.). (1971). Mastery learning: Theory and practice. New
York: Holt, Rinehardt and Winston.

[2] Bloom, B. S. (1973). Every kid can: Learning for mastery. Washington,
DC: College/University Press.

[3] Brandt, R. (1993). On Outcome-Based Education: A Conversation with


Bill Spady. Educational Leadership, 5 (4), 66-70.

[4] Breen, M. and Candlin, C. (1980). The essentials of a communicative


curriculum in language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 1/2.
[5] Candlin, C. N. (1984). Syllabus design as a critical process. In C. Brumfit
(ed.) General English Syllabus Design. Oxford: Pergamon.
[6] Dodridge, M. & Kassinopoulos, M. (2003). Assessment of student

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learning: the experience of two European institutions where outcomes-


based assessment has been implemented. European Journal of
Engineer Education. 28.4.549-565

[7] Graves, K. (2000). Designing Language Courses. Cambridge: A Guide


for Teachers. Cambridge University Press.
[8] Hymes, D. (1971). Competence and Performance in Linguistics Theory.
In R. Huxley and E. Ingram (eds.), Language acquisition: Models and
Methods. London: Academic Press.
[9] Kilfoil, W. R., & Van der Walt, C. (1997). Learn 2 teach: English language
teaching in a multilingual context. Pretoria: J. L. Van Schaik.

[10] Killen, R. & Spady, W. (1999). Using the SAQA critical outcomes to
inform curriculum planning in higher education in South Africa. South
African Journal of Higher Education, 14(1), 200-208.

[11] Lawton, D. (1973). Social Change, Educational Theory and Curriculum


Planning. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
[12] Malan, B. 2000. The New Paradigm of Outcomes-based Education in
Perspective. Tydskrif vir Verbruikerwetenskappe, 28, 22-28. Retrieved
September 30, 2007 from
http://www.up.ac.za/academic/acadorgs/saafecs/vol28/malan.html

[13] Mager, R. F. (1962). Preparing instructional objectives. San Francisco:


Fearon.

[14] Mamary, A. (1991). Fourteen principles of quality outcomes-based


education. Quality Outcomes-Driven Education, October, 21-28

[15] Masters, G. N. & Evans, J. (1986). A sense of direction in criterion-


referenced assessment. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 12(3), 257-
265.

[16] Nunn, B. (2001). Task-based Methodology and Sociocultural Theory.


The Language Teacher Online, 25:8.
[17] Savignon, S.J. (2001). Communicative Language Teaching for the
Twenty-First Century In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a
nd
Second or Foreign Language (3 ed.), New York: Newbury House/
Harper Collins.
[18] Spady, W. 1994. Outcomes Based Education: Critical Issues and
Answers. American Association of School Administration: Arlington,
Virginia.

[19] Thobedi, M. 2004. Outcomes-Based Education in the English Second


Language Classroom in South Africa Gawie Schlebusch, The Qualitative
Report, 9 (1), 35-48.

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[20] Towers, J. M. (1994). The perils of outcome-based teacher education.


Phi Delta Kappan, 75(8).

[21] Tyler, R. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum instruction. Chicago:


Chicago University Press.

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A PBL APPROACH FOR ACQUIRING GLOBAL PROJECT EXPERIENCES IN


ARCHITECTURAL/ ENGINEERING/ CONSTRUCTION EDUCATION

ABSTRACT - A major concern in establishing


R. IBRAHIM
Department Architecture, Faculty of a global project’s operation is ensuring the
Design and Architecture, movement of knowledge amongst the team
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM members for a timely and within the budget
Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia implementation. Already operating in the
complex property development process, a
rahinah@putra.upm.edu.my; global project team must also work in a
upm.rahinah@gmail.com situation where professional, cultural, spatial
and technological differences would add the
complexity. This paper presents a conceptual
framework for an architectural-construction
integration (A-CI) design studio curriculum in
the context of an architectural graduate
program. It aims to apply transdisciplinary
principals to educate competent graduates in
sustainable global design-build practice.The
A-CI curriculum emulates the computer-
integrated Project Based Learning
Laboratory (PBL) model developed at
Stanford University, with a focus on the early
design phase of a project’s design
development process. The A-CI curriculum
builds on the PBL’s framework and
principles, extending it to include the project
financial and regulatory decision-making
process along the planning and architectural
design processes that integrate Modular
Coordination dimensions for open building
systems. The proposed extended model
shares PBL’s advantages and cost-
effectiveness of working collaboratively in a
cross-disciplinary environment. The A-CI
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. model will initially build bridges across
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. disciplines by addressing different
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran stakeholders’ issues in earlier development
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat life-cycle phases. The paper will first present
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi the literature review, followed by a
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden description on the framework and principles
Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor of the PBL model before proposing how we
12-14 Disember 2007 extend the PBL model to integrate the early
architectural design phase.

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Keywords: Project Based Learning,


Architectural Curriculum,
ransdisciplinary Learning,
Sustainable Architecture

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP) 2006-2015 [1] states the
need for builders to do away with heavy reliance on labor to automated
construction and industrialized building. In addition to the above, there is a
need to reduce the high rate of design errors that emerged during construction,
which is one of the factors for delay and cost increment in many property
development projects in Malaysia [2]. Despite emerging processes and high
performance team skills that develop as a result of efficient and effective use of
advanced IT solutions, knowledge still gets missing in the complex design and
development processes for building projects [3]. Although the building industry
claims to have standardized its process of delivery products, [4] argue that
these delivery processes are still limited to concerns regarding structural safety
and temperature controlled shelter—i.e., very “engineering” requirements—
while ignoring about other sustainable components, such as socio-cultural and
economics sustainability of the community where the building will be located.
For the purpose of acquiring a broader understanding of the building process
and its related issues, we are proposing a transdisciplinary curriculum at
Universiti Putra Malaysia specifically for supporting the nation’s building
industry.
The transdisciplinary curriculum would integrate the use of advanced
technologies—the main source of creating and improving the competitive
advantages of a firm. In the building context, automation and robotics are
recognized as the critical solutions to cost reduction, and to improving
construction productivity [5]. With many developing countries already feeling
the impacts of globalization, the [6] is calling for increasing utilization of
computer-integrated design and construction processes by a project team in
order for its members to become competitive locally and internationally. The
added skills and technologies will allow construction stakeholders to at least
partner, if not participate, in global projects with their foreign counterparts.
[1]
With the Malaysian Government’s encouragement to go overseas ,
local builders need to equip them with the capability to work with multiple design
professionals and builders from different cultures, cross several time zones, and
exposure to different technological tools and skills. Hence, the need to update
[7] [8]
our professional curriculum towards transdisciplinary learning. and state
that successful design and building integration requires transdisciplinary inputs
very early during the design process. In transdisciplinary situation, each
discipline would provide its sound professional input, while capable of
[8]
accommodating the requirements of other disciplines . Presently, architectural
graduates will acquire the leadership and life-long learning skills through real-life
experiences only—the reason why many architectural bodies worldwide require

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architectural graduates to acquire several years of compulsory postgraduate


professional working experience before qualifying to sit for their professional
examinations. Given the above scenario, it is not possible for students to
participate in global projects immediately upon graduation. Hence, we foresee
the need to include real-life experiences through a well-developed curriculum at
the university level. We would like to propose a curriculum that 1) embraces
ICT, 2) allows transdisciplinary learning, and most importantly 3) bring forward
the real-life global experience into a safe classroom setting.
Transdisciplinary architectural education embraces understanding about
the present built environment where the unity of knowledge from design,
engineering, financing, socio-cultural, etc. We found the Project Based Learning
(PBL) Laboratory curriculum at Stanford University (Stanford) very close to
implementing transdisciplinary learning. We explain the key components of PBL
in Section 3 of this paper. The paper will first present the literature review,
followed by a description on the framework and principles of the PBL model
before proposing how we extend the PBL model to integrate the early
architectural design phase.

2.0 BACKGROUND LITERATURE REVIEW

In this section, we present some literature on transdisciplinary education


and explain how it can support the education of building professionals in
understanding the complex property development processes.
2.1 Transdisciplinary Education
Transdisciplinary architectural education embraces the concern
between disciplines, across the different disciplines, and beyond all
discipline. Its goal is to understand the present built environment, of
which one of the imperatives is the unity of knowledge from design,
engineering, financing, socio-cultural, etc. The transdisciplinary approach
is a framework for allowing members of an educational team to
contribute knowledge and skills, collaborate with other members, and
[9]
collectively determine the services that most would benefit a student .
As opposed to interdisciplinary—the additive use of knowledge
from several disciplines to confront a problem or to form a new
—[9]
understanding explains that transdiciplinary is a meta level above
interdisciplinary and is best described as a way to find the patterns and
the differences that make a difference by taking the epistemologies from
each discipline to drive inquiry. For better understanding of the term
[7] [10]
transdiscipline, in explains the differences between disciplinary,
multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary. Figure 1
illustrates the differences, where:

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Figure 1: The difference between disciplinary, multidisciplinary,


interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary (Adapted from [10]).

i) Disciplinary: Epistemologies, assumptions, knowledge, skills, methods


are within the boundary of a discipline. eg. Architecture; Engineering.
ii) Multidisciplinary: Using the knowledge/understanding of more than one
discipline, e.g., Architecture and Engineering.
iii) Interdisciplinary: Using the epistemologies/methods of one discipline
within another, e.g., Architectural Engineering. One can distinguish three
degrees of interdisciplinarity by:

a) A degree of application. For example, the arch to


support building loads is used as a decorative entrance
into a building.
b) An epistemological degree. For example, electrical
knowledge versus mechanical knowledge can both
support thermal comfort.
c) A degree of the generation of new disciplines. Natural
ventilation can be incorporated with spatial planning
creates a field called indoor air quality.

iv) Transdisciplinary: Focus on an issue such as ‘sustainability’ or


‘conservation’ both within and beyond discipline boundaries with the
possibility of new perspectives. For example, financing is not taught in
detailed in architecture schools, but does impact the delivery of a
property project.
[10]
additionally outlined several transdisciplinary learning methodologies for
inquiry. First, transdisciplinary investigations involve students in using more than
one discipline in solving significant real world questions or problems. In doing so,

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students increase their capacity to make connections in their learning across the
curriculum and between disciplines. For example, architectural students learn
about their professional practice while observing the structural engineer having
difficulties trying to fulfill the design objectives in a complex building design.
Secondly, transdisciplinary learning is engaging for students because it supports
their involvement in tasks that are worthwhile, significant and meaningful such as
those undertaken by successful adults. A close to real-life project can support the
global experience one can obtain during postgraduate working. However, while a
significant part of learning will be transdisciplinary, there will still be a need for
dedicated teaching of some aspects of disciplines. This requires architectural
students to learn about construction methodologies while they work on their
architectural design. Finally, transdisciplinary inquiry involves multiple disciplines
and the space between the disciplines with the possibility of new perspectives
'beyond' those disciplines. One such example is the need to understand the
financing requirements during a property development process.

2.2 Complexity in the Property Development Process


[11].
The property development process is complex Property
developers are concerned about the financial sustainability of
their facilities, while architects assist the property developers to
develop their projects. From a property developer’s point of view,
how the design proposals advance from schematic drawings to
construction documents is not its concern as long as it is aware
that the architect is coordinating the design and construction
documents. The period during which a formal application for a
development permit is made until when construction actually
[3].
commences at the site is called entitlements phase This is
because, during this period, property developers are busy lining
up their permanent financing in order to close their construction
loans. This scenario hints a dual side of the development process
prior to the construction phase: the well-known architectural-
engineering-construction (AEC) design-construction process
versus the developer’s public and financing process. Through the
proposed curriculum, future building professionals will be exposed
to this duality where they would understand their building
documents will be used by property developers to obtain
construction and permanent financing.
Based on the organizational behavior theory, the contingency
[12]
theory framework would categorize the operating environment
of the property development life cycle as having the
characteristics of high complexity, high uncertainty, and high
equivocality. It has high complexity because, despite having a
functional organizational configuration, the property development
organization also reflects a strong matrix configuration. A property
development project has high uncertainty because, despite
having a general sequential development activity schedule, each
project is unique due to having multiple interdependencies
between tasks. The operating environment has high equivocality,

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because there exist multiple and conflicting interpretations,


confusion, and lack of understanding among the stakeholders
especially when dealing with regulatory agencies, city officials,
and the public. The intricate environmental characteristics point to
the need for establishing non-traditional methodology for teaching
future building industry professionals.

2.3 Transdisciplinary Learning of the Complex Property


Development Process
At meta-level, the complex property development process is about the
ability of a property developer in delivering a project that is financially
sustainable, yet fulfilling the socio-cultural requirements of the community it is
located at, and yet environmentally friendly to the natural resources. Most
architectural education simply puts a limit to the maximum amount a project
should cost, but void of explaining why it has to be so. Using transdisciplinary
inquiry principals, students learn the sources of financial, social, and regulatory
constraints that would influence the end product of their design studio problem. In
this context, for instance, architecture as well as engineering and their underlying
ethics have to be based on rather different principles than during the past.
Problems are no longer solved or met with a purely "technical" or a mere
"architectural" resolution. They are interconnected as they have always been,
and definitely require a transdisciplinary approach including landscaping, social
as well as political parameters. An example, a living room exudes the cultural
needs of hosting guests in a house, but utilizes day lighting for energy saving. In
other words, a viable education can only mean integral education of the human
being. Transdisciplinary education has its origins in the inexhaustible richness of
the scientific spirit, which is based on questioning, as well as on the rejection of
[9].
all a priori answers and certitude contradictory to the facts At the same time, it
revalues the role of deeply rooted intuition, of imagination, of sensitivity, and of
the body in the transmission of knowledge (Ibid.). We concur that this is one way
can the society of the twenty-first century reconcile effectiveness and affectivity.

3.0 THE PBL MODEL

Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a term used within education for a


range of pedagogic approaches that encourage students to learn through the
[13].
structured exploration of a research problem It is a term describing
techniques that make students take an active, task-oriented, and self-directed
approach to their own learning (ibid.). This section describes the fundamental
([14], [15])
principals of the PBL model at Stanford University whose mission is
preparing the next generation of architectural/engineering/construction (AEC)
professionals who know how to team up with professionals from other disciplines
worldwide and leverage the advantages of innovative collaboration technologies
to produce higher quality products, faster, more economical, and environmentally
friendly. It explains how close we can apply the four pillars of transdisciplinary
learning in the PBL model. The four pillars are: learning to know, learning to do,
[7].
learning to live together with, and learning to be

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3.1 The PBL AEC Global Teamwork Test Bed


The Architecture/Engineering/Construction (AEC) Global
Teamwork course is a two-Quarter class established in 1993 at Stanford
that engages architecture, structural engineering, and construction
management students from universities worldwide. Every year there are
between 4 to 12 AEC teams in the class. Each AEC team is
geographically distributed, and has an owner/client with a building
program, a location, a budget, and a time line. Consequently, each
student has four challenges—i.e., cross-disciplinary teamwork, use of
advanced collaboration technology, time management and team
coordination, and multi-cultural collaboration.
3.2 The Evolving PBL Global Teamwork EcoSystem
[16]
The PBL ecosystem provides a heterogeneous environment
for transdisciplinary learning that includes:

(1) Network Infrastructure, i.e, LAN/WAN, Internet2 and the wireless


zones at Stanford and the participating universities
(2) Devices used include diverse interactive wireless and wired
devices to enable mobile learners to stay connected with their
peers. They range from PDAs and pen-based laptops (Tablet
[17]
PCs) for mobility; Web cameras, SmartBoards, to the iRoom
for collaborative synchronous review and decision support.
(3) Collaboration Applications address the need for synchronous
and asynchronous communication, interaction and feedback,
direct manipulation, knowledge capture, sharing, and re-use; and
data collection and analysis.
(4) Places The PBL learners work at various private, public, local
and global learning and work places. Such places range from
home (private), office (local), meeting rooms (regional), and
networked learning hubs (global).
(5) People The global teamwork engages students, faculty, and
industry mentors from architecture, structural engineering, and
construction management.

3.3 Innovative Learning and Teamwork Experiences


The AEC Global Teamwork learning to know by doing and ‘living’
together experiences are both structured (e.g., AEC round table
discussions about product, process and role of each profession,
signature building project case studies, project review sessions, project
crits, project presentations) and unstructured (e.g., team meetings,
students informally meeting with industry mentors, individual
brainstorming, asynchronous discussion of ideas and solutions). Several
cutting edge technologies were developed to support such collaboration
[19]
such as RECALL [18], ThinkTank , and CoMem (Corporate Memory)
[20]
into the iRoom environment and mobile devices. Other supporting
applications include MS Netmeeting videoconference, Web Groupspace
for document management, and instant messaging.

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3.4 Mentoring and Reverse Mentoring


Understanding the goals and constraints of other disciplines are
key to working well in cross-disciplinary project teams. In the PBL,
students learn cross-disciplinary design skills through interacting in their
design teams through carefully constructed mentoring relationships.
Students learn to know by participating in regular meetings between
students and mentors are structured for project reviews, project crits,
Fishbowl sessions, project presentations, etc. A Fishbowl session is a
project review session where students watch industry mentors participate
in real-life how AEC professionals were to work together on solving a
[21].
problem The student is at times the center of the activity, supported
by mentors, and other times observing the industry mentors at work,.
The mentors, in turn, learn how to use the technologies they observe the
students make new IT practices explicit, and are able to bring these
[22].
ideas and technologies into their work place

3.5 Cross-Disciplinary Assessment


PBL utilises the cross-disciplinary learning (CDL) assessment,
defined as a journey from the state of island of knowledge (discipline-
centric) to a state of understanding of the goals, language, and
[23].
representations of the other disciplines The objective of the AEC
Global Teamwork class is for all or majority of the students to position
themselves at the center of learning experience in understanding by the
end of the course. More studies will be conducted to use the four
transdisciplianry pillars of learning as the future assessment
methodology. The four CDL tiers are:

(1) Island of knowledge: The student masters his/her discipline, but


does not have experience in other disciplines.

(2) Awareness: The student is aware of the other discipline’s goals


and constraints.

(3) Appreciation: The student begins to build a conceptual


framework of the other disciplines, is interested to understand
and support the other disciplines’ goals and concept, and know
what questions to ask.

(4) Understanding: The student begins to build a conceptual


understanding of the other disciplines, can negotiate, is proactive
in discussion with participants from the other disciplines,
provides input before the input is requested, and begins to use
the language of other disciplines.

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3.6 Emerging Processes and Skills


Observations through the years have indicated that high-
performance teams that use the collaboration and
communication technologies effectively exhibit the following two
[20]
behavioural and process changes that coined as:

(1) Collaboration readiness that entails early and continuous


knowledge sharing, responsiveness, and timeliness, and
rd
(2) The 3 Way that entails establishing a team
communication process based on the team’s
preferences for communication channels, protocols and
norms. Any technology choice led to behavioral,
process, and team dynamics changes.

40. EXTENDING THE PBL MODEL TO SUPPORT EARLY


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

We plan to extend the PBL model by introducing planning and financing


concepts in the schematic conceptual diagramming of a design studio problem.
The planning and financing concepts would entails a complete due-diligence
feasibility analysis that includes site selection, site analysis, title analysis,
governmental requirements study, product design, market analysis, product cost
[11]
estimation, and financial feasibility analysis .
At the conclusion of this analysis, project sponsors decide whether or not
they want to proceed to the next stage, i.e., submitting for development approval
(ibid.). In architectural education, the components of the due-diligence analysis
are essential to achieve successful integration of building, community, natural
and economic systems in a sustainable development project. However, the
financial aspects are normally omitted as to not impede the creativity of the
design process in budding architectural students. Hence, we propose adding
these earlier design components into an extended PBL curriculum at a graduate
level program to expand the current professional competency requirements in an
undergraduate architectural education program.
4.1 Sequence of Design Studio Curriculum
The extended curriculum embraces sustainable development
practices, and is divided into four semesters. The design studio emulates
the PBL model. Each design studio has a project based learning
component covering the different emphasis of the early property
development concerns that affects the AEC professionals. They are:
(1) Semester One: Students will develop understanding on
the challenges of optimizing financial profit during
negotiations with planning authorities. Students will learn
how to evaluate different sites for property development,
analyse their constraints in terms of regulatory, natural,
or manmade constraints. They will learn how to prepare
financial cashflow projections that suit the overall
development schedule, and experience developing high

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level project scheduling and costing using softwares,


such as MSExcell®,MSProject® or Primavera®, and
Timberline® to produce an estimated development cost.
The students will learn how to make decisions on
whether or not they should proceed with the
development.

(2) Semester Two: Students will develop understanding on


the challenges of construction managers. Students will
[24]
be exposed to Modular Coordination (MC) and
[25]
Industrialized Building Systems concepts in design-
build integration processes. Students will learn how to
select the best IBS components for integration in their
design proposals, and produce aesthetically pleasing
products that have the ease of delivery. Students will
present their findings using 3D/4D CAD softwares.

(3) Semester Three: Students will participate in the AEC


Global Teamwork PBL class offered and organized by
Stanford University in collaboration with other worldwide
universities. Details as described in the above Section 3.

(4) Semester Four: Students will develop value-engineering


(VE) skills in refining the financial feasibility and design of
their projects from Semester Three. Students will conduct
VE exercises on at least two selected energy efficiency
components in their project. The VE exercises will guide
students to refine the previous semester’s work through
the innovative use of advance materials, processes,
recyclable and renewal energy systems, etc.
4.2 Design Studio Problems
The choice of building typology that will allow optimum exposure
to early design issues directs us to propose a 200-unit housing
development project as the problem to work on together in Semesters
One and Two. A housing development project will expose students to the
planning and environmental requirements, i.e., Local Structure Plan and
Environmental Impact Assessment needs. Students will gain experience
in negotiating with the local authorities and creating solutions that would
support the sustainable needs of the community and environment where
the project is located. In addition, they will be exposed to rigid financial
constraints that would influence the final outcome of the development
since all project sponsors wants optimum profit in all their ventures. In
the following second semester, students will utilize industrialized building
systems for the delivery of the housing units. The problem will allow
students to experience the planning of just-in-time delivery that will
coincide with just-in-time financing at the design phase.
On the other hand, the Semesters Three and Four design studios will
utilize the same problem that PBL uses, i.e., a 3,000 metre-square
educational building project on a chosen site in USA. The American-

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based problem will allow students to experience working on a global


project with global teammates. Although the PBL class concludes in one
semester, the extended PBL design studio continues to utilize the
outcome of the third semester to further study energy efficiency design in
detail. Students will conduct value engineering that emphasizes energy
efficiency in their evaluation and guide their product refinement.

5.0 A-CI ECOSYSTEM AND FACULTY REQUIREMENTS

The A-CI program at the architecture school will emulate the PBL
ecosystem developed at Stanford. The architectural design studio will offer
students an opportunity to engage with students from other disciplines and work
together on a studio project. The design studio shall include students with
graduate standing from additional disciplines synonymous with the common
design professionals involved during the early planning phase of a property
development process. Besides the main players (e.g., architecture, structural
engineering and construction managers), other students shall include planners,
quantity surveyors, property managers, urban designers and landscape
architects. In view of the additional disciplines participating in the A-CI program,
the number of faculty and industry mentors shall reciprocate as diversified as the
students’. Nevertheless, departmental, faculty, and university support to develop
the A-CI ecosystem and human resource development to support the A-CI
program are critical.

CONCLUSION

This paper outlined the key directions of a framework for an architectural-


construction integration (A-CI) design studio curriculum for an architectural
graduate program that supports the production of competent graduates in
sustainable global design-build practice. The curriculum embraces ICT, allows
transdisciplinary learning, and most importantly brings forward the real-life global
experience into a safe classroom setting. This paper proposes to extend the
Stanford’s PBL model to include several key components of the early feasibility
phase, namely financing and planning regulations, towards developing a
sustainable property development project. At the end of the four-semester
program, students will understand the non-technical aspects of the complex
property development process, and move from the island of knowledge state of
their discipline to the understanding state of the whole property development
process. The proposed curriculum supports the Malaysian Construction Industry
Master Plan 2006-2015 in enhancing the curriculum for construction-related
fields in institutions of higher learning by updating course materials and structure
for architectural studies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This concept in this paper was earlier presented at the Second International
Conference of the Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region
(CSAAR2006) in Rabat, Morocco on 14-16 November 2006 sponsored by the

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Construction Industry Development Board of Malaysia. An extended paper is


accepted for publication in Archnet-IJAR Vol. 1 (Issue 3) November 2007
published by MIT, U.S.A.

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[3] Ibrahim, R., and B. C. Paulson, Jr. “Discontinuity in organizations: How


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[4] Reed, W. and Gordon, E. “Integrated design and building process: What
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[5] Ping Ho, S. and Liang, Y.L. “How to evaluate and invest in emerging
A/E/C technologies under uncertainty.” ASCE Journal of Construction
Engineering and Management Vol. 129 No. 1, pp. 16-24. (2003).

[6] Master Builders Association Malaysia (MBAM). “The Presidents and


CEOs Roundtable 2004”. Master Builders Journal Vol. 3. pp. 34-3.
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[7] Nicolescu, B. La. “Transdisciplinarité. International Congress What


university for tomorrow ? Towards a transdisciplinary evolution of the
university.” Locarno, Switzerland, Apr 30 - May 2, 1996). Retrieved
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[8] Rowe, P. “Professional design education and practice.” In Salama,


Ashraf M.A., William O'Reilly & Kay Noschis (eds.) Architectural
Education Today: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Lausanne:
Comportements: pp. 25-29. (2002).

[9] Bruder, M.B. “Working with members of other disciplines: Collaboration


for success.“ In M. Wolery & J.S. Wilbers (Eds.), Including children with
special needs in early childhood programs (pp. 45-70). Washington, DC:
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[10] Seaton, A. “Reforming the hidden curriculum: The Key Abilities Model
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com. au/reform.htm (2002).

[11] Ibrahim, R. Discontinuity in organizations: Impact of knowledge flow


organizational performance. PhD. dissertation, Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering, Stanford University. (2005).

[12] Burton, R. M., and B. Obel. Strategic organizational diagnosis and


design: Developing theory for application. Boston: Kluwer Academic
Publishers. (2003).

[13] Mills, B. “Problem-based learning.” The Higher Education Academy.


Retrieved 15 April, 2006, from http://www.c-sap.bham.ac.uk/resources/
project_reports/ ShowOverview.asp?id=4. (2006).

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[23] Fruchter, R. and Emery, K. “CDL: Cross-disciplinary learning metrics and


assessment method.” Proc. Computer Support for Collaborative Learning
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[24] Rahinah, I., and Sumarni, I. “Modular Coordination: A design guide


towards open building system in Malaysia.” Proc. of the World
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(1999).

[25] Rahinah, I. “Malaysianising the industrialized building system: Towards a


cultural engineered industrialized building system.” Proc. of the World
Engineering Congress and Exhibition, Kuala Lumpur, 19-22 July: 49-53.
(1999).

[22] Vella, J., Berardinelli, P. & Burrow, J. 1998. How Do They Know They
Know: Evaluating Adult Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

[23] Willis, S. and Kissane, B. (1995). Systematic Approaches to Articulating


and Monitoring Expected Student Outcomes. Report for the Education
Department of Western Australia.

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PREDICTING SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF MBA STUDY USING


E-MINER

ABSTRACT - Data mining is the non-trivial


C.L. ANG discovery of meaningful, new correlations,
IZWAN NIZAL MOHD patterns and trends, and the extraction of
SHAHARANEE implicit, previously unknown, and
Faculty of Quantitative Sciences, potentially useful information from large
ang@uum.edu.my
nizal@uum.edu.my
amounts of data. Companies are using this
tool to further understand their customers,
G.C. REYNALDO to design targeted sales and marketing
Executive Development Centre campaigns, to predict what product
reynaldo@uum.edu.my customers will buy products and the
frequency of purchase, and to spot trends
MOHAMAD ZAINOL ABIDIN ADAM in customer preferences that can lead to
Faculty of Business Management new product development. This paper
mzainol@uum.edu.my reports on a study undertaken to explore
Universiti Utara Malaysia,06010 Sintok
the strategic application of data mining in
Kedah higher education. It was a research that
used E-miner, a data mining tool, to
discover hidden knowledge and
unexpected patterns from the MBA student
database of a local public university. It
attempted to identify which students are
likely to perform satisfactorily in their study.

KEYWORDS: MBA, Data Mining,


Descriptive Modeling, Predictive Modeling

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Education in Malaysia, as in elsewhere, is among the primary agenda for


national development and social transformation. In particular, higher education
is seen as a key instrument for employment and social mobility, among others.
Statistics showed that enrollment in tertiary education in Malaysia surged by
[9].
235.5% from 11,364 in 1970 to 38,125 in 1980 In 2000, there were already
[8].
321,729 students pursuing university education and this figure may keep on
increasing as the country aims to be an educational hub in the region,
[7]
particularly in postgraduate education. reports that the Malaysian
government wants to increase the number of overseas postgraduate students
in public universities to around 50% of the total target postgraduate population,
which is equivalent to around 4,000 students.
Undeniably, higher education institutions play significant roles in
developing future human resources for work and in driving socio-economic
growth. There are at present 16 local public universities and one international

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university providing undergraduate and postgraduate education in Malaysia.


One of them, Universiti Utara Malaysia (hereafter referred to as “UUM”), is the
sixth public university that is tasked to develop management education and its
allied sciences like accounting, quantitative sciences, economics, and
information technology, to name a few. Since its establishment in 1984, UUM
[17]
has produced more than 30,000 graduates . Currently, at the Faculty of
Business Management alone, there are 866 postgraduate students, 849 of
whom are locals and the remainder, foreign students. The number may not be
enough to fulfill the Ministry of Higher Education’s target for postgraduate
students, and other universities may also be experiencing some kind of
dwindling postgraduate student population due to keen competition among
universities in Malaysia as well as in the neighboring countries. Consequently,
this may require higher education institutions like UUM to be more aggressive
and creative in attracting local and foreign students to pursue graduate
education.
Pulling in postgraduate students requires innovative marketing and
promotional strategies, in addition to competitive tuition and related fees.
Higher education institutions, both private and public, do aggressive
advertisement in local and national newspapers in order to attract potential
qualified candidates. This is understandable as institutions for higher learning
contend with student admission. Likewise, student intake is also akin to
additional financial revenues of the higher educational institutions. The more
students register for postgraduate programs, the better is the financial inputs of
the institutions. Subsequently, these affect the administrative and related
operations of the entire organizational system.
Questions like, “What kinds of students are admitted into the highly
sought-after Master of Business Administration (MBA) program?”, “How well are
these students doing in their studies?”, “Which groups of students are likely to
perform and not to perform?” should be addressed by key decision-makers and
players in the University. These are some of the fundamental questions that
require systematic, objective, and empirical investigation. The need to undertake
a methodological study on how to determine the profile of postgraduate students,
in particular the MBA students, is thus apparent and necessary; hence, this
research.
2.0 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

There are vast capabilities and strengths of data mining technology in


[10]
the context of higher educational system . This study attempted to discover
hidden knowledge and unexpected patterns from the MBA student’s database of
public universities using E-miner. For this paper, the main objective is to identify
students who are likely to perform satisfactorily in their study.

3.0 METHODOLOGY

The population of this study was MBA graduates of a local public university.
The database maintained by the university, i.e. Graduate Academic Information
System (GAIS) was the main data source used for data mining. GAIS is a system
created to capture and store all postgraduate students’ information. At the time of
this research, there were about 2,400 records of MBA students who were

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registered in the university, either in the main campus or in other off-campus


centers since 1995. For the purpose of this study, records of students who were
still pursuing the program were not included for mining. As of end of 2005, there
were 1,758 data sets. However, only 847 data sets were usable for this study as
many of the graduated students records were with too many missing values.

The increase in the amount of data being collected and the ease of collecting
data, the declining cost of data storage and cost of computational power,
together with the development of robust and efficient machine learning
algorithms to process data have led to the increase interest in data mining
[6].
among organizations Data mining is the nontrivial discovery of meaningful,
new correlations, patterns and trends, and the extraction of implicit, previously
[2].
unknown, and potentially useful information from large amounts of data The
operations of data mining can be classified into: (1) clustering/segmentation, (2)
visualization, (3) predictive modeling, (4) link analysis, (5) deviation detection, (6)
[6].
dependency modeling, and (7) summarization These operations can be used
to serve respective practical purposes in industries today. Companies are now
using data mining capability to understand more about their customers, to design
targeted sales and marketing campaigns, to predict what and how frequently
customers will buy products, and to spot trends in customer preferences that lead
to new product development as well as to attract applicants and ensure
[11, 15, 18, 3].
enrolment at universities
This research utilized E-miner in mining the data. Before the data sets were used
to create the models, they were checked for errors and cleaned. Missing values
were up-dated with data from other university information systems where
possible with the help of the GAIS maintenance personnel at the Computer
Center of the university. Some pre-processing was carried out. Age and working
experience at the beginning of the MBA program (derived variables) were
computed based on date of birth and year start working respectively. The
Nationality variable was cross-checked with Race and Address. Nationality of
minor groups was recoded as Others. The data set for mining and the description
about each variable are as shown in TableS 1, 2 and 3.

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Table 1: Data set for data mining

Table 2: Summary statistics of interval variables

Table 3: Number of classes of categorical variables

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4.0 RESULTS
Mining of the data using Decision Tree technique found that only two
variables were significant in differentiating MBA students who are likely to
complete their study successfully, namely, centre of study and entrance
qualification. For those at the main campus in Sintok, Kedah and in Sungai
Petani centre, 80% of them would succeed. For those at other centres, only
about one third of them with a CGPA of 3.13 and above upon admission are able
to complete their study. Figure 1 illustrates the findings.

Figure 1: Decision Tree


The researchers also employed Wald statistical analyses of Logistic
Regression to evaluate the statistical significance of each predictor variable in
the explanation of the dependent variable. Through this statistic, one could
determine whether the coefficient for the predictor was significantly different from
zero. If the coefficient was significantly different from zero, then the predictor
variable was assumed to make significant contribution to the prediction of the
outcome of the dependent variables.

As presented in table 4, ethnic group (Chinese), mode of study (full-


time), CGPA, marital status (married), and centre of study (UUM) are significant
predictors that are linked to successful completion of MBA. Other factors like
gender, work experience, sponsorship, age upon enrolment, and citizenship had
no statistically significant bearing with degree completion.

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Table 4: Wald chi-square of each effect variable

The researchers also attempted to determine which model could best


predict completion of the MBA. Three models were used, namely, the decision
tree, the logistic regression and the neural network model. As found out, study
completion of students is slightly better predicted using the neural network
model. The lift charts show that, in the top 20 percentile the selected Artificial
Neural Network shows slightly better prediction capability. Figures 2 and 3
presents the models comparison.

Figure 2: Logistic Regression for predicting completion of MBA

Figure 3: Lift Chart: Cumulative Percentage of Captured Response

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5.0 DISCUSSION

The objective of this paper is to identify variables that could differentiate


MBA students who could complete their studies. As found in this research, centre
of study and entrance qualification (CGPA) made a statistically significant
contribution to the completion of MBA. In particular, those from the main campus
in Sintok, Kedah and in Sungai Petani were the most likely to graduate from the
programme. This finding lends support to what Paton (2001) stressed that the
way ahead for educational institutions, bold enough for the adventure, is to
provide a faculty, curriculum and learning process in a differentiated format, even
if this is only on a local basis, which delivers the promised outcomes. It might be
that students in the main campus and in Sungai Petani perceived the teaching-
learning environment in these centres as highly conducive to learning and thus
motivated them to carry on with their ultimate aim of obtaining their MBA. The
learning environment may also be attributed to ‘curriculum’, which can be
expressed in practical terms as regards course offerings. In other words, it might
be construed that more courses were offered in these centres than somewhere
else, thus, allowing the students to carry academic loads that would allow them
to finish their MBA earlier than their colleagues in other centres. Despite the high
success rate, however, it is also interesting to note what Crainer (1998) said that
the quality of the product and its market attractiveness lies in the hands of the
schools, which emphasised on ‘quality’ and ‘attractiveness’ of ‘products’, which
are actually the MBA graduates of any institution.

Moreover, it is also interesting to find out that those who completed their
MBA were those whose entrance CGPA was 3.13 and above. It may be deduced
that candidates with this CGPA were more academically prepared, had better
cognitive abilities, and were more diligent and persistent than those with lower
CGPA. In future admission requirements, it is recommended that applicants with
CGPA of at least 3.13 be given direct admission into the MBA program because
these are the students who would have a very high probability of completing their
program on time.

The findings of this research could be utilised by Universiti Utara


Malaysia in identifying and monitoring the key factors related to the academic
performance of MBA students. The identification of these factors such as full-time
student and centred at UUM main campus would allow some proactive academic
intervention to assist poor performers to cope with the demands and rigors of
MBA. Consequently, this would help current MBA students to be successful
throughout the whole duration of the program; that is, to enable them to progress
every semester with satisfactory level of academic attainment.

Another interesting part of the research is the finding on the relationship


between the students’ academic performance and cumulative grade point
average (CGPA) upon admission into the MBA program. The findings will have
implications on the policies related to admission/intake of potential candidates,
which could be integrated or adopted as well in other programme admission or
intake guidelines. The University may thus, be able to determine what CGPA

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would be acceptable for entry into the MBA and other programmes.

This study could also widen the applications of data mining technique
specifically in the higher education sector. Not many researchers may be familiar
with the use of this technique; thus, this research would allow scholars and
researchers to determine the extent of applicability of data mining in analysing
researches such as the present one. The findings would provide these people
with insights on the fundamental measures on how to employ data mining and its
usability in social science research.

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International Conference, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 28 September – 1
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[8] Malaysia (2001). Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005. Putrajaya: Economic


Planning Unit.

[9] Malaysia (1981). Third Malaysia Plan 1976-1980. Kuala Lumpur:


Government Press.

[10] Mohammad Reza Beikzadeh & Naeimeh Delavari (2004). “A New


Analysis Model for Data Mining Process in higher Educational Systems”.

[11] Min, H., Min, H., & Emam, A. (2002). A Data Mining Approach to
Developing the Profiles of Hotel Customers. Int. Journal of Contemporary
Hospitality Management, 14 (6), 274-285.

[12] Min, H., & Emam, A. (2003). Developing the Profiles of Truck Drivers for
their Successful Recruitment and Retention: A Data Mining Approach.
Int. Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics management, 33 (2), 149-

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162.

[13] Paton, R.A. (2001). Developing businesses and people: an MBA


solution? Journal of Management Development, 20(3), 235-244.

[14] SAS (2005). The Best and the Brightest: Baylor Relies on SAS for Cost-
Saving Strategic Enrollment Management,
http://www.sas.com/success/baylor_sem.html, accessed on 6 March
2005.

[15] Spangler, W.E., Gal-Or, M., & May, J.H. (2003). Using Data Mining to
Profile TV Viewers. Communications of the ACM, 46(12), 66-72.

[16] Universiti Utara Malaysia (2002). Annual Report. Sintok: UUM.

[17] Universiti Utara Malaysia (2004). Annual Report. Sintok: UUM.

[18] Yeo, C.Y., & Smith, K.A. (2003). Implementing a data mining solution for
an automobile insurance company: Reconciling theoretical benefits with
practical considerations. Annals of Cases on Information Technology, 5,
63-73.

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FACILITATING GRADUATE LEVEL-LEARNING:


A CASE STUDY OF THE
“NEWFOUNDLAND STRATEGY”

ABSTRACT - This paper is an examination


Normah Haji Omar of the author's experiences facilitating for the
Faculty of Accountancy first time, an advanced graduate course of a
Universiti Teknologi MARA new and niche Master program at her
Malaysia university. The course: Financial Criminology
40450 Shah Alam, MALAYSIA
and Investigative Techniques; the program –
normah645@salam.uitm.edu.my
Master in Forensic Accounting and Financial
Criminology. Whilst the students comprise
mainly of experienced, working adults; the
author (though academically qualified) has
very limited practical experience in the
subject matter. The “Newfoundland Strategy”
focuses on students-driven learning
initiatives, which incorporates self-reflected
case study approach, guest speakers from
the industry, group presentations, seminars,
forums, video clippings, simulated case
defense (in a moot court) and written case
reports. Both the facilitating role of the
author and the multiple initiatives assumed
by the students had successfully created a
positive and interesting in-class environment
for the course. The purpose of this paper is to
share insights about this strategy, so that
other educators who are considering
implementing similar understand the
challenges and ultimately experience
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. success in their endeavors.
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara.
Prosiding Persidangan Every truth has four corners: as a teacher I
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di give you one corner, and it is for you to find
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian the other three.
Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of
Golden Horses,
Confucius
Seri Kembangan, Selangor
12-14 Disember 2007

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

The “Newfoundland Strategy” refers to the author’s own experience and


discovery in finding the “best approach” in facilitating a graduate-level course at
her university. “Newfoundland” is just a fictional term used in this paper to
describe various new, exciting discoveries and experiences encountered by both
the author and her students during the conduct of a new course of a new
program. The university had just recently introduced a new and niche graduate
program, Master in Forensic Accounting and Financial Criminology. Basically,
the program was developed to fill the acute industry need for forensic
accountants – a new breed of financial fraud investigators. Financial frauds that
took place in business organizations such as Enron, Worldcom, Parmalet,
Pewaja Steel, Transmile and Megan Media are just “tip of the iceberg” and had
resulted in the increasing demand for forensic accounting programs. Forensic
accounting is the application of investigative and analytical skills for the purpose
of resolving financial issues in a manner that meets standards required by the
[15]
courts of law . The first cohort comprises twenty eight students who are
mostly very experience in the investigative field, coming from various sectors
such as banking, insurance, auditing, commerce & industry, the Inland Revenue
board and the police.

The course Investigative Techniques and Financial Criminology


represents the final core comprehensive paper where one needs to incorporate
and integrate both theoretical knowledge and practical competencies. As such,
the course requires more than just mere investigative experience to master it. At
the end of the course, students are expected to display their ability and
competency through two important roles: as a financial investigator and as an
expert witness in litigation cases. The author, who was assigned to facilitate the
course has the necessary academic and professional qualifications, but did not
have the investigative experience to her credit. How best then should this course
be conducted so that the students’ and the facilitator’s experiences can be
optimally utilized?. Premised on the popular Chinese proverb “Tell me and I
forget; Show me and I remember; Involve me and I understand”, the
“Newfoundland Strategy” focuses on the need to actively involve the students
during the conduct of the course. As propagated by the Constructivism learning
theory perspective, this paper is written based on the understanding that
students’ theories are attempts to describe how learning at its basic level is all
self-taught.

2.0 THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS: CONSTRUCTIVISM LEARNING


THEORY

As previously mentioned, the “Newfoundland Strategy” is premised on


the Constructivism learning theory. The theory as propagated by Jean Piaget in
the 1950s, is a set of assumptions about the nature of human learning that guide
constructivist learning theories and teaching methods of education. He
suggested that through processes of accommodation and assimilation,
individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences. When individuals

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assimilate, they incorporate the new experience into an already existing


framework without changing that framework. This may occur when individuals'
experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the world, but may
also occur as a failure to change a faulty understanding; for example, they may
not notice events, may misunderstand input from others, or may decide that an
event is a fluke and is therefore unimportant as information about the world. In
contrast, when individuals' experiences contradict their internal representations,
they may change their perceptions of the experiences to fit their internal
representations. According to the theory, accommodation is the process of
reframing one's mental representation of the external world to fit new
experiences. Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which
failure leads to learning: when we act on the expectation that the world operates
in one way and it violates our expectations, we often fail, but by accommodating
this new experience and reframing our model of the way the world works, we
learn from the experience of failure, or others' failure.

2.1. The Role of the Learner

Constructivist views each learner as a unique individual with


unique needs and backgrounds. The learner is also seen as complex
[13].
and multidimensional Constructivism not only acknowledges the
uniqueness and complexity of the learner, but actually encourages,
[22].
utilises and rewards it as an integral part of the learning process

[13]
Also emphasizes the importance of the background and
culture of the learner. Constructivism encourages the learner to arrive at
his or her own version of the truth, influenced by his or her background,
culture or embedded worldview. Historical developments and symbol
systems, such as language, logic, and mathematical systems, are
inherited by the learner as a member of a particular culture and these are
learned throughout the learner's life. These symbol systems dictate how
[13,3]
the learner learns and what is learned . This also stresses the
importance of the nature of the learner's social interaction with
knowledgeable members of the society. Without the social interaction
with other more knowledgeable people, it is impossible to acquire social
meaning of important symbol systems and learn how to utilize them.
Young children develop their thinking abilities by interacting with other
children, adults and the physical world. From the constructivist viewpoint,
it is thus important to take into account the background and culture of the
learner throughout the learning process, as this background also helps to
shape the knowledge and truth that the learner creates, discovers and
[13, 22]
attains in the learning process

Furthermore, it is argued that the responsibility of learning


[21].
should reside increasingly with the learner Social constructivism thus
emphasizes the importance of the learner being actively involved in the
learning process, unlike previous educational viewpoints where the
responsibility rested with the instructor to teach and where the learner
[21]
played a passive, receptive role. Emphasizes that learners construct

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their own understanding and that they do not simply mirror and reflect
what they read. Learners look for meaning and will try to find regularity
and order in the events of the world even in the absence of full or
complete information.

Another crucial assumption regarding the nature of the learner,


[21]
concerns the level and source of motivation for learning. sustaining
motivation to learn is strongly dependent on the learner’s confidence in
his or her potential for learning. These feelings of competence and belief
in potential to solve new problems, are derived from first-hand
experience of mastery of problems in the past and are much more
[20]
powerful than any external acknowledgement and motivation .

Most approaches that have grown from constructivism suggest


that learning is accomplished best using a hands-on approach. Learners
learn by experimentation, and not by being told what will happen. They
are left to make their own inferences, discoveries and conclusions. It also
emphasizes that learning is not an "all or nothing" process but that
students learn the new information that is presented to them by building
upon knowledge that they already possess. It is therefore important that
teachers constantly assess the knowledge their students have gained to
make sure that the students perceptions of the new knowledge are what
the teacher had intended.

2.2 The Role of the Facilitator

Instructors have to adapt to the role of facilitators and not


[1]
teachers . Where a teacher gives a didactic lecture which covers the
subject matter, a facilitator helps the learner to get to his or her own
understanding of the content. In the former scenario the learner plays a
passive role and in the latter scenario the learner plays an active role in
the learning process. The emphasis thus turns away from the instructor
[10]
and the content, and towards the learner . This dramatic change of
role implies that a facilitator needs to display a totally different set of
skills than a teacher. A teacher tells, a facilitator asks; a teacher lectures
from the front, a facilitator supports from the back; a teacher gives
answers according to a set curriculum, a facilitator provides guidelines
and creates the environment for the learner to arrive at his or her own
conclusions; a teacher mostly gives a monologue, a facilitator is in
continuous dialogue with the learners (Rhodes and Bellamy, 1999). A
facilitator should also be able to adapt the learning experience ‘in mid-air’
by using his or her own initiative in order to steer the learning experience
to where the learners want to create value.

The learning environment should also be designed to support


[6]
and challenge the learner's thinking . While it is advocated to give the
learner ownership of the problem and solution process, it is not the case
that any activity or any solution is adequate. The critical goal is to

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support the learner in becoming an effective thinker. This can be


achieved by assuming multiple roles, such as consultant and coach.

2.3 The Newfoundland Strategy

For the “Newfoundland Strategy”, active student involvements are in the


forms of case study presentations, students’ forums, case study write ups, expert
witnessing and a moot court trial simulation. In addition, the students are also
given practical feedbacks through video clippings and several guest speakers
from the industry. At the end of the semester, a one-day student seminar is
organized where students are required to present their cases in the university’s
moot court. The moot court is deliberately chosen as the venue of the oral
presentations to provide a simulated environment in litigation cases. Both the
students’ final presentations and case reports are evaluated by expert panelist
comprising lawyers, academics, enforcers and regulators. Though the final
evaluation of the students’ works are not meant to be exhaustive and conclusive
(in judging their level of competencies as investigators or expert witnesses), it is
nevertheless possible at that point in time, to gauge whether or not they are
ready to carry out their tasks professionally in the near future. As a new group
of forensic accountant professionals in this country, the students ought to
showcase their competencies and professionalism in a deliberate manner.

Figure 1 depicts the implementation process of the “Newfoundland Strategy”.


Notice that the “Newfoundland Strategy” allows the teacher to undertakes a more
meaningful facilitating role, shifting the responsibility for learning a new subject
matter to the students – as depicted by the involve-me-and-I-will-understand
concept. The facilitator then explains the theoretical aspects of the subject,
moderates the forum and presentation, selects appropriate and relevant guest
speakers, evaluates the examination and written assignments, and most
importantly assumes the role of motivating the students. It is important to note
that constructivism itself does not suggest one particular pedagogy. In fact,
constructivism describes how learning should happen. Constructivism as a
description of human cognition is often associated with pedagogic
approaches that promote learning by doing. As a result, the classroom
[21, 7, 8, 9, 22, 18]
environments become more conducive for learning ;. In a nutshell,
the “Newfoundland Strategy” involves a transformation process that took place
through seven distinct but related phases: (i) preliminary case presentations, (ii)
first-batch guest speakers, (iii) student forum and second presentations, (iv)
second-batch guest speakers, (v) third presentations, (vi) 30-page case study
write up and (vii) moot court final case presentations. It is therefore expected
that the different facets of learning would transform the students from passive
learners to confident (and hopefully) competent professionals. To further
facilitate learning, the facilitator is also responsible to identify suitable textbook
and other related references.

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Figure 1: Newfoundland Strategy

Final Seminar 1st Presentation:


Assessmen Presentations at the Understanding the
ts by university’s Moot Facts of Financial
Court Fraud Cases

Submission of a 30- First Batch of Guest


page Case Report on Speakers: Lawyer,
a Real-Life Financial Prescribed Auditor, SC
Fraud cases Investigator
Textbook

Teacher as a
FACILITATOR
:
3rd Presentation on Student Forums and
evidence gathering • Theo 2nd Presentation on
and expert witnessing retica Litigation Framework
protocols & Procedures

Second Batch of
Guest Speakers:
Police, ACA, Deputy
Public Prosecutor
from AG Chamber

3.1 Preliminary Case Presentations

One of the most important pre-requisites of the “Newfoundland


Strategy” is the identification of suitable resources (e.g. textbook,
reference materials, websites and video clippings) for the course.
Basically, students are required to acquire the main textbook: Forensic
[5]
and Investigative Accounting , which covers a comprehensive array of
frenosic accounting topics such as financial fraud investigations, financial
fraud detection, employee fraud, money laundering, evidence
management, cybercrimes, business valuations and expert witnessing.
Prior to the first meeting of this course, students have been notified on
the requirement for them to present a preliminary case study on financial
frauds. Within a span of 15 to 20 minutes, students worked in a group of
four and they are to describe the facts of the cases and to identify the
financial fraud acts as well as to identify the fraud perpetrators in the said
cases. The aim of this learning phase is to allow the students to explore
different financial fraud cases and to discuss these cases in class even
before they are introduced to the syllabus, the textbook and the expected
learning outcomes. Beside oral presentation, the students are also
required to submit a 5-page written report of the selected cases. Also on
the first day of the course, a preliminary set of student evaluation
questionnaire was distributed to the students with the aim of assessing
their expectation of the course and what they hope to achieve at the end

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of the semester. With the case presentation and report, the students
are started with something that they themselves initiated and
researched. The course and its contents and requirements are
introduced after the case presentations. It was then made known to
them that the success of this course and the class would be very much
dependent on their active participation and enthusiasm. The shift of
learning from teacher-centred to student-centred is illustrated in Figure 2
below.

Figure 2: Student-Centred Learning

Teacher-centred Learning Student-centred Learning


Low level of student choice High level of student choice
Student passive Student active
Power is primarily with teacher Power primarily with the student

3.2 First-Batch Guest Speakers

As a facilitator to the course, the author identifies three speakers


from the industry who would be invited to give separate talks on topics
specified in the syllabus. The feedbacks and inputs from these
practitioners are important aspects of learning for this course. Firstly, a
defense lawyer from a renowned legal firm came to discuss litigation
procedures in financial fraud cases. Students are introduced to various
Laws, Bylaws, Acts, Pronouncements, codes and standards that must be
reviewed and thoroughly understood when dealing with financial fraud
cases. This includes among others, the Companies Act, The Industry
Securities Act, Anti Money Laundering & Financing Terrorism Act, the
Penal Code, Evidence Act, and the Financial Reporting Act. As a
defense counsel, the lawyer shared various technicalities that are often
used in courts to “break” the financial fraud cases. Students are
therefore advised to be aware of these technicalities and to tackle them
wisely when representing their clients either as expert witnesses or as
fraud investigators.

The second speaker was a senior partner of a Big Four


Accounting Firm in Malaysia. As an experience auditor, the speaker
shared various audit procedures and protocols when conducting
company audits. The identification of red flag indicators to evaluate
fraudulent and suspect transactions is very commonly used during the
course of audits. The students are also exposed to variables fraud risk
indicators and tests used to assess the effectiveness of the companies’
internal control systems. Further, the students are advised to
understand thoroughly elements related to fraud theories and transaction

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cycles. These insights are valuable “secrets” that are not readily found in
books or journal articles. Students are therefore expected to incorporate
these feedbacks into their final report at the end of the semester.

The third speaker identified was from the Securities


Commissions (SC). Specifically, the head of the Surveillance and
Investigation unit at SC gave his agreement to talk to the students on
financial fraud surveillance and investigation. The speaker shares his
personal experiences in detecting and investigating financial frauds of
public listed companies. The students were advised on the need for
financial fraud investigators to keep abreast with the latest technologies
in fraud detection and thorough knowledge and knowhow in audit trailing
of financial transactions. As investigators, forensic accountants must
always be in proactive modes and they should be able to effectively
“read” and predict fraudsters’ behaviour and thinking.

The students’ enthusiasms and excitements are very much


reflected through the highly interactive classroom sessions with all the
guest speakers invited for the course. All the students participated
actively in the questions and answers segments.

3.3 Forum and Second Case Presentations

The third phase of learning comprises the students’ forum and


second case presentations. Five students with differing backgrounds
were selected to lead the forum, with each respectively representing the
Police Force, the Anti Corruption Agency, the Inland Revenue Board, the
Banking & Finance sector and the Commerce and Industry group. One
of the students was also appointed as a chairperson to moderate the
forum. The rest of the students were to participate in the forum
discussions. Specific issue on litigation framework and procedures was
identified and to be addressed for the forum. At the end of the session,
relevant resolutions are identified and tabulated. Again, feedbacks from
the forum form valuable and useful input for the students’ forthcoming
presentations and reports.

In line with the specified learning outcome of this course, the


second case presentation focuses on soft skills requirements and other
techniques that could be adopted when conducting a financial fraud
investigation. Each group is to identify a specific financial fraud case and
to propose an investigation framework for that said cases. They are also
encouraged to share video clippings of their “investigation” techniques
with other fellow students. In addition to the oral presentation, the
students are also required to submit a five-page case report.

3.4 Second-Batch Guest Speakers

The fourth learning phase comprises talks by three different


guest speakers over the next three class periods. The first speaker from

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this phase was from the Commercial Crime Unit of the Royal Malaysian
Police (PDRM). The speaker shared with the students on interrogation
techniques, evidence gathering protocols, prosecution techniques,
litigation charges and forensic investigation protocols when dealing with
financial fraud cases. The students were also advised to work closely
with either the police department or the SC or both on financial litigation
cases.

The second speaker was from the Anti-Corruption Unit, a very


experienced investigator who has been in the profession for more than
25 years. The focus of his talk was on interviewing techniques and soft
skills in getting witnesses to divulge evidences and information before a
prosecution could be carried out. At the end of his talk, there was a
demonstration on interviewing techniques and students were invited to
participate in the interviews. Students were advised on the need to be
good with their soft skills as interviewees are from differing backgrounds
and personalities.

The third speaker was a Deputy Public Prosecutor (DPP) from


the Attorney General Chamber in Putrajaya. As a prosecutor, the DPP
emphasizes on the importance of getting good and reliable evidences for
the financial fraud cases. Very often, the class was told that financial
fraud cases “get thrown out of court” due to insufficient evidences or due
to the wrong choice of expert witnesses to help with the cases.
Basically, the main job of a prosecutor is to develop cases for court
proceedings. As such, one must be crystal clear on the facts of the
cases and to ensure continuity of evidences. These are practical
feedbacks that the students could use in their final project.

3.5 Third Presentations

One of the learning outcomes of this course is to produce


graduates who are capable of conducting successful financial fraud
investigation. As such, they should be able to

(i) choose and gather the “right” types of financial fraud


evidences,
(ii) follow through the audit trails of financial transactions;
(iii) critically analyse financial documents and
(iv) possess relevant investigative soft skills (e.g.
communication, writing, working in teams etc).

Another important learning outcome of the course is for these


graduates to be able to assume the role of competent expert witnesses.
In assuming the role an expert witness, one must be knowledgeable and
competent in various fields such as accounting, auditing, law and
information technology.

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The third presentation highlights on the ability of the students to


showcase their knowledge and competency in gathering evidences,
analysing financial and legal documents and the utilisation of information
technology as an investigative tool. Each group selects a case on
financial fraud. Whilst some group members act as investigators, others
take the role of expert witnesses. All groups are required to showcase
their evidences in a structured and organised, similar to the requirements
in normal court proceedings.

Once the students have gone through the above five phases of
learning, it is expected that they are now ready to precede to the next
two higher levels namely a submission of a 30-page case study report
and a final, comprehensive presentation at a simulated court.

3.6 30-page Case Study Write Ups

One very important learning outcome expected of the graduates


is the ability to prepare a comprehensive financial fraud report that could
be used and admissible in the court of law. For the preparation of the
report, students need to incorporate both theoretical and practical
feedbacks obtainable from the reference books, video clippings, guest
speakers and other available sources. The case study report is divided
into two parts: the first part comprises a summary highlighting the issues
in hand, the violation, proposed charges and the proposed methodology
to be adopted in conducting the investigation; the second part details out
the investigation processes which include the planning and structuring of
financial fraud investigation, document analysis, interviewing, evidence
gathering, specific investigation techniques and report writing. Students
are also encouraged to provide other relevant documents as appendices.
As an academic requirement, the students are also required to furnish
and cite at least fifteen reference articles in the report.

3.7 Moot Court Final Presentations

Another important learning outcome of this course is for the


students to be able to present and defend their financial fraud cases
comprehensively and convincingly. Their ability to communicate
effectively is an important key success attribute for their profession either
as a financial fraud investigator or as an expert witness. In a group of
three to four students, each team is given one hour to present its case.
A group of expert panelists comprising four academics, two lawyers and
an industrialist are appointed to assess the presentations. A question
and answer session is arranged at the end of each presentation. To give
the students a simulated court environment, the university moot court
has been chosen as the most suitable venue for this event. All in all, the
students’ presentations are assessed based on specific criteria namely
flow of thoughts, contents, discussions & critical analysis, interaction with
panelists, the ability to “defend” their cases, ability to work in a team,
conclusion and time management. In both the evaluations of case study

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report and the oral presentation, specific assessment forms are used by
the respective evaluators.

3.8 Examination

In addition to the various student-based learning initiatives, a mid


term examination which is worth ten percent of the course’s overall
[2]
assessment is also given. Premised on Bloom’s six cognitive
hierarchical taxonomies, the two-hour mid-term examination focuses on
assessing the students’ learning effectiveness, particularly on the top
three domains namely analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Applied-
based examination questions are mainly constructed from reported
financial fraud case studies, newspaper reports, guest speakers’
discussions and other similar sources. Students are then required to
accordingly discuss, analyze, synthesize and evaluate the given
scenarios and cases and propose a suitable investigation framework and
procedure. The mid-term examination is necessary as it assesses an
individual student’s level of cognitive domains. Understandably,
competent financial fraud investigators are expected to acquire high level
of investigative skills and as such they need to be very good with their
analytical, synthesis and evaluation capabilities.

4.0 FINAL ASSESSMENT

[16, 13]
Emphasize the concept of dynamic assessment, which is a way of
assessing the true potential of learners that differs significantly from conventional
tests. Here the essentially interactive nature of learning is extended to the
process of assessment. Rather than viewing assessment as a process carried
out by one person, such as an instructor, it is seen as a two-way process
involving interaction between both instructor and learners. For the in-class case
presentations and forum, a peer-group assessment technique was also used.
Basically, members of other teams get to evaluate the performance of the team
that are presenting and vice versa. Table 1 depicts the percentage breakdown of
the assessment items. The feedback created by the assessment process serves
as a direct foundation for further development. It should not be an intimidating
process that causes anxiety in the learner, but rather a supportive process that
encourages the learner to want to be evaluated in order for future, more focused
[14, 13, 17]
development to take place . At the end of the course, an overall
evaluation is obtained from the students. The evaluation scores at the end of the
semester are gauged against an earlier assessment carried out at the beginning
of the semester to establish whether the students had benefited from the different
learning initiatives adopted for the course.

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Table 1: Final Assessment Components

Assessment Items %
In-class case presentations (3 in total) & Forum 15
Three 5-page case study write ups 15
Mid-term examination 10
Moot Court case presentation 30
30-page case study write up 30

5.0 CONCLUSIONS

Whilst the “Newfoundland Strategy” adopted for this particular course


seemed to work very well in achieving the stipulated learning outcomes, it is
important to acknowledge the presence of various obstacles and challenges
during its implementation phase. The most basic obstacle relates to the
willingness for both students and the lecturer to undergo a change in mindset,
from lecturer-centred to student-centred learning. Whilst lecturers are so used to
giving lectures, the students find comfort in listening to the lectures with the “feed
me expectation” syndrome. Under this learning strategy, a lecturer is no longer
an “expert who knows it all”. Instead, there’s a very clear shift in responsibility
where students are encouraged to initiate learning strategies. Students are no
longer merely passive listeners; they participate actively in classroom
discussions. The role of the lecturer is now reduced to that of a facilitator. He or
she no longer gives long lectures, instead invites experts to give feedbacks,
encourages students to give ideas and opinions and motivates students to think
from “outside the box” perspective.

Another apparent challenge in implementing this strategy is in getting the


right guest speakers to agree to participate in the program which is held during
weekends. Therefore, there’s a great need for the author to plan well in advance
to secure these speaking engagements. As a facilitator, the author needs to
exercise a very high level of “people skills” when inviting the speakers. Equally
important, the author has to convince the students that student-centered learning
would benefit them in the long run.

It is also important to note that students have a variety of learning styles


[4, 8, 12]
and no instructional approach can be optimal for everyone . In the end,
despite our best efforts, some students “fail” and some who pass continue to
resent this strategy of putting so much of the burden of learning on their
shoulders. On the other hand, for all their complaints about how hard this
strategy had put so much strain on them, the students on the average do better
work than they ever did in other courses when the instructors just lectured. Many
more of them now indicated in their evaluation forms that after getting through
this final course on Investigative Techniques and Financial Criminology they feel
confident that they can do anything. In a nutshell, one may “lose” some
students, but one can expect to win a lot more.

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In short, the author is convinced that the benefits of properly


implemented student-centered instruction more than compensate for any
difficulties that may be encountered when implementing it. Facilitators who are
prepared for initially negative student reactions, and who have the patience and
the confidence to wait out these reactions, will reap their rewards in more and
deeper student learning and more positive student attitudes toward their courses
and toward themselves. It may take an effort to get there, but it is an effort well
worth making.

REFERENCES

[1] Bauersfeld, H. (1995). “The Structuring of the Structures: Development


and Function of Mathematizing as a Social Practice”. In L. P. Steffe & J.
Gale (Eds.), Constructivism in Education. Hillsdale, New Jersey:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

[2] Bloom, B., Englehart, M. Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956).
Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational
goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans,
Green.

[3] Bullard L.G. and Felder R.M. (2007), "A Student-Centered Approach to
Teaching Material and Energy Balances. Part 2. Course Delivery and
Assessment." Chem. Engr. Education, 41(3), 167-176.

[4] Claxton, C.S., and P.H. Murrell. (1987), Learning styles: Implications for
improving educational practice. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report
No. 4. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

[5] Crumbley D.L.,Heitger, L.E. and Smith, G.S. (2005), Forensic and
Investigative Accounting, Chicago: CCH Incorporated.

[6] Di Vesta, F. J. (1987), “The Cognitive Movement and Education”. In J. A.


Glover & R. R. Ronning (Eds.), Historical Foundations of Educational
Psychology (pp. 203-233). New York: Plenum Press.

[7] Duffy, T.M., & Jonassen, D.H. (eds.) (1992). Constructivism and the
technology of instruction: A conversation. Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence
Erlbaum.

[8] Felder, R.M. (1993), “Reaching the Second Tier: Learning and Teaching
Styles in College Science Education”, J. Coll. Science Teaching, 235,
286-290.

[9] Felder R.M. and Brent R. (2007), "Cooperative Learning." Chapter 4 of


P.A. Mabrouk, ed., Active Learning: Models from the Analytical Sciences,

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ACS Symposium Series 970. Washington, DC: American Chemical


Society.

[10] Gamoran, A. Secada, W. G. and Marrett, C. B. (2000), “The


Organizational Context of Teaching and Learning”, In M. T. Hallinan
(Ed), Handbook of the Sociology of Education, New York: Kluwer
Academic/Plenum.

[11] Grasha, A.F. (1990), “The Naturalistic Approach to Learning Styles”,


College Teaching, 38(3), 106-113.

[12] Grasha, A.F (1994), “A Matter of Style: The Teacher as Expert, Formal
Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator, and Delegator”, College Teaching,
42(4), 142-149.

[13] Gredler, M.E (1997), Learning and Instruction: Theory into Practice (3rd
ed), Upper Saddle River

[14] Green, S., & Gredler, M. (2002) “A Review and Analysis of


Constructivism for School-based Practice”. School Psychology Review,
31(1), 53-70. Retrieved from host database on June 20, 2004

[15] Hopwood, W. S., Leiner, J. J. And Young, G. R. (2005), Forensic


Accounting, McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[16] Holt, D. G. and C. Willard-Holt (2000). "Let's Get Real (TM) - Students
solving authentic corporate problems." Phi Delta Kappan 82(3): 243-246.

[17] King, E.M. (2006), “Studio Classrooms and Student Centered Learning in
Traditional Microscopic Courses”, Journal of Geoscience Education,
54(4), pp. 476-479.

[18] Mundhenk, L. G. (2004), “Toward an Understanding of What it Means to


be Student Centered: A New Teacher’s Journey, Journal of Management
Education, Vol. 28, No. 4, 447-462

[19] Piaget, J. (1950), The psychology, of intelligence. New York: Harcourt,


Brace.

[20] Prawat, R. and Floden, R. (1994). Philosophical Perspectives on


Constructivist Views of Learning. Educational Psychology, 29(1), 37-48.

[21] Von Glasersfeld, E. (1989). “Constructivism in Education”. In T. Husen &


N. Postlewaite (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education [Suppl.],
(pp.162-163). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.

[22] Wertsch, J.V (1997), Vygotsky and the Formation of the Mind, London:
Cambridge Press.

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PENILAIAN KEMAHIRAN TEKNIKAL BERASASKAN MODEL KOMPETENSI


BAGI SUMBER GUNA TENAGA MENERUSI PENDEKATAN PENDIDIKAN
TEKNIKAL DAN VOKASIONAL DI MALAYSIA

KAHIROL BIN MOHD SALLEH ABSTRAK - Sumber guna tenaga teknikal


NOR LISA BINTI SULAIMAN merupakan salah satu elemen dalam
Nor Lisa binti Sulaiman menentukan status sesebuah negara sama ada
Fakulti Pendidikan Teknikal ia diiktiraf sebagai negara maju, membangun
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn
Malaysia
mahupun mundur. Dalam merealisasikan
matlamat menuju ke arah negara maju, Malaysia
telah merencana, melaksana serta
membangunkan sumber guna tenaga teknikal
melalui Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional
(PTV) bagi memastikan status negara maju
dicapai menjelang tahun 2020. Pelaksanaan
Pendidikan berasaskan Kompetensi yang
diperkenalkan dalam PTV merupakan
pendekatan terbaru bagi melahirkan sumber
guna tenaga teknikal yang bukan sahaja
berkualiti dan mahir tetapi memiliki nilai
© Universiti Putra Malaysia kompeten yang tinggi dalam perlakuan dan
2007. Semua Hak Cipta pemikiran terhadap kerja teknikal. Bagi menilai
Terpelihara. Prosiding kompetensi kerja sumber guna tenaga teknikal
Persidangan Pengajaran dan teknikal, beberapa model kompetensi boleh
Pembelajaran di Peringkat diaplikasikan sebagai sistem penilaian dan
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi pentaksiran. Model for HRD Practice merupakan
(CTLHE07), The Palace of
Golden Horses, Seri
saranan dalam menentukan sistem penilaian dan
Kembangan, Selangor pentaksiran yang boleh mengukur kompetensi
12-14 Disember 2007 individu dalam melaksanakan kerja berbentuk
kemahiran teknikal.

1.0 PENGENALAN

Pertumbuhan ekonomi pada abad ke 21 dipengaruhi oleh ilmu


pengetahuan yang mantap dan kemahiran yang tinggi. Bagi memastikan usaha
dalam mengekalkan serta meningkatkan persaingan yang sihat dalam kalangan
industri khususnya, keperluan kepakaran dan kemahiran manusia merupakan
penyumbang utama dalam memastikan kejayaan sesebuah negara
perindustrian. Sumber Guna Tenaga Teknikal melalui Pendidikan Teknikal dan
Vokasional merupakan salah satu kaedah dalam menyediakan pasaran kerja
berasaskan teknikal pada masa hadapan (Holton & Trott, 1996).

Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional merupakan bidang pendidikan yang


menyediakan sumber guna tenaga teknikal yang berkebolehan serta
berkemahiran dalam pengkhususan teknikal dan vokasional apabila memasuki
alam pekerjaan. Ini adalah kerana program persediaan awal seperti Tech Prep

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dan pembelajaran secara kontekstual yang diterapkan dalam pendidikan teknikal


dan vokasional mampu melatih sumber guna tenaga teknikal secara efektif dan
dinamik selaras dengan perkembangan teknologi yang semakin pesat
membangun.

Menurut Robiah (1998), Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional berperanan


dalam membina masyarakat khususnya bagi menjadikan Malaysia salah sebuah
negara industri yang mampan dan berdaya saing dalam kalangan negara-negara
maju. Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional juga mampu melahirkan sumber guna
tenaga teknikal yang mahir melaksanakan pekerjaan berasaskan kemahiran
teknikal. Ini disokong oleh Dare dan Leach (1999), yang menyatakan Pendidikan
Teknikal dan Vokasional termasuk juga Pembangunan Sumber Manusia
merupakan penyumbang utama kepada pasaran guna tenaga teknikal di
Malaysia.

Ini membuktikan bahawa pendidikan teknikal dan vokasional memainkan


peranan yang penting dalam menjana sumber guna tenaga teknikal yang yang
berpengetahuan dan berkemahiran dalam menyediakan keperluan sumber guna
tenaga teknikal bertaraf dunia selaras dengan hasrat Malaysia mencapai taraf
negara maju menjelang tahun 2020.

2.0 LATAR BELAKANG

Dalam Laporan The Third Outline Perspective Plan 2001 – 2010, Unit
Perancangan Ekonomi (EPU), Jabatan Perdana Menteri, Malaysia telah
membuat unjuran seramai 227,900 pekerja profesional dan teknikal diperlukan
oleh industri di Malaysia. Bagi merealisasikan keperluan tersebut, universiti dan
pusat latihan memainkan peranan penting sebagai pengeluar dalam
menghasilkan pasaran sumber guna tenaga tersebut (Malaysia Government,
2001).

Sistem pendidikan negara juga perlu dimantapkan bagi membolehkan ia


mengeluarkan sumber guna tenaga yang bukan sahaja mempunyai pelbagai
cabang kemahiran tetapi mempunyai pengetahuan serba boleh serta bersedia
belajar secara berterusan. Sumber guna tenaga ini juga perlu memiliki
kebolehan untuk mendapatkan dan menggunakan segala ilmu pengetahuan,
teori dan praktikal terutamanya dalam teknologi yang serba maju (Malaysia
Government, 2001).

Namun begitu, terdapat beberapa isu yang melibatkan pembangunan


sumber guna tenaga teknikal yang kompetetif dan kompeten dalam
melaksanakan tugas di tempat bekerja. Antaranya ialah bentuk penilaian yang
dijalankan bagi mengukur tahap kompetensi sumber guna tenaga teknikal yang
mempunyai latar belakang Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional.

Bentuk penilaian terhadap kompetensi kerja sumber guna tenaga


teknikal perlu dikaji dengan lebih ekspisit kerana ia merupakan faktor terpenting
dalam menentukan prestasi serta kualiti sumber guna tenaga teknikal. Model
Rumler seperti yang diilustrasikan dalam Rajah 1 merupakan model situasi
spesifik bagi prestasi individu di tempat kerja. Dalam model tersebut, individu

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perlu memberi tindak balas atau tindakan terhadap situasi bekerja. Tindak balas
atau tindakan tersebut wujud daripada kesan atau hasil kerja individu di mana
segala maklumat yng diperolehi daripada hasil kerja disalurkan kepada individu
bagi mengenal pasti sama ada individu tersebut menginterpretasikan maklumat
tersebut merupakan kesan yang positif, negatif atau neutral (Rothwell &
Kazanas, 1992).

Situasi Pekerjaan Individu Tindakan Kesan

Maklum Balas

Rajah 1: Model Rumler


(Rothwell & Kazanaz, 1992 dalam Hoffmann, 1998)

Ini bermakna prestasi dan kualiti sumber guna tenaga teknikal ditentukan oleh
maklum balas yang berlaku hasil daripada kesan yang wujud dalam situasi
pekerjaan.

Rajah 2 pula menunjukkan bagaimana prestasi sumber guna tenaga


teknikal dapat dipertingkatkan melalui pengertian, pengetahuan serta asas tujuan
individu terhadap kompetensi kerja dalam menjalankan satu-satu tugas.

Individu Korporat Tujuan

Hasil Piawaian  Prestasi


Kerja dan Tanda Aras  Objektif Asas
Prestasi (Latihan)

Asas Pengetahuan, Kekuatan  Perkara Utama


dalam Kemahiran dalaman  Pengisian
pekerjaan serta (Pendidikan)
Keupayaan

Rajah 2: Perkaitan prestasi dan kompetensi


(Hoffmann, 1998)

Ini jelas menunjukkan bahawa pestasi sumber guna tenaga teknikal mempunyai
perkaitan yang signifikan terhadap kompetensi pekerja yang menjalankan kerja
berasaskan kemahiran teknikal.

Saranan bagi Penilaian Prestasi Sumber Guna Tenaga Teknikal

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Pengetahuan dalam aspek penilaian terhadap tahap kompetensi sumber


guna tenaga teknikal membantu pengurus organisasi dalam merancang dan
melaksanakan pengurusan yang strategik dan berkesan ke arah pasaran kerja
yang lebih berdaya saing. Tujuan utama pembangunan sumber guna tenaga
teknikal menerusi pendekatan pendidikan teknikal dan vokasional adalah untuk
menggilap potensi serta bakat dalam kemahiran teknikal yang dimiliki sumber
guna tenaga teknikal bagi menjamin Malaysia memperolehi nilai pasaran kerja
yang lebih kompetetif di masa hadapan.

Model kompetensi merupakan salah satu rujukan yang boleh menilai


tahap kompetensi sumber guna tenaga teknikal dengan mengaplikasikan
pendekatan pendidikan teknikal dan vokasional.

Pendidikan Berasaskan Kompetensi merupakan satu alat ukur bagi pendidikan


teknikal dan vokasional yang dilaksanakan dalam sistem pendidikan formal. Ia
bertujuan bagi memudahkan pentaksiran terhadap kesesuaian sesuatu program
yang dilaksanakan di peringkat sekolah, universiti dan pusat latihan.

Rajah 3 menunjukkan prestasi pelajar dinilai melalui pentaksiran bercirikan


kompetensi. Dalam pendidikan yang berasaskan kompetensi, pelajar perlu
menguasai kemahiran, kebolehan dan pengetahuan dalam proses pembelajaran.
Aspek ini akan membolehkan pelajar tersebut dinilai berdasarkan kepada
perubahan ciri-ciri dan tingkah laku sebelum dan selepas pelajar melalui
pembentukan proses pembelajaran.

Pentaksiran

Pentaksirsan bercirikan
kompetensi terhadap Demonstrasi
prestasi pelajar

Keperluan terhadap Perubahan Ciri-ciri dan


kemahiran, kebolehan Tingkah Laku Pelajar
serta pengetahuan
Pengalaman Belajar

Pembentukan
Proses Kemahiran, Kebolehan dan
Pembelajaran Pengetahuan Pelajar

Pengalaman Belajar

Ciri-ciri dan Tingkah Laku Pelajar


Asas

Rajah 3: Hirarki pencapaian serta kebolehan pelajar lepasan


universiti (Jones at. el., 2002)
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Pendidikan Berasaskan Kompetensi

Ashworth dan Saxton (1990) menyatakan bahawa kompetensi


bermaksud aspek deskriptif tentang aktiviti yang dilakukan oleh manusia, walau
bagaimanapun ia masih lagi tidak merujuk kepada perlakuan yang spesifik.
Aktiviti ini termasuklah sumbangan atau hasil daripada tindakan yang diambil
dalam memenuhi perlakuan atau pemikiran. Aktiviti di tempat kerja yang
dilakukan oleh sumber guna tenaga teknikal seringkali diukur mengikut
kompetensi kerja berdasarkan kepada perlakuan atau pemikiran dalam
menyempurnakan tugasan yang diberi.

Menurut Hoffmann (1999) kompetensi merujuk kepada perlakuan-


perlakuan psikomotor atau tingkah laku yang perlu dipamerkan oleh individu
serta ia boleh dinilai atau diukur. Kompetensi juga boleh dijadikan sebagai
penanda aras atau alat ukur bagi menjamin hasil kerja yang berkualiti. Walau
bagaimanapun kompetensi perlu dilihat sebagai satu bentuk yang mewakili
prestasi keseluruhan organisasi dan tidak hanya tertumpu kepada individu
sahaja kerana kompetensi individu dan kompetensi keseluruhan yang diwakili
oleh organisasi mempunyai perkaitan yang sangat kuat. Homer (2001) pula
menyatakan kompetensi ialah aras yang utama kepada organisasi kerana kesan
berantai yang diwujudkan dan ia melibatkan proses, keuntungan, masa, latihan
dan sebagainya.

Ini bermakna, Pendidikan Berasaskan Kompetensi boleh dijadikan


sebagai tanda aras dalam mengenal pasti dan menilai keberkesanan dalam
bekerja serta sebagai penambah baikan terhadap pendidikan atau latihan
dengan keperluan yang diperlukan di tempat kerja (Kerka, 1998). Ini adalah
kerana pendidikan bersaskan kompetensi merupakan pendekatan dalam
menyatukan idea-idea yang bernas dan kreatif yang boleh dilaksanakan dalam
alam pekerjaan. Ia juga simbol kepada pengiktirafan pendidikan yang diperolehi
oleh sumber guna tenaga teknikal.

Rajah 4 menunjukan perkaitan kepada keperluan kompetensi pekerja


dengan persekitaran organisasi dan juga keperluan kerja. Kesan yang positif
dapat dilihat apabila seseorang pekerja memenuhi ketiga-tiga aspek yang
berkaitan dengan mewujudkan tingkah laku yang lebih positif.

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Kompetensi Keperluan
Individu Kerja

Tindakan serta
Tingkah Laku
Spesifik yang
Efektif

Persekitaran
Organisasi

Rajah 4: Model Prestasi Kerja yang Efektif


(Boyatzis, 1982)

Penilaian Kemahiran Teknikal menggunakan Model Kompetensi

Terdapat beberapa model kompetensi yang boleh dijadikan rujukan atau


tanda aras dalam menilai prestasi individu dalam melaksanakan kerja melalui
pendekatan pendidikan teknikal dan vokasional. Antara model yang boleh dirujuk
ialah model kompetensi yang diadaptasi dan diubahsuai daripada Model for HRD
Practice (McLagan, 1989). Model for HRD Practice ini merupakan rujukan bagi
memudahkan penilaian dijalankan terhadap individu atau organisasi (McLagan,
1991). Prinsip asas model kompetensi ini menerangkan bahawa prestasi
individu akan meningkat sekiranya mereka memiliki semua ciri-ciri kompetensi
yang diperlukan dalam melaksanakan tugas atau tanggung jawab yang
diberikan.

Ciri kompetensi dalam penilaian model ini merujuk kepada pengetahuan,


kemahiran dan tingkah laku yang perlu ada pada individu bagi melaksanakan
sesuatu tugas atau tanggung jawab. Keberkesanan Model McLagan terhadap
kompetensi ini telah dibuktikan oleh pengkaji terdahulu (Holton & Trott, 1996 )
yang telah mengkaji tahap kompetensi pelajar yang mengikuti program
Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional di Lousiana State University Amerika
Syarikat .

Model kompetensi McLagan dibahagikan kepada empat peringkat utama


iaitu Kompetensi Teknikal, Kompetensi Perniagaan, Kompetensi Interpersonal
dan Kompetensi Interlektual. Walau bagaimana pun tujuh daripada sepuluh sub

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kompetensi yang melibatkan Kompetensi Teknikal dihuraikan secara eksplisit


sebagai elemen saranan dalam kertas konsep ini.

1) Kompentensi Teknikal

i) Kefahaman Pembelajaran Dewasa


Kompentensi ini menguji kefahaman pelajar dewasa
serta mengenal pasti tahap keperluan dan penggunaan
kemahiran, pengetahuan, dan sikap dalam proses
pembelajaran. Ia juga berkaitan dengan kefahaman pengajar
atau ketua tentang kaedah memahami pelajar dewasa belajar
dengan cara yang berbeza di antara satu sama lain.
Pembelajaran dewasa lebih kepada self-directed learning. Oleh
yang demikian, penilaian yang perlu dijalankan haruslah secara
berterusan dan mengambil kira pengalaman yang telah dilalui
oleh mereka.

ii) Teknik Kefahaman dan Teori Pembentukan Kerjaya


Pengetahuan adalah sesuatu yang berkaitan dalam
pembentukan kerjaya. Ia juga menekankan aspek-aspek
kefahaman individu dalam membentuk kerjaya masa hadapan.
Secara keseluruhan ia merupakan penggabungan di antara
kebolehan, teknik kefahaman dan kaedah yang digunakan
dalam pembangunan kerjaya.

iii) Kemahiran Mengenal pasti Kompetensi


Mengenal pasti pengetahuan dan kemahiran yang
diperlukan untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu pekerjaan, tugasan
serta mengetahui fungsi sebenar kedudukan individu dalam
organisasi. Ia melibatkan tugasan dan arahan yang diterima
daripada majikan. Kebolehan pekerja dalam menyelesaikan
sesuatu tugasan banyak dipengaruhi oleh kemahiran,
pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang dimiliki. Ini dapat
menunjukkan aras kompetensi yang dimiliki oleh seseorang
pekerja.

iv) Kemahiran Penilaian


Menentukan keberkesanan sesuatu latihan dan
kesannya terhadap organisasi. Peningkatan terhadap kualiti dan
hasil kerja dipengaruhi oleh latihan yang diperolehi oleh pekerja.
Walau bagaimanapun majikan kerap kali lupa untuk menilai
kesan latihan atau kursus yang diberi kepada pekerja.
Kemahiran penilaian akan membantu majikan untuk
mengenalpasti latihan dan kursus yang sesuai dan juga latihan
susulan yang berkesan bagi seseorang pekerja. Bagi organisasi
yang berkesan setiap pekerja yang dihantar menjalani latihan
atau berkursus haruslah memberi latihan semula atau sekurang-
kurangnya menyediakan latihan kepada rakan-rakan sekerja
yang lain.

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v) Kemahiran Penyediaan Objektif


Menyediakan pernyataan yang lengkap dan spesifik
yang berkaitan dengan hasil kerja yang ingin dicapai. Objektif
yang disasarkan atau ditetapkan haruslah objektif yang boleh
dicapai. Ia terdiri daripda objektif secara umum, objektif secara
khusus dan juga penentuan latihan sekiranya perlu bagi
mencapai setiap objektif khusus. Kemahiran ini juga melibatkan
penyediaan objektif jangka pendek dan objektif jangka panjang.
Kemahiran dalam menyediakan objektif akan menjadikan
seseorang pekerja fokus dengan tugasan yang diberikan oleh
majikan.

vi) Kemahiran Penyelidikan


Memilih, membangunkan dan menggunakan metodologi
yang sesuai seperti statistik dan pengumpulan data bagi
pertanyaan serta tugasan yang diberikan dalam bentuk formal.
Kemahiran penyelidikan akan membantu meningkatkan tanda
aras yang telah ditetapkan. Ia adalah sebahagian daripada
penambahbaikan pada sistem yang sedia ada. Kemahiran ini
akan memudahkan majikan melihat peningkatan atau keperluan
kompetensi berdasarkan penyelidikan yang telah dijalankan. Ia
juga menyediakan ruang bagi melihat dan mengkaji trend
pekerja dalam melaksanakan tugasan yang diberi.

vii) Teori Latihan dan Pembangunan dan Teknik Pemahaman


Mengetahui teori dan kaedah yang sesuai digunakan
dalam latihan dan pembangunan sesebuah organisasi serta
menggunakan teknik pemahaman yang sesuai dan tepat. Ini
dapat menjimatkan masa dan kos apabila seseorang pekerja
memerlukan latihan tambahan kepada pengetahuan dan
kemahiran sedia ada. Teknik ini juga merupakan suatu
keperluan kepada menyediakan latihan dan kursus yang sesuai
kepada pekerja. Majikan boleh menyediakan perancangan bagi
latihan dan pembangunan staf dengan mengambil kira
peningkatan yang disasarkan pada tahun penilaian.

RUMUSAN

1) Secara umumnya pengetahuan, kemahiran dan tingkah laku merupakan


ciri utama kepada penilaian kompetensi seperti yang dikemukakan oleh
Model Kompetensi di dalam Model for HRD Practice (McLagan, 1989).
Dalam hubungan ini, kompetensi boleh dibahagikan kepada dua iaitu
kompetensi individu yang melibatkan penilaian terhadap pekerja
khususnya kompetensi teknikal bagi sumber guna tenaga teknikal dan
kompetensi organisasi untuk pembangunan sumber guna tenaga
teknikal. Kedua-dua bentuk kompetensi ini saling memerlukan antara
satu sama lain kerana kualiti organisasi dinilai berdasarkan prestasi
pekerja dan produktiviti organisasi.

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2) Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional perlu bergerak seiring kerana ia


lebih relevan dengan kehendak pasaran. Industri memerlukan sumber
guna tenaga teknikal yang bukan sahaja mempunyai kemahiran dalam
bidang teknikal dan vokasional tetapi memiliki nilai prestasi kerja yang
tinggi dan berkualiti. Justeru. industri masa kini perlu mempunyai
penilaian kompetensi dalam kalangan sumber guna tenaga teknikal yang
membolehkan mereka kompeten dengan tugas yang diberi serta lebih
berdaya saing.

Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional bukan sahaja memberi sumbangan


kepada peningkatan ekonomi negara tetapi ia juga mempamerkan ciri-ciri
individu dalam organisasi. Ia mempunyai ciri-ciri sustainable development
melalui penawaran program, perkembangan kurikulum dan pelaksanaan proses
pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang akan menjadikan sumber guna tenaga
teknikal yang dihasilkan kompeten, dinamik dan lebih berdaya saing.

RUJUKAN

[1] Ab. Aziz Yusof (2006) Pengurusan Sumber Manusia; Konsep, Isu dan
Pelakasanaan. Prentice Hall: Selangor

[2] Ashworth, P.D. & Saxton, J. (1990) On ‘Competence’. Journal of Further


and Higher Education Volume 14

[3] Boyatzis, R.E. (1982) The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective
Performance. John Wiley & Sons: New York

[4] Dare, D.E. & Leach, J.A. (1999) Preparing Tomorrow’s HRD
Professionals: Perceived Relevance of the 1989 Competency Model.
Journal of Vocational and Technical Education Volume 15.

[6] Hoffmann, T. (1999) The Meaning of Competency. Journal of European


Industrial Training Volume 23/6

[7] Holton III, E.F. & Trott Jr, J.W. (1996) Trends Toward a Closer Integration
of Vocational Education and Human Resource Development. Journal of
Vocational and Technical Education Volume 12.

[8] Homer, M. (2001) Skills and Competency Management. Journal of


Industrial and Commercial Training Volume 33

[9] Jones, E., Voorhees, R. & Paulson, K. (2002) Defining and Assessing
Learning: Exploring Competency-based Initiatives. Council of the National
Postsecondary Education Coopertive: Washington D.C.

[10] Kerka, S. (1998) Competency-Based Education and Training Myths and


Realities ACVE Publication Archives

[11] Malaysia Goverment (2001) The Third Outline Perspective Plan 2001-

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2010 of Malaysia. Government Press, Malaysia.

[12] Robiah Sidin (1998) Pemikiran Dalam Pendidikan. Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.:
Selangor

[13] Robotham, D. (2004) Developing the Competent Learner. Journal of


Industrial and Commercial Training Volume 36.

[14] Stenberg, A. (2007) Comprehensive Education Or Vocational Training For


The Unemployed? International Journal of Manpower Volume 28

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PERSEPSI PELAJAR TERHADAP PEMBELAJARAN AKSES KENDIRI


MELALUI PENGGUNAAN LAMAN WEB DAN KESANNYA TERHADAP MATA
PELAJARAN SEJARAH

AHMAD RAFAAI BIN AYUDIN ABSTRAK - Pembelajaran akses kendiri


NORHASNI BINTI ZAINAL merujuk kepada usaha dan inisiatif dalam
ABIDDIN kalangan pelajar bagi mendapatkan maklumat
Jabatan Pemajuan Profesional dan
dan sekaligus menjadi tapak pembelajaran.
Pendidikan Lanjutan, Fakulti Pembelajaran bentuk ini menggerakkan
Pengajian Pendidikan, pelajar menjadi pro-aktif dan produktif. Kajian
Universiti Putra Malaysia ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti persepsi
nonie@ace.upm.edu.my pelajar terhadap pembelajaran melalui
penggunaan laman web (website) dan
kesannya terhadap mata pelajaran Sejarah.
Seramai 105 pelajar Tingkatan 4 di Sekolah
Agama Menengah Hulu Langat, Kajang
Selangor telah dipilih sebagai responden.
Manakala 3 orang guru mata pelajaran
Sejarah terlibat dalam temubual bagi
menjawab persoalan kajian. Data soalselidik
dianalisis dengan menggunakan SPSS untuk
mendapatkan statistik deskriptif dan temubual
dianalisis secara manual. Adalah dikenalpasti
pelajar-pelajar yang memperkayakan
maklumat tambahan dengan bahan-bahan
daripada laman web, menjadi lebih yakin,
berpengetahuan dan lebih berminat dalam
mata pelajaran Sejarah. Penemuan ini
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. membuktikan pembelajaran Sejarah menerusi
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. penggunaan laman web adalah sebagai
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran kaedah berkesan yang dapat membantu
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat meningkatkan pemahaman pelajar terhadap
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi bahan pelajaran yang disampaikan oleh guru
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden di dalam kelas dan mengurangkan kebosanan
Horses, Seri Kembangan,
Selangor
pelajar terhadap mata pelajaran yang
12-14 Disember 2007 melibatkan penghafalan fakta yang
berterusan.

Kata kunci: Laman Web, Pembelajaran,


Pembelajaran Akses Kendiri, Sejarah,
Teknologi.

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1.0 PENDAHULUAN

Isu-isu pedagogi berkaitan pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang


membabitkan pengajaran pasif dan sehala memang telah lama diperkayakan.
Cara tradisional dalam proses instruksional memang tidak lagi sesuai dan
relevan pada masa kini kerana ianya tadak dapat memberi peranan kepada
pelajar dalam proses belajar, pelajar hanya menjadi pendengar manakala guru
menjadi satu-satunya sumber maklumat yang perlu dipatuhi [1]. Konteks masa
kini mengkehendaki mutu dan kualiti pengajaran dan pembelajaran diperbaiki.
Proses instruksional bukan lagi berorientasikan guru tetapi berorientasikan
bahan dan pelajar. Menurut Perkins [2], potensi pelajar tidak akan dapat
dikembangkan manakala peranan pendidikan dalam membina peribadi pelajar
tidak akan dirasai jika pelajar seperti tong kosong yang hanya minta disuap atau
diberikan maklumat oleh guru. Pelajar perlu memainkan peranan aktif
mendapatkan maklumat pembelajaran melalui sumber-sumber yang tidak terhad
dan berasaskan teknologi.

Perhatian Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia dalam memanfaatkan


teknologi untuk tujuan pemerolehan ilmu bukan sahaja ditekankan dalam mana-
mana LDP (Latihan Dalam Perkhidmatan) yang diberikan kepada guru-guru
ketika kursus atau bengkel yang dilaksanakan, malahan hampir keseluruhan bilik
darjah di sekolah-sekolah telah dilengkapkan dengan layar lebar dan projektor
untuk memudahkan proses implementasi dalam proses instruksional. Pelajar-
pelajar kini boleh menggunakan pen drive yang terus dapat dipasang dan
dipaparkan dalam bilik darjah ketika proses pembelajaran berlangsung, ertinya
konsep pengajaran dan pembelajaran telah berubah, guru menjadi pemantau
dan fasilitator, usaha pemerolehan ilmu dan pengetahuan dikendalikan oleh
pelajar melalui teknologi yang dibekalkan. Melalui maklumat yang pelbagai dan
skop yang luas, memberi peluang kepada pelajar bertukar-tukar fikiran dan
mewujudkan percambahan pemikiran baru.

Secara umumnya, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti persepsi


pelajar terhadap pembelajaran menggunakan laman web bagi mata pelajaran
Sejarah. Manakala, objektif khususnya adalah untuk mengenalpasti: (1) minat
dan kesediaan pelajar untuk belajar Sejarah; (2) interaksi pelajar dengan rakan
sekelas semasa pembelajaran berlangsung; (3) kesukaran capaian maklumat
yang ingin diperolehi; (4) pengupayaan pemerolehan maklumat berkaitan; dan
(5) prestasi pelajar dalam mata pelajaran Sejarah.

2.0 SOROTAN LITERATUR

Pembelajaran Akses Kendiri telah bermula di Eropah dan Amerika sejak


internet menjadi sebahagian daripada medium instruksional, cuma di Malaysia
masih agak baru setelah wujudnya MSC (Malaysia Super Corridor) dan program
School Net dibudayakan pada awal 2000. Kini, Pembelajaran Akses Kendiri
menjadi sebahagian daripada unsur pedagogi. Pembelajaran akan berlaku
apabila wujudnya tindak balas terhadap sesuatu rangsangan. Akses merujuk

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kepada jalur, saluran atau laluan dalam konteks ini yang dimaksudkan ialah
teknologi yang menjadi sumber maklumat yang boleh diterima atau diperoleh
dengan cepat, pantas dan mudah. Manakala, kendiri pula merujuk diri peribadi.
Oleh itu, Pembelajaran Akses Kendiri secara penuhnya membawa maksud
‘usaha secara sengaja yang dilakukan oleh seseorang untuk mendapatkan
maklumat melalui saluran yang tersedia menggunakan teknologi’. Kendiri bagi Al
Ghazali merangkumi tiga entiti iaitu minda, hati dan jasad. Penyatuan ketiga-tiga
unsur akan mewujudkan usaha pembelajaran yang paling cemerlang [3].

Menurut Chall [4], negara-negara di Eropah pada telah mengeluarkan


polisi pendidikan yang mengarahkan penggunaan teknologi maklumat dalam
bidang pendidikan. Era perkomputeran dalam pendidikan di banyak negara
membangun khasnya di Amerika Latin dan Asia mulai berkembang dan
dirasakan kepentingannya kepada pelajar dalam pemerolehan ilmu dan
maklumat berbanding cara tradisional. Dunia pada hari ini dengan cepat terus
mengalami perubahan yang ketara, demikian juga dalam arena pendidikan.
Perkembangan teknologi membawa banyak perubahan dalam konsep
pendidikan dan gaya pembelajaran. Pelajaran bukan lagi diperoleh daripada
sumber terhad dan sehala seperti fasa tradisional tetapi sumber maklumat telah
beralih menjadi pelbagai dengan bantuan teknologi. Antaranya laman web yang
merupakan halaman maklumat yang disediakan secara khusus untuk
memperkayakan maklumat tentang sesuatu topik atau perkara. Laman web
boleh diakses melalui alamat yang menjadi identiti secara luas, komprehensif,
pantas dan merangkumi skop yang luas dan dapat diterima oleh ramai orang.

Untuk menunjukkan prestasi pembelajaran yang baik sememangnya


memerlukan usaha-usaha khusus iaitu pembacaan, latih tubi, gerak gempur
minda, usaha pengayaan dan pemulihan dan penggunaan medium audio visual.
Prestasi juga boleh dilihat melalui perlakuan belajar dan tindak tanduk
pembelajaran seperti menunjukkan rasa ingin tahu, berminat, memberikan
tumpuan, aktif dalam perbincangan, kemas dalam menyelesaikan kertas projek
dan mempunyai banyak maklumat tambahan [5]. Gaya belajar bagi
pembelajaran akses kendiri tidak lagi bergantung kepada maklumat guru, pelajar
berkeupayaan mentafsir dan menganalisis maklumat yang dibentangkan oleh
rakan-rakan dan menimbulkan reaksi ingin tahu apabila penggunaan teknologi
diaplikasikan [6].

3.0 METODOLOGI

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti beberapa aspek perlakuan


belajar yang berkaitan dengan penggunaan teknologi iaitu carian web bagi
pembelajaran mata pelajaran Sejarah. Terdapat 105 pelajar Tingkatan 4 di
Sekolah Agama Menengah Hulu Langat, Kajang Selangor yang terlibat sebagai
responden kajian. 105 pelajar ini diambil daripada 3 buah kelas yang berlainan di
mana setiap kelas mempunyai 35 orang pelajar yang semuanya terdiri daripada
pelajar Melayu. Pembelajaran berlangsung di makmal komputer di mana setiap
seorang pelajar dapat menggunakan komputer tanpa perlu berkongsi dengan
pelajar lain. Ini dilakukan bagi melihat sejauh mana pembelajaran akses kendiri
itu dapat dilaksanakan dalam pembelajaran mata pelajaran Sejarah. Walau
bagaimanapun, tugasan yang diberikan adalah berbentuk kumpulan.

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Pembelajaran akses kendiri dengan menggunakan teknologi laman web


ini hanya tertumpu kepada Bab 1, Bab 3 dan Bab 8 sahaja merujuk kepada Buku
Teks Sejarah Tingkatan 4, manakala bab-bab lain di dalam Buku Teks Sejarah
diajar dengan tidak menggunakan capaian laman web. Pembelajaran untuk
ketiga-tiga bab ini telah berlaku dalam beberapa perjumpaan dan soal selidik
hanya diedarkan setelah kesemua bab tersebut telah sempurna diajar. Soalan
berbentuk Skala Likert dibentuk bagi mendapatkan persetujuan pelajar mengenai
item yang dibentuk bagi mencapai objektif kajian. Data soal selidik dianalisis
dengan SPSS untuk mendapatkan statistik deskriptif. Manakala temubual
dianalisis secara manual.

Seramai 3 orang guru dipilih sebagai responden dan ditemubual bagi


mendapatkan maklumat berkenaan dengan pemerhatian mereka terhadap
pelajar ketika pembelajaran berlangsung dan juga prestasi pelajar terhadap mata
pelajaran Sejarah apabila menggunakan kaedah carian maklumat berbanding
dengan kaedah pembelajaran yang hanya merujuk kepada Buku Teks Sejarah
sahaja. Guru tersebut merupakan guru mata pelajaran kepada 3 kelas yang
berlainan. Prestasi pelajar terhadap mata pelajaran Sejarah diukur daripada
beberapa indikator antaranya ialah penguasaan fakta, kronologi peristiwa,
sumbangan tokoh, peranan agensi dan sebab akibat bagi sesuatu tindakan atau
kejadian.

4.0 HASIL KAJIAN DAN PERBINCANGAN

Pada peringkat awal, guru secara perlahan-lahan mengalihkan cara dan


gaya belajar daripada pembelajaran pasif yang didominasi oleh guru kepada
pembelajaran aktif yang berorientasikan bahan, pelajar dan teknologi. Ketika
induksi set, guru meminta pelajar menganalisis maklumat yang diberikan
daripada laman web yang berkaitan. Langkah-langkah pengajaran dan
pembelajaran seterusnya memberikan peranan sepenuhnya kepada pelajar
untuk membincangkan sesama rakan dalam kumpulan yang telah ditetapkan.
Guru memantau dan memberikan bimbingan kepada perkara-perkara yang
menimbulkan kekeliruan.

Tajuk-tajuk Sejarah Dunia yang dipilih untuk tujuan kajian ini ialah tajuk-
tajuk yang dianggap oleh guru dan pelajar sebagai tajuk-tajuk mencabar dan
sukar dikuasai, iaitu merangkumi tajuk-tajuk di dalam Bab 1, Bab 3 dan Bab 8
sahaja seperti di dalam Buku Teks Sejarah. Bagi Bab 1 ia merangkumi tajuk
Tamadun Zaman Purba, Mesopotamia, Sejarah Penulisan, Mesir Purba, China
Purba. Manakala bagi Bab 3 pula merangkumi tajuk Srivijaya, Angkor Wat,
Lembah Bujang dan Bab 8 pula berkenaan dengan tajuk Renaissance, Kuiz
Renaissance dan Dunia Moden Awal sepertimana yang tertera dalam Jadual 1.
Laman web yang dicadangkan untuk pembelajaran bagi tajuk tertentu adalah
seperti di Jadual 1, tetapi pelajar digalakkan untuk mendapatkan maklumat
berkaitan dengan sesuatu tajuk dengan mendapatkan sumber daripada laman
web yang lain.

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Jadual 1: Laman Web yang Digunakan Dalam Pembelajaran

Bil Bab Tajuk Laman Web


.
1 1 Tamadun http://eawc.evansville.edu/
Zaman Purba

Mesopotamia http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/
Sejarah http://www.historian.net/hxwrite.htm
Penulisan
Mesir Purba http://ancienthistory.miningco.com/cs/
China Purba http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/ancient1.html
2 3 Srivijaya http://user.skynet.be/network.indonesia/ni4001c4.ht
m
Angkor Wat http://www.leidenuniv.nl/pun/ubhtm/mjk/angkorwa
Lembah http://www.gtitec.com.my/museums/bujang.htm
Bujang
3 8 Renaissance http://www.twingroves.district96.k12.il.us/
Kuiz http://library.thinkquest.org/C005356/activities.htm
Renaissance
Dunia Moden http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.htm
Awal l

Dapatan menunjukkan, penggunaan laman web bagi mata pelajaran Sejarah


dalam pembelajaran menunjukkan persetujuan yang tinggi dalam kesemua 16
item seperti yang dinyatakan dalam Jadual 2.

Jadual 2: Persepsi Pelajar terhadap Penggunaan Web dalam Mata Pelajaran


Sejarah
(N=105 Responden)

Sangat
No Penggunaan laman Tidak Tidak Tidak Pasti Setuju Sangat
web dalam Setuju Setuju Setuju
pembelajaran mata
pelajaran Sejarah
dapat: N % N % N % N % N %
1 Meningkatkan minat
saya untuk belajar 0 0 2 1.9 0 0 4 3.8 99 94.3
Sejarah.
2 Kesediaan saya untuk
mengikuti mata 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 14.3 90 85.7
pelajaran Sejarah
menjadi lebih tinggi.

3 Memberikan lebih
kefahaman tentang 0 0 4 3.8 3 2.85 9 8.57 89 84.8
tajuk pelajaran.
4 Mendekatkan lagi jiwa
saya tentang peristiwa 0 0 1 1.0 4 3.8 10 9.5 90 85.7
Sejarah.

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5 Membolehkan saya
melihat Sejarah dalam 0 0 1 1.0 0 0 7 6.67 97 92.4
konteks yang
mencabar.
6 Memenuhi rasa ingin
tahu dan menjawab 0 0 4 3.8 6 5.7 8 7.61 87 82.9
banyak persoalan yang
muncul.
7 Meningkatkan interaksi
sesama pelajar dalam 0 0 0 0 6 5.7 10 9.5 89 84.8
kelas.
8 Membentuk sikap
saling bantu membantu 0 0 0 0 6 5.7 12 11.4 87 82.9
di kalangan pelajar.

9 Menyingkatkan masa
untuk mendapatkan 0 0 0 0 4 3.8 25 23.8 76 72.4
maklumat.
10 Capaian maklumat
dapat dilakukan 0 0 25 23.8 3 2.86 0 0 77 73.3
dengan pantas dan
cepat.
11 Maklumat yang ingin
diperolehi adalah 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 105 100
pelbagai dan banyak.
12 Menambahkan
pengetahuan pelajar 0 0 1 1.0 0 0 4 3.8 100 95.2
apabila dapat merujuk
pelbagai sumber.

13 Memberi peluang
kepada saya untuk 0 0 0 0 8 7.61 10 9.5 87 82.9
mendapatkan
maklumat dengan
usaha sendiri.
14 Menjadikan
pembelajaran Sejarah 0 0 0 0 2 1.9 6 5.7 97 92.4
lebih menarik dan
menyeronokkan.
15 Memudahkan lagi
untuk mengingati fakta 0 0 0 0 6 5.7 12 11.4 87 82.9
Sejarah.
16 Menjadikan saya lebih
berkeyakinan terhadap 0 0 0 0 4 3.8 12 11.4 89 84.8
kemampuan diri
sendiri.

Jadual 2 di atas telah menunjukkan hasil kajian mendapati 100% pelajar sangat
bersetuju dengan kenyataan nombor 11 yang merujuk kepada maklumat yang
diperolehi daripada laman web tentang tajuk Sejarah Dunia adalah pelbagai dan
banyak. Seramai 95.2% responden daripada kategori pelajar juga menunjukkan
persetujuan yang tinggi bagi kenyataan nombor 12 iaitu pencarian bahan bagi
mata pelajaran Sejarah melalui laman web dapat menambahkan pengetahuan
mereka. Seramai 94.3% responden juga menyatakan mereka sangat bersetuju
dengan penggunaan laman web bagi mata pelajaran Sejarah dapat
meningkatkan minat mereka untuk mempelajari mata pelajaran tersebut. Ini juga
memandangkan bagi kebanyakan pelajar menghafal fakta Sejarah adalah

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sesuatu yang membosankan dan merumitkan. Dengan kaedah pencarian


maklumat secara sendiri atau pembelajaran akses kendiri dengan menggunakan
laman web juga dapat meningkatkan minat pelajar untuk mempelajari mata
pelajaran tersebut. Manakala, 92.4% responden menyatakan relajar Sejarah
menjadi lebih seronok dan lebih menarik dengan penggunaan laman web bagi
dalam pembelajaran.

Manakala, seramai 23.8% responden melahirkan ketidaksetujuan


terhadap kenyataan nombor 10, iaitu capaian maklumat dapat dilakukan dengan
pantas dan cepat. Kenyataan ini mendapat peratusan tertinggi bagi
ketidaksetujuan berbanding dengan kenyataan lain. Ketidaksetujuan ini
berkemungkinan berkaitan dengan kelancaran internet. Ada ketika, apabila
jaringan internet tidak begitu lancar, maka kelancaran capaian laman web juga
akan mengambil masa yang agak lama.

Secara umumnya, persepsi pelajar tentang penggunaan laman web


dalam mata pelajaran Sejarah adalah pembelajaran Sejarah menjadi lebih
menarik. Mereka juga berpendapat pembelajaran akses kendiri dapat
menjadikan mereka lebih berdikari, yakin dan sentiasa ingin mencuba. Penilaian
pelajar tentang pembelajaran Sejarah turut berubah daripada mata pelajaran
yang bosan kepada yang mencabar dan menyeronokkan. Maka dengan itu akan
wujud percambahan pemikiran tentang pengetahuan Sejarah.

Pelajar juga dapat mentafsir maklumat sejarah secara bebas melalui


laman web yang diberikan. Pelajar dalam masa yang sama dapat menambah
pengalaman dan maklumat baru di samping pengetahuan pelajar juga lebih
terbuka dan luas. Laman web yang dicari pelajar dan dibentang dalam bilik
darjah mampu membangkitkan minat pelajar dalam proses instruksional, di mana
pelajar bersifat interaktif dengan bahan dan membentuk pemikiran baru tentang
Sejarah Dunia. Sepertimana Anita [5] yang mendapati penggunaan teknologi
dapat meningkatkan prestasi pelajar di mana pelajar menunjukkan rasa ingin
tahu dan lebih berminat terdapat sesuatu yang ingin dipelajari. Gaya belajar bagi
pembelajaran akses kendiri tidak lagi bergantung kepada maklumat guru, pelajar
berkeupayaan mentafsir dan menganalisis maklumat yang dibentangkan oleh
rakan-rakan dan menimbulkan reaksi ingin tahu apabila penggunaan teknologi
diaplikasikan [6].

Makala, hasil temubual dengan 3 orang guru mata pelajaran Sejarah


pula mendapati kesemua pelajar menunjukkan minat yang ketara terhadap mata
pelajaran Sejarah terutamanya bagi Bab 1, 3 dan 8. Bagi bab-bab lain yang tidak
menggunakan laman web sebagai kaedah pembelajaran, prestasi pelajar adalah
rendah. Prestasi pelajar bagi mata pelajaran Sejarah telah diukur daripada
beberapa indikator antaranya ialah penguasaan fakta, kronologi peristiwa,
sumbangan tokoh, peranan agensi dan sebab akibat bagi sesuatu tindakan atau
kejadian. Ketiga-tiga guru mata pelajaran Sejarah ini bersetuju bahawa pelajar
menunjukkan kesediaan belajar yang tinggi terhadap bab yang diajar dengan
menggunakan teknologi dan pembelajaran akses kendiri.

Selepas setiap bab itu selepas diajar, setiap kumpulan yang terdiri
daripada beberapa orang pelajar dikehendaki membentangkan hasil tugasan

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mereka kepada rakan-rakan lain di dalam kelas, ketiga-tiga guru mata pelajaran
Sejarah ini juga bersetuju bahawa pembentangan pelajar juga menunjukkan
kesungguhan mereka untuk menyampaikan maklumat dan mereka benar-benar
memahami apa yang cuba disampaikan. Maklumat yang disampaikan adalah
menjangkau apa yang terdapat dalam Buku Teks Sejarah Tingkatan 4. Pelajar
juga menunjukkan minat yang ketara apabila masing-masing pelajar daripada
setiap kumpulan berdebat untuk menambahkan fakta sedia ada. Keadaan ini
menjadikan mata pelajaran Sejarah lebih menarik dan penghafalan fakta Sejarah
dapat dilakukan dengan lebih efektif.

Secara keseluruhannya, hasil pembelajaran yang dapat diperhatikan oleh ketiga-


tiga orang guru ini adalah: (1) wujudnya kumpulan perbincangan aktif dalam
kalangan pelajar tentang bahan edaran; (2) pelajar berusaha mendapatkan
sebanyak mungkin maklumat dan ilmu berkaitan tajuk; (3) pelajar menganalisis
maklumat-maklumat tambahan daripada pelbagai laman web; (4) pelajar merujuk
buku teks untuk tujuan mengenalpasti skop silibus; (5) pelajar dapat menyiapkan
tugasan ringkas dalam kelas dan menyediakan tugasan baru yang diberikan
melalui pembelajaran kendiri; dan (6) pelajar membuat pembentangan secara
kumpulan dengan lebih yakin.

5.0 KESIMPULAN

Senario pendidikan masa kini di Malaysia telah mengarah ke arah


pemanfaatan teknologi tambahan pula melalui proses pembestarian yang
sedang dilaksanakan dan proses memperkasakan sistem pendidikan.
Penggunaan teknologi tidak lagi satu alternatif masa kini tetapi menjadi satu
yang perlu dan penting untuk memansuhkan sistem pembelajaran cara lama
chalk and talk yang banyak didominasi oleh guru yang berorientasikan
peperiksaan sehingga potensi kognitif, afektif dan psikomotor pelajar tidak
dikembangkan secara jelas, sehingga kesannya pemerolehan ilmu hanya
bersifat sementara untuk memenuhi keperluan peperiksaan semata-mata.

Melalui akses maklumat secara sendiri dengan menggunakan laman web,


pelajar lebih terdedah kepada maklumat baru yang terkini dan setanding dengan
pelajar-pelajar lain di seluruh dunia. Pelajar dapat memperolehi maklumat dan
pengetahuan tentang sejarah daripada sumber interaktif yang menarik, bahan
yang sistematik dan rangsangan yang benar-benar bermakna. Malahan bahan-
bahan yang diperolehi boleh dijadikan asas kepada percambahan pemikiran dan
perkongsian pengalaman. Persepsi terhadap mata pelajaran Sejarah yang
dahulunya satu mata pelajaran yang membosankan telah dapat diperbaiki
dengan penggunaan kaedah pembelajaran melalui laman web ini. Pembelajaran
akses kendiri juga dapat menimbulkan sifat berdikari, yakin dan sifat ingin tahu
yang tinggi tentang sesuatu perkara.

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6. RUJUKAN

[1] Farrant, J. S (1981). Prinsip dan amali pendidikan (terj.). Dewan


Bahasa dan Pustaka: Kuala Lumpur.
[2] Perkins H. V. (1998). Teaching methods for today schools:
Collaboration and Inclusions. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
[3] Mok Soon Sang (2004). Ilmu pendidikan untuk KPLI. Subang Jaya:
Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd.
[4] Chall, J. S. (1978). Education and the brain- the seventy seventh
yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
[5] Anita, E. W. (2000). Educational Psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
[6] Fitzgerald, M. (2000). Individual learning styles. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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FACILITATOR AND LEARNER’S UNDERSTANDING ON ROGER’S CORE


CONDITIONS OF A PERSON CENTERED COUNSELING (AND LEARNING)
IN THE STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

ABSTRACT - Student Centered Learning


MANSOR B ABU TALIB (SCL) focuses on the need, abilities, interest
Department of Human and learning styles of the students then of
Development and
Family Studies
others involve in the educational process.
Faculty of Human Ecology Being students centered engages instructors
Universiti Putra Malayia in a humanistic approach to education in
which they function as facilitators of learning
mansorat@putra.upm.edu.my (Nuckles, 2000). In counseling and
psychotherapy, Person Centered
Counseling (PCC) center to the client as a
person, not his or her problem. PCC belongs
to the humanistic theory of counseling that
focuses on the potential of individuals to
actively choose and purposely decide about
matters related to themselves and their
environments. Rogers (1980) emphasized
hat people need to be assisted in learning
how to cope with situations and to become a
fully-functioning person. Roger believes that
the principles of PCC could be applied
outside counseling situation, thus the
Person Centered Leaning (PCL) was
developed. Relationship between
facilitator/counselor and learner is the
central criteria hat signified CC and PCL.
Evidently, PCC strongly believes hat
significant positive changes could not occur
except in relationships. In addition, Rogers
specified the necessary core conditions in
PCC and PCL, i.e. realness, congruence,
genuine or transparency in the
client/facilitator, acceptance or respect
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. towards the client/learner or unconditional
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. positive regard, and the striving for empathic
Prosiding Persidangan understanding of the client/learner. These
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di three core conditions are the prerequisite in
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian PCC and PCL for change and effective
Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of learning to take place. This paper discusses
Golden Horses, Seri lived experiences of facilitators and learners
Kembangan, Selangor 12-14
Disember 2007
in SCL on their understanding of Roger’s
core conditions. It will give suggestion on
methods and others ways to promote PCL
as another approach in SCL.

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Student-centered learning (SCL) is an approach to education focusing on


the needs of the students relatively than those of others concerned in the
educational process. In SCL, students construct their own meaning by talking
through group or team discussion, listening to explanation or presentation, writing
for assignment, reading different resources assigned by facilitator or chosen by
learner, and reflecting on content, ideas, issues and concerns especially the one
that are relevant for their future undertakings or in real world of work. Therefore,
SCL course typically addresses the needs of a particular student to learn how to
solve problems using some aspects of course content. SCL is usually compared
with Teacher Centered Learning where teachers serve as the centre of
knowledge, directing the learning process and controlling student's access to
information. As such, students are viewed as 'empty vessels’ and learning is
viewed as a complimentary process only. Thus, as a result, lectures or
instructions are geared for the 'average' student and each student is required to
show improvement at the same rate. In the context of pedagogy, SCL has many
implications for the design of curriculum, development of course content and
activity of courses as it focuses on the individual student's needs, abilities,
interests, learning styles with the facilitator as a facilitator of learning. Student-
centred learning requires students to be active, responsible participants in their
own learning. In contrast, facilitator-centred learning has the facilitator at its'
centre in an active role and students in a passive, receptive role.

One approach in SCL is the model of Person-Centered Learning (PCL)


and teaching. PCL focuses on the facilitation of learning and teaching between
active learner and facilitator. It is based on the work of humanistic educators and
psychologist, Carl Rogers. PCL was developed from the Client-Centered
Counseling theory introduced by Rogers which emphasized on the client and not
on the problem. Counseling itself is a student centered activity, based on the
principles that the counselor’s goal is to be a student advocate and to help each
students achieve success to the best of their ability. Similarly, the PCL is based
on the students by giving the learners or students the freedom to not only
chooses the methods of learning, but to engage in the discussion of the content.
In practical terms, the PCL can be implemented within limits. PCL educators
believe that making choices is an integral aspect of being a human, and at the
heart of learning. Secondly, Rogers advocated trusting the individual to make
choices, and that it was the only way to help them understand the consequences
of their choices. In term of learning, students need to decide whether they want
to learn and how much lesson should be acquired to achieve goals that they
have decide earlier. Nevertheless, decision had to be made together with the
facilitator.

Conceptually, there are several aspects of the PCL that appeal to the
facilitator, namely, the role of the facilitator in the learning process, and the
creation of a conducive learning environment to inquiry learning or learning
through self investigation. According to Rogers, the relationship between the
facilitator and learner is important in bringing about the positive effects of learning

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by the learners. In order to do this, three elements seemed to characterize the


facilitator who assumes the role of learning facilitator. The three elements are
termed as Rogers’s core condition, namely realness, acceptance, and empathy.
This paper discusses how these there significant criteria or Roger’s core
conditions are understood by both the facilitators and learners in the SCL
classes.

2.0 METHOD

Five students were interviewed in two separate groups to share


experience and expectation on SCL. Two facilitators who used SCL in their
courses were individually interviewed. They were asked questions pertaining to
(1) what are personal qualities or attributes of facilitator in SCL that would
contribute to effective learning, and (2) what meaning they attached from their
understanding about SCL. PCL concept was not mentioned throughout the
interviews as to not confuse the respondents. Information gathered were
analyzed thematically to look at themes or distinguishable patterns that can be
used in the discussion.

3.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Information gathered from both the learners and facilitators involved in


SCL pointed that Roger’s three conditions of client or student centered learning
were minimally present. Even though respondents were unable to use the exact
terminology described by Roger’s core conditions, they seemed to agree that
genuineness, positive regard or acceptance and empathic understanding are
crucial in SCL. This is in line with PCL criteria as suggested by Rogers.
Student’s respondents hypothesized that they could achieve superior results
along with personal growth. Areas of improvement included in terms of higher
self-confidence, greater creativity, and openness to their new learning
experience, enhancing self-respect, and respect towards others. This was
possible if only they are able to learn in an atmosphere or climate in which the
facilitator holds the three core attitudinal conditions as suggested in PCL. All
students understood that SCL put them as centre of attention and they have
certain responsibility in this academic partnership. Rogers’s theory stressed on
the self actualizing tendency that drive the individual or ‘organism’ to strive
toward making the best and developing their fullest potential to the fullest. This
tendency unfolds best in an atmosphere that is characterized by the three core
conditions.

Respondents shared some personal qualities of facilitators that they


recommended as necessary in order to have significance impact on the learning
and teaching process. However, only criteria related to Roger’s core condition
were discussed in this paper.

a. Genuineness or congruence or realness in the facilitator

In counseling, according to Rogers,

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When the therapist is experiencing a positive, acceptant attitude


toward whatever the client is at that moment, therapeutic movement or
change is more likely to occur. The therapist is willing for the client
to be whatever immediate feeling is going on--confusion, resentment,
fear, anger, courage, love, or pride. Such caring on the part of the
therapist is non possessive. The therapist prizes the client in a total
rather than a conditional way. (Rogers,1980, p.115-116)

Rogers claimed that the dynamics of counseling especially the


counselor-client relationship outlined by his Client-Centered counseling
can be taken into classroom setting and practiced by teacher. However,
none of the student’s respondents and facilitators talked about the
important of relationship whereas this is a central construct of PCC and
PCL. However, both groups of respondents were able to deliberate on
the importance of being genuine or real in facilitating role of the
facilitator. According to PCL, the most basic of these essential attitudes
or core conditions for learning process to take place is realness or
genuineness.

When the facilitator is a real person and being what s/he is, the facilitator
will enter into a relationship with the learner without presenting a façade or
pretending. As a result, s/he is much more likely to be effective. This means that
the feelings that s/he is experiencing are available to her and that s/he is able to
live these feelings. Likewise, the facilitator will be able to communicate to the
students if appropriate. Intrinsically, realness denotes coming into a direct
personal encounter with the learners through meeting them on a person-to-
person basis. In doing so, facilitator is being him or herself and not denying
his/her own feeling and emotion and shares it with the students appropriately. As
a result, students can feel the realness brought about by the facilitator in the
teacher-students relationship.

My lecturer showed us the right way to answer the questions and she
showed all our assignment and why we deserved such a grade or mark

(Student 1, Female)

Somehow I felt understood and I have a feeling that he trust me without


any doubt not like some other classes where we might be penalized because
our lecturer have some preconceived ideas about students …. then we were
taken for granted..
(Student 3, Female)

think my lecturer knows a lot about psychology. She seemed to feel


what I feel and we could speak in a same wavelength. I felt heard and
understood
(Student 4, Male)

… shared what I felt and I think this is a partnership between me and my


students. They need to know how I feel about them and what my expectations
are …

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(Facilitator 1, Male)

I want to make it personal with my students. I know it is important but


how could I make it personal to hundred of them. I have to be fair
(Facilitator 2, Female))

Clearly, in the SCL and especially PCL, the facilitator must take on the
role of a facilitator of student learning rather than a dispenser of knowledge or
information. In the PCL model, for the facilitator to show realness they must be
genuine and willing to express feelings. This is important because in the PCL
model, the facilitator acts as counselor, guide and coach, and in order to be
effective, he or she must be real with his or her students.

b. Acceptance, trust or unconditional positive regards

In general, there is an essential attitude that stands out in those


who are doing well in facilitating learning i.e. accepting the learners
without any conditions. Thus, in PCL, facilitator is encouraged to
continuously prizing the learner, honoring learner’s feelings, his/her
opinions and crediting an individual student as a person. It is an
acceptance of this other individual as a person who is having worth in
her own right. Facilitator acts in such a way that could instill a basic trust
i.e. a belief that this other person is somehow fundamentally trustworthy.
The facilitator’s prizing or acceptance of the learner is an operational
expression of his/her essential confidence and trust in the capacity of the
human organism. Clearly, PCL highly advocated and stressed the
importance of accepting the other person or indeed prizing the learners
and acknowledging that they are trustworthy and can be held responsible
for their behavior.

Facilitator acts as motivator and does not ‘membebel’. He or she help to


build my confidence and feeling good about myself

(Student 5, Male)

I think all lecturers must value and respect their students. They need
to accept the student differences with open mind. They
shouldn’t judge them…
(Student 1. Female)

I try my best to give students my full, caring attention without judging or


evaluating them. They all have their own unique strengths
(Facilitator 1, Male)"

c. Empathic understanding

As stated by Rogers (1980), students feel deeply appreciative


when they are simply understood, not evaluated, not judged, and that

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they are simply understood from their own point of view and not the
facilitator’s.

A further element that establishes a climate for self-initiated


experiential learning is emphatic understanding. When the facilitator has
the ability to understand the learner’s reactions from the inside, has a
sensitive awareness of the way the process of education and learning
seems to the learner, then again the likelihood of significant learning is
increased. To PCL, empathy is the most important element in this triad
of Roger’s core conditions. Empathy is a form of understanding without
judgment or evaluation. Empathy shown by facilitators in the lecture
room is especially important in developing positive attitudes among the
learners.

Facilitator asks lots of questions. He makes me curious and enhances


my desire to know more. If I cannot give the right answer he sort of
understood and didn’t make a judgment on me

(Student 3, Female)

I know some lecturer ‘give face’ to their students. I want to do the same
but I am not sure where the limit. I feel for them for having too
many assignments but isn’t that part of the learning process?
(Facilitator 2, Female)

My lecturer understands me and my situations and does not compare me


with the others. I can tell without having prejudice and he listens and
acknowledges
(Student 1, Female)

Naturally there are more than these three elements to being a


learning facilitator. Technical aspects such as setting up a classroom
environment conducive to learning, providing learning materials, and
structuring lessons that encourage person-centered learning are involved
as well. These were also shared by both the students and facilitators
involved in this study. Their feedback are presented in Table 1

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Table 1
Technical aspect of PCL

Facilitator/Learner’s account Meaning


I got very excited by the way he discussed the Setting a positive climate for
lecture. He had us played ‘musical chair’ and learning
we have to answer questions on the paper
when we pick. Then he had us tried to answer
it and then he presented the exact answers. So
we knew where we went wrong or how to
approach the questions
(Student 5, Male)

Groups discussion in small teams. Most student Group work and dynamics of
like this and they thought this is SCL already. I discussion
do like small group but students need to be told
that they must bring materials to discuss in
class
(Facilitator 1, Male)

I asked questions as prompts, lots of them. This Ask questions that foster
is like to open their inquiry mind. But I realized I inquiry
am the one ended up answering them ….
(Facilitator 1, Male)

We now need to enhance students soft skill Encouraging participation


(kemahiran Insaniah), so I really have to
encourage students to discuss during lecture
but it is hard work and difficult. Not many
student want to speak up so a lot of us end up
having student to do presentation
(Facilitator 2, Female)

I let student choose their own topic of interest in Freedom to decide method
completing their assignment and for them to and choose content (guided
choose their own content. However, I told them by facilitator)
what are expected from the assignment

In student centered, we need to focus on the Students understand


students and have them decide actions to take expectations
but not all…for example … I cannot let
students to form their own group because they
will only work with friend that they already know
…so I make a requirement that it should be a
mixed group between gender and ethnicity. So
is this student centered?
(Facilitator 1, Male)

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Respondents in this study articulated that they have experienced SCL


differently as compared to traditional method of teaching. However, student-
respondents equated SCL as small group learning and students doing the
presentation. Nevertheless, they agreed that SCL could easily promote personal
change and growth. They listed some personal criteria of the facilitator and
learning environment that could contributed to positive learning experiences such
as (a) facilitating the learning and discovery process rather than merely telling or
teaching, this is achieved by setting a mood for the environment (b) varied
approaches of deliveries beside traditional lectures where students act as
passive partner, (c) variety of learning resources were used to uphold students
interest such as guest speaker, movie, role play and quizzes. This is similar as
suggested by Rogers whereby the role of the teacher is to facilitate learning as
all human beings have a natural propensity to learn. In addition, student’s criteria
of a good SCL are similar with Rogers’s prerequisite of a good PCL. This
includes: (1) situating a constructive climate for learning, (2) clarifying the
purposes of the learner(s), (3) organizing and making available learning
resources, (4) complementing intellectual and emotional components of learning
as balanced, and (5) sharing feelings and thoughts with learners.

A conflicting theme developed from this study is around participation.


According to Rogers, learning is facilitated when student participates completely
in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction. Student-
respondents seemed to want this but information gathered from the facilitator
pointed different scenarios. Even though facilitators in this study understood that
SCL need continuous participation from their students, their involvement is
minimal and it is difficult to motivate students to participate on their own freewill.

4.0 CONCLUSION

This paper had discussed a brief understanding of students and


facilitators of SCL about the existence of PCL approach and three Roger’s core
conditions necessary for changes and learning process to take place. Since PCL
can be considered as learning or teaching model in the SCL environments, its
criteria and nature are similar to SCL. Basically in PCL, the teacher takes over
the role of a facilitator holding the three Rogers core or attitudinal conditions.
Therefore, facilitator should be aware of the attitudes he or she holds. The
facilitator needs to feel acceptance of his or her own feeling thus becoming a real
person in relationship with the students. In doing so, students will also feel that
are being accepted as they are.

In the PCL classroom, students are encouraged to ask questions, decide


on content, choose upon methods and resources, look at concepts and theories,
and find out things on their own discovery and working in small teams. In
addition, an atmosphere of trust is established in the classroom, in which
curiosity and the accepted aspiration to learn can be nourished. A participatory
mode of decision-making is applied to all aspects of learning, and students,
facilitators, and administrators each have a part in it. Students are encouraged
to prize themselves, to build their confidence and self-esteem. In conclusion, the
core concepts of PCC used in PCL were found to be applicable to SCL, as
evident by this study

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Similar to SCL, PCL connotes the important of students and facilitators of


learning to share the responsibility of meeting curriculum requirements. In
addition, students are continuously encouraged to participate in all aspects of
learning and decision making. Variety of delivery styles are encouraged and
engaging different learning materials and resources. Resources are suggested
by both facilitator and learners. Case study was suggested as method to be used
more often and must used real life scenario or on the job cases so that student
could see the relevance of lessons learnt in lecture room. Learning takes on
several dimensions. It proceeds both individually and cooperatively in small
teams and the large group, along the content- as well as the process dimension,
and cognitively as well as socially and personally, intuitively or emotionally,
learning strategies, evaluation procedures. Students are free to suggest or to
choose topics, aspects, processes within the context preset by the curriculum.
Nevertheless this must be guided by the facilitator and curriculum set by the
faculty. Finally, students participate in the evaluation of learning by conducting
self-evaluation based on their learning objectives outlined in the course synopsis
or learning contract with the facilitators.

REFERENCES

[1] Nuckles, C. R.(2000) "Student-Centered Teaching: Making It Work."


Adult Learning 11, 4

[2] Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a Person - A Psychotherapists View


of Psychotherapy. London: Constable.

[3] Rogers, Carl (1980). A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

[4] Rogers, C. R. (1983). Freedom to Learn for the 80's. Columbus, OH:
Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.

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MANAGING DIVERSITY TRAINING FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS

HARLINA HS, RUZANNA Z, ABSTRACT - Medical doctors are required to


JURIZA I, SITI MARIAM B, provide equal treatment and care to all
NABISHAH M, LOKMAN S. patients, regardless of their age, gender,
Department of Medical Education, ethnicity, religion, social position and financial
Faculty of Medicine UKM
standing. The basic precepts of medical ethics
clearly illustrate the importance of medical
practitioners to be fair, neutral and unbiased
in treating their patients. In a multi-racial,
multi-cultural country like Malaysia, it is
extremely important for medical practitioners
to have a sound understanding on diversified
elements of their patients’ culture, religious
convictions, values and attitudes - before
they can proceed to treat their patients with
respect and dignity. Faculty of Medicine UKM
has included a sub-module of Managing
Diversity under the module of Personal and
Professional Development (PPD) in the new
integrated curriculum for the medical
programme since the academic year of 2005-
2006. The sub-module is first introduced to
the second year medical students through an
hour of interactive concept lecture, followed
by a two-hour small group discussion (SGD)
session. In this facilitated session, students
are given three short games designed to
explore the similarities and differences
existing within the group. Students are also
facilitated to discuss on topics such as
prejudice, bias, stereotyping and
discrimination. Further training is conducted
during the outdoor camp activities held in the
beginning of the third year, whereby the
groups will debate on controversial topics
related to the patients in the clinics and wards.
In the clinical postings, the students’
professional conduct which include the skill on
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. managing diversity is observed and
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. assessed by their clinical supervisors. It is
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran hoped that the introduction of such a module
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi
will facilitate the medical students to be more
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden caring, sensitive and aware of the diversity
Horses, Seri Kembangan, existing around them, which should lead them
Selangor 12-14 Disember 2007 to manage the differences appropriately. A
group of highly culturally-competent medical
practitioners would be able to be the agents of

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change for a more harmonious multicultural,


multi-religious society of Malaysia.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Medical doctors are required to provide fair treatment and care to all patients,
regardless of their age, gender, ethnicity, religion, social position and financial
standing. The basic precepts of medical ethics clearly illustrate the importance of
medical practitioners to be just, neutral and unbiased in treating their patients. It
is extremely important for medical practitioners to have a sound understanding
on the diversified elements of their patients’ culture, religious convictions, values
and attitudes - before they can proceed to treat their patients with respect and
dignity. The need to train medical undergraduates to be comfortable and familiar
with the diversified profiles of their patients, become more apparent now. British
General Medical Council paper on `Tomorrow’s Doctors’ states that "students
should have acquired respect for patients and colleagues that encompasses,
without prejudice, diversity of background and opportunity, language, culture and
way of life.” [1]

Sub-module on Managing Diversity in Faculty of Medicine, UKM

In the new integrated curriculum for medical programme, the Faculty of Medicine
UKM has included a sub-module of Managing Diversity under the module of
Personal and Professional Development (PPD). The sub-module is first
introduced to the second year medical students through an hour of interactive
concept lecture, followed by a two-hour small group discussion (SGD) session.
The objectives of the sub-module during this introductory phase are as follows:

• To appreciate the importance of handling diversity in human relationship


• To describe types of individual choices in responding to diversity

The concept lecture entitled : Celebrating Similarities & Managing Diversity


covers the area on :

• The definition of diversity


• The components of diversity
• The benefits and disadvantages of diversity
• The attitudes towards diversity and factors influencing them
• The definitions of stereotypes, prejudice, bias and discrimination
• Video clips from movies such as `Ghandi’, `Mother Theresa’ and
`Kingdom of Heavens’ – which illustrate the importance of managing
diversity that can be learned in history.

In this facilitated session, students participate in three short games


designed to explore the similarities and differences existing within the group.
Students are also facilitated to discuss on topics such as prejudice, bias,
stereotyping and discrimination.

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At the end of the second semester in Year Two, the PPD unit organizes
an interfaith discussion on the topic of ` Practises of Medicine : What does your
religion say?’. During this two-hour forum, four medical practitioners are invited to
represent the views of Muslims, Christians, Buddhists and Hindus on the
practices of medicine. In the post-forum evaluation, about 70% of students
regarded the program as ` informative’ as well as `interesting’.

During the outdoor PPD camp 2, held in the beginning of the third year,
the sub-module is delivered through small group discussion (SGD) sessions on
medical ethics. The students are required to watch a movie entitled `Something
the Lord Made’, which highlights the issue of managing diversity in the context of
ethnicity and gender. In an another session, students are given topics of debate
on controversial issues related to the patients’ gender, age, ethnicity and sexual
orientation.

In the clinical postings, the students’ professional conduct which include


the skill on managing diversity is observed and assessed by their clinical
supervisors. In the recent end-semester exam, a key feature question (KFQ) was
constructed to assess the students’ understanding and response towards a
clinical situation in a gynaecological clinic involving a single college student with
a sexually-transmitted infection. Out of 232 students, only three students failed
the KFQ segment. The students who failed the managing diversity component
were given personal feedback sessions with the lecturers in the PPD unit.

2.0 DISCUSSION

Teaching cultural diversity in medical schools remains to be somewhat


fragmented, with uncertainty towards what actually constitutes diversity teaching.
About 72% of forty medical schools in Great Britain which responded to a survey
reported that they are currently teaching and assessing cultural diversity among
their undergraduates [2]. Countries such as the US and Canada seem to be in
the forefront in promoting diversity teaching in undergraduate schools [3].

It is hoped that the introduction of such a module will facilitate medical students
to become more aware and sensitive towards the diversified elements existing
around them. Following a sound understanding on diversity, it is expected that
the students would be able to develop appropriate professional conduct and
respect in dealing with patients coming from all walks of life. It is the aspiration of
UKM to produce a group of culturally-competent medical practitioners, who would
then be the best agents of change for a more harmonious multi-cultural, multi-
religious society of Malaysia.

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REFERENCES :

[1] General Medical Council. Tomorrow's Doctors. London: General Medical


Council, 1993

[2] Nisha D, Conning S,Gill P,Spencer J, Turner M. Teaching of cultural


diversity in medical schools in the United Kingdom and Republic of
Ireland: cross sectional questionnaire survey . BMJ 2005;330:403-404

[3] Flores G, Gee D, Kastner B. The teaching of cultural issues in US and


Canadian medical schools. Acad Med 2000;75: 451-5

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INSTILLING MORAL VALUES IN REPORT WRITING COURSE

ABSTRACT
HAJAH SITI AKMAR ABU This topic may raise eyebrows of its
SAMAH relevance, significance and approaches.
Institute of Leadership & Quality Very often than not several soft skills
Management initiatives have been put forward by the top
Universiti Teknologi MARA
40 450 Shah Alam
leaders of the country, of which are very
Selangor commonly known as, for example, Rukun
MALAYSIA Negara, Pelan Integriti Negara (PIN) , and
sitikma@salam.uitm.edu.my the recent one – Kemahiran Insaniah. All
these are targeted to the working
population of the country. However, these
are noble values that need to be instilled at
much tender age of our youths. Being
teachers at tertiary level, do we play a part
in this work of nurturing the nature. If we
are not obligated to, is our teaching merely
facts dissemination and completing the
syllabus? If we have the sense of
responsibility being citizens with these
noble values, do we impart them to our
students? And just how do we do that? In a
small area of focus, teaching Report Writing
entails much trust in the choice of topic,
data collection, researching for literature,
drafting and writing. These are the tasks
that need to be carried out by the students.
They are the process owner of their project
and in conducting so, the trustworthiness
sometimes may swerve to plagiarized work,
cut-paste practice or copying from others in
carrying out their assignment. Can we
inculcate values in every juncture of
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007.
progress that they make? This paper
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. attempts to address so by providing
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran pertinent teaching-learning strategies.
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden Keywords: moral values, soft skills
Horses, Seri Kembangan, initiatives, nurturing, teaching-learning
Selangor 12-14 Disember 2007
strategies

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

The original title of this paper was intended to read “In Paper We Write,
In Values We Rely”. Being a language educator in an institution of higher
education, much has been experienced in imparting knowledge and information
via reading, writing, listening and speaking. Also, much has been seen in the
types of students that are admitted into the university. These are the raw
resources that need to be nurtured and refined to provide for the country in terms
of economic returns. Many of them that come for further studies are intellectually
ready. They are the products of various levels of the national examinations that
are held throughout their lives within the education system. However, being
equipped with intellectual capital may not necessarily deem them fit to create a
holistic society. It is not sufficient for a total person to become, with only
intellectual capital, as two other elements are necessary to make one a total
person and these are social and spiritual capitals. (Ary G. Agustian , 2005).

Thus, in the attempt to create a healthy society, every educational


curriculum lauds to be effective. In Malaysia, from the beginning of the schooling
age, the education system has placed emphasis on creating a holistic person in
preparation to be a desirable citizen. This is clearly stated in the National
Education Philosophy,

Education in Malaysia is an ongoing process towards further effort in developing


the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner; so as to produce
individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced
and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is
designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent,
who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of
achieving a high level of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to
the betterment of the society and the nation at large.

in which much emphasis is placed on character building of every learning


individual. The education system has not failed to provide learning experiences in
moulding the character of the young people. As part of the philosophy, there is a
place for value education that every young learner has to undertake in the
system. Values which have been widely defined in literature encompass all
things from eternal concepts to behavioural actions. They are criteria that
determine the levels of goodness, worth and beauty. These important elements
which include responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, integrity and honesty are
important to ensure that they act as filter for the selection of inputs involving the
choices of right-and-wrong, ethical-and-non ethical and desirable-and-
undesirable.

Nevertheless, many initiatives are planned, accepted, launched and


recorded on paper. These sets of values, after being found appropriate, are
ready for inclusion in the curriculum via various relevant subjects. The next issue
is the imparting process so that this values education takes place in the learning
process. The next important issue proposed in this paper is how do language
educators play their role in contributing to nurturing the resources, in particular

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the students. Needless to say, these are the raw resources that need to be
instilled with those values propagated in the initiatives. Thus, the writer intends to
share some highlighted national soft skills initiatives and suggest ways in which
values inculcation can be incorporated in one of the language courses offered by
an academy of language studies of a local university and that is Report Writing
Course.

2.0 SOFT SKILLS INITIATIVES

In support of the already existing educational curriculum, other initiatives


supplement the inculcation of values not only among the young learners in
institutions of learning, but also for working community in the society. Several
attempts have been made by the authority to put forth the requirements of
churning desirable citizens. These initiatives carry noblest aims as they intend to
nurture the ambition of a developing nation as perfected in the National
Education Philosophy. In this paper only three commonly highlighted ones : the
Rukun Negara, Pelan Integriti Negara and Kemahiran Insaniah are cited for
discussion purposes.

1. RUKUN NEGARA

In 1969, May 13, a serious race riot took place in the country. This incident
has evident the fragility of a multi-racial Malaysia which in turn will endanger
the country stability. In its reaction a Malaysian Pledge of Alliance was
instituted [2] and thus Rukun Negara. It is not necessarily a soft skill initiative
but a philosophy and national ideology. The objectives of the allegiance
include:
• Achieving a more perfect unity amongst the whole of the Malaysian
society

• Preserving a democratic way of life

• Creating a just society where the prosperity of the country can be


enjoyed together in a fair and equitable manner

• Guaranteeing a liberal approach towards her rich and varied cultural


tradition and

• Building a progressive society that will make use of science and modern
technology

However, to achieve these ambitions there are mission statements that need
to be pulled up in order to meet the ends. These are the five principles that
entail the philosophy and they warrant every citizen to embrace:
• Believe in God

• Loyalty to king and country

• Upholding the Constitution

• Rule of law

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• Good behavior and morality

In providing the intellectual input and equipping them with the knowledge
to these young people, more often than not, teachers may notice that there is
an absence or lack of effort in imparting the desirable social elements
when they display social misconduct. Some of these behaviours warrant the
provision for input from the teachers through inculcation and action learning
in which these students by chance or choice may commit academic
misconduct in their learning process.

For this paper the focus is on the Report Writing Course as there are
strategies adopted by students which may amount to academic dishonesty
such as plagiarizing, cut-paste strategy and editing exercise by content
expert, just to name a few. Nonetheless, these coupled with undesirable
social behaviours like absenteeism, unpunctuality and defiance may cause
ripple of undesirable characters among the young people. These are some of
the observed behaviours in the classes taught at the university.

2.0 PELAN INTEGRITI NEGARA (National Integrity Plan)

The National Integrity Plan is another noble strategy to create a holistic


society. In upholding the aspiration of the country’s leader, Malaysia is forging
ahead to become a developed nation in its own mould (Abdullah Ahmad Badawi,
2005). To achieve this, the nation has to address the shortcomings amongst its
citizens and thus the need to strengthen ethics and integrity. In the Prime
Minister’s words, he states that “The government has implemented the PM
Directive No. 1 of 1998 which aims to enhance the integrity of the government
administration. There is also the needs to involve other sectors too, such as the
private sector, political parties, non-government organizations, mass media,
women, youth and students. The formulation of the National integrity Plan has
been based on the spirit and principles of the Federal Constitution, the
philosophy of the Rukun Negara and the aspiration of Vision 2020. With its
objective “to establish a fully moral and ethical society whose citizens are strong
in religious and spiritual capitals imbued with the highest ethical standards”, this
initiative will only remain on paper if efforts to develop desirable character
amongst the citizens, particularly the young ones are not implemented.

This initiative should not remain so if it were to be successfully


manifested in the society commitment for a healthy nation. The cooperation and
coordination programmes have to start from the grass roots right up to the
highest level of the society. These include the family, community civil society and
socio-culture including the education sector. Thus, being in one of the
comprehensive sectors, teachers have a definite role to play. In the objective,
this presentation attempts to share the teaching experiences where ethics and
integrity can be part of the mechanism not only to produce academic work that
goes through ethical process, but also to nurture future leaders to achieve
national aspiration.

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3.0 KEMAHIRAN INSANIAH

As proposed in the paper, the author attempts to present another noble


initiative launched by the authority, with the effort of developing the young people
with skills that make them fit for the society. These soft skills are requirements
that every student must possess. This particular initiative is targeted to the young
people, especially to those studying in the university. These skills are integrated
into the teaching-and-learning system. The students need to conduct self-
evaluation and self-improvement to find out the level they have achieved in the
development of these important skills that they need in life.

The Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia has made the acquisition and
mastery of these soft skills mandatory for every university student when they
graduate. These skills include communication skills, critical thinking and problem
solving skills, entrepreneurial skills, team working skills, lifelong learning and
information management, professional ethics and moral and leadership skills.
Thus, for these skills to be acquired, inculcation should proceed on even at
tertiary level as students are exposed to the learning process that they may not
have gone through at primary and secondary levels. In the multitude of duties, a
teacher can play his role through his lessons, to infuse these skills during the
class hours. To teach these skills per se is possible, but that requires
supplementary programmes like those organised by Universiti Teknologi MARA
Department of Student Affairs in which a systematic curriculum exists in these
programmes and they are separated from the normal teaching hours. This
indicates extra commitment is required by the teacher and learner associated
with these programmes.

TEACHER’S ROLE IN INCORPORATING VALUES DURING REPORT


WRITING EXERCISE

3.1 ACADEMIC CHALLENGES IN REPORT WRITING CLASS

An earlier task undertaken by the students during the Report Writing


Course is the choice of report topic for approval by the lecturers. For this
first step, lecturers suggest themes of areas for students to report so that
students are not given the liberty to pick up a topic which may have been
worked on in previous semesters by other students. As an example, teaching
students from the Faculty of Business and Management, topic scope
involves investigation on business entities. With the advent of technology,
there are wide chances of undesirable academic activities such as
plagiarizing, cut-and-paste practices (read malpractice) and using
unauthorized content editor in carrying out the assignment.

It is during this class session that students are made aware of various
practices of academic dishonesty with the intention that they know what they
are and how to inculcate the awareness of the repercussion of committing
so. One of the acts is plagiarizing. The question as to whether plagiarism is
on the rise, at Yale University and perhaps elsewhere, the answer is
“maybe”. However, the administration is not taking any chances (Yale Alumni

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Magazine January/February 2007). Plagiarising involves the practice of


directly quoting published or unpublished work of another person without
clearly stating the author with footnote, citations or bibliographical reference
and this act can be addressed through examples from previous students’
work.

During the recent marking of an examinable project , a student’s report


has displayed a case of cut-and-paste malpractice. In doing so, the
acknowledgement page of the report carries not the name of his own lecturer
but another who is not teaching him. This typical case has been reported in
previous semesters.

3.2 TEACHING-LEARNING STRATEGIES

In every teacher’s attempt to complete the Report Writing syllabus


which is a mandatory English Language course at first degree level, some
teaching strategies that assist in the inculcation of values helps to train
students to observe rules and procedures in order to keep them in check
from committing academic dishonesty. In terms of language proficiency
level, students are taught different techniques of editing strategies. These
techniques like paraphrasing, different approaches in the technique of
acknowledging, making use of collocations in report writing and editing may
help the students handle the writing process well during the course.

Therefore, teachers do have a role to play and perhaps they need to


‘cooperate and coordinate’ their teaching duties during lecture and tutorials
to make these initiatives not only to remain on paper, but also to be
embraced by the students under their tutelage. The provision for the effort is
there and is readily available. In teaching a language course, students are
exposed to some strategies that can assist them in the development
process. This is interrelated with the demand of higher education in which
young people got admitted to the university are then exposed to the needs
far beyond their self-expectation as to what entails in higher education,
particularly in the subjects that they may not be too familiar with.

The following teaching-learning strategy is adapted from the typology


proposed by Huitt (2004). The value laden elements are laced with the
methods used in carrying out the report writing assignments. Huitt (2004)
includes five basic approaches to values education: inculcation, moral
(ethics) development, analysis, value clarification and action learning. Using
these elements, this presentation attempts to incorporate the tasks involved
in carrying out the report writing exercise using both knowledge input as well
as value laden elements that intend to keep students in check of any
malpractices.

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Overview of Values Education Approaches in Report Writing Class


Approach Purpose Methods
Inculcation To introduce to the To discuss the different
students the kinds of issues that students
topics relevant within the encounter on and
scope of research. outside campus
campus.
To introduce the use of
individual portfolio (final Guidance is provided so
grade given) that topics chosen are
not taken from previous
To teach students that students’ report.
comments, feedback ,
problems or complaints Topics are recorded in
are best addressed the portfolio for
though writing continuity of discussion
throughout the
semester.
Analysis To help students pick up Discussion on the topic
relevant issue to design scope and pertinent,
questionnaire/interview relevant issues that
protocol need to be asked during
data collection process.
To help students use
objective and analytical
process in relating
questions with the
problems that may be
observed or found

Values clarification To practise writing of Students are directed in


acknowledgements group to collect 3 – 5
published books to
To assist student in scrutinize the language
writing conclusion and use in writing sections of
recommendation remarks report e.g.
for the report assignment Acknowledgement

The students learn to


incorporate phrases,
clauses and collocations
that are relevant in
writing
acknowledgements,
statements for
conclusion and
recommendation.

Action Learning To train students in In writing component,

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writing students are taught the


technique of
paraphrasing. It is
writing in own words
what someone else has
said or written.

The ability to
paraphrase helps
students to recognize
when another writer has
restated his ideas.

When writing reports,


paraphrasing helps to
avoid using direct
quotes.

Ethics Development To help students develop Students keep an


regularity and reliability in individual portfolio that
time management requires them to present
to lecturer on regular
meeting appointments
outside class hours.

Time management skill


is applied where
students keep to their
appointments and
meetings.

Written tasks are


presented to the
lecturer. Early drafts are
checked and filed. Using
the amended draft, the
next portfolio
presentation is
conducted on another
meeting.

4. CONCLUSION

In summary, teaching involves disseminating information both of


knowledge as well as values. When students are clearly informed of the different
types of academic dishonesty, lecturers are providing favours for these young
people not to commit those practices. Having been in the university for almost
two decades, the author is aware of the wide diversity of social and cultural
background these students come from. Being a university student requires one to
ideally uphold righteousness to be successful both on paper and simultaneously

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in ‘spirituality’ too.

From the above picture, the author throughout her years of teaching
experience has always believed that apart from teaching and completing the
syllabus, inculcation of good behaviour and moral values to strengthen ethics
and integrity and developing the young people’s soft skills should be incorporated
during teaching, no matter how tight class time is. This is not a research paper
but a teaching experience which intends to be shared with other aspiring
teachers/lecturers who believe that they play a small, if not, significant role to
help students develop holistically.

And finally as a reminder to all Malaysians, if not all humankind, these


words of Father of the Indian Nation, M.K. Gandhi, should act as the bastion of
survival in the journey of life towards excellence, glory and distinction:

If wealth is lost, nothing is lost


If health is lost something is lost
If character is lost, everything is lost.

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

All praises to the Almighty for giving this great opportunity in producing a
paper which may just pass as academically attenuated. Endless gratitude goes
to all my family members – my husband and five awesome children for ‘leaving
me alone in preparing this paper’. Last but not least, to my academic inspirer for
his guidance and belief, Prof Dr Hj Kamaruzaman Jusoff, and to my alma mater
UPM for calling me for submission of the paper, my special thanks.

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.iim.com.my/v2/pin/eng/index.htm
[2] http://www.fksg.utm.my/?q=kemahiran-insaniah-pelajar
[3] http://en,wikipedia.org/wiki/Rukun_Negara
[4] Ary Ginanjar Agustian (2005) The ESQ Way 165, Penerbit Arga, Jakarta,
Indonesia
[5] Charanjit S Nee Gurcharn (2003) English for Occupational Purposes
Federal Publication Singapore
[6] Dato Seri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak (2005) “Reinventing the Future
Through Good Governance” Seminar on the National Integrity Plan 8
August 2005, Kuala Lumpur
[7] Huitt, W. (2004) Values Educational Psychology Interactive Valdosta
State University
[8] Lim Peck Choo et al (2001) Mainstream English II Second Edition
Pearson Education Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia
Yale Alumni Magazine January/February 2007

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PERSEPSI PELAJAR TERHADAP AKTIVITI DI DALAM KELAS BAHASA


ARAB: TINJAUAN DI USIM

ABSTRAK-Pengajaran dan pembelajaran


LUBNA ABD RAHMAN (P&P) bahasa merupakan perkara asas di
WAN AZURA WAN AHMAD sesebuah institusi pengajian. Ini bermakna
ARNIDA A.BAKAR P&P bahasa tidak sepatutnya diabaikan sama
Fakulti Pengajian Bahasa Utama sekali walaupun bahasa tersebut adalah
Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia,
Bandar Baru Nilai, Nilai, Negeri
bahasa ibunda. P&P bahasa memerlukan
Sembilan kepelbagaian aktiviti bagi merangsang minat
lubna_ar75@yahoo.com, pelajar, apatah lagi sekiranya bahasa yang
wanazura@admin.kuim.edu.my, dipelajari adalah bahasa asing. Antara aktiviti
arnida@admin.kuim.edu.my yang lazimnya dilakukan adalah lakonan,
perbualan, debat dan menonton video. Kertas
kerja ini meninjau persepsi pelajar terhadap
aktiviti yang dilaksanakan di dalam kelas
bahasa Arab di Universiti Sains Islam
Malaysia (USIM) serta meninjau peranan
aktiviti tersebut dalam menarik minat untuk
mengikuti pembelajaran bahasa tersebut.
Borang soal selidik dijadikan medium untuk
memperolehi maklumat berkaitan tajuk ini.
Responden kajian terdiri daripada 100 orang
pelajar USIM yang mengikuti pembelajaran
bahasa Arab. Kertas kerja ini diharap dapat
memberi input berguna kepada para pendidik
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007.
bahasa Arab dan membantu mereka
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. meningkatkan mutu dan strategi pengajaran
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran serta mempelbagaikan aktiviti di dalam kelas
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat agar dapat membantu pelajar mengikuti
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi pembelajaran bahasa Arab dengan penuh
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden minat dan berkesan.
Horses, Seri Kembangan,
Selangor 12-14 Disember 2007 Kata kunci: kepelbagaian aktiviti,
merangsang minat, bahasa asing.

1.0 PENDAHULUAN

Pembelajaran bahasa terutamanya bahasa asing memerlukan


pendekatan yang sesuai dan menarik agar pelajar tidak mudah merasa bosan
dan menganggap bahasa tersebut susah dipelajari. Bahasa Arab, umpamanya,
merupakan salah satu bahasa yang dianggap sukar untuk dikuasai oleh
sesetengah pelajar. Oleh yang demikian, untuk menangani tanggapan negatif ini,
guru-guru perlu berfikiran kreatif dan bersaing hebat untuk mewujudkan pelbagai
bentuk tarikan yang menarik minat dan perhatian pelajar. Proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran bahasa Arab ini memerlukan pendekatan yang sesuai dan betul
serta bentuk penyampaian yang kreatif daripada pihak guru. Salah satu
pendekatan yang boleh diketengahkan ialah mempelbagaikan aktiviti menarik di
dalam kelas, bukan hanya melalui syarahan dan penyampaian satu hala.

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Dalam hal ini, guru perlu mengaplikasikan kaedah ini iaitu melaksanakan
pelbagai aktiviti di dalam kelas supaya proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran
lebih memberansangkan, seterusnya merangsang pelajar untuk mengikuti subjek
bahasa Arab dengan penuh ceria dan mudah. Pelbagai aktiviti boleh
dilaksanakan, antaranya perbualan antara pelajar, pembentangan dalam
kumpulan, lakonan, tayangan video, permainan bahasa dan sebagainya.

Kertas kerja ini membincangkan aktiviti-aktiviti yang diadakan di dalam


kelas bahasa Arab di USIM. Objektif kertas kerja ini adalah untuk meninjau
persepsi pelajar USIM mengenai aktiviti di dalam kelas bahasa Arab dan melihat
peranannya dalam meningkatkan minat pelajar terhadap pembelajaran bahasa
Arab di universiti tersebut. Kertas kerja ini diharap dapat dijadikan panduan untuk
penambahbaikan proses P&P bahasa Arab di USIM khasnya dan di institusi-
institusi pendidikan lain di Malaysia amnya.

2.0 KEPENTINGAN AKTIVITI DI DALAM KELAS DALAM


PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ASING

Kelas merupakan tempat pertemuan antara guru dan pelajar di mana


aktiviti tertentu dijalankan untuk mewujudkan suasana pembelajaran. Dalam
pembelajaran bahasa, guru dan pelajar kedua-duanya memainkan peranan
untuk membentuk suasana pembelajaran yang memberansangkan.
Pembelajaran bahasa berlaku sekiranya terdapat interaksi daripada kedua-dua
pihak di dalam kelas iaitu guru dan pelajar. Walaupun, guru memainkan peranan
utama untuk menggerakkan sesuatu pembelajaran di dalam kelas, namun
hakikatnya kejayaan sebenar sesuatu pembelajaran bahasa di dalam kelas juga
bergantung kepada kerjasama yang diberikan oleh pelajar. Dalam erti kata lain,
proses P&P bahasa ini perlu disertai oleh semua pelajar dan bukannya guru
sahaja. Hal ini kerana interaksi bukan hanya merupakan sesuatu yang
seseorang individu lakukan terhadap orang lain, tetapi ia merupakan sesuatu
yang dilakukan bersama (Allwright, D & Bailey, K.M, 1991).

Pembelajaran bahasa memerlukan kemahiran dari pihak guru


terutamanya dari segi kaedah penyampaian yang baik dan kreatif, pendekatan
yang menarik dan mampu menarik minat dan perhatian pelajar. Bahasa
memerlukan interaksi antara beberapa individu atau kumpulan tertentu kerana ia
berfungsi dalam interaksi masyarakat atau budaya. Oleh itu, kaedah yang
digunapakai di dalam kelas mestilah berteraskan kepada strategi sosiolinguistik
dan tugasan komunikatif (Brown, H.D, 2000). Ini bermakna, dalam pembelajaran
bahasa, guru perlu mewujudkan komunikasi atau interaksi dua hala iaiatu antara
pelajar dan guru atau sesama pelajar sendiri, dan bukannya satu hala iaitu pihak
guru sahaja yang memberi input manakala pelajar hanya menerimanya.

Aktiviti di dalam kelas amat penting untuk menjana kemahiran pelajar


dalam pembelajaran bahasa terutamanya bahasa asing. Aktiviti-aktiviti ini boleh
membentuk satu kursus intensif jangka pendek bertujuan untuk menjadikan
pelajar lebih fasih, memperkaya perbendaharaan kata mereka dan menjadikan
suasana pembelajaran lebih ceria serta mempunyai banyak peluang untuk
berinteraksi sesama sendiri. Aktiviti berbentuk komunikatif adalah lebih sesuai

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diterapkan di dalam kelas pembelajaran bahasa. Dengan cara ini, ia


menggalakkan pelajar mengemukakan pandangan, pengalaman selain membina
keyakinan mereka untuk berinteraksi dalam bahasa tersebut (Lindstromberg, S,
1997).

Dalam pembelajaran bahasa Arab, melaksanakan aktiviti di dalam kelas


merupakan salah satu pendekatan yang perlu dititik beratkan oleh guru untuk
menarik perhatian pelajar dan merangsang minat mereka terhadap bahasa
tersebut. Dalam konteks Malaysia, untuk mempelajari bahasa Arab sebagai
bahasa asing, penekanan diberikan kepada kemahiran berbahasa seperti petah
bertutur, membaca dengan betul, menulis ayat dengan betul, mampu
menghuraikan pendapat dan memberi rasioanal. Untuk mencapai matlamat ini
pelbagai aktiviti menarik perlu diketengahkan untuk menarik minat pelajar
mengikuti subjek bahasa Arab. Hal ini kerana ramai pelajar beranggapan
bahawa bahasa Arab sukar dikuasai dan subjek tersebut susah untuk lulus
dengan cemerlang (Zarina Kasbon, 2005).

Justeru, guru perlu mengenengahkan kaedah yang boleh menjadikan


pelajar mengikuti subjek bahasa Arab dengan penuh minat tanpa rasa jemu.
Antara aktiviti yang boleh dilakukan di dalam kelas adalah seperti permainan
bahasa. Dalam satu kajian yang dilakukan, menurut Zarina Kasbon (2005),
permainan bahasa (al-lu’bah al--lughawiyyah) merupakan satu aktiviti yang
diterima pakai dan boleh diaplikasikan oleh guru khususnya dalam tajuk yang
agak sukar. Aktiviti ini terbukti berkesan kerana dapat mewujudkan pelajar yang
aktif, menjana idea yang kreatif dan kritis, memupuk sifat berani tampil di
khalayak ramai dan menimbulkan perasaan ingin bersaing sesama pelajar.
Penemuan ini membuktikan bahawa aktiviti yang sesuai dan menarik mampu
menjadikan pelajar menguasai bahasa Arab dengan lebih mudah dan memupuk
minat mereka terhadap subjek tersebut.

Contoh di atas jelas menunjukkan bahawa mempelajari bahasa Arab


akan menjadi lebih berkesan dan bermakna sekiranya guru dapat melaksanakan
aktiviti yang menarik dan sesuai. Pelajar merasakan pembelajaran bahasa ini
menyeronokkan dan tidak membosankan. Sekiranya guru hanya menggunakan
buku teks sahaja dalam proses P&P, sudah tentu suasana di dalam kelas
tersebut akan menjadi hambar dan pelajar mudah merasa jemu dan akhirnya
menjurus kepada tanggapan negatif terhadap pembelajaran bahasa Arab.
Perkara seumpama ini perlu dielakkan oleh guru dengan mengadakan pelbagai
aktiviti di dalam kelas agar pembelajaran ini sentiasa memberangsangkan dan
mendorong pelajar untuk terus meminati dan mempelajari bahasa al-Quran ini.

3.0 METODE KAJIAN

Kajian ini melibatkan kaedah analisa data soal selidik. Untuk


mendapatkan input mengenai aktiviti yang dijalankan di dalam kelas bahasa
Arab dan keberkesanannya dalam meningkatkan minat pelajar dalam bahasa
tersebut, penyelidik mengaplikasikan metode kuantitatif iaitu melalui borang soal
selidik yang diedarkan secara rawak kepada 100 orang pelajar Universiti Sains
Islam Malaysia (USIM) dari beberapa buah fakulti dan tahap pengajian yang
berbeza. Para pelajar tersebut telah dan sedang mengikuti kursus-kursus

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kemahiran bahasa Arab yang ditawarkan oleh oleh pihak universiti.

Soal selidik tersebut mengandungi 2 bahagian utama iaitu:

Bahagian pertama: Bahagian ini mengandungi maklumat peribadi


responden dan latar belakang akademik mereka.
Bahagian kedua: Bahagian ini mengandungi kenyataan dan soalan mengenai
aktiviti di dalam kelas bahasa Arab. Ia merupakan persepsi pelajar terhadap
aktiviti yang dijalankan di dalam kelas bahasa Arab. Selain dari itu, bahagian ini
juga mengandungi cadangan pelajar untuk aktiviti bagi kelas bahasa Arab yang
diikuti di USIM.

Analisis data dari borang soal selidik dilakukan menerusi proses taburan
kekerapan (frequency distribution). Bahagian seterusnya merupakan analisis
data yang diperolehi daripada responden serta dapatan kajian dan kesimpulan
daripada analisa tersebut.

4.0 ANALISIS DATA DAN DAPATAN KAJIAN

4.1 Analisa data borang soal selidik

4.1.1 BAHAGIAN PERTAMA:

Responden terdiri daripada 24 orang pelajar lelaki dan 76 orang pelajar


perempuan dari empat buah fakulti iaitu Fakulti Pengajian Bahasa Utama
(FPBU), Fakulti Syariah dan Undang-undang (FSU), Fakulti Quran dan Sunnah
(FPQS) dan Fakulti Kepimpinan dan Pengurusan (FKP). Taburan kekerapan
pelajar tersebut mengikut fakulti adalah seperti berikut:

Jadual 1
Bilangan pelajar mengikut fakulti Frekuensi Peratus
FPBU 21 21
FSU 21 21
FPQS 35 35
FKP 23 23
Jumlah 100 100.0

49 orang daripada mereka merupakan pelajar tahun satu, manakala 50


orang lagi pelajar tahun dua dan hanya seorang pelajar tahun tiga. Majoriti
daripada responden iaitu seramai 70 orang (70%) mempunyai pengalaman
mempelajari bahasa Arab antara 6-10 tahun. Ini bermakna kebanyakan mereka
telah mula didedahkan dengan bahasa Arab semenjak di peringkat menengah
lagi.

4.1.2 BAHAGIAN KEDUA

Dalam bahagian ini, penyelidik mendapati bahawa majoriti besar


responden -iaitu seramai 97 orang- bersetuju bahawa aktiviti di dalam kelas
bahasa Arab perlu dipelbagaikan untuk menarik minat pelajar.

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Selain daripada itu, berikut adalah analisis data yang diperolehi:

Jadual 2
Guru kelas b.Arab mempelbagaikan Frekuensi Peratus
aktiviti di dalam kelas
Ya 80 80
Tidak 20 20
Jumlah 100 100.0

Pernyataan: Guru kelas bahasa Arab anda sekarang mempelbagaikan aktiviti di


dalam kelas. Berdasarkan Jadual 2, didapati majoriti responden (80%) bersetuju
dengan pernyataan di atas.Terdapat seramai 20 orang responden (20%) tidak
bersetuju dengan pernyataan tersebut.

Jadual 3
Bentuk aktiviti yang sering dilakukan Frekuensi Peratus
di dalam kelas
Aktiviti berkumpulan 94 94
Tugasan individu 6 6
Jumlah 100 100.0

Soalan: Apakah bentuk aktiviti yang sering dilakukan di dalam kelas?


Berdasarkan Jadual 3, didapati majoriti responden iaitu seramai 94 orang (94%)
menyatakan bahawa bentuk aktiviti yang sering dilakukan di dalam kelas bahasa
Arab adalah aktiviti berkumpulan, manakala 6 orang responden lagi menyatakan
bahawa bentuk aktiviti yang sering dilakukan adalah tugasan individu.

Jadual 4
Aktiviti berkumpulan yang sering Frekuensi Peratus
dilakukan di dalam kelas
Perbualan 33 33
Lakonan 17 17
Kuiz 8 8
Debat 2 2
Tayangan video 4 4
Aktiviti mendengar kaset/CD 3 3
Perbincangan dalam kump mengenai 90 90
tajuk yang dipelajari
Penyampaian cerita 9 9
Pidato 0 0
Aktiviti lain 0 0

Pernyataan: Nyatakan aktiviti berkumpulan yang sering dilakukan di dalam kelas


bahasa Arab anda. Jadual 4 menunjukkan bahawa taburan kekerapan aktiviti
berkumpulan yang sering dilakukan di dalam kelas bahasa Arab responden.
Didapati daripada jadual di atas bahawa perbincangan di dalam kumplan
mengenai tajuk yang dipelajari merupakan aktiviti yang paling banyak dilakukan
di dalam kelas tersebut iaitu 90%. Manakala aktiviti yang paling kurang dilakukan
di dalam kelas adalah debat (2%), mendengar kaset atau CD Arab (3%) dan

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tayangan video (4%).

Jadual 5
Aktiviti tersebut mampu Frekuensi Peratus
meningkatkan minat
Ya 94 94
Tidak 6 6
Jumlah 100 100.0

Soalan: Pada pendapat anda, adakah aktiviti berkumpulan tersebut mampu


meningkatkan minat anda terhadap bahasa Arab? Dalam Jadual 5, sebahagian
besar responden iaitu seramai 94 orang (94%) mengiakan pernyataan di atas.
Manakala 6 orang responden (6%) menidakkan pernyataan tersebut. Ini
menunjukkan bahawa aktiviti di dalam kelas memainkan peranan yang besar
dalam meningkatkan minat pelajar terhadap bahasa tersebut.

Jadual 6
Aktiviti tersebut berkesan Frekuensi Peratus
meningkatkan kemahiran b.Arab
Ya 89 89
Tidak 11 11
Jumlah 100 100.0

Soalan: Pada pendapat anda, adakah aktiviti ini berkesan untuk meningkatkan
kemahiran bahasa Arab anda. Berdasarkan Jadual 6, didapati sebilangan
responden iaitu seramai 89 orang (89%) menyatakan (Ya), manakala 11 orang
responden lagi (11%) menyatakan (Tidak). Hal ini menunjukkan bahawa aktiviti
di dalam kelas mampu meningkatkan minat pelajar terhadap pembelajaran
bahasa Arab.

Jadual 7
Minat terhadap b.Arab bertambah Frekuensi Peratus
setelah memasuki USIM
Ya 88 88
Tidak 12 12
Jumlah 100 100.0

Pernyataan: Minat anda terhadap bahasa Arab bertambah selepas anda


mengikuti pembelajaran bahasa Arab di USIM. Berdasarkan Jadual 7, majoriti
responden (24%) mengiakan pernyataan tersebut, manakala 12% daripada
mereka menidakkan pernyataan tersebut. Perkara ini menjelaskan bahawa
kaedah pengajaran yang digunapakai di USIM berkesan menambah minat
pelajar terhadap bahasa Arab. Namun para responden yang menyatakan (Ya)
memberikan sebab berlainan bertambahnya minat mereka terhadap bahasa
tersebut seperti yang ditujukkan di dalam jadual 8 di bawah:

Jadual 8

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Sebab utama minat bertambah Frekuensi Peratus


Banyak aktiviti dilakukan dlm kelas 30 30
Penggunaan teknologi pengajaran yang 12 12
berkesan
Kandungan silibus yang menarik 11 11
Pendekatan guru yang menarik 51 51
Sebab lain 2 2

Berdasarkan Jadual 8, didapati majoriti responden iaitu seramai 51 orang


responden menyatakan bahawa minat mereka terhadap bahasa Arab bertambah
disebabkan pendekatan guru yang menarik. Ini diikuti dengan aktiviti yang
dilakukan di dalam kelas (30%), Penggunaan teknologi pengajaran yang
berkesan (12%) dan kandungan silibus yang menarik (11%).

Jadual 9
Aktiviti di dalam kelas faktor dominan Frekuensi Peratus
Ya 75 75
Tidak 25 25
Jumlah 100 100.0

Soalan: Pada pendapat anda, adakah aktiviti di dalam kelas merupakan faktor
dominan (utama) yang membantu meningkatkan prestasi bahasa Arab anda di
USIM? Merujuk kepada Jadual 9, didapati seramai 75 orang responden (75%)
menyatakan bahawa aktiviti di dalam kelas merupakan faktor dominan yang
membantu meningkatkan prestasi bahasa Arab mereka, manakala 25 orang
responden lagi menidakkan soalan tersebut. Bagi responden yang menyatakan
(tidak), mereka berpendapat bahawa terdapat faktor lain yang menjadi faktor
utama perkara di atas, antaranya persekitaran atau biah Arabiyyah (15%),
pendekatan guru (9%) dan subjek yang ditawarkan (1%).

Jadual 10
Aktiviti berkumpulan yang sering Frekuensi Peratus
dilakukan di dalam kelas
Perbualan 29 29
Lakonan 25 25
Kuiz 7 7
Debat 7 7
Tayangan video 12 12
Aktiviti mendengar kaset/CD 5 5
Perbincangan dalam kump mengenai 38 38
tajuk yang dipelajari
Penyampaian cerita 4 4
Pidato 0 0
Aktiviti lain 1 1

Soalan: Apakah aktiviti yang paling anda sukai di dalam kelas bahasa Arab.
Berdasarkan Jadual 10, didapati bahawa perbincangan di dalam kumpulan
mengenai tajuk yang dipelajari (38%) merupakan salah satu aktiviti yang paling
mereka sukai, diikuti dengan perbualan (29%) dan lakonan (25%). Aktiviti seperti

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penyampaian cerita (4%) dan mendengar kaset atau CD Arab (5%) pula kurang
digemari pelajar.

4.2 Dapatan kajian dan kesimpulan

Daripada analisis di atas, didapati bahawa kepelbagaian aktiviti


yang dijalankan di dalam kelas memainkan peranan yang besar untuk
menarik minat pelajar mengikuti pembelajaran bahasa Arab. Aktiviti yang
dilakukan dapat mengelakkan pelajar merasa bosan atau merasakan
bahawa bahasa Arab itu susah. Tinjauan ini mendapati bahawa terdapat
juga pensyarah yang tidak mempelbagaikan aktiviti di dalam kelas
bahasa Arab yang dibimbing. Hal ini boleh akan menyebabkan
pembelajaran bahasa tersebut tidak menyeronokkan, sekaligus
menimbulkan kebosanan dan tidak merangsang minat pelajar untuk
mengikuti pembelajaran mereka di dalam kelas.

Berdasarkan kepada tinjauan ini, bentuk aktiviti yang sering


dilakukan di dalam kelas bahasa Arab di universiti ini adalah aktiviti
berkumpulan. Hanya sedikit sahaja tugasan individu yang diberikan
kepada pelajar. Ini menunjukkan bahawa guru atau pensyarah lebih
gemar menggunakan bentuk aktiviti ini di dalam kelas berbanding
memberikan tugasan kepada setiap pelajar. Hal ini boleh meransang
minat pelajar terhadap pembelajaran kerana pelajar lebih gemar
berbincang dengan rakan-rakan daripada melakukan tugasan secara
individu.

Daripada tinjauan ini juga, didapati guru atau pensyarah USIM


lebih cenderung melakukan perbincangan di dalam kumpulan mengenai
tajuk yang dipelajari seperti menjawab soalan kefahaman, membina ayat
dan mencari makna sesuatu perkataan. Pelajar dipecahkan kepada
beberapa kumpulan dan diminta membincangkan jawapan bagi soalan-
soalan di dalam buku teks. Terdapat juga guru yang meminta pelajar
mengadakan sesi perbualan (hiwar) atau lakonan di dalam kelas. Aktiviti-
aktiviti lain amat kurang dilaksanakan di dalam kelas. Ini menunjukkan
bahawa terdapat guru yang kurang mempelbagaikan aktiviti di dalam
kelas.

Ramai pelajar berpendapat bahawa aktiviti-aktiviti yang


diadakan di dalam kelas mampu meningkatkan minat mereka terhadap
bahasa Arab. Selain daripada itu, ia juga boleh meningkatkan kemahiran
bahasa Arab mereka. Tinjauan ini juga mendapati bahawa majoriti
pelajar berpendapat bahawa minat mereka terhadap bahasa Arab
semakin bertambah selepas mengikuti pembelajaran di USIM. Hal ini
disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor antaranya pendekatan guru yang
menarik dan aktiviti yang banyak dilakukan di dalam kelas. Ini jelas
menunjukkan bahawa guru memainkan peranan yang penting untuk
menarik minat pelajar. Tidak dinafikan juga bahawa aktiviti yang banyak
di dalam kelas turut menyumbang kepada percambahan dan
pertambahan minat pelajar terhadap pembelajaran bahasa ini. Malah
sebahagian besar pelajar berpendapat bahawa mengadakan pelbagai

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aktiviti di dalam kelas menjadi faktor utama yang membantu


meningkatkan prestasi bahasa Arab mereka di USIM. Faktor lain yang
turut diketengahkan mereka adalah persekitaran (biah Arabiyyah) dan
pendekatan guru yang menarik. Persekitaran universiti yang menitik
beratkan penggunaan bahasa ini sememangnya membantu memupuk
minat pelajar terhadap bahasa Arab.

Tinjauan ini mendapati bahawa aktiviti di dalam kelas yang


paling pelajar sukai ialah perbincangan di dalam kumpulan mengenai
tajuk yang dipelajari. Aktiviti lain yang paling mereka sukai adalah
perbualan dan lakonan. Ketiga-tiga aktiviti ini perlu dilakukan secara
berkumpulan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahawa pelajar gemar melakukan
sesuatu tugasan secara berkumpulan. Perkara ini dapat membina sikap
kerjasama pelajar dalam pembelajaran di samping mewujudkan interaksi
antara mereka dalam bahasa tersebut di dalam kelas.

Seperti yang telah dinyatakan, guru atau pensyarah bahasa


Arab di USIM lebih gemar mengadakan aktiviti perbincangan mengenai
tajuk yang dipelajari. Oleh yang demikian, terdapat pelajar yang
memberikan cadangan agar memperbanyakkan aktiviti di dalam kelas
seperti tayangan video, kuiz, drama, permainan bahasa dan juga
pembentangan secara individu. Cadangan seumpama ini wajar
dipertimbang dan diambil berat oleh guru yang membimbing mereka.
Tayangan video umpamanya, boleh disertakan dengan kuiz untuk
menguji kefahaman pelajar terhadap filem Arab yang ditonton. Secara
tidak langsung, pelajar akan terus merasa teruja setiap kali mengikuti
kelas tersebut.

Secara kesimpulannya, tinjauan ini mendapati bahawa


menjalankan pelbagai aktiviti di dalam kelas bahasa Arab mampu
menarik minat pelajar mengikuti pembelajaran bahasa ini. Sekiranya
minat pelajar dapat dipupuk, secara tidak langsung ia akan
meningkatkan prestasi mereka dalam kursus bahasa yang diikuti. Selain
daripada itu, pendekatan guru yang menarik disertai dengan dengan
pelbagai aktiviti yang sesuai juga mampu merangsang minat pelajar dan
mengelakkan mereka merasa jemu dan bosan terhadap bahasa Arab.

PENUTUP

Para guru dan pensyarah perlu sentiasa mencari pendekatan


pengajaran yang memberi kesan positif dalam pembelajaran pelajar. Pelbagai
pendekatan boleh diaplikasikan mengikut kesesuaian sifat subjek yang dipelajari.
Antara pendekatan tersebut adalah mempelbagaikan aktiviti di dalam kelas yang
mampu menarik minat pelajar dan meningkatkan kemahiran bahasa mereka.
Dalam tinjauan ini, penyelidik mendapati bahawa kepelbagaian aktiviti yang
dilakukan di dalam kelas memainkan peranan yang penting untuk mencapai
tujuan tersebut. Guru yang hanya menggunakan kaedah “talk and chalk” boleh
melemahkan semangat pelajar dan mengurangkan minat mereka terhadap
bahasa Arab, sekaligus menyemai tanggapan yang negatif dalam diri pelajar
terhadap pembelajaran bahasa tersebut.

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Dalam bidang bahasa, khususnya dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran


bahasa Arab, kerap melakukan pelbagai aktiviti di dalam kelas dilihat sebagai
satu kaedah yang efektif untuk membantu pelajar menggarap kemahiran
berbahasa mereka. Melalui pendekatan ini, minat dan prestasi pelajar dapat
dirangsang dan dipertingkatkan. Aktiviti yang lazimnya dilakukan di dalam
kumpulan dapat menjadikan pembelajaran bahasa Arab yang dianggap sukar
oleh pelajar lebih menarik dan tidak membosankan. Perbincangan dan interaksi
sesama pelajar ini harus dipantau oleh guru agar mereka menggunakan bahasa
Arab sepenuhnya. Hal ini menggalakkan komunikasi bahasa Arab sesama
pelajar dan memupuk keyakinan mereka untuk menggunakan bahasa tersebut.
Pendekatan ini dilihat mampu menjadikan suasana kelas lebih ceria dan
menggembirakan.

Justeru, adalah wajar bagi pihak guru atau pensyarah melaksanakan


pelbagai aktiviti menarik di dalam kelas dalam pengajaran bahasa Arab untuk
membantu pelajar meningkatkan kemahiran bahasa Arab. Kesimpulannya, mood
dan minat pelajar dalam pembelajaran bahasa dapat dipupuk dan disemai
melalui aktiviti yang menarik di dalam kelas. Hakikatnya, sekiranya aktiviti di
dalam kelas dapat dipelbagaikan ia sudah memadai untuk menggarap
kemahiran pelajar dalam bahasa tersebut. Aktiviti di luar kelas hanya sebagai
aktiviti sokongan untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut kerana pelajar universiti banyak
meluangkan masa belajarnya di dalam kelas dan kampus berbanding di luar.

RUJUKAN

[1] Allwright, D & Bailey, K.M. 1991. Focus on the language classroom.
United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

[2] Brown, H.D. 2000. Principles of language learning and teaching. New
York: Pearson Education.
Lindstromberg, S. 1997. The standby book: Activities for the language
classroom. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

[4] Zarina Kasbon . 2005. Meningkatkan pemahaman pelajar dalam tajuk


Jamak taksir melalui kaedah lu’batul-lughawiah (permainan bahasa).
Dicapai pada 10 Oktober 2007 dari
http://apps.emoe.gov.my/jpnperak/kajian/2005/laporan/bahasa/7_hilir_pe
rak_bahasa_arab_zarina_kasbon.pdf

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WRITING A CASE AS A TEACHING TOOL.

ZAINAL ABIDIN MOHAMED, ABSTRACT - The use of cases has been


Management and Marketing recognised as an effective mode of
Department, imparting knowledge. The effectiveness of
Universiti Putra Malaysia, this impartation process will not only depend
E-mail: zainal@econ.upm.edu.my
on the lecturer (style, confidence,
knowledge, experiences, and many more)
but also on the quality of the case itself. Of
course it requires that the case must meet
the necessary qualities that enable it to
impart the knowledge that it meant to
deliver. Academicians, having gone through
the process of writing umpteen times of
lecture notes and seminar papers who
strongly believe that writing a case would be
another of those routine chores then they
are in for some surprises. This paper will
discuss and share some of the common
defaults that academicians (not familiar with
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. the art of case writing), make in writing a
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. case. A short case sample will be used for
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran illustrations.
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden
Keywords: heuristic
Horses, Seri Kembangan, Selangor
12-14 Disember 2007

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The theme of this conference is towards increasing the quality of human


capital through the improvement of the overall teaching and learning system in
Institutes of Higher Learning. While there are several modes and types of
pedagogy that have been identified as possible tools for effective impartation of
knowledge, it all boils down to only a few key critical components namely the
highly motivated recipient, the knowledge imparter, the effective methodology,
the valuable content and the conducive environment. If all these five components
are at its optimum, then theoretically the teaching and learning process will be at
its best.

Cases have now been used increasingly to satisfy several of the said
components. The use of cases in making the teaching and learning process
effective has been deliberated many times and its effectiveness has also been
subjected to quite a number of factors. On one extreme is its extensive use by

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Harvard Business School and on the other, not even a single case is used. The
latter would be more of “no suitable cases” and/or no skill facilitator to conduct a
case method. Between these two, the former need to be initiated first and once
readily available, the facilitators can be trained and coached.

This paper looks at the need for making available a large pool of local cases
that could be selected by personnel to be used during the training sessions. Now
that many are aware of the value of student-centred learning as well as problem-
based learning, then using a case as a problem based or student-centred
material is definitely an appropriate choice.

2.0 THERE ARE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WRITING A CASE AS A


REPORT/THESIS AND FOR TRAINING PURPOSES.

Many of us have written cases before but perhaps under a different


objective. Perhaps many write cases in the form of a report because of an official
visit, or as a result of a research being done on the company or agency, a report
on students doing practical training or attachment, part of a thesis to apply
certain findings of models on the said agency or as a result of an
advisory/consultancy engagement. These are definitely reports in the form of a
case because as defined, a case report is confined within the boundary of the
said entity (company). So the report needs to contain all the required facts and
analysis describing the entity and the work done as well as recommendations
made on it.

This particular case is not yet a case written to be used for training
purposes which is the concern and purpose of this paper.

To write a case for training purpose require additional efforts and an


available case document or material written for the above purpose (report form)
could be a good starting point. Basically the source of data is already available
and they need to be scrutinised for its relevancy for training. There are two basic
pathways to begin writing a case for training purposes. They are as explained
below:

2.1 From an Existing Available Document as a Result of a


Research (thesis) findings or a Written Report as a Result of
an Advisory Work or Visit.

If the writer of the report himself is the one that wants to write a
case as a teaching tool, then this will be most appropriate as he is aware
of all the content that was written and therefore would know what is
available (in the document) or not (in his tacit knowledge form as he
might not have written all the facts that he already know). Converting the
document into a training material form would then be easier. The
subsequent steps to follow will then be as follows:

a. Identify the knowledge that can be imparted on the trainee


based from the facts available in the document.

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b. Are all the required facts necessary for the learning


process available in the document? If no then effort need to
be made by the writer to get the extra information to be
incorporated into the document.

c. There need to be made clear an issue(s) or problem(s) that


will result in the trainee having to mine all the relevant
information in the document to come up with specific
recommendations in overcoming the issue(s) or
problem(s).

d. Remove all analysis and recommendations made by the


author in the document if that is what we want the trainee
to do.

2.2 If the Case Writer is not the Original Writer of the Document.

Then he has to make sure that all the facts that are necessary
for the knowledge/skill acquisition by the trainee are available in the
document. If not than he has to search and gather the required
information from the company in study. If the original author is around
then this can be done easily; if not then the whole process of getting
connected and in communication, acquaintance, visits and recording the
data and filling in the gaps need to be done. The above (a, b, c and d)
steps can then be applied.

2.3 Starting from zero information.

This is the common mode and the most difficult where the writer
has to start from zero. Then he needs to follow the following procedures:
a. what knowledge/principles/theory/skills/concepts that he
wants the trainee to acquire out of the case.
b. Identify the kinds of data that are necessary for the trainee
to comprehend and analyse and come up with a solution,
c. Identify where are the possible agencies that he believe
could have these information and where he can have
access to (his networking, alumni, friend, acquaintances,
and permission to write about.

Thus basically for training purpose, the solution and the analysis need to
be removed as that is what the trainee needs to acquire. The fact that
the case document as in 2.1 and 2.2 have already been analysed
indicate that the case is solvable.

But for the case of 2.3 the case then need to be tested as whether the
principle/knowledge/skill to be acquired by the trainee can actually be
realised and this can only be done if the case is solved and solved as
required by the author. A sure litmus test is if the case is given to a few
trainees and all of them were able to solve the case and come up with
similar solutions.

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3.0 MAIN CRITERIA OF A GOOD CASE.

The criteria of a good case are that it meets the expectation of the user
(lecturer/trainer) and succeed in imparting the knowledge to the trainees. There
are so many criteria that could be listed down and are almost similar to any
document that is to be used for training purposes. These include:

a. Language is understandable and therefore the case is


comprehensible. Again this depends on the level of the trainees (first
or final year undergraduate or graduate students or matured
executives). Thus depending on the level, jargons, difficult and
technical phrases need to be appropriately used and if necessary
explanation provided to remove the possible varied interpretation.

b. All cases are written in the past tense. Since cases are written
based on the facts gathered in the past then the moment it is written,
it is history. Imagine that the case is written today and yes it is true
that all the facts are current but if it is printed and used a year from
today then all the facts already history. The CEO might not be the
same anymore. A specific time or date need to be embedded in
the case to indicate the period when the case was written.

Present tense can only be used if there are direct speeches.

c. Length of the case must also be appropriate depending on the


objective of the writer and the trainer. If the trainer have got no say
on the length than he has to provide the appropriate time for the
effective use of the case.

d. Level of difficulty and complexity is also a criterion and again it


must be appropriate for the occasion. If it is meant for the matured
rd
students (3 year) then the level of complexity is expected to be
higher.

e. Problems are embedded in the case for the trainee to identify and
solve. How the problem is to be laid down is also at the prerogative
of the writer and target audience that he has in mind. A straight
forward problem clearly laid down is meant for first level students as
compared to a more sophisticated problem not clearly identified and
hidden in the text? (As in CSI! Crime Scene Investigations).

f. There are several alternative solutions possible depending on the


angle that the trainees look from or from the models used to analyse
the situation. This would qualify to be a good one as a single solution
case is not encouraged. In fact the latter is also classified as a
mathematical problem and not a case if all the trainees can come up
with the same answer.

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4.0 OTHER CRITERIA TO BE CONSIDERED.

There are still several other criteria that can be considered but are
contingent on several other factors. These are

a. Is the case interesting?


b. Is it challenging?
c. Is the level of realism high?
d. What is going on here?
e. Is there a problem at all?
f. What precisely is the problem?
g. What has caused it?
h. Are we looking at causes or symptoms?
i. What are the main issues?
j. Why are these issues important?
k. Whose problem is it?
l. What precisely are his objectives?
m. What should he try to do now?
n. What possible courses of action are open?
o. How realistic is each of the actions/solutions proposed?
p. What are their possible effects?

5.0 THE DATA COLLECTION PROCESS.


Briefly, the process of gathering the data can be done in 5 steps:

5.1 Select the Type of Problem and the Enterprise from which the
Material will be Obtained

The type of case required will normally determine the kind of


enterprise in which to seek the material. Within this range, it is
preferable to select an organisation in which the case-writer is already
known and accepted, particularly when it may be necessary to dig deep
and to obtain confidential data.
There is some evidence that mature students in particular learn
more from problem situations in industries other then their own. While
they may be more interested and find it easier to deal with a case written
about a problem in a familiar environment, students often display ‘blind’
spots working with such material; consequently, learning is slowed down.
5.2 Observe and collect the data

The fundamental need is for objectivity. By the time you start


collecting data, you know what you want. Once you get into the
collecting process, you will almost certainly find that the facts vary
from any preconceived pattern you may have formed. In fact, you
may find that the data will not serve as useful teaching material in the

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area you had envisaged, but could be valuable in another area.


Irrespective of such findings, the facts, situations and events must be
observed and recorded objectively and as completely as the
situations. They must not be forced to fit your anticipations.
A good case is well documented and contains all the information
which is available to the executive concerned. Accordingly, the case
writer must make detailed notes and collect statistics, operating
statements and other exhibits containing information about the
organisation he is studying. In some situations the case writer may
include some data which, in his opinion, is somewhat irrelevant.
It is, of course, impossible to observe and record a total picture, even
if you are on the spot as the events happen. (If you are in this last
happy position, try to record as many of the facts as possible
immediately afterwards and before the abstraction process
commences in you own memory system). The general rule is, within
the practical limitation, make notes or collect exhibits of every situation
or event bearing on the case and then arranges these in a logical
structure and order for examination and selection before writing the
case.

5.3 Write the Case


Within the above, and once you have obtained permission to prepare
the case from the appropriate executive, the following notes may assist:
a. Select the detail: you originally set out to write the case for a
particular purpose. Clarify your objective in relation to the
particular purpose or purposes for which you wish to use the
case;
b. Have a “prologue section” the first few sentences should enable
the student to grasp the main issue of the case usually in the
form of a critical incident so much so that there is a need to act
quickly within a short time and by somebody clearly identified.
c. Write in the past tense: if your case is a useful one, it is likely to
be used over
a long period.

d. Decide on disguises: Malaysians are reluctant to have the


mistakes that they and their colleagues made be exposed to
others. Thus more often than not the personnel through whom
the data were obtained would not like to have their real name
mentioned in the case. Thus names and agencies or even
location might need to be disguised but it is usually better to
develop your case to the final draft stage using the real names,
places and figures. It is essential that alterations made in the
interest of disguise shall not alter the basic facts and
relationships. Large changes of scale are particularly dangerous
(as in the case to disguise the financial statements). For similar
reasons, changes in the type industry or product should be
avoided unless use of the real one would break the disguise. If

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such changes are made, the replacements must be selected


with great care so that essential relationships are not destroyed.

5.4 Clear the Case

It is ethical that changes and disguises be cleared with the


appropriate executive of the enterprise concerned. Using true names
and figures would be more appreciated by the trainees but getting
clearance is advisable.
5.5 Confirm the Usefulness of the Case as Teaching Material

This can be done by testing the case initially amongst colleagues


but more valuable is to give it a trial run amongst trainees and the
following considered:
- correct visualisation of the broad picture and
understanding of the details by students;
- data which could be omitted without reducing effective
teaching, or data which should be added (re-clearing the
case as required);
- subject matter which should be discussed prior to or
following the case;
- improved methods of conducting the case; more or less
time in preparation or discussion, the desirability of
syndicate work, the need for charts or diagrams, etc.

5.6 Prepare Teaching Guides for the Potential Trainers.


Finally, the case writer and case leader (preferably the same
person) should prepare “leader’s notes” which will guide others who wish
to use the material in the future.

6.0 COMMON REASONS/EXCUSUES FOR NOT WRITING CASES FOR


TRAINING

In December 2007, a short and simple survey was done on 80 lecturers


in three well- established universities at Klang Valley. Only 59 questionnaires
were returned and from the results shown a lot more need to be done in
promoting the writing of cases. Once the number of qualified writers increased
then the number of cases can be expected to increase if there are enough
incentives and rewards in place. But the fact still remain that the number of
qualified writers is still very small.

Table 1: Reasons for not Writing Cases

No REASONS FOR NOT WANTING TO WRITE CASES FOR TRAININ %


G.
1 Difficult to have access to data about the companies 78
2 Have no experience to write cases 62
3 Not trained to write cases 60
4 Not sure about the quality of cases that have been written 60

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5 Academic value not as high as journal article 60


6 Difficult to get research funding 56
7 Not strong in the use of the English language 56
8 The number of case writers is small to form a working team 54
9 Do not know where to publish 54
10 Not many companies know about case writing 54
11 Do not know how to get case writing trainers 48
12 Do not see how it can be commercialised 42
13 Not sure about the value of local cases when used in class as 42
compared to the textbook cases
14 No clear incentives to write cases from the university authorities 40

Perhaps the effectiveness of the use of cases in teaching need to be


highlighted again. There are several methods suggested when trying to increase
the soft skills of our graduates. One of them is the use of cases. Cases when
used in training can help trainees increase the following:

a. comprehension skills
b. critical thinking,
c. time management,
d. group work,
e. team building,
f. respect and recognise other member’s opinion,
g. appreciate the real world situation,
h. improve discussion skills
i. delegation and empowerment if case is long,
j. improve leadership qualities,
k. improve presentation and public speaking
l. it is a simulation of a kind and thus is almost real and more
interesting

7. CLOSINGREMARKS

There are still a few more things that need to be said about writing cases
as a teaching tool. but because of the space and time constraints, the following
table would suffice. Academically, some local universities have given case
writing a boost when it is recognised as a research, included as part of the
university’s KPI, and recognised as an academic activity. Hopefully, more will be
attracted to write cases as there are Annual case writing competition organised
by the Case Writer’s Association of Malaysia, there are journals specifically for
cases in Singapore and Hong Kong (and one coming soon in Malaysia) and
Annual Case Conferences organised by NACRA (North American Case Writers
Association).

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Table 2: CASE DIFFICULTY MATRIX

Level of Simple to Complex


Difficulty
Dimensions Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Problem clarity Here is the Here is the problem, Here is the
problem, Give a reasonable situation:
Analytical Here is the solution. What are the
situation. problems? What
(A) are the solutions?
A1
A2 A3

Conceptual Students will Students may Involves a


(Tools) understand the require further combination of
concept on their clarifications concepts or a
(C) own. through class single difficult
discussion and may concept with
C1 need repetition for requires repeated
reinforcement. effort to students
to understand.
C2 This also requires
time in class.
C3

Presentation All relevant Involves a mix-up of Involves a large


Simplicity information is information where amount of
nicely organized some data is left extraneous
and presented in out, and other information and
a straightforward irrelevant may be less
manner. information is organized.
added.
(P) P1 P2 P3

Case Types: A1, C1, P1 - simplest type.


A3, C3, P3 - most difficult type.
Source: Economic Development Institute

APPENDIX A: Extracts from the Economic Development Institute training


material)

1. CASE CLASSIFICATION:
The Economic Development Institute (EDI) has classified cases into 5

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different categories. They are:

a) Qualitative
b) Quantitative
c) Simulation
d) Critical Incidents
e) Multi Stage
1
2. THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF THE CASE STUDY
These three dimensions or sometimes referred to as the “case difficulty
cube (matrix)” is explained below:-

A. The Analytical Dimension (Problem Clarity)


“What is the analytical task you wish the student to perform?”
Level 1 -Here is the problem, here is the solution. Do you think
the problem fits the solution? Are there some alternatives that
might be considered?
Level 2 -Here is a problem. Give me a reasonable solution.
Level 3 -Here is situation. What are the problems? What are
the solutions?.

B. The Conceptual Dimension


“How difficult is the concept or problem I am trying to address?
Is it simple and straight forward? What theory/concepts do
students have to learn?
Level 1 -Students will understand the concept on their own.
Level 2 -Students may require further clarification
through class discussion and may need repetition for
reinforcement.
Level 3 - Involves a combination of concepts or a
single difficult concept which requires repeated effort to
students understand. This also requires time in class.
C. The Presentation Dimension
Level 1- All relevant information is nicely organized
and presented in a straightforward manner.
Level 2- Involves a mix-up of information where
some data is left out, and irrelevant information is added.
Level 3 -Involves a large amount of extraneous information
and may be less organized. Normally a long case
requiring extensive data sorting in preparation for analysis.
APPENDIX B: CRITERIA TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF CASE STUDIES

1. GENERAL CHECKLIST

a. Clarity of the objective


b. Easy to read and understand
c. Depicts a realistic situation

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d. Written in past tense


e. Not too long (not more than 10 pages) unless the case is
written for a specific purpose, i.e. to illustrate a number
of techniques in a sequential order. Multi-stage case studies
may also be longer than the above limit.
g. It to be used for imparting some practical skills or teaching
techniques in training sessions.
h. Presents facts and figures in such a way that a logical
analysis of the situation is facilitated.
i. Free from typographical errors and factual inconsistencies.
j. Contains opening and closing paragraphs which motivate
the reader to read the case and work on it.
k. Sets the sense of urgency about the problem or decision.
l. Gives clues about the causes of the problem.
m. Presents a set of questions which are related to the
objectives of the writer but can be adapted to meet the needs
of users.
1
2. CRITERIA FOR AN OPENING PARAGRAPH
a. Short and to point, introduce the nature of the issue of the
case.
b. Sets the scene for the reader in term of characters and their
roles.
c. Establishes the context of where and when, and the
degree of urgency of the problem.
d. Provides clues to the reader about the level of difficulty of
the case.
e. Attracts the attention of the reader.
f. The reader knows what he/she is expected to do.
1
3. CRITERIA FOR A CLOSING PARAGRAPH

a. Sets the sense of urgency about the problem or decision.


b. Summarize the key issues implicity or explicitly.
c. Leads the reader to think about the problem and solution.
d. Presents a set of questions which are related to the objectives of
the writer but can be changed to meet the needs of the use.
e. Does not close the case but opens the discussion.

4. CRITERIA FOR A WELL WRITTEN CASE STUDY

a. Well written, clear, easy to read and to understand.


b. The objective of the case study is clear to the reader.
c. A stimulating style which provides discussion and
motivates the participant.
d. The situation appears realistic with enough pertinent
information to solve the problem.
e. Serves as a vehicle to teach the subject, skills and/or
techniques required for the specific session in a specific course.

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f. Sometimes a case should be precisely ambiguous to reflect the


diversity of real life.
g. Not too long for participant to read in one night (10 – 12 pages).

APPENDIX C: EXMPLE OF A RELEASE CARD

UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

Case Release Card

Title of Case: __________________________________________________________

Prepared by: ___________________________________________________________

Gentlemen:
We have read and reviewed the above case study and hereby authorize its use for
teaching purposes in university classrooms, printed case books, and
management/supervisory development programs.

Signature: ______________________________

Position: _______________________________

Company: ______________________________

Date: __________________________________

Note: The above release authorizes the use of a CASE for all types of use.

Sources may authorize more restricted use, as “for classroom Use Only” in the
institution where the CASE was written, or may impose restrictions to be observed
for a stipulated period of time.

School or professors, too, may impose restriction for a time even though release by
the Source was not restrictive.
In any CASE, the exact nature of its permissible use should be indicated in the
Control records.

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ANALISIS GAYA PEMBELAJARAN PELAJAR BARU


UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU

NUR AMIRAH AMIRUDDIN ABSTRAK - Pembelajaran merupakan suatu


FAUZIAH ABU HASAN proses yang berterusan bagi seorang pelajar.
ABD AZIZ WAN MOHD AMIN Terdapat tiga perkara yang menjadi ukuran
Pusat Penjaminan Kualiti kepelbagaian pelajar iaitu cara atau gaya
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
belajar, pendekatan dan orientasi
amirah@umt.edu.my pembelajaran dan pembangunan intelektual
fauziah@umt.edu.my (Felder: 2005) . Gaya pembelajaran adalah “ciri
ziza@umt.edu.my kognitif, afektif, dan psikologi kelakuan yang
mempengaruhi bagaimana seorang pelajar
melihat, berinteraksi bertindak balas terhadap
persekitaran pembelajaran. Terdapat pelbagai
gaya pembelajaran yang menjadi amalan
pelajar. Gaya pembelajaran yang dipilih adalah
berdasarkan keselesaan dan kesesuaian diri
seseorang pelajar terbabit. Gaya belajar ini
mungkin bertukar mengikut masa, contohnya
gaya belajar yang digemari semasa pelajar di
sekolah rendah mungkin berbeza apabila
mereka berada di sekolah menengah atau di
peringkat universiti. Gaya belajar juga secara
tidak langsung memberi kesan kepada gaya
pengajaran guru atau pensyarah. Oleh itu,
kajian ini memfokuskan kepada taburan indeks
gaya pembelajaran pelajar baru Universiti
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. Malaysia Terengganu. Kajian ini menggunakan
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. instrumen daripada model gaya pembelajaran
Prosiding Persidangan Felder-Silverman ( Index Learning Style ).
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di Secara keseluruhannya, pelajar baru UMT bagi
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian dua sesi kemasukan iaitu Julai 2006/2007 dan
Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of Julai 2007/2008 mendominasi gaya
Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan, pembelajaran jenis reflective, sensing,
Selangor 12-14 Disember 2007
sequential dan visual .

1.0 PENGENALAN

Universiti merupakan suatu medan untuk para pelajar menimba ilmu


pengetahuan dan membina jati diri untuk berdaya saing dalam arus globalisasi.
Manakala pelajar pula merupakan modal insan negara yang paling berharga di
masa hadapan. Menyedari hakikat ini, kedua-dua pihak perlu bergerak seiring
dan berganding bahu untuk mencapai matlamat yang sama dalam memenuhi
aspirasi negara.

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Pelajar yang baru melangkah ke alam menara gading ini terdiri daripada
pelbagai lapisan sama ada lepasan SPM, STPM, Diploma atau Matrikulasi.
Pelajar ber kemungkinan mengalami beberapa masalah terutama dalam
menyesuaikan diri dengan situasi yang baru. Masalah yang paling ketara
menghantui pelajar baru ialah penyesuaian kendiri dari aspek gaya
pembelajaran. Gaya pembelajaran adalah “ciri kognitif, afektif, dan psikologi
kelakuan yang mempengaruhi bagaimana seorang pelajar melihat, berinteraksi
bertindak balas terhadap persekitaran pembelajaran. Terdapat pelbagai gaya
pembelajaran yang menjadi amalan pelajar. Gaya pembelajaran yang dipilih
berdasarkan keselesaan dan kesesuaian diri seseorang pelajar terbabit. Gaya
belajar ini mungkin bertukar mengikut masa, contohnya gaya belajar yang
digemari semasa pelajar di sekolah rendah mungkin berbeza apabila mereka
berada di sekolah menengah atau di peringkat universiti. Gaya belajar juga
secara tidak langsung memberi kesan kepada gaya pengajaran guru atau
pensyarah. Didapati terdapat pelbagai instrumen yang telah dibina untuk
mengenal pasti gaya pembelajaran. Antaranya ialah The Centre for Innovative
Teaching Experience (CITE) Learning Style Instrument oleh Babich, Burdine, Allbright
& Randol (1975), Learning Style Inventory oleh Dunn, Dunn & Price (1975), Learning
Style Inventory oleh Renzulli & Smith (1978) dan Transaction Ability Inventory oleh
Gregorc (1979).

Di samping itu terdapat juga Indeks Gaya Pembelajaran Felder-


Silverman yang telah digunakan dengan begitu meluas untuk tujuan
penyelidikan. Indeks gaya pembelajaran (ILS) ini dibina oleh Richard M. Felder
dan Barbara Soloman (koordinator penasihat First-Year College di North
Carolina State University) yang terdiri daripada empat puluh empat (44) soalan
yang mengklasifikasikan pelajar kepada empat daripada lima dimensi gaya
pembelajaran Felder-Silverman. Empat dimensi tersebut ialah active/reflective,
sensing/intuitive, sequential/global dan visual/verbal. Soalan soal selidik yang
disediakan oleh Felder dan Soloman tidak mengambil kira dimensi organisasi
(induktif/deduktif). Jadual 1 hingga 4 memberikan definisi dan ciri-ciri bagi
dimensi tersebut. [8] dan [16].

Jadual 1 : Ciri-ciri Dimensi Aktif / Reflektif


AKTIF REFLEKTIF
Mengingat dan memahami maklumat Memikirkan maklumat itu terlebih
dengan aksi - membincang, dahulu
mengaplikasikan atau menerangkan
Fasa kegemaran: "Biar kita cuba dulu Fasa kegemaran: "Biar kita
dan lihat bagaimana ia beroperasi" memikirkannya secara mendalam"
Suka kerja dalam kumpulan Suka kerja berseorangan

Jadual 2 : Ciri-ciri Dimensi Sensing/ Intuitive


SENSING INTUITIVE
Lebih realistik dan praktikal Lebih imaginatif dan abstrak
Lebih bersabar dan tenang Suka cabaran baru dan kerja mengikut
mood
Gunakan pengalaman dan kewarasan Mempercayai rasa hati (ikut diri

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menurut kebiasaan sendiri)


Suka rutin dan ketetapan Tidak suka rutin dan kerja-kerja teliti
Lebih terfokus kepada perkara yang Lebih terfokus kepada yang berpotensi
sebenar dan yang mempunyai kemungkinan
Hidup di sini dan kini Hidup ke arah masa akan datang
mengikut visi sendiri

Jadual 3 : Ciri-ciri Dimensi Visual/ Verbal


VISUAL VERBAL
Mengingati dengan baik maklumat Mengingati dengan baik maklumat
yang berbentuk gambar, rajah, carta dalam bentuk penerangan - lisan dan
alir, filem dan demonstrasi secara bertulis.

Jadual 4 : Ciri-ciri Dimensi Sequential/ Global


SEQUENTIAL GLOBAL
Memahami sesuatu dalam turutan Belajar sesuatu mengikut gambaran
linear, satu langkah demi satu langkah yang luas dan rambang tanpa meneliti
secara logik. Setiap langkah dikaitkan hubungan antara maklumat-maklumat.
dengan langkah yang seterusnya.
Pelajar sequential biasanya Pelajar berkemungkinan
menyelesaikan masalah dengan menyelesaikan masalah rumit dengan
langkah-langkah yang sistematik dan cepat atau menyusun semula sesuatu
logik. dengan cara-cara baru tetapi
menghadapi masalah menjelaskan
bagaimana penyelesaian itu diperolehi.
Boleh bertindak berasaskan maklumat Perlu mendapatkan gambaran
yang kecil dan terasing menyeluruh sebelum memahami
sesuatu dengan mendalam

2.0 KAJIAN INDEKS GAYA PEMBELAJARAN

Sorotan karya menunjukkan Indeks Gaya Pembelajaran telah digunakan


secara meluas kerana keupayaannya mengukur dengan efisen. Instrumen kajian
telah diuji kesahan dan kebolehpercayaannya. Banyak kajian telah dijalankan
dengan menggunakan instrumen tersebut, Antaranya ialah kajian ke atas 156
pelajar pelajar jurusan perniagaan di University of South Dakota, Vermillion.
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti gaya pembelajaran pelajar terhadap
subjek statistik di samping membantu pensyarah menyesuaikan gaya
pengajaran mereka berpandukan analisis gaya pembelajaran tersebut. Hasil
kajian menunjukkan kira-kira 90 orang pelajar dari sampel kajian yang memiliki
gaya pembelajaran visual, aktif, sequential dan sensing [1],

Di samping itu kajian juga yang telah dilaksanakan ke atas 129 pelajar
jurusan Kejuruteraan di Universiti Iowa, menunjukkan 63% daripada responden
kajian ialah pelajar yang aktif dan 67% memiliki gaya pembelajaran jenis
sensing. Dapatan S. Mongomery (1995) dalam Gian (1999) menunjukkan gaya
sekumpulan pelajar yang dikaji oleh beliau menunjukkan 67% daripada pelajar

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tersebut ialah pelajar aktif, 57% ialah pelajar sensing, 69% ialah pelajar visual
dan 28% ialah pelajar global [4].
Keadaan yang sama juga berlaku pada 301 pelajar yang sedang mengikuti
matapelajaran Bahasa Pengaturcaraan C bagi kursus Sarjana Muda Teknologi
Maklumat di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Hasil kajian mendapati
kebanyakan pelajar mempunyai gabungan gaya pembelajaran daripada ciri aktif,
sensing, visual dan sequential iaitu masing-masing dengan peratusan 72.8%,
60.9%, 92.8% dan 74.7%. Manakala bagi ciri reflektif, intuitif, verbal dan global
masing-masing memperolehi 27.2%, 39.1%, 7.2% dan 25.3%. [10], Namun
begitu bagi kajian yang telah dijalankan ke atas pelajar tahun satu jurusan
kejuruteraan di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia , walaupun pelajar–pelajar memiliki
gaya pembelajaran yang seimbang bagi gaya pembelajaran aktif dan reflektif
serta gaya pembelajaran sequential dan global tetapi mereka kurang
menguasai gaya pembelajaran jenis intuitif dan verbal berbanding gaya
pembelajaran sensing dan visual [9],.

Dalam masa yang sama juga, hasil kajian berkaitan telah menunjukkan
hubungan gaya pembelajaran seseorang pelajar dengan bidang pengajian yang
diikuti. Sebagai contoh pelajar jurusan sains makanan dan kejuruteraan memiliki
gaya pembelajaran jenis visual, sensing, active dan sequential [2], Manakala
pelajar daripada fakulti pendidikan memiliki gaya pembelajaran jenis visual yang
lebih dominan berbanding pelajar jurusan seni [6] Dapatan kajian oleh Lopes
(2002) dalam R. Felder(2005) juga menunjukkan pelajar daripada jurusan sains
memiliki gaya pembelajaran jenis active, sensing, visual dan sequential
berbanding pelajar jurusan sains kemanusiaan. Pelajar daripada jurusan tersebut
memiliki kecenderungan menguasai gaya pembelajaran jenis verbal [3].

Kajian–kajian terdahulu juga menunjukkan gaya pembelajaran pelajar


akan mempengaruhi gaya pengajaran pensyarah. Ini dibuktikan oleh kajian yang
pernah dijalankan ke atas pelajar dan pensyarah Michigan State University’s
Construction Management Program. Hasil kajian mendapati wujud
ketidakseimbangan gaya pembelajaran pelajar dengan gaya pengajaran
pensyarah. Contohnya pensyarah suka menggunakan pendekatan pengajaran
sehala tanpa mengambil inisiatif untuk merangsang minat dan kecenderungan
pelajar agar wujud interaksi positif bagi kedua-dua pihak. Ini memberi kesan
negatif kepada pelajar. Pelajar cepat merasa bosan dan jemu serta aktiviti
pembelajaran menjadi kurang menyeronokkan [11].

3.0 OBJEKTIF KAJIAN

Di antara objektif utama kajian ini adalah:

1. Mengenal pasti gaya pembelajaran pelajar baru UMT


secara keseluruhan
2. Mengenal pasti gaya pembelajaran pelajar baru mengikut
fakulti.

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4.0 METODOLOGI KAJIAN

Kajian ini dijalankan ke atas semua pelajar baru yang mendaftar di UMT
pada sesi pengajian Julai 2006/2007 dan sesi Julai 2007/2008. Pelajar-pelajar
tersebut mengikuti pelbagai program yang ditawarkan daripada empat fakulti
iaitu Fakulti Pengurusan dan Ekonomi (FPE), Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi (FST),
Fakulti Agroteknologi dan Sains Makanan (FASM) dan Fakulti Pengajian Maritim
dan Sains Marin (FMSM). Pelajar dikehendaki menjawab soal selidik yang
mengandungi 44 soalan yang berkaitan dengan empat dimensi gaya
pembelajaran Felder-Silverman.

5.0 HASIL KAJIAN

Secara keseluruhannya, pelajar baru yang mendaftar di UMT bagi sesi


pengajian Julai 2006/2007 memiliki gaya pembelajaran jenis reflective (67.8%),
sensing (76.2%), sequential (72.4%), dan visual (88.5%). Situasi yang sama
juga berlaku bagi pelajar baru kemasukan sesi Julai 2007/2008. Majoriti pelajar
baru sesi tersebut memiliki gaya pembelajaran jenis reflective (65%), sensing
(76%), sequential (71%) dan visual (90%). Keadaan ini tidak menyokong
beberapa kajian terdahulu yang menunjukkan majoriti pelajar memiliki gaya
pembelajaran jenis aktif [1][4][9] dan [10].

Julai 2006/2007
Julai 2007/2008
Reflective
1200
1000
Verbal Sensing
800
600
400
200
Global 0 Sequential

Intuitive Visual

Active

Rajah 1 : Gaya Pembelajaran pelajar baru UMT bagi sesi Julai 2006/2007 dan
Julai 2007/2008

5.1 Analisis Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar Baru Mengikut


Fakulti

Pelajar baru Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi (FST) bagi sesi


kemasukan Julai 2006/2007 lebih mendominasi gaya pembelajaran
reflective (70.9%), intuitive (25.9%) dan global (29.2%) jika dibandingkan

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dengan fakulti yang lain. Manakala bagi pelajar baru FST bagi sesi
kemasukan Julai 2007/2008 pula hanya mendominasi gaya
pembelajaran reflective (67%) berbanding pelajar dari fakulti yang lain.

Hasil kajian juga mendapati pelajar daripada Fakulti Pengurusan


Ekonomi (FPE) bagi sesi kemasukan Julai 2006/2007 memiliki gaya
pembelajaran seperti sensing ( 78 %) dan verbal (14.3%). Keadaan yang
sama juga berlaku bagi pelajar baru FPE bagi sesi Julai 2007/2008 yang
lebih memiliki gaya pembelajaran jenis sensing (82%), verbal (13%) dan
sequential (74%) berbanding pelajar dari fakulti yang lain.

Manakala bagi pelajar Fakulti Agroteknologi dan Sains Makanan


(FASM) pada sesi kemasukan Julai 2006/2007, mereka lebih memiliki
gaya pembelajaran jenis visual (93%) berbanding fakulti lain. Pelajar
baru FASM sesi Julai 2007/2008 juga mendominasi gaya pembelajaran
jenis visual ( 93% ) di samping gaya pembelajaran jenis global (38%).

Daripada analisis yang telah dijalankan juga, didapati pelajar


daripada Fakulti Pengajian Maritim dan Sains Marin (FMSM) pada sesi
kemasukan Julai 2006/2007, mendominasi gaya pembelajaran jenis
sequential (74.6%) dan active (37.4%) berbanding fakulti lain. Namun
begitu bagi pelajar baru sesi kemasukan Julai 2007/2008 memiliki gaya
pembelajaran jenis active (39%) dan intuitive (30%). (rujuk jadual 5 dan
6).

Hasil kajian ini menyokong dapatan kajian terdahulu yang


menunjukkan pelajar yang berlainan jurusan memiliki gaya
pembelajaran yang berbeza di antara satu sama lain [2], [3] dan [6]. Bagi
pelajar FST, FASM dan FMSM , didapati pelajar baru kurang memiliki
gaya pembelajaran jenis aktif. Ini bertentangan dengan dapatan kajian
terdahulu yang merumuskan kepentingan pelajar jurusan sains dalam
menguasai gaya pembelajaran jenis aktif. Namun begitu dapatan kajian
bagi pelajar FPE menyokong kajian terdahulu yang menunjukkan yang
pelajar jurusan sains sosial yang mendominasi gaya pembelajaran jenis
sensing. Di samping itu dapatan daripada kajian terdahulu juga
merumuskan pelajar jurusan sains mempunyai gaya pembelajaran yang
lebih menjurus kepada aplikasi manakala pelajar daripada jurusan sains
sosial memiliki gaya pembelajaran jenis konseptual [7]. Justeru itu perlu
satu mekanisme yang sesuai dan menyeluruh bagi memastikan pelajar
dapat menguasai gaya pembelajaran yang bersesuaian dengan bidang
pengajian yang diikuti.

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Reflective
500 Julai 2006/2007
Julai 2007/2008
400
Verbal Sensing
300
200
100
Global 0 Sequential

Intuitive Visual

Active

Rajah 2 : Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar Fakulti Sains Dan Teknologi Bagi Sesi
Julai 2006/2007 dan Julai 2007/2008
Julai 2006/2007
Julai 2007/2008

Reflective
400

Verbal 300 Sensing

200

100

Global 0 Sequential

Intuitive Visual

Active

Rajah 3 : Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar Fakulti Pengurusan Ekonomi bagi sesi


Julai 2006/2007 dan Julai 2007/

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Julai 2006/2007
Julai 2007/2008
Reflective
250
200
Verbal Sensing
150
100
50
Global 0 Sequential

Intuitive Visual

Active

Rajah 4 : Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar Fakulti Agroteknologi Dan Sains Makanan


bagi sesi Julai 2006/2007 dan Julai 2007/2008

Julai 2006/2007
Reflective Julai 2007/2008
250
200
Verbal Sensing
150
100
50
Global 0 Sequential

Intuitive Visual

Active

Rajah 5 : Gaya pembelajaran Pelajar Fakulti Pengajian Maritim dan Sains Marin
bagi sesi Julai 2006/2007 dan sesi Julai 2007/2008

Jadual 5 : Analisis Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar Bagi Sesi Julai 2006/2007


Mengikut Fakulti
Fakulti Active Reflective Sensing Intuitive Visual Verbal Sequential Global
FST 29% 71% 74% 26% 87% 13% 71% 29%
FPE 33% 67% 78% 22% 86% 14% 74% 26%
FASM 33% 67% 75% 25% 93% 7% 72% 28%
FMSM 37% 63% 80% 20% 90% 10% 75% 25%

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Jadual 6 : Analisis Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar Bagi Sesi Julai 2007/2008


Mengikut Fakulti
Fakulti Active Reflective Sensing Intuitive Visual Verbal Sequential Global
FST 33% 67% 75% 25% 92% 8% 71% 29%
FPE 34% 66% 82% 18% 87% 13% 74% 26%
FASM 35% 65% 74% 26% 93% 7% 62% 38%
FMSM 39% 61% 70% 30% 92% 8% 69% 31%

4.0 Kesimpulan

Setiap individu mengamalkan gaya pembelajaran yang berbeza dan


tersendiri. Gaya pembelajaran bergantung kepada ciri-ciri biologi dan
perkembangan sahsiah pelajar. Ia juga dipengaruhi oleh persekitaran, emosi ,
pengaruh sosial serta perasaan individu. Kajian-kajian dalam bidang ini juga
menunjukkan kepelbagaian gaya pembelajaran seseorang individu yang
mempunyai kaitan dengan jurusan pengajian seseorang pelajar. Di samping itu
juga, ramai penyelidik berpendapat gaya pembelajaran akan mempengaruhi
gaya pengajaran pensyarah. Justeru itu menjadi satu keperluan kepada
pensyarah untuk mengenal pasti gaya pembelajaran pelajar bagi memastikan
proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran berada dalam suasana yang kondusif dan
memberikan impak positif kepada dua-dua pihak terutama dalam meningkatkan
pencapaian akademik pelajar. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian ini, beberapa
cadangan dikemukakan :

i) Pihak universiti dan fakulti perlu mempunyai garis panduan khusus


mengenai kemasukan pelajar agar gaya pembelajaran yang
dimiliki oleh pelajar baru menepati kehendak kursus dan program
yang ditawarkan.

ii) Pihak fakulti perlu memberi penekanan kepada pelajar untuk


menguasai gaya pembelajaran yang selari dengan keperluan kursus
yang ditawarkan. Pelajar perlu diberi pendedahan mengenai
kepentingan menguasai gaya pembelajaran yang sesuai kerana ia
secara tidak langsung akan mempengaruhi pencapaian akademik
mereka.

iii) Bagi Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi (FST), Fakulti Agroteknologi dan
Sains Makanan (FASM) dan Fakulti Pengajian Maritim dan Sains
Marin (FMSM), pensyarah-pensyarah perlu membantu pelajar
menguasai gaya pembelajaran aktif dengan menerapkan
pembelajaran kolaboratif iaitu satu pendekatan yang melibatkan
kumpulan atau pasukan pelajar. Ini disebabkan oleh bidang
pengajian yang ditawarkan oleh fakulti berkenaan menekankan
keperluan kepada pelajar untuk menjana pemikiran yang lebih kreatif
dan inovatif.

iv) Bagi pelajar daripada Fakulti Pengurusan dan Ekonomi, mereka


juga perlu diberi penekanan gaya pembelajaran jenis verbal

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sebagai keperluan dalam menguasai subjek yang ditawarkan di


fakulti berkenaan. Walaubagaimanapun, menjadi satu
kepentingan kepada pelajar untuk memiliki gaya pembelajaran
yang seimbang untuk membolehkan mereka menyesuaikan diri
dengan keperluan subjek yang diambil serta bidang pengajian yang
diikuti.

v) Bahan-bahan pengajaran perlu disediakan lebih banyak dalam


bentuk visual (contohnya menggunakan aplikasi multimedia
yang interaktif) berbanding penerangan secara lisan ( verbal).

vi) Gaya pengajaran pensyarah juga perlu mengambil kira


keseimbangan di antara sensing dan intuitive. Sebagai contoh dalam
menerangkan sesuatu teori atau model bagi sesuatu subjek,
pensyarah perlu mempunyai kemampuan mengaitkannya dengan
aplikasi harian yang lebih realistik.

vii) Pensyarah juga digalakkan menggabungkan gaya sequential dan


global dalam pengajaran. Contohnya, pensyarah memberikan
penerangan dan definisi konsep sesuatu subjek secara satu persatu
agar pelajar memahami kepentingan mempelajari subjek berkenaan.
Manakala sewaktu sesi pengajaran pensyarah boleh menggunakan
pendekatan secara global untuk merangsang daya berfikir kritis dan
inovatif pelajar.

Kesuaian dan keserasian gaya pengajaran pensyarah dan gaya


pembelajaran pelajar secara tidak langsung akan membantu meningkatkan
kecemerlangan akademik pelajar. Namun begitu, sekiranya pensyarah tidak
mampu menukar gaya pengajarannya, mereka sepatutnya membantu pelajar
mengadaptasikan diri dengan gaya tersebut. Ia amat penting terutama dalam
usaha menjamin kemantapan kualiti akademik.

RUJUKAN :

[1] Bijayananda Naik ( 2003) “Learning Styles of Business Students.”,


Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Decision Sciences
Institute, Washington, D. C., November 22-26, 2003. (Presented at the
conference) www.usd.edu/~bnaik/research/LEARN.pdf

[2] Enrique Palou (2006) Learning Styles of Mexican Food Science and
Engineering Students Journal of Food Science EducationVolume 5
Issue 3 Page 51-57, July 2006

[3] Felder RM, Spurlin J (2005). Applications, reliability, and validity of


©
the Index of Learning Styles . International Journal of Engineering
Education 21(1):103–112.

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[4] Gian Kah How (1999) Gaya Pembelajaran dan Penggunaan


Multimedia dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Jurnal Pendidikan
Ting ENF 1999/2000 Jil 2 (3) : 57-63

[5] Joseph Gomez (1999) Gaya Pembelajaran : Satu Tinjauan


LIteratur. Jurnal Pendidikan Ting ENF 1999/2000 Jil 2 (3) : 40-49

[6] Litzinger TA, Lee SH, Wise JC, Felder RM. 2005. A study of the
©
reliability and validity of the Felder-Soloman Index of Learning Styles .
Proceedings of the 2005 ASEE Annual Conference, American
Society for Engineering Education

[7] Matthews, Doris B (1994) . An investigation of students' learning styles


in various disciplines in colleges and universities, Journal of
Humanistic Education & Development, Dec94, Vol. 33, Issue 2
[8] M. Felder and R. Brent (2005)., "Understanding Student Differences." J.
Engr. Education, 94(1), 57-72 (2005). An exploration of differences in
student learning styles, approaches to learning (deep, surface, and
strategic), and levels of intellectual development
http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf

[9] M. Z. Kamsah, M. S. Abu and A. K. Idris, “The First Step of Being


an Effective Engineering Educator: Know Your Students’ Learning
Styles. http://www.ctl.utm.my/research/pdf/rtl04.pdf

[10] Ruzi Bachok, Zarina Shukur, Noor Faezah Mohd. Yatim dan Mohd
Hazali Mohamed Halip (2003) Isu Kesepadanan Gaya Pembelajaran dan
GayaPengajaran Matapelajaran Bahasa Pengaturcaraan C , Prosiding
Bengkel Sains Pengaturcaraan : Pembelajaran & Pengajaran
Pengaturcaraan di Malaysia , 27 Ogos 2003
http://www.ftsm.ukm.my/irpa/programming/bengkelC/20-RuziFPsv-7(180
186).pdf

[11] Tariq S. Abdelhamid (2003) “Evaluation of Teacher-Student Learning


Style Disparity in Construction Management Education” International
Journal of Construction Education and Research Fall 2003 vol 8, 3,
Michigan State University East Lansing,
MI.http://www.ascjournal.ascweb.org/journal/2003/no3/V8N3p124-
145.pdf

[12] Index Learning Style Instrument


http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html

[13] Learning Styles and Strategies


http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.htm

[14] Learning Styles Assessment Instruments


http://www.brevard.edu/fyc/resources/Learningstyles.htm#Approaches

[15] Pengurusan Masa dan Gaya Pembelajaran

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http://myschoolnet.ppk.kpm.my/bhn_pnp/modul/bcb9.pdf
http://www.teachersrock.net/explain_active.htm
http://www.teachersrock.net/explain_sensing.htm
http://www.teachersrock.net/explain_visual.htm

[16] http://www.teachersrock.net/explain_sequential.htm

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A STUDY OF VISUAL ABILITY BASED ON GENDER DIFFERENCES WITH


FIRST- YEAR UITM SCIENCE STUDENTS

S. R. SYED ARIS, ABSTRACT - In most schools as well as


N. V. KANTASAMY tertiary educational institutions, 2-dimensional
M. DOMAT SHAHARUDIN models are frequently used to describe 3-
B. ABU BAKAR
dimensional science concepts. It is therefore
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Universiti Teknologi MARA,
essential for science students to use as well as
Shah Alam, Selangor develop this visualization skill. Visual ability has
now become a prerequisite and essential aid in
learning and understanding science concepts
especially in tertiary educational institutions.
This study examines the visual ability based on
gender differences of first-year science
students, in the Applied Sciences Faculty of
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). A total of
196 first-year students participated in this
study. Purdue Visualization Rotation Test was
used to assess students’ visual ability. This test
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. assessed participants’ mental rotation ability in
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. 2-dimensional space. Current findings indicate
Prosiding Persidangan gender differences in visual spatial ability
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di among first-year Universiti Teknologi MARA
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian (UiTM) science students from the Applied
Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of Sciences Faculty.
Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan,
Selangor 12-14 Disember 2007
Keywords: Visual Ability, Purdue Visual
Rotation Test, Gender Differences, Mental
Rotation Ability

1.0 INTRODUCTION
There are two components of spatial ability: spatial relations and spatial
visualization [1]. Spatial relations tasks involve 2D and 3D rotations of an object
as a whole body, while spatial visualization is the ability to imagine rotations of
objects or their parts in 3D space. In other words, spatial ability involves mental
manipulation of visual images of an object and their parts in 2D and 3D space [2].
Several researches indicated that visualization or imagery ability is a prerequisite
and an essential task in learning process [3 −10]. Keigh and Rubba (1993) have
proved significant correlation between students’ ability to visualize
representations and their understanding of the underlying concepts. Their
findings show the importance of students having the ability to visualize as a
means to enhance understanding. However, there are studies reporting gender
differences in spatial ability [12−14]. Researchers like Paivio, Clark as well as
Maccoby and Jacklin attribute gender differences in spatial ability to the

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probability that most males can generate dynamic images more quickly [15] and
impulsively [16] than females.

2.0 OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS


The objective of the study was to explore gender differences in visual
ability among first year science students at Faculty of Applied Sciences UiTM
Shah Alam. The following research questions and null hypotheses were
formulated to guide the study.

Research question 1: Is there any significant difference between male


and female students in the mean score of Purdue Visual Rotation Test (PVRT)?
Null hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference between male and female
students in mean score of Purdue Visual Rotation Test (PVRT).

Research question 2: Is there any significant difference between male


and female students from different programs in the mean score of Purdue Visual
Rotation Test (PVRT)?

Null hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between male and


female students from different programs in the mean score of Purdue Visual
Rotation Test (PVRT).

3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN


The study used a quantitative, descriptive survey questionnaire to
compare visual rotation test to gender and programs.
3.1 Sample
The study was conducted at Faculty of Applied Sciences, where
196 first year degree students participated in the study. The students
involved in the study came from six different programmes which were
Biocomposite (36), Physics Industry (25), Chemistry (85), Biology (22)
and Forensic (28). The following Figure 1 illustrates the percentage of
students in each programme. Out of the total numbers, 54 were male
students and 142 were female students.

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Programmes

biocomposite
physics industry
chemistry
biology
forensic

14.29% 18.37%

11.22%
12.76%

43.37%

Figure 1: Percentages of Students in different Programmes


3.2 Instrument : The Purdue Visual Of Rotation
Test (Pvrt)

Students’ visual ability was measured using Purdue


Visualization of Rotations test (PVRT). This test is widely used to
measure visual rotation ability particularly in the context of
chemistry and engineering. The instrument consists of 20 items
with each correct response receiving one point while incorrect
response receives 0 point. The total or full point is 20 and the
lowest total point is zero. PVRT possesses a high internal
consistency. The value for Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR-20) is
between .78 to .80. While split half reliability coefficients are
between .78 to .85 (Bodner et al., 1997).

3.2.1 Validity Of Pvrt

Two lecturers were chosen to validate the instrument. No major


adjustment was done except in the format and the font size of
the letters. Twenty minutes were given to students to complete
the visual rotation test.

3.2.2 RELIABILITY OF PVRT

A pilot study was done to obtain the reliability of the instrument


to be used in the present study. Test-retest was conducted to

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determine the reliability of the instruments. The sample for the


pilot study was different from the sample in the actual study.
However, cohort sample was used in the present study, which
consisted of 32 science students from other UiTM branch. The
PVRT was conducted twice with three weeks gap in between.
The scores of the two tests then were computed using SPSS
and bivariate Pearson correlation coefficient was run to test the
reliability of the instruments. The value obtained was r = .89.
The high correlation obtained indicates that the PVRT possesses
high reliability and can be used in the study context.

4.0 RESULTS AND FINDINGS


This section will present the results of the study.

score

25

20
Frequency

15

10

Mean = 12.99
Std. Dev. = 3.789
0 N = 196
0 5 10 15 20 25
score

Figure 2: Histogram of the mean score of the students


Descriptive statistic found that the mean score of Purdue Visual Rotation Test for
196 students was M=12.99, SD = 3.89. The results indicate that the first year
degree students possessed medium level of visual ability.

Research question 1: Is there any significant difference between male


and female students in the mean score of Purdue Visual Rotation Test (PVRT)?

Null hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference between male and


female students in mean score of Purdue Visual Rotation Test (PVRT).

The results from Table 1 show that male students gained a mean score,
M=15.91, SD=2.80 and female students achieved a mean score, M=11.88,
SD=3.52. The results indicate that male students possessed higher score in
visual ability test as compared to female students.

Table 1 : Mean and Standard Deviation of the PVRT scores via gender

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Gender Mean N Std. Deviation


Male 15.91 54 2.80
Female 11.88 142 3.52
Total 12.99 196 3.79

Furthermore, Independent samples t test was performed on the data.


The score was found to be significantly different between male and female
students, t(194) = 7.54, p<.05. From the result obtained, null hypothesis 1 is
rejected.

Results from descriptive statistics (Table 2) imply that students from


Physics industry program gained the highest mean score, M=14.16, SD=4.03,
followed by Forensic (M=14.11, SD= 3.38), Biocomposite (M=13.92, SD=3.38),
Chemistry (M=12.44, SD=3.71) and Biology (M=10.86, SD=3.64).

Table 2: Mean Score and Standard Deviation of PVRT


based on Gender and Programmes
N
Group Gender Mean Std. Deviation
Biocomposite male 16.42 2.31 12
female 12.67 3.16 24
Total 13.92 3.38 36
Physics male
17.36 2.54 11
industry
female 11.64 3.08 14
Total 14.16 4.03 25
Chemistry male 15.00 2.86 21
female 11.59 3.59 64
Total 12.44 3.71 85
Biology male 13.00 .000 3
female 10.53 3.82 19
Total 10.86 3.64 22
Forensic male 16.71 3.04 7
female 13.24 3.38 21
Total 14.11 3.58 28
Total male 15.91 2.80 54
female 11.88 3.52 142
Total 12.99 3.79 196

Two-Way ANOVA was utilized to answer the following research question.

Research question 2: Is there any significant difference between male


and female students among different programs in the mean scores of Purdue
Visual Rotation Test (PVRT)?

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Null hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between male and


female students among different programmes in the mean scores of Purdue
Visual Rotation Test (PVRT).

Table 3: Results of ANOVA (Tests of Between-Subjects Effects)


Type III Sum
Source of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected
802.56(b) 9 89.17 8.3 .00
Model
Intercept 20591.56 1 20591.52 1917.53 .00
Group 116.76 4 29.19 2.72 .03
Gender 382.36 1 382.36 35.60 .00
group *
30.31 4 7.58 .706 .59
gender
Error 1997.42 186 10.74
Total 35872.00 196
Corrected
2799.98 195
Total
Computed using alpha = .05

The tests of between-subjects effects (Table 3) show that there is a significant


main effect for group. Results show that students from Physics Industry
programme scored higher in PVRT test than students in other programmes.

However, there is no significant gender by group interaction, F(4,186) = 0.71, p=


0.59. These data are illustrated in the graph below (Figure 3).

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Gender by Programmes Interaction

18 gender
male
female
Estimated Marginal Means

16

14

12

10

fo
ch
bi

ph

bi

re
oc

ol
em
ys

og

ns
om

ic

is

ic
s

try
po

in
si

du
te

st
ry

Programmes

Figure 3: Graph of Gender by Programmes Interaction


From the results obtained it can be concluded that there is no significant
difference between male and female students from different programmes in the
mean scores of Purdue Visual Rotation Test (PVRT). Therefore, the null
hypothesis 2 is accepted.

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


The first finding demonstrates that there is significant gender difference
in visual spatial ability especially in mental rotation. The results clearly show that
male outperformed female in Purdue Visual Rotation test. The finding of the
study is consistent with past studies on gender [12−14]. There are several
assumptions to this; females accumulates less previous experience in spatial
tasks than males [17], females have low levels of confidence in their ability to
solve spatial problems [18], and males played a lot of activities requiring hand-
eye coordination during their school time like playing in sports, playing three-

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dimensional computer games and drafting [in [19], p.24].


To cater the problem, curriculum developers could come out with
appropriate spatial ability syllabus or training programme integrated in the
academic curriculum. Educators can also plan some activities mainly for female
students like guided imagery and visual mnemonics which have been proven to
help students enhance their visual spatial ability [20]. Perhaps in future,
researchers should study how each gender processes visual information as this
might show a better picture and understanding why male outperforms female in
visual spatial tasks.
The second finding however shows no significant difference between
gender across different programmes. This might be due to students being
freshmen and had just graduated from their secondary education, where they
were trained basically in the same curricular. The score possibly might be
different if students were to test their ability two years after studying in their
university level programme. This is because each programme has its own
specific curricular which might enhance different parts of student’s ability. Prior
to this, longitudinal study should be carried out to explore whether student’s
visual ability increases over a period of time across programmes.
Educators should consider alternative teaching techniques that could
help and guide students in improving their visualization ability or imagery in order
for them to succeed in their learning. Most researchers believes that designing a
proper instruction with appropriate visualization tools and approach would give
opportunities for students to understand science subject much better in their own
way.

6.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to extend our thanks to all first-year students (April-
October 2007) who have participated in the study. Special thanks to our faculty
for allowing us to conduct and present the findings.

REFERENCES

[1] Clements, D. H., & Battista, M. T. (1992). Geometry and spatial


reasoning. In D. A. Grouws (ed). Handbook of Research on
Mathematics Teaching and Learning (420-464). New York:
MacMillan.
[2] Olkun, S. (2003). Making connections: Improving spatial abilities
with engineering drawing activities. International Journal of
Mathematics Teaching and Learning. (Retrieved October, 20, 2004),
from: http://www.ex.ac.uk/cimt/ijmtl/ijabout.htm
[3] Moore, J. W. (2005). Imagination. Journal of Chemical Education,
82(5), 663.[4] Grabow, R. (2003). The relationship of visual spatial ability
to performance in solving stoichiometric problems in a high school
chemistry class. Unpublished Master thesis, California State University,
Fallerton.
[5] Coleman, S. L., & Gotch, A. J. (1998). Spatial perception skills of

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KE ARAH PENINGKATAN KUALITI MODAL INSAN

chemistry students. Journal of Chemical Education, 75( 2), 206.


[6] Furio, C., & Catalayud, M. L. (1996). Difficulties with the geometry and
polarity of molecules: Beyond misconception. Journal of Chemical
Education, 73(1), 36. Proquest Database.
[7] Barke, H. D. (1993). Chemical education and spatial ability. Journal
of Chemical Education, 70(12), 968-971.
[9] Shubber, K. E., & Al-Mudaifa, H. S. (1991). Understanding the
diagramatic representation of rotation in diagrams of 3-D
structures. Research in Science and Technological Education, 9(1),
87.
[10] Bodner, G. M., Greenbowe, T. J., & Robinson, W.R. (1980). The
introduction of crystallographic concept using lap-dissolve slide
techniques. Journal of Chemical Education, 57(8), 555-556.
[11] Keig, P. F., & Rubba, P. A. (1993). Translation of representations
of the structure of matter and its relationship to reasoning, gender,
spatial reasoning and specific prior knowledge. Journal of
Research in Science Teaching, 30(8), 883-903.
[12] Contreras, M.J., Rubio, V.J., Pena, D., Colom, R. & Santacreu, J. (2007).
Sex differences in dynbamic spatial ability: The unsolved question of
performance factors. Memory and Cognition. 35(2),297-303.
[13] Flaherty, M. (2005). Gender differences in mental rotation ability in
three cultures: Ireland, Ecuador and Japan. Psychlogia. 48(1), 31-
38.
[14] Collins D.W. & Kimura D. (1997). A large sex difference on a two
dimensional mental rotation task. Behavioural Neuroscience, 111,
845-849.
[15] Paivio, A. & Clark, J.M. (1991). Static versus dynamic imagery. In
C. Cornoldi & M. A. McDaniels (Eds.), Imagery and cognition (pp.
221-245). New York: Springer-Verlag.
[16] Maccoby E.E. & Jacklin, C.N. (1974). The psychology of sex
differences. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
[17] Fennema, E. & Sherman, J. (1977). Sex related differences in
mathematics achievement, spatial visualization and affective factors.
American Educational Research Journal, 14, 51-71.
[18] Parsons, J.E., Adler, T.F. & Kaczala, C.M. (1982). Socialization of
achievement attitudes and beliefs:Parenthal influences. Child
Development, 53,310-321.
[19] Sorby, S.A. (1999). Developing 3-D spatial visualization skills.
Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 63(2), 21-32.
[20] Sharipah Ruzaina S. A. & Siow H. L. (2006). The Effect of iALA on
Visual Ability among Electrical Engineering Students at UiTM Shah
Alam. Paper presented at National Conference on Science
Technology and Social Science 2006, 30-31 May 2006, Kuantan

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APPENDIX

SAMPLE OF QUESTIONS FROM PURDUE VISUALIZATION AND ROTATION


TEST

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PEMBELAJARAN KOLABORATIF: BEKERJA SEBAGAI “SATU


KUMPULAN” ATAU “BEKERJA DALAM KUMPULAN”?

WAN ZAH WAN ALI ABSTRAK - Pembelajaran kolaboratif adalah


AHMAD FAUZI MOHD.AYUB satu proses yang menggalakkan pelajar
ROSNAINI MAHMUD melibatkan diri dalam aktiviti yang diadakan
MOKHTAR HJ.NAWAWI
secara langsung atau secara berurutan
Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan
dengan beberapa orang rakan pelajar yang
Universiti Putra Malaysia lain. Pembelajaran ini menekankan kepada
konsep bahawa “setiap pelajar belajar dari
Rusli Abdullah pelajar yang lain.” Justeru, ia menggalakkan
Fakulti Sains Komputer dan pelajar untuk menyumbang idea dan buah
Teknologi Maklumat fikiran serta menghargai idea dan buah fikiran
Universiti Putra Malaysia orang lain. Dasar pembelajaran kolaboratif ini
membenarkan pelajar memegang peranan
wanzah@educ.upm.edu.my sebagai “knowledge provider” dimana
pengetahuan itu dapat dikongsi dengan rakan
dan pengajar agar sesuatu pengetahuan itu
dapat difahami dari perspektif yang lebih luas
dan mendalam. Disamping itu, pendekatan ini
digunakan untuk menyelesaikan masalah
dalam konteks sebenar atau konteks yang
kompleks. Satu faktor yang dominan bagi
kejayaan sesuatu pembelajaran kolaboratif
ialah interaksi sosial antara pelajar dalam
kumpulan. Interaksi sosial yang berkesan
akan mewujudkan struktur afektif yang
bercirikan hubungan sosial, kesepaduan
sosial dan rasa tanggungjawab terhadap
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. komuniti. Ketiga-tiga ciri ini merupakan atribut
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. ruang sosial yang membenarkan komunikasi
Prosiding Persidangan Pengajaran berlaku secara terbuka serta memanfaatkan
dan Pembelajaran di Peringkat aktiviti kolaboratif dan perkongsian maklumat
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi penting. Kajian ini bertujuan meninjau
(CTLHE07), The Palace of Golden
Horses, Seri Kembangan,
persepsi pelajar kursus Teknologi Pendidikan
Selangor 12-14 Disember 2007 di Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan, Universiti
Putra Malaysia terhadap interaksi sosial
dalam suasana pembelajaran kolaboratif.

Kata kunci: Pembelajaran kolaboratif,


interaksi sosial, persekitaran
pembelajaran

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1.0 PENGENALAN

Pembelajaran kolaboratif telah dikenal pasti sebagai satu persekitaran


pembelajaran yang berupaya meningkatkan pembelajaran pelajar (Jonhson &
Johnson, 1999). Dalam pembelajaran kolaboratif, pelajar dalam satu kumpulan
kecil bekerja bersama-sama bagi menyelesaikan satu masalah tertentu
(Khandaker, Soh, & Jiang, 2006). Mereka dikehendaki melibatkan diri secara
langsung dan berurutan - berinteraksi secara bersemuka dan bergaul sesama
ahli kumpulan bagi mencapai satu matlamat tertentu yang dipersetujui bersama
(Yacine & Tahar, 2007). Mereka juga perlu berusaha untuk menyumbang idea
dan buah fikiran serta menghargai idea dan buah fikiran orang lain. Dalam
konteks pembelajaran kolaboratif, pelajar memegang peranan sebagai
“knowledge provider” dimana pengetahuan itu dapat dikongsi dengan rakan dan
pengajar agar sesuatu pengetahuan itu dapat difahami dari perpektif yang lebih
luas dan mendalam (Gerlanch, 1994). Pembelajaran cara ini menurut Jonhson
dan Johnson (1999), dapat menyuburkan pemikiran kreatif berikutan daripada
aktiviti melahirkan idea baru, strategi dan penyelesaian masalah yang lebih
kerap berbanding kerja bersendirian.

Walaupun pembelajaran kolaboratif dipuji kerana kelebihannya, namun


kejayaan sesuatu pembelajaran bergantung kepada sejauhmana kumpulan kecil
pelajar itu berfungsi dengan baik dan berkesan (Salomon & Globerson, 1989).
Berdasarkan kajian Solomon (1992), pelbagai masalah telah dikesan berlaku
dalam kumpulan kecil yang menjejaskan keberkesanan pembelajaran jenis ini
seperti ahli kumpulan langsung tidak melaksanakan tugas yang diberikan kepada
kumpulan mereka (Kerr,1983), ahli kumpulan tidak menjalankan tugas yang telah
diagihkan oleh kumpulan (Kerr & Bruun,1983), berpuak-puak dalam kumpulan
(Dembo & McAuliffe,1987) dan pembahagian tugasan antara ahli kumpulan yang
rigid. Kesemua masalah ini menyebabkan tidak banyak pembelajaran secara
kolaboratif berlaku (Salomon & Globerson,1987) dan puncanya dikaitkan dengan
kualiti interaksi sosial yang wujud dalam kumpulan tersebut.

Menurut Staton, et al (2001) dan Dillenbourg (1999), interaksi sosial


yang positif bersama rakan adalah asas kepada pencapaian pembelajaran
berkesan dalam pembelajaran kolaboratif. Pandangan ini seiring dengan
pandangan Vygotsky (1978) yang menegaskan bahawa pengetahuan dapat
dibina dalam satu komuniti pelajar andainya wujud interaksi sosial yang mampan
antara ahli kumpulan. Justeru, adalah penting kesan interaksi sosial diberi
perhatian dalam menentukan keberkesanan aktiviti kolaboratif daripada hanya
menitikberatkan hasil pembelajaran pelajar yang terlibat (Wood & O’Malley,
1996). Ini kerana dalam aktiviti pembelajaran tersebut, tiga atau lima orang
pelajar yang mengambil bahagian dalam mempelajari sesuatu perkara khusus
dan secara bersepadu ini diletakkan dalam konteks interaksi sosial yang
sebenar.

Dalam meneliti interaksi sosial ini, Kreijns, Kirchner, Jochems dan


Buuren (2007), menegaskan adalah penting perhatian ditumpukan ke arah
mengkaji interaksi sosial yang berteraskan proses sosio-emosi atau sosial-

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psikologi. Menurut para penyelidik ini, setakat ini para penyelidik lebih
menumpukan perhatian ke arah membina persekitaran interaksi sosial dalam
pembelajaran kolaboratif yang berteraskan proses kognitif. Keadaan ini berlaku
disebabkan para penyelidik tersebut berpandangan bahawa dalam pembelajaran
kolaboratif, apa yang perlu dilakukan oleh pelajar hanyalah “belajar” (apa yang
menjadi objektif pembelajaran) dan apa sahaja yang tidak berkaitan dengannya
perlu diketepikan. Sedangkan, semasa proses pembelajaran, pelajar turut
dipengaruhi oleh suasana atau persekitaran dalam pembelajaran kolaboratif
tersebut. Andainya persekitaran itu memupuk perasaan setia kawan, maka
kesannya kepada pembelajaran adalah berlainan berbanding persekitaran yang
sebaliknya. Dengan kata lain, dalam pembelajaran kolaboratif, pelajar bukan
hanya mempelajari isi pelajaran tetapi juga makna persahabatan,
tanggungjawab, kerjasama, hormat-menghormati, saling menyokong,
kesepakatan dan sebagainya.

Justeru adalah penting persekitaran sedemikian dipupuk demi


memastikan pembelajaran berjaya dicapai. Dalam konteks penulisan ini,
persekitaran tersebut digelarkan sebagai sosiabiliti, meminjam istilah yang
digunakan oleh Kreijns, Kirchner, Jochems dan Buuren (2007). Ia didefinisikan
sebagai sejauhmana persekitaran pembelajaran kolaboratif ditanggap berupaya
membantu pembinaan ruang sosial yang baik yakni satu ruang yang bercirikan
hubungan kerja yang afektif, kesepakatan yang kukuh, saling mempercayai,
saling menghormati, rasa kepunyaan, kepuasan dan perasaan kekitaan yang
kukuh. Seterusnya, sosiabiliti diandaikan mempengaruhi interaksi sosial.
Semakin meningkat sosiabiliti, maka lebih banyak interaksi sosial berlaku dan
sekali gus mewujudkan ruang sosial yang baik.

Berdasarkan perbincangan di atas, satu kajian telah dijalankan bagi


mengenalpasti sejauhmana wujudnya sosiabiliti dan ruang sosial menurut
pandangan pelajar yang mengalami persekitaran pembelajaran kolaboratif dalam
kursus Teknologi Pendidikan di Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan, Universiti Putra
Malaysia. Secara khusus, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mencapai objektif berikut.

1. Mengenal pasti persepsi pelajar terhadap sosiabiliti dan ruang sosial.


2. Mengenal pasti tahap sosiabiliti.
3. Mengenal pasti hubungan antara sosibiliti dengan ruang positif
4. Mengenal pasti hubungan antara sosibiliti dengan ruang negatif.

2.0 METODOLOGI KAJIAN

Kajian yang dijalankan ini merupakan kajian kuantitatif yang dijalankan


secara tinjauan. Data-data yang diperlukan dalam kajian ini dikumpulkan melalui
borang soal selidik.

2.1 Sampel Kajian

Sampel kajian adalah terdiri daripada 320 pelajar di Fakulti


Pengajian Pendidikan, Universiti Putra Malaysia yang sedang mengikuti

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kursus Teknologi Pendidikan. Kursus ini merupakan kursus teras


program bacelor pendidikan yang bertujuan menyediakan pelajar
dengan pengetahuan dan kemahiran melaksanakan pengajaran yang
berteraskan prinsip teknologi pendidikan. Bagi mencapai tujuan ini, satu
projek utama telah digariskan untuk dilaksanakan oleh pelajar secara
berkumpulan. Dalam projek ini, pelajar perlu merancang dan
melaksanakan pengajaran yang mengintegrasikan pelbagai media
pengajaran secara berkumpulan. Mereka dikehendaki menyediakan
senerio pengajaran yang menjelaskan siapakah pelajar sasaran dan
masalah yang mereka hadapi, pelan pengajaran yang lengkap serta
sekurang-kurangnya tiga jenis media yang akan digunakan dalam
pengajaran tersebut. Tiga jenis media tersebut ialah pakej pengajaran
berasaskan komputer, transparensi dan carta atau buku skrap. Setelah
itu, mereka perlu melaksanakan pengajaran berdasarkan perancangan
yang telah dibuat dalam kelas. Semasa persembahan pengajaran,
ketiga-tiga ahli diwajibkan melibatkan diri. Satu tarikh ditetapkan bagi
penghantaran dan persembahan tugasan ini.

Markah bagi tugasan ini adalah 60% daripada jumlah markah


penuh. Pelajar dimaklumkan dari awal lagi bahawa markah yang
diberikan adalah sama bagi semua ahli kumpulan kecil. Tindakan ini
dilakukan supaya pelajar sedar bahawa baik atau buruknya markah yang
akan mereka perolehi bergantung kepada usaha yang dicurahkan oleh
setiap ahli dalam kumpulan.

Dari segi pelaksanaannya, setiap pelajar dibenarkan membentuk


kumpulan kecil yang terdiri daripada maksimum 3 orang rakan yang
dipilih oleh mereka sendiri. Setiap kumpulan perlu berbincang dalam
kumpulan bagi menghasilkan tugasan berdasarkan garispanduan yang
disediakan oleh pensyarah. Disamping itu, pelajar juga diberi bimbingan
dan tunjuk ajar semasa kuliah dan sesi amali.

Berdasarkan analisis data, didapati 320 orang pelajar tersebut


adalah dari 6 program pengajian telah ditawarkan oleh Fakulti Pengajian
Pendidikan iaitu Bacelor Pendidikan (Teknologi Maklumat), Bacelor
Pendidikan (PBMP), Bacelor Pendidikan (TESL), Bacelor Pendidikan
(Sains Rumah Tangga), Bacelor Pendidikan (Pendidikan Jasmani) dan
Bacelor Sains dengan Pendidikan pengkhususan dalam Matematik,
Fizik, Biologi dan Kimia. Agihan pelajar adalah seperti dalam Jadual 1.

Jadual 1 : Agihan pelajar mengikut Program Pengajian

No Program Pengajian Bilangan Peratus

1 Bacelor Pendidikan (Teknologi Maklumat) 15 4.7


2 Bacelor Pendidikan (PBMP) 100 31.3
3 Bacelor Pendidikan (TESL) 82 25.6
4 Bacelor Pendidikan (Sains Rumah 1 0.3

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Tangga)
5 Bacelor Pendidikan (Pendidikan Jasmani) 42 13.1
6 Bacelor Sains dengan Pendidikan 80 25
pengkhususan Fizik, Kimia, Biologi dan
Matematik

3.0 INSTRUMEN KAJIAN

Instrumen kajian yang digunakan dalam kajian ini diubahsuai daripada


Kreijns, Kirchner, Jochems dan Buuren (2007). Ia merupakan satu set soal
selidik yang terdiri daripada 4 bahagian. Walau bagaimanapun hanya 2
bahagian yang relevan untuk dibincangan di sini. Penerangan bagi setiap
bahagian ini adalah seperti berikut.

(a) Bahagian A merupakan bahagian untuk mendapatkan maklumat


peribadi sampel kajian. Maklumat peribadi yang dikumpul terdiri
daripada program pengajian, jantina, semester pengajian, umur,
bangsa dan kemasukan ke peringkat ijazah.

(b) Bahagian B pula bertujuan mengukur interaksi sosial pelajar


semasa melaksanakan projek utama kursus secara
berkumpulan. Dalam bahagian ini, tiga aspek diukur iaitu skala
sosialibiliti (socialibility scale) sebanyak 8 item, skala ruang
sosial bagi mengukur kelakuan positif kumpulan (positive group
behaviour) sebanyak 11 item dan skala ruang social bagi
mengukur kelakuan negatif kumpulan (negative group behaviour)
sebanyak 10 item.

Respon yang diberi oleh pelajar ditandakan mengunakan skala


likert 5 iaitu sangat tidak setuju (STS), tidak setuju (TS), kurang
setuju (KS), setuju (S) dan sangat setuju (SS).

Bagi memastikan instrumen kajian sesuai digunakan, dua kajian


rintis telah dijalankan. Kajian pertama melibatkan 39 pelajar,
manakala kajian rintis kedua melibatkan 40 orang pelajar yang
sedang mengikuti kursus yang sama. Berdasarkan kajian rintis
kedua, nilai pekali Alpha Cronbach bagi setiap dimensi dalam
bahagian B adalah seperti dalam Jadual 2.

Jadual 2 : Pekali Aplha Cronbach bagi Bahagian B

Dimensi Pekali Alpha Cronbach

Skala Sosiabiliti 0.852


Skala ruang sosial bagi
mengukur kelakuan positif 0.837
kumpulan
Skala ruang sosial bagi

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mengukur kelakuan negatif 0.958


kumpulan

3.2 ANALISIS DATA

Data yang dikumpulkan dikodkan, direkodkan dan dianalisis


mengunakan Statistical Package For Science Sosial (SPSS). Data
dianalisis secara deskriptif yang melibatkan min dan sisihan piawai.
Disamping itu, ujian korelasi turut dijalankan.

4.0 DAPATAN KAJIAN

Dalam kajian ini, interaksi sosial diukur berdasarkan 3 dimensi iaitu


sosiabiliti, ruang sosial bagi kelakuan positif kumpulan dan ruang sosial bagi
kelakuan negatif kumpulan. Berikut dipaparkan dapatan kajian ini.

4.1 SKALA SOSIABILITI

Dalam kajian ini, skala sosiabiliti merujuk kepada sejauhmana


pelajar-pelajar ini bekerja sebagai satu kumpulan semasa menyiapkan
tugasan yang disediakan. Ini merujuk kepada kemampuan pelajar
tersebut menyesuaikan diri dengan ahli-ahli lain dalam kumpulan
tersebut. Jadual 3 menunjukkan nilai min dan sisihan piawai yang
diperolehi. Min keseluruhan bagi skala sosiabiliti adalah 4.26 dengan
kesemua item mencapai min melebih 3.5. Ini menunjukkan bahawa
pelajar-pelajar ini boleh bekerjasama dalam satu pasukan dan tahap
sosiabiliti bagi responden kajian ini juga adalah tinggi. Penentuan tahap
ini berdasarkan peraturan umum oleh Nugent, Sieppert and Hudsan
(2001) yang menyatakan skor-skor ini boleh digunakan untuk
menggambarkan satu magnitud yang bersifat kontinium. Skor yang tinggi
menunjukkan magnitud yang besar, manakala skor yang rendah
menunjukkan magnitud yang kecil. Dalam kajian ini, skor 3.33 hingga 5
menunjukkan tahap sosiobiliti yang tinggi, manakala skor 1.67 hingga
3.32 menunjukkan tahap yang sederhana.

Jadual 3 juga menunjukkan bahawa persetujuan tertinggi skala


sosiabiliti terletak pada persekitaran yang membolehkan pembinaan
hubungan akrab (min = 4.31, SD = 0.646) serta perbualan spontan
secara tidak formal (min = 4.31, SD = 584). Ini bermakna, dua aspek ini
boleh dianggap lebih penting di mata responden kajian dalam
mewujudkan sosiabiliti berbanding aspek lain. Manakala, rasa selesa
dengan persekitaran kerja berkumpulan dikira aspek yang paling kurang
menyumbang kepada mewujudkan sosiabiliti kerana nilai min yang
dicapai adalah yang terendah (min = 4.15, SD = 0.71).

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Jadual 3 : Analisa Terhadap Skala Sosialibiliti

ITEM STS TS KS S SS Min SP

Kerja berkumpulan
memudahkan saya 1 5 21 174 119 4.27 0.677
berkomunikasi (0.3%) (1.6%) (6.6%) (54.4%) (37.2%)
dengan ahli
kumpulan saya.

Saya tidak berasa


keseorangan 4 4 23 161 128 4.27 0.752
bekerja dalam (1.3%) (1.3%) (7.2%) (50.3%) (40%)
kumpulan.

Kerja berkumpulan
membolehkan 0 3 30 181 105 4.22 0.644
saya mendapat (0.9%) (9.4%) (56.6%) (32.8%)
pandangan yang
positif mengenai
ahli kumpulan.

Kerja berkumpulan
membenarkan 0 1 17 183 119 4.31 0.584
perbualan spontan (0.3%) (5.3%) (57.2%) (37.2%)
secara tidak
formal.

Kerja berkumpulan
membolehkan 0 5 28 174 113 4.23 0.671
kami membentuk (1.6%) (8.8%) (54.4%) (35.3%)
pasukan
berprestasi
cemerlang.

Kerja berkumpulan
membolehkan 0 4 28 169 118 4.26 0.66
saya membentuk (1.3%) (8.8%) (52.8%) (36.9%)
hubungan kerja
yang baik dengan
ahli kumpulan.

Saya selesa
dengan 2 5 33 183 97 4.15 0.71
persekitaran kerja (0.6%) (1.6%) (10.3%) (57.2%) (30.3%)
berkumpulan.

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Persekitaran kerja
berkumpulan 1 2 20 169 127 4.31 0.646
membolehkan (0.3%) (0.6%) (6.3%) (52.8%) (39.7%)
saya mewujudkan
hubungan yang
lebih akrab dengan
ahli-ahli dalam
kumpulan saya.

Purata Min = 4.26, Putara Sisihan Piawai = 0.54

4.2 RUANG SOSIAL POSITIF

Sosiabiliti kumpulan dicorakkan oleh ruang sosial yang wujud


dalam sesuatu kumpulan kolaboratif. Terdapat dua jenis ruang sosial;
pertama, ruang sosial yang positif dan kedua, ruang sosial negatif.
Ruang sosial positif merujuk kepada sejauhmana setiap ahli kumpulan
menunjukkan sikap yang positif apabila menerima dan memberi kritikan,
sentiasa bersefahaman dalam perhubungan dan menyempurnakan
tugasan, berkongsi maklumat dan berkomunikasi dalam kumpulan.
Kajian ini mendapati min keseluruhan bagi 11 item yang terdapat dalam
ruang positif adalah 4.19 dengan min terendah adalah berkaitan dengan
perkongsian maklumat peribadi (min = 3.78, SD = 0.883). Tiga puluh
empat perpuluhan satu peratus (34.1%) pelajar tidak berminat untuk
berkongsi maklumat peribadi dengan ahli kumpulan. Bagaimanapun,
mereka ingin terus mengekalkan hubungan dengan ahli kumpulan
(min=4.34, SD=0.55). Secara keseluruhannya pelajar bersetuju bahawa
kumpulan mereka menunjukkan kelakukan yang positif.

Jadual 4 : Analisa Terhadap Ruang Sosial Positif

ITEM STS TS KS S SS Min P

Ahli kumpulan
saya bebas
mengkritik idea,
kenyataan 20 179 115
0 6 (1.9%) 4.26 0.656
ataupun (6.3%) (55.9%) (35.9%)
pendapat ahli
kumpulan.

Ahli kumpulan
saya mencapai
persefahaman
bagaimana kami 2 23 184 105
6 (1.9%) 4.2 0.702
perlu berfungsi (0.6%) (7.2%) (57.5%) (32.8%)
melaksanakan
tugasan.

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Ahli kumpulan
saya
mempastikan
kami sentiasa
2 27 182 107
saling 2 (0.6%) 4.22 0.673
(0.6%) (8.4%) (56.9%) (33.4%)
berhubungan
antara satu
sama lain.

Setiap ahli
kumpulan saya
bekerja kuat
1 37 162 116
untuk 4 (1.3%) 4.21 0.716
(0.3%) (11.6%) (50.6%) (36.3%)
menyempurnaka
n tugasan.

Saya
mengekalkan
hubungan
13 186 121
dengan ahli 0 0 4.34 0.553
(4.1%) (58.1%) (37.8%)
dalam kumpulan
saya.

Setiap ahli
kumpulan saya
berkongsi
6 14 89 146 65
maklumat 3.78 0.883
(1.9%) (4.4%) (27.8%) (45.6%) (20.3%)
peribadi masing-
masing.

Perbincangan
dalam kumpulan
dilakukan secara 1 17 193 106
3 (0.9%) 4.25 0.623
terbuka dan (0.3%) (5.3%) (60.3%) (33.1%)
'hidup'.

Semua ahli
kumpulan
berusaha untuk
1 24 201 93
berhubung 1 (0.3%) 4.2 0.606
(0.3%) (7.5%) (62.8%) (29.1%)
antara satu
sama lain.

Ahli kumpulan
tidak teragak-
agak untuk 1 16 185 115 4.29
2 (0.6%) 0.618
memulakan (0.3%) (5%) (57.8%) (35.9%)
komunikasi.

Saya berasa
dihargai oleh ahli 1 25 183 105 4.2
kumpulan saya. 6 (1.9%) 0.685
(0.3%) (7.8%) (57.2%) (32.8%)

Ahli kumpulan 2 33 176 100


6 (1.9%) 4.15 0.728
sentiasa (0.6%) (10.3%) (55%) (31.3%)

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bertanya
perkembangan
semasa tugasan
yang sedang
dibuat.

Purata Min = 4.19, Purata Sisihan Piawai = 0.52

4.3 RUANG SOSIAL NEGATIF

Bagi ruang sosial negatif, pelajar diminta memberi pandangan


mereka mengenai kelakuan negatif yang terdapat dalam kalangan ahli
kumpulan. Min keseluruhan bagi item ruang sosial negatif kumpulan
adalah 3.42 dan min ini lebih rendah daripada min keseluruhan bagi
ruang sosial positif. Item yang mempunyai nilai min terendah adalah
item yang berkaitan dengan ahli kumpulan berasa diserang secara
peribadi apabila idea, pernyataan dan pandangan mereka dikritik (min =
3.03) dimana 23.7% bersetuju dengan pernyataan tersebut. Dapatan
juga menunjukkan bahawa masih lagi terdapat masalah berhubung
dengan pengagihan tugas (min = 3.39) dengan 26.3% merasakan
pengagihan tugas tidak dilakukan secara adil dan saksama. Disamping
itu, terdapat juga ahli kumpulan tidak bersefahaman dan bercanggah
pendapat antara satu sama lain (min = 3.42; 22.5% bersetuju). Jadual 5
menunjukkan hasil analisis yang sepenuhnya.

Jadual 5 : Analisa Terhadap Ruang Sosial Negatif

ITEM SS S KS TS STS Min SP

Ahli kumpulan
berasa
diserang
secara
peribadi
33 75
apabila idea, 106 59 45
(10.3%) (23.4%) 3.03 1.186
pernyataan (33.1%) (18.4%) (14.1%)
dan
pandangan
mereka
dikritik.

Ahli kumpulan
berasa syak
82 72
wasangka 17 55 94
(25.6%) (22.5%) 3.43 1.167
antara satu (5.3%) (17.2%) (29.4%)
sama lain.

Ahli kumpulan
semakin tidak 78 89
22 48 81
menyukai (24.4%) (27.8%) 3.52 1.237
(6.9%) (15 %) (25.3%)
antara satu
sama lain.

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Ahli kumpulan
menjadi
penghalang
78 90
kepada 23 52 77
(24.4%) (28.1%) 3.5 1.254
kemajuan (7.2%) (16.3%) (24.1%)
pelaksanaan
tugasan.

Ahli kumpulan
tidak
bertindak 23 56 77 83 81
secara wajar. (7.2%) (17.5%) (24.1%) (25.9%) (25.3%) 3.45 1.241

Ahli kumpulan
tidak
bersefahaman
dan 77 74
21 51 95
bercanggah (24.1%) (23.1%) 3.42 1.196
(6.6%) (15.9%) (29.7%)
pendapat
antara satu
sama lain.

Kumpulan
saya 22 49 85 80 84 1.224
menghadapi (6.9%) (15.3%) (26.6%) (25%) (26.3%) 3.48
konflik.
Ahli kumpulan
saling
mengata
24 48 87 76 83
(gosip) antara 3.46 1.237
(7.5%) (15%) (27.2%) (23.8%) (25.9%)
satu sama
lain.

Ahli kumpulan
tidak
memandang 25 49 82 80 84
3.47 1.246
serius ahli (7.8%) (15.3%) (25.6%) (25%) (26.3%)
sekumpulan.

Kumpulan
saya
menghadapi
masalah 22 62 78 86 72
3.39 1.221
pengagihan (6.9%) (19.4%) (24.4%) (26.9%) (22.5%)
tugas sesama
ahli.

Purata Min = 3.42, Purata Sisihan Piawai = 1.08

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4.4 HUBUNGAN ANTARA SOSIABILITI DENGAN RUANG SOSIAL


POSITIF DAN NEGATIF

Walaupun telah ditunjukkan bahawa tahap sosiabiliti yang tinggi wujud


dalam pembelajaran kolaboratif pelajar yang dikaji, namun adalah penting untuk
meneliti sama ada ruang sosial benar-benar menyumbang ke arah
pembentukkan sosiabiliti ini. Justeru ujian korelasi telah dilakukan. Jadual 6
menunjukkan hasil ujian ini.

Jadual 6: Hubungan antara sosiabiliti dengan ruang sosial positif dan


negatif

Pembolehubah Korelasi Paras Keertian

Ruang sosial positif 0.826** 0.01


Ruang sosial negatif 0.321** 0.01

Jadual 6 di atas menunjukkan terdapat korelasi pada tahap signifikan


antara sosiabiliti pelajar dengan ruang sosial positif [r = 0.826; p<0.01] dan ruang
sosial negatif [0.321; p<0.01]. Jika dapatan ini ditafsirkan berdasarkan
pandangan Cohen (1988), ia bermakna terdapat hubungan yang kuat antara
sosiabiliti dengan ruang sosial positif dan hubungan yang sederhana antara
sosiabiliti dengan ruang sosial negatif.

5.0 PERBINCANGAN

Kajian deskriptif ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti sejauhmana


kewujudan sosiabiliti dan ruang sosial menurut pandangan pelajar yang
melaksanakan satu projek utama kursus Teknologi Pendidikan yang dijalankan
secara kolaboratif. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian, jelas menunjukkan min bagi
kesemua aspek sosiabiliti adalah tinggi dan tahap sosiabiliti pun juga tinggi. Ini
menunjukkan pelajar berupaya berinteraksi sesama rakan sekumpulan serta
dapat bekerjasama sebagai satu pasukan. Apa yang menarik lagi, terdapat dua
elemen yang menonjol dalam sosiabiliti pelajar iaitu interaksi sosial yang
mewujudkan hubungan akrab dan perbualan secara spontan dan tidak formal.
Penonjolan elemen ini mengatasi keselesaan persekitaran kerja berkumpulan.
Justeru, mungkin dapat dirumuskan di sini bahawa dalam pembinaan sosiabiliti,
hubungan yang akrab dan terbuka adalah lebih penting daripada persekitaran
yang selesa.

Menurut Kreijns, Kirchner, Jochems dan Buuren (2007), atribut bagi


sesuatu sosiabiliti terletak pada ruang sosial yang wujud dalam sesuatu
persekitaran pembelajaran kolaboratif sama ada positif atau negatif. Ruang
sosial positif menggambarkan tanggapan pelajar terhadap kelakuan setiap ahli
kumpulan menyumbang ke arah pembinaan tahap sosiabiliti yang tinggi. Dalam
ruang sosial ini, mereka berupaya berkomunikasi, berkongsi maklumat,
menerima dan memberi kritikan dan sentiasa bersahaman sesama sendiri.
Berdasarkan dapatan kajian menunjukkan ruang positif ini wujud dalam kursus
Teknologi Pendidikan. Bagaimanapun, pelajar masih agak ragu untuk berkongsi

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hal-hal peribadi dengan rakan sekumpulan. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan rakan
sekumpulan masih belum dianggap teman rapat yang boleh dibawa berkongsi
cerita peribadi. Namun, batasan ini tidak menghalang mereka untuk terus
mengekalkan persahabatan yang telah wujud.

Dari segi ruang sosial yang negatif pula, kewujudannya dilihat kurang
menonjol berbanding ruang sosial positif. Namun, beberapa elemen kelakuan
negatif ahli kumpulan yang agak ketara telah ditemui. Ia berkaitan dengan ahli
kumpulan berasa diserang secara peribadi apabila idea, pernyataan dan
pandangan mereka dikritik, pengagihan tugas yang tidak adil dan saksama serta
percanggahan pendapat antara ahli kumpulan. Dapatan ini didapati sepadan
dengan kajian Saloman (1992) yang mendapati masalah sedemikian seringkali
wujud dan menggangu keberkesanan pembelajaran kolaboratif.

Kajian ini juga mendapati hubungan yang kuat antara sosiabiliti dengan
ruang sosial positif. Dapatan ini menyokong dakwaan Kreijns, Kirchner,Jochems
dan Buuren (2007) bahawa ruang sosial positif dapat menentukan tahap
sosiabiliti atau interaksi sosial dalam kalangan pelajar. Keputusan ini pastinya
menunjukkan pelajar kursus Teknologi Pendidikan telah berjaya memikul tugas
diberikan bersama-sama sehingga ke akhir semester. Bagaimanapun, hubungan
yang sederhana antara sosiabiliti dengan ruang sosial negatif mengundang
perhatian agar satu tindakan dilakukan. Kewujudan keadaan ini menunjukkan
masih ada kekurangan dalam interaksi sosial pelajar kursus ini.

Dapatan ini bukanlah sesuatu di luar jangkaan memandangkan tidak ada


opsyen lain yang disediakan untuk membolehkan pelajar berhubung antara satu
sama lain dengan lebih selesa, kerap dan pada bila-bila masa yang mereka
perlukan. Justeru, keadaan yang sedia ada membataskan pelajar untuk
memupuk persafahaman yang mendalam terutama bagi pelajar yang tinggal jauh
dan berasingan dengan ahli kumpulan. Pada pandangan penyelidik, masalah ini
bukan sahaja membuatkan ikatan kerjasama antara mereka menjadi longgar
tetapi turut memberi kesan terhadap pencapaian dalam kursus ini.
Pembangunan pengetahuan yang diharapkan juga didapati agak begitu
perlahan.

Bagi mengatasinya, adalah wajar pembelajaran kolaboratif berasaskan


web dan sistem rangkaian yang dikenali sebagai computer-supported
collaborative learning (CSCL) diberi perhatian dan diadaptasikan. Pendekatan
yang semakin popular ini menyediakan persekitaran untuk pelajar berinteraksi
melalui pesanan teks dan visual tanpa perlu berdepan mata dalam
melaksanakan tugasan yang memerlukan kemahiran berfikir di peringkat tinggi.
Kajian lepas menunjukkan konteks yang sebegini membuka ruang untuk pelajar
menyatakan idea dengan lebih bebas khususnya bagi pelajar yang pendiam atau
pemalu. Dengan yang demikian, ia menggalakkan lebih banyak pertumbuhan
pengetahuan dibina dan dicerna daripada interaksi yang aktif ini. Pada masa
yang sama, pengajar dapat mengetahui apakah rupa interaksi yang terjalin
antara pelajar, sejauhmana pembangunan pengetahuan telah terbina dan
sejauhmana CSCL menyumbang ke arah pencapaian mereka.

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Bagaimanapun dalam pelaksanaan sistem ini, aspek ruang sosial dan


sosiabiliti haruslah terus diberi perhatian agar pembelajaran yang diharapkan
dapat dicapai dengan cemerlang.

KESIMPULAN

Berbalik kepada persoalan sama ada pelajar dalam kursus ini “bekerja sebagai
satu kumpulan” atau “bekerja dalam kumpulan”, dapatan kajian ini jelas
menunjukkan pelajar lebih cenderung untuk bekerja sebagai satu kumpulan.
Bagaimanapun, masih ada sudut-sudut yang perlu dibaiki agar tahap sosiabiliti
dapat dipertingkatkan lagi. Ruang sosial negatif pula perlu dikurangkan hingga
sekecil-kecilnya. Dalam mencari penyelesaian masalah ini, CSCL dilihat sebagai
satu alternatif.

RUJUKAN

[1] Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power for The Behavioural Sciences.


Hillsdalle, HJ: Erlbaum.

[2] Dembo, M.H., & McAuliffe, T.J. (1987). Effects of perceived ability and
grade status on social interaction and influence in cooperative groups.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 415-423

[3] Dillenbourg, P. (Ed.) (1999). Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and


Computational Approaches. Oxford, England: Pergamon, Elsevier Science
Ltd

[4] Gerlach, J.M. (1994). Is this Collaboration? In Bosworth, K dan Hamilton,


S.J. (Eds). Collaboration Learning: Underlying Process and Effective
Technique, New Directions For Teaching and Learning No.59.

[5] Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (1999). Cooperation and Competition: Theory
and Research. Edina MN: Interaction Book Company.

[6] Khandaker, N., Soh, L.K, Jiang, H. (2006). Student learning and team
formation in a structured CSCL enviroment. Riichiro, M, Pirrre, D, Zhiting
Zhu (Ed) in Learning Effectiveness Utilization of Technologies: Facilitating
Intercultural Understanding. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

[7] Salomon, G. (1992). What does the design of effective CSCL require and
how do we study its effects. ACM Conference on Computer Supported
Collaborative Learning, 21(3). New York:ACM Press.

[8] Salomon, G., & Globerson, T. (1987). What teams do not function the way
they ought to. International Journal of Educational Research, 13, 89-100.

[9] Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P.A., Jochems, W., & Van Buuren, H. (2007).
Computer & Education, 49, 176-192.

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[10] Kerr, N.L. (1983). Motivation Losses in small groups: A social dilemma
analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 819-828.

[11] Kerr, N.L., & Bruun, S.E. (1983). Dispensability of member effort and group
motivation losses: Free rider effects. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology,44, 78-94

[12] Nugent, W., Sieppert, J., & Hudson, W. (2001). Practice evaluation fot the
st
21 century. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole

[13] Staton, D., Bayon, V., Neale, H., Ghali, A., Benford, S., Cobb, S. et al.
(2001). Classroom collaboration in the design of tangible interfaces for
storytelling. Proceedings of the SIGCHI 2001 Conference on Human
Factors in Computing Systems, San Franscisco, CA, 482-489.

[14] Yacine, L., & Tahar, B. (2007). Learner’s Assessment in a Collaborative


Learning System. Asian Journal of Information Technology, 6(2), 145-153.

[15] Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher


psychological processes. Cambrige, MA: Harvard University Press.

[16] Wood, D., & O’Malley, C. (1996). Collaborative learning between peers: an
overview. Educational Psychology in Practice, 11, 4, 4-9.

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PENGGUNAAN KAMUS ARAB-MELAYU DALAM PENGAJARAN DAN


PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

ABSTRAK - Salah satu rintangan dalam


TASNIM BINTI MOHD ANNUAR mengajar bahasa Arab ialah memahamkan
Fakulti Pengajian pelajar makna-makna perkataan dalam teks
Kontemporari Islam, berbahasa Arab dan seterusnya memahamkan
Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia, maksud yang disampaikan oleh setiap ayat
Kampus KUSZA,
Gong Badak, 21300 Kuala
bagi membolehkan pelajar memahami
Terengganu keseluruhan teks tersebut. Kecenderungan
tasnim@udm.edu.my menterjemah perkataan Arab ke bahasa
Melayu secara langsung merupakan satu
kelemahan dalam pengajaran bahasa Arab. Di
samping itu, ia menyebabkan pelajar tidak
mampu berdikari untuk memahami pelajaran
serta teks-teks lain yang berbahasa Arab tanpa
bergantung sepenuhnya kepada guru. Pelajar
harus diberi tunjuk ajar bagi mendapat makna
perkataan tanpa bergantung kepada
terjemahan guru semata-mata. Oleh itu, kertas
kerja ini cuba meninjau sejauh mana
kemampuan penggunaan kamus Arab-Melayu
membantu proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran bahasa Arab dari sudut
memahami teks berbahasa Arab. Ia juga
bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti kelemahan
yang mungkin timbul dalam penggunaannya
untuk tujuan pengajaran dan pembelajaran..
Penggunaan kamus Arab-Melayu dalam proses
pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Arab
dapat membantu pelajar memahami teks
berbahasa Arab tanpa perlu bergantung
sepenuhnya kepada terjemahan secara
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. langsung daripada guru. Namun begitu,
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. terdapat juga beberapa kelemahan seperti
Prosiding Persidangan
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di
proses mencari perkataan yang mengambil
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian masa mengganggu tempoh pengajaran dan
Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of pembelajaran yang diperuntukkan, ketiadaan
Golden Horses, Seri perkataan yang dicari maknanya di dalam
Kembangan, Selangor 12-14 kamus Arab-Melayu serta kelemahan pelajar
Disember 2007 sendiri dalam menggunakan kamus bagi tujuan
mencari makna tersebut.
1.0 PENDAHULUAN

Kertas kerja ini merupakan rangkuman pengalaman melaksanakan


pengajaran subjek al-Muthala’ah wa al-Ta’bir kepada pelajar tahun satu,
peringkat diploma di Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia, Terengganu. Subjek ini
menggunakan petikan perbualan dalam bahasa Arab sebagai teks untuk proses
pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Penekanan subjek ini adalah kepada empat

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kemahiran bahasa, iaitu mendengar, bertutur, membaca dan menulis. Namun


begitu, kertas kerja ini hanya memberi fokus kepada pemahaman teks dalam
kemahiran membaca.
Setelah mengajar subjek ini selama lebih kurang tiga tahun, didapati
terdapat kesukaran dalam memahamkan pelajar teks berbahasa Arab tanpa
melalui proses penterjemahan. Ini adalah masalah yang biasa dihadapi oleh
kebanyakan pensyarah yang mengajar bahasa Arab dan subjek lain yang
teksnya dalam bahasa Arab. Satu kajian yang telah dilakukankan terhadap
pelajar Diploma Pengajian Islam (Bahasa Arab) di Kolej Universiti Islam Antara
bangsa Selangor (KUIS) mendapati lebih separuh daripada pelajar (iaitu 54.5%)
lebih suka kalau pensyarah menyampaikan kuliah dengan cara
menterjemahkannya ke bahasa ibunda (Nasimah, 2006 : 205).

Kaedah terjemahan kepada bahasa ibunda mendorong pelajar malas


berusaha untuk memahami makna perkataan baru dan bergantung sepenuhnya
kepada guru atau pensyarah untuk memahami teks. Ini adalah berdasarkan
pengalaman menggunakan kaedah terjemahan dalam pengajaran subjek al-
Muthala’ah wa al-Ta’bir pada semester satu sesi pengajian 2006/2007. Dalam
proses pengajaran tersebut, sebahagian kecil teks tidak diterjemah dan pelajar
diminta supaya merujuk kepada kamus untuk perbincangan. Namun begitu,
hasilnya amat mengecewakan kerana sebahagian pelajar tidak berusaha untuk
merujuk kamus dan hanya menunggu untuk mendapatkan makna perkataan
dalam perbincangan.

Untuk mengelakkan daripada menggunakan kaedah terjemahan dalam


pengajaran, penggunaan kamus Arab–Melayu dalam proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran bagi subjek al-Muthala’ah wa al-Ta’bir pada semester satu sesi
pengajian 2007/2008 cuba diaplikasikan. Pengajaran juga dijalankan dalam
bahasa Arab tidak kurang daripada 90% peratus. Hasil daripada pemerhatian
terhadap penggunaan kamus Arab-Melayu dalam proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran dan maklum balas pelajar terhadap proses tersebut dibentangkan
dalam kertas kerja ringkas ini.

2.0 PENGAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

Terdapat pelbagai kaedah pengajaran bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa


kedua. Namun begitu, terdapat dua kaedah yang telah digunakan oleh penulis
dalam proses pengajaran, iaitu kaedah nahu-terjemahan dan kaedah secara
langsung (mubasyarah). Kaedah nahu-terjemahan dikenali juga sebagai kaedah
lama atau kaedah taqlidiyyah (Ismail Hassanain Ahmad Thulaiyb, 2003 : 24-26).
Dalam kaedah ini, pengajaran dilaksanakan dengan guru mengajar pelajar
membaca teks dan kemudiannya menterjemahkan teks tersebut ke dalam
bahasa ibunda pelajar.

Menurut Dr.Abu Said Muhammad Abdul Majid (2007), kelemahan


kaedah ini ialah sikap para pelajar menjadi negatif dari sudut menggunakan
kemahiran berfikir kerana mereka bergantung sepenuhnya kepada guru. Di
samping itu, penggunaan bahasa pertama pelajar dalam pengajaran menjadi
penghalang untuk pelajar menguasai bahasa kedua yang dipelajari.

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Kaedah secara langsung (mubasyarah) pula menggunakan bahasa


kedua yang dipelajari oleh pelajar tanpa menterjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa
ibunda pelajar. Dalam kaedah ini guru akan menggunakan pelbagai cara seperti
isyarat dan lakonan serta bahan bantu mengajar untuk memahamkan pelajar
perkataan-perkataan dalam bahasa kedua. Dari satu sudut, kaedah ini
mempunyai kebaikan kerana ia membiasakan pelajar dengan bahasa kedua
yang dipelajari serta menjadikan mereka berfikir secara aktif untuk memahami
makna-makna perkataan.

Dari segi lain pula, kaedah ini juga mempunyai beberapa kelemahan.
Penggunaan bahasa kedua secara langsung tanpa menterjemah ada ketikanya
menyebabkan pelajar tidak dapat memahami teks ataupun mereka tersalah
faham teks tersebut. Selain itu, kaedah ini tidak mengambil kira perbezaan
antara kemampuan para pelajar yang berbeza-beza. Pelajar yang cerdik
mungkin dapat mengikuti pelajaran dengan baik manakala pelajar yang lemah
akan ketinggalan.

Penggunaan kaedah terjemahan adalah satu kelemahan yang besar


dalam pengajaran bahasa Arab lebih-lebih lagi dalam suasana “persekitaran
yang tidak berbahasa Arab”. Oleh itu, penggunaan kaedah ini perlulah dielakkan
terutamanya di peringkat pengajian tinggi.

Kaedah kedua pula amat sesuai dilaksanakan diperingkat pengajian


tinggi dengan sokongan kemudahan pengajaran seperti makmal bahasa dan
pusat sumber yang lengkap serta penggunaan bahan bantu mengajar (BBM)
yang sesuai.
Namun begitu, cara yang lebih baik ialah menggunakan bahasa Arab
secara maksimum dan menggalakkan pelajar menggunakan kamus bagi
mendapatkan makna perkataan yang sukar di samping guru menerangkan
makna dalam bahasa Arab. Guru atau pensyarah hanya menerangkan makna
perkataan atau rangkai kata yang tidak dapat difahami pelajar dalam bahasa
Melayu setelah pelajar tidak mendapati perkataan tersebut di dalam kamus dan
tidak memahami penerangan dalam bahasa Arab.

3.0 KAMUS DAN PROSES PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

Kamus merupakan rujukan penting bagi pelajar yang mempelajari


bahasa kedua atau bahasa asing. Hal ini demikian kerana kamus dapat
membantu pelajar memahami makna perkataan-perkataan yang tidak dapat
difahami olehnya. Dalam konteks bahasa Arab, kamus bukan sahaja berperanan
dalam subjek bahasa Arab, malah ia juga menjadi rujukan penting bagi semua
subjek yang diajar dalam bahasa Arab.

Menurut Rosni Samah (2006 : 274), proses pembelajaran dengan


menggunakan pelbagai kamus bahasa dapat membantu pelajar menguasai kosa
kata dengan baik. Pelajar tidak akan dapat mengetahui makna perkataan baru
yang ditemuinya melainkan dengan cara melihat kamus. Menurut beliau juga,
kamus hendaklah dipelbagaikan bagi menambah makna perkataan yang dicari
dan pelajar boleh menggunakan kamus Arab-Melayu sebagai asas utama atau
kamus Arab-Inggeris dan kamus Arab-Arab.

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Selain itu, kamus juga memainkan peranan sebagai salah satu strategi
pembelajaran bahasa (SPB). Strategi pembelajaran bahasa menurut Oxford
(1989: 8) ialah “tindakan-tindakan tertentu yang diambil oleh pelajar untuk
menjadikan pembelajaran lebih mudah, lebih cepat, lebih menyeronokkan, lebih
berbentuk kendiri, lebih efektif dan lebih mudah disesuaikan kepada situasi
baru”. Beliau membahagikan (SPB) kepada strategi langsung dan strategi tidak
langsung. Strategi langsung terdiri daripada strategi memori, strategi kognitif dan
strategi tampungan; manakala strategi tidak langsung ialah strategi metakognitif,
strategi afektif dan strategi sosial (Oxford, 1989 : 16).

Penggunaan kamus dalam SPB termasuk dalam strategi kognitif. Satu


kajian yang dijalankan oleh Nurazan (2006: 245) terhadap pelajar daripada
pelbagai jurusan di KUSZA, Kuala Terengganu yang mengikuti kursus bahasa
Arab mendapati dari segi kekerapan penggunaan SPB, buku nahu dan kamus
menduduki tempat kedua daripada 73 SPB yang disenaraikan. Ini menunjukkan
pelajar cenderung kepada menggunakan kamus dalam proses pembelajaran
bahasa Arab.

Satu penyelidikan mengenai pendekatan pengajaran bahasa Arab di


sekolah-sekolah agama mendapati bahawa proses pengajaran hanya berpusat
kepada guru semata-mata dan tertumpu kepada sudut terjemahan. Beberapa
pandangan dan cadangan diminta daripada pelajar untuk aktiviti mempelajari
bahasa Arab. Salah satu cadangan yang diberikan ialah merujuk terjemahan dan
mencari makna dalam kamus. (Rosni Samah, 2007 : 320-321 & 325). Ini
menunjukkan bahawa pelajar berpendapat kamus dapat membantu mereka
dalam memahami makna perkataan.

4.0 PENGGUNAAN KAMUS ARAB-MELAYU DALAM PENGAJARAN


SUBJEK AL- MUTHALA’AH WA AL-TA’BIR

Subjek al-Muthala’ah wa al-Ta’bir menggunakan buku teks dalam


bahasa Arab. Dalam proses pengajaran subjek ini, buku teks merupakan bahan
utama yang digunakan, manakala kamus Arab-Melayu hanya sebagai bahan
rujukan bagi membantu melancarkan proses tersebut.

Pemilihan kamus Arab-Melayu untuk digunakan oleh pelajar adalah


kerana ia menterjemahkan makna ke dalam bahasa ibunda yang mudah
difahami oleh mereka. Selain itu, kebanyakan pelajar tidak biasa menggunakan
kamus Arab-Arab dan tidak dapat memahami makna yang diberikan dalam
bahasa Arab.

Memandangkan kebanyakan pelajar telah mempunyai kamus Arab-


Melayu, maka mereka diberi kebebasan untuk menggunakan kamus yang sedia
ada tanpa ditetapkan penggunaan kamus tertentu. Oleh itu, terdapat pelbagai
keluaran kamus yang digunakan termasuk kamus al-Marbawi yang telah lama
berada di pasaran dan juga kamus dwibahsa Oxford-Fajar yang agak terkini.
Selain itu, terdapat juga pelajar yang menggunakan kamus Arab-Indonesia,
susunan Profesor Haji Mahmud Yunus.

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Teks bagi subjek al-Muthala’ah wa al-Ta’bir ini semuanya adalah dalam


bentuk perbualan dalam bahasa Arab. Oleh itu, terdapat ayat-ayat yang tidak
sesuai diterjemahkan secara terus ke dalam bahasa Melayu seperti ucapan
salam, kata-kata aluan, ucapan perpisahan dan beberapa bentuk doa yang
menjadi kebiasaan bagi orang-orang Arab. Ayat- ayat tersebut difahamkan
kepada pelajar berdasarkan situasi penggunaan dan tidak diterjemahkan secara
harfiyyah. Dalam keadaan seperti ini ada ketikanya terjemahan terpaksa
dilakukan kerana penggunaan kamus semata-mata tidak dapat memberikan
makna yang sesuai.

Bagi perkataan-perkataan lain yang boleh dirujuk maknanya di dalam


kamus Arab -Melayu, pelajar diminta supaya merujuk kepada kamus tersebut
setelah penerangan makna dalam bahasa Arab tidak dapat menjelaskan maksud
perkataan. Pensyarah tidak menterjemah perkataan yang tidak difahami ke
dalam bahasa Melayu tetapi menyebut “sahih” apabila makna perkataan yang
disebut oleh pelajar setelah merujuk kamus Arab-Melayu menepati maksud
dalam ayat.

Dalam proses mencari makna perkataan di dalam kelas, pelajar diberi


tunjuk ajar cara mencari perkataan yang tidak diketahui maknanya. Namun
begitu, pada peringkat permulaan mereka dibiarkan berusaha mendapatkan
makna perkataan tanpa panduan. Setelah mereka menyatakan bahawa mereka
tidak tahu di mana hendak mencari perkataan yang tidak diketahui maknanya itu
ataupun mereka tidak menemui perkataan tersebut, panduan diberikan.
Daripada proses ini dapat dikesan beberapa kelemahan penggunaan kamus
Arab-Melayu dalam menjalankan pengajaran.

Antara kelemahan yang dapat dikesan sepanjang proses mencari makna


di dalam kelas ini ialah tempoh masa yang lama diambil untuk mencari makna
dan memahami keseluruhan teks. Ini mengganggu proses pengajaran yang perlu
melibatkan kemahiran-kemahiran lain dalam tempoh yang telah ditetapkan.

Dari sudut pelajar pula, ada di kalangan mereka yang tidak mengetahui
usul perkataan yang terdiri daripada tiga huruf asal, iaitu (fgh) yang menjadi asas
untuk mencari makna perkataan berbahasa Arab dalam kamus. Ini menyukarkan
mereka untuk mencari makna sesuatu perkataan dalam bahasa Arab di dalam
kamus Arab-Melayu yang mereka gunakan.

Selain itu, mereka tidak mengetahu asal huruf alif dalam perkataan
yang ain kalimahnya adalah huruf ‘illah (ajwaf) adalah waw atau ya. Ini
menyebabkan mereka mencari makna perkataan tersebut di bahagian
permulaan setiap huruf sedangkan berdasarkan susunan asal ia terletak di
bahagian akhir huruf. Akibatnya, mereka tidak menemui perkataan seperti ‫دار‬
dan ‫ن‬mn di dalam kamus Arab-Melayu tersebut.

Setelah dijelaskan beberapa panduan untuk mencari perkataan di dalam


kamus Arab-Melayu, didapati mereka dapat mencari makna perkataan di
bahagian yang betul dan dapat membantu mereka mendapatkan makna dengan
lebih cepat. Namun begitu keseluruhan proses mencari makna dalam kelas
adalah memakan masa yang lama. Untuk mencari makna satu perenggan yang

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mengandungi kira-kira 20 patah perkataan baru memerlukan lebih daripada 20


minit. Ini bererti satu minit tidak mencukupi untuk mencari makna satu patah
perkataan. Jika kaedah ini digunakan untuk keseluruhan teks tanpa penerangan
daripada guru atau pensyarah, ia akan mengganggu keseluruhan proses
pengajaran yang telah dihadkan tempohnya. Oleh itu, penggunaan kamus dalam
pengajaran untuk tujuan memahami teks perlulah difokuskan untuk perkataan
yang tidak dapat difahami setelah guru memberi penerangan sahaja.

5.0 PENGGUNAAN KAMUS ARAB-MELAYU DALAM PEMBELAJARAN


BAHASA ARAB

Untuk meninjau sama ada penggunaan kamus Arab-Melayu dapat


membantu pelajar dalam pembelajaran di luar kelas, mereka diminta
menterjemahkan satu perenggan yang dipetik daripada pelajaran yang belum
diajarkan kepada mereka. Latihan ini bertujuan untuk menggalakkan pelajar
membuat persediaan awal sebelum mengikuti kelas al-Muthala’ah wa al-Ta’bir
serta memberi keyakinan kepada mereka bahawa kamus Arab-Melayu dapat
membantu mereka memahami makna perkataan baru yang asing bagi mereka.

Berdasarkan penterjemahan yang mereka lakukan dalam latihan


tersebut didapati pelajar dapat memahami teks dengan lebih baik apabila
mereka menggunakan kamus Arab-Melayu. Malahan kebanyakan mereka dapat
menterjemah dengan baik berbantukan kamus Arab-Melayu.

Sebagai contoh, rangkai kata ‫ت‬mّqrsgt‫ ا‬uhvw dalam ayat uhvw ‫ف‬vy‫ أ‬f{‫)د‬
(‫ت‬mّqrsgt‫ا‬diterjemahkan sebagai bilik amali, wad, bilik sakit, bilik ujian dan bilik
tunggu, sebelum merujuk kepada kamus Arab-Melayu. Setelah merujuk kamus
tersebut mereka menterjemahkannya sebagai bilik bedah atau bilik
pembedahan, iaitu maknanya yang dimaksudkan dalam ayat.

Dalam ayat ( ‫ء‬m}~tm ‫ف‬vy€ ‫رج و„ƒ‚ان‬m‡t‫ˆ ا‬h ‫ ) ووŒ}‹ ا€م وا€ب‬, perkataan ‫ء‬m}~t‫ا‬
diterjemahkan kepada makna selamat, sihat, rawatan dan berubat. Selepas
menggunakan kamus, Pelajar telah mendapat makna yang lebih tepat, iaitu
sembuh.

Dalam ayat yang agak panjang, ˆ~stm rŽt‫ ا‬utmn  m‘v‡„ ‫و’ن أن‬m“„ ‫ƒان‬t‫ا‬t‫ن ا‬m‫) وآ‬
( •–‫—ا‬t‫˜ ا‬r‚ uŽّrgst‫ ا‬unrt‫˜ ا‬t‫ إ‬vš›tm‫œ~}˜ و‬st‫ّات ا‬vs ˆh, terdapat beberapa perkataan
yang sukar difahami oleh pelajar. Antaranya, , rŽt‫ ا‬utmn , ‫ّات‬vs , unrt‫ ا‬,uŽّrgst‫ ا‬, •–‫—ا‬t‫ا‬
‫و’ن‬m“„. Antara terjemahan yang dilakukan oleh pelajar untuk ayat ini sebelum dan
selepas menggunakan kamus ialah :

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SEBELUM RUJUKAN SELEPAS RUJUKAN


a. Kedua ibubapanya berharap agar Ibu dan bapa tidak dapat mengelak
Ashraf dapat keluar dari hospital daripada keadaan risau dan
dengan keadaan yang baik bimbang, maka kedua-dua mereka
berjalan-jalan di laluan hospital
sambil melihat gambar-gambar yang
tergantung di dinding

b. Dengan menghilangkan rasa Dan kedua ibubapa keluar dalam


risau, mereka keluar dan melihat keadaan risau dan berjalan di laluan
di papan kenyataan hospital sambil melihat kenyataan
yang tergantung di dinding.
c. Sesungguhnya kedua ibubapanya Kedua ibubapanya di sekitarnya
mengetahui hal ini dan mereka keluar dari keadaan bimbang
keluar pada waktu pagi dengan berjalan pada laluan hospital dan
berjalan ke hospital dan untuk melihat gambar yang tergantung
melihat keadaan anaknya atas dinding.
d. Dan keluar ibubapanya daripada Dan kedua ibubapanya cuba untuk
keadaan _________ dengan keluar dari perasaan bimbang
berjalan sekeliling hospital dan dengan berjalan keliling hospital dan
terlihat kepada satu kenyataan melihat ke satu kenyataan yang
bergantungan di dinding

Terjemahan yang sepatutnya untuk ayat tersebut ialah “ Kedua ibubapa


tersebut cuba untuk keluar daripada (menghilangkan) perasaan bimbang/risau
dengan berjalan-jalan di laluan (koridor) hospital dan dengan melihat gambar-
gambar yang tergantung di dinding”.

Dalam contoh terjemahan (a), didapati terdapat perbezaan yang amat


ketara antara terjemahan sebelum dan selepas merujuk kamus Arab-Melayu.
Terjemahan selepas rujukan adalah lebih menghampiri terjemahan yang
sepatutnya. Begitu juga dengan contoh (c), yang menunjukkan terjemahan
selepas rujukan lebih baik berbanding sebelumnya yang tidak menepati sama
sekali maksud ayat.

Terjemahan dalam contoh (b) pula menunjukkan terdapat sedikit


persamaan antara terjemahan sebelum dan selepas rujukan kamus Arab-
Melayu. Namun begitu, didapati dalam terjemahan ini sebahagiannya tidak
menepati maksud ayat.

Dalam contoh (d) pula, pelajar telah meninggalkan ruang kosong untuk
perkataan yang tidak difahaminya sebelum merujuk kamus Arab-Melayu. Namun
begitu, beliau dapat melakukan terjemahan yang hampir tepat dengan maksud
ayat setelah merujuk kamus tersebut.

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Daripada contoh-contoh di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahawa penggunaan


kamus Arab-Melayu dapat membantu proses pembelajaran pelajar untuk
memahami makna teks berbahasa Arab walaupun tidak sampai ke tahap 100%.

6.0 MAKLUMBALAS PELAJAR

Untuk menguatkan lagi hasil pemerhatian, maklum balas daripada


pelajar juga dikumpul. Antara perkara yang dibangkitkan berkaitan penggunaan
kamus Arab-Melayu ialah :

1. Sama ada pelajar menggunakan kamus Arab-Melayu dalam proses


pembelajaran bahasa Arab di dalam kelas atau tidak.
2. Sama ada kamus Arab-Melayu membantu pelajar memahami teks
berbahasa Arab tanpa bantuan guru atau tidak .
3. Sama ada pelajar menggunakan kamus Arab-Melayu untuk
memahami subjek lain yang diajar dalam bahasa Arab (teksnya
berbahasa Arab) atau tidak.
4. Peratusan kamus Arab-Melayu membantu pelajar dalam memahami
kandungan teks.

Hasil maklum balas tersebut didapati seramai 38 orang pelajar, iaitu


(92.7%) daripada 41 orang yang terlibat dengan maklum balas tersebut
menggunakan kamus Arab-Melayu dalam dalam proses pembelajaran bahasa
Arab di dalam kelas . 24 orang pelajar, iaitu (58.5%) daripada mereka mengakui
bahawa kamus Arab-Melayu dapat membantu mereka memahami teks
berbahasa Arab tanpa bantuan guru, manakala 38 orang daripada mereka, iaitu
(92.7%) menggunakan kamus Arab-Melayu untuk memahami subjek lain yang
diajar dalam bahasa Arab (teksnya berbahasa Arab).

Seramai 16 orang pelajar, iaitu (39%) daripada 41 orang pelajar


menyatakan bahawa kamus Arab-Melayu membantu mereka dalam memahami
kandungan teks sebanyak 80% ke atas. 18 orang daripada mereka pula, iaitu
(44%) mengakui bahawa kamus Arab-Melayu membantu mereka dalam
memahami kandungan teks sebanyak 60% -79%. Manakala yang baki sebanyak
tujuh orang pula memberi jawapan tidak kurang daripada 40%. Ini menandakan
bahawa kamus Arab-Melayu mampu membantu pelajar untuk memahami teks
dalam bahasa Arab dengan baik.

Masalah yang dihadapi oleh pelajar semasa menggunakan kamus Arab-


Melayu dalam pembelajaran ditinjau dari sudut :

1. Kalimah yang dicari sering tidak ditemui di dalam kamus.


2. Pelajar tidak mengetahui tiga huruf asal bagi perkataan Arab yang
dicari.
3. Pelajar tidak mahir ilmu sorof
4. Proses mencari makna menggunakan kamus Arab-Melayu
mengambil masa/lambat.

Sebanyak 41.5% daripada 41 orang pelajar, iaitu 17 orang bersetuju

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bahawa kalimah yang dicari sering tidak ditemui di dalam kamus. Masalah ini
timbul mungkin disebabkan oleh dua faktor utama , iaitu kekurangan kosa kata
dalam kamus yang digunakan oleh pelajar dengan erti kata lain kamus tidak
lengkap dan kelemahan pelajar dalam menggunakan kamus utuk mencari
makna perkataan tersebut.

Terdapat seramai 25 orang pelajar, iaitu kira-kira 61% menyatakan


bahawa mereka mengetahu tiga huruf asal bagi perkataan Arab yang dicari.
Pelajar-pelajar ini mungkin mempunyai asas ilmu sorof yang agak baik. Namun
begitu, majoriti pelajar, iaitu seramai 35 orang (85%) mengakui bahawa mereka
tidak mahir ilmu sorof. Kemahiran ilmu sorof adalah perlu untuk memudahkan
pencarian makna perkataan kerana perkataan Arab banyak berlaku perubahan
apabila melibatkan huruf ‘llah, iaitu alif, waw dan ya dalam perkataan tersebut.
Begitu juga, masalah huruf-huruf tambahan yang perlu dibuang bagi
mendapatkan tiga huruf asal perkataan.

Mengenai proses mencari makna menggunakan kamus Arab-Melayu


yang lambat, seramai 31 orang pelajar, iaitu (75.6%) bersetuju bahawa ia
menjadi satu masalah kepada mereka.

Dapatan daripada maklumbalas pelajar ini adalah selari dengan hasil


pemerhatian yang dilakukan sepanjang proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran
berlangsung.

7. 0 PENUTUP

Kamus merupakan rujukan yang penting dalam pengajaran dan


pembelajaran bahasa kedua. Ia dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan bantu mengajar
ketika menjalankan aktiviti bahasa di dalam kelas seperti perbincangan,
perdebatan dan kuiz. Dengan mengeksploitasi kamus sebagai sumber untuk
menarik perhatian pelajar dapat membantu untuk mempertingkatkan keyakinan
diri mereka sebagai pengguna kamus. Di samping itu, melalui penggunaan
kamus pelajar akan terdedah kepada banyak data bahasa yang dapat
membantu mereka menerokai bahasa sebagai satu sistem. Guru juga akan
mendapat manfaat apabila pelajar dapat meningkatkan kemahiran meggunakan
kamus. Kamus juga membekalkan satu sumber maklumat tambahan dan
menambahkan kepelbagaian kepada pelajaran (Wright, 1998 : 7).

Penggunaan kamus Arab-Melayu dapat membantu guru atau pensyarah


yang ingin menggunakan kaedah langsung dalam pengajaran bahasa Arab
sebagai bahasa kedua. Namun begitu, mereka perlulah mengawal penggunaan
tersebut dan menghadkannya untuk perkataan yang tidak dapat difahami
dengan sekadar memberi penerangan sahaja. Tujuannya ialah supaya
penggunaan kamus Arab-Melayu dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran dalam
kelas tidak mengganggu masa yang diperlukan untuk melaksanakan aktiviti-
aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa yang lain.

Pelajar yang mempelajari bahasa Arab perlu menjadikan kamus Arab-


Melayu sebagai rujukan mereka untuk peringkat permulaan. Namun begitu,
mereka juga harus cuba menggunakan kamus Arab-Arab dan Arab-Inggeris

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untuk meluaskan lagi sumber rujukan dan kosa kata mereka. Masalah yang
dihadapi dapat diatasi dengan penggunaan kamus yang berterusan sehingga
mereka menjadi mahir.

RUJUKAN

[1] Nasimah Haji Abdullah. “Permasalahan Dalam Pembelajaran Bagi Pelajar


Diploma Pengajian Islam (Bahasa Arab) Di Kuis Dan Cara Mengatasinya”.
Prosiding Wacana Pendidikan Islam Siri 5, UKM. 2006
[2] Ismail Hassanayn Ahmad Thulaiyb. “Al-Mursyid al-Wajiz Li Mu’allimi al-
Lughah al-‘Arabiyyah Li al-Nathiqin Bighayriha Fi al-Mustawayat al-
Mutawassithah wa al-Mutaqaddimah. Kuala Lumpur : Univision Press Sdn.
Bhd. 2003
[3] Dr.Abu Said Muhammad Abdul Majid. “Thuruq Tadris al-Lughah al-
”Arabiyyah Biwasfiha Lughatan Tsaniyatan”. Prosiding Seminar
Kebangsaan Pengajaran Bahasa Arab, UIAM. 2007
[4] Rosni Samah. “ Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab Sebagai Bahasa Kedua
Melalui Pendekatan Kosa Kata Dan Bina Ayat” Prosiding Wacana
Pedidikan Islam Siri 5 , UKM. 2006
[5] Oxford, R. L.Alnguage Learning Strategies :What Every Teacher Should
Know”. Boston : Heinle & Heinle Publishers. 1989
[6] Nur Azan Mohmad Rouyan. “Penggunaan Strategi Pembelajaran Bahasa
(SPB) Di Kalangan Pelajar Bahasa Arab Di KUSZA”. Prosiding Wacana
Pendidikan Islam Siri 5, UKM. 2006
[7] Rosni Samah, “Pendekatan Pengajaran Bahasa Arab di Sekolah-sekolah
Agama”. Prosiding Seminar Penyelidikan Dalam Pengajian Islam Ke-4,
UKM. 2007
[8] Wright, J. “Dictionaries”. Oxford : Oxford University Press. 1998

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KNOWLEDGE AND INTEREST ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AMONG UiTM


PHARMACY STUDENTS

I. ABDUL WAHAB, ABSTRACT - Traditional Medicine (TM) is an


A. H. JAHIDIN elective course for second year pharmacy
N. A. RAMLI undergraduates in the Faculty of Pharmacy,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). It was
Universiti Teknologi MARA,
40450 Shah Alam,
expected that most of the students have used
Selangor Darul Ehsan. or tried TM before. A survey was conducted to
find out 1) which area of TM that students
ibtisam@salam.uitm.edu.my would like to learn and 2) their perception
towards TM. A total of 117 students
participated out of 119 registered students
(response rate = 98.3%). They were 22 years
on average (SD=1.0) ranging from 20-29 years
(male=27, female=90). Majority of the students
recognized TM as an “alternative medicine or
alternative to medical services” (n=109). Equal
perceptions were made to TM as
“complementary traditional medicine” (n=35),
“holistic medicine providing a more complete
medical system” (n=34) and “integrative
medicine or integrated with clinical pathways”
(n=34). Majority would like to study
aromatherapy, herbal medicine, massage
therapy, acupuncture, homeopathy,
reflexology, yoga and tai chi/qi gong (range
n=79–110). The topic of chiropractic was found
to be the most unpopular (n=77). When the
students were posed on the challenges faced
in consuming TM, majority were due to the
“lacking of internal expertise” (n=99), followed
by “lacking of evidence-based studies” (n=73),
“information from research” (n=68), “budgetary
constraints” (n=53) and “physician resistance”
(n=44). The students considered that having
“state license” and “national certification in TM
practice” (both n=81) were the minimum criteria
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. for recruiting TM practitioner. Others include
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. “physician recommendations” (n=60). Almost
Prosiding Persidangan equal perceptions on the minimum TM
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di practitioner criteria were observed on the
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian “educational standard 2- to 4-year degree”,
Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of
“professional association membership”,
Golden Horses, Seri Kembangan,
Selangor 12-14 Disember 2007 “city/local license” and “pharmacy” (n=51, 50,
49, 47, respectively), however “Nursing or
other healthcare professional” turned to be the
least (n=27). Findings generally indicated that

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various descriptions of TM will still allow the


possible generations of “alternative medicine
pharmacist” since the students were aware of
their position in channeling the information on
TM to the public.

Keywords:traditional medicine, pharmacy

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Pharmacy is an integration of the knowledge of both traditional and


modern medicine. In Faculty of Pharmacy, University Teknologi MARA (UiTM),
pharmacy covers an introduction of three disciplines: Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Clinical Pharmacy. The
faculty successfully produced its’ first cohort of Bachelor of Pharmacy (Hons.)
graduates last 2006. Ninety six percent of the twenty nine registered students
were able to complete the pharmacy program in eight semesters. They are now
serving community in pharmacies at government hospitals. UiTM international
students are also having the experience of learning Malaysian pharmaceutical
health-care system.

A comprehensive curriculum incorporating Traditional Medicine (TM)


syllabus for professional pharmacy undergraduates is reported to be highly
necessary [1]. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), however, is
more common in nursing, than in medical education [2, 3]. In UiTM, TM is
categorized as a compulsory, none-core course, under Pharmaceutical Sciences.
The students were in their second year of the pharmacy degree program. They
should take this course in the forth semester, as this was the only curriculum
schedule for the degree program (2002 - 2006). However, TM was later opted as
a non-compulsory elective course, resulting from the curriculum revamp in July
2006. Recently, Muhsain et al. [5] suggested that UiTM Diploma of Pharmacy
curriculum should also include components on complimentary and alternative
medicines (CAM) after discovering that most of the students’ views towards CAM
were positive.

Lua et al. [5] found out that TM has an important role to UiTM pharmacy
undergraduates, although many of them were not aware of its side effects. Their
survey outcomes have also shown that exposure to TM syllabus could partly
influence pharmacy undergraduates’ perception towards its usage in society.
Positive feedbacks on the TM course signaled its importance in pharmacy
curriculum to ensure that future pharmacists are well-equipped with the
knowledge in order to provide comprehensive pharmaceutical advice. Favorable
attitudes towards complementary therapies were also initiated elsewhere [6] and
many choose to use CAM as part of their normal health care.

Owen et al. [7] mentioned that there is not much information on how to
teach TM course to pharmacy students. Therefore, a series of clear CAM
educational objectives were defined by consensus, between students and

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teachers. After the establishment of the course, the authors were still concerned
about its sustainability [8]. However, recent report stated on the absence of
global standardized criteria on course duration, content, assessment method and
accreditation process in traditional and complimentary medicine education, in
spite of the growing interest in the training and education process [9]. A
modernized TM education, on the other hand, was reported to have generated
similar level of students’ professional socialization, as seen in Western medicine
students [10].

We have prepared a report on how to design students’ assignment for


TM. It is hoped that by collaborative learning, various areas of TM could be
introduced to the students [11]. In this paper, we would like to present our
findings about the knowledge and interest on TM among UiTM pharmacy
students.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

It was expected that most of the students have used or tried TM before.
This paper is presented to report 1) which area of TM that students would like to
learn and 2) their perception towards TM.

3.0 METHODOLOGY

A survey was administered in the first week of the semester to all Year 2,
PH210 Bachelor of Pharmacy (Hons.) students. The students’ knowledge and
interest on TM were observed. The frequencies (n) of the results/data were
displayed.

4.0 RESULT

A total of 117 students participated out of 119 registered students


(response rate = 98.3%). They were 22 years on average (SD=1.0) ranging from
20-29 years (male=27, female=90). The students were asked on several ideas of
Traditional Medicine (TM). These included the identification of TM itself. It was
found out that majority of the students recognized TM as an “alternative medicine
or alternative to medical services” (n=109). Equal perceptions were made to TM
as “complementary traditional medicine” (n=35), “holistic medicine providing a
more complete medical system” (n=34) and “integrative medicine or integrated
with clinical pathways” (n=34).

Several areas of TM were outlined in the questionnaire. This is to identify


which area the students would like to know more. It was found out that majority
would like to study aromatherapy, herbal medicine, massage therapy,
acupuncture, homeopathy, reflexology, yoga and tai chi/qi gong (range n=79–
110). The topic of chiropractic was found to be the most unpopular (n=77).

When the students were posed on the challenges faced in consuming


TM, majority were due to the “lacking of internal expertise” (n=99), followed by
“lacking of evidence-based studies” (n=73), “information from research” (n=68),
“budgetary constraints” (n=53) and “physician resistance” (n=44).

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The students also considered that having “state license” and “national
certification in TM practice” (both n=81) were the minimum criteria for recruiting
TM practitioner. Others include “physician recommendations” (n=60). Almost
equal perceptions on the minimum TM practitioner criteria were observed on the
“educational standard 2- to 4-year degree”, “professional association
membership”, “city/local license” and “pharmacy” (n=51, 50, 49, 47, respectively),
however “Nursing or other healthcare professional” turned to be the least (n=27).

5.0 DISCUSSION

We observe those pharmacy students own general knowledge and have


interest on Traditional medicine (TM). The students could identify TM, though this
survey was given in their introductory TM class. According to World Health
Organization [12], TM refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and
beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual
therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination
to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. Complementary
medicine also sometimes referred to as non-conventional or parallel, is used to
refer to a broad set of heath care practices that are not part of a country’s own
tradition, or not integrated into its dominant health care system [13]. The Ministry
of Health of Malaysia in 2001, defined T/CM as practices other than that of
medicine or surgery, by registered medical practitioners as defined in Medical Act
1971 [14]. Therefore, the recognition of TM as complimentary and alternative
medicines (CAM) were seen as appropriate to the students and this has been
well accepted.

However, a more thorough study should be undertaken to know whether


the students could just ignore the increasing contributions by practitioners in both
modern and traditional systems of medicine. On the other hand, we could also
study whether TM would systematically contribute to the prevention of human
disease, e.g. HIV/AIDS, from the students’ perceptions.

Both traditional herbs and practices were acknowledged by the students


(aromatherapy, herbal medicine, massage therapy, acupuncture, homeopathy,
reflexology, yoga, tai chi/qi gong and chiropractic). Ayurvedic and cupping
(bekam) were mentioned as Others. This implies that the students need to be
informed on there topics and hence, be included as part of their group
presentation/subject of TM study.

To maximize the potential of TM/CAM as a source of health care, a


number of issues must be tackled. These issues are related to policy, safety,
efficacy and quality, access and the rational uses [13]. The students’ challenges
in consuming TM were majority due to the “lacking of internal expertise”. From a
larger perspective, this challenge could be tackled within a national policy
concerning safety and quality, licensing of providers and standards of training,
and priorities for research. TM has already been integrated into the Malaysia
health care system. The students might not aware of the information on health
policies. In achieving our national healthcare vision, multi-disciplinary
collaboration is crucial. In fact, Malaysia has established its own National Policy

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on Traditional/Complementary Medicine (T/CM) in 1999 [14]. Thus, this issue


should be highlighted during the management of this TM course for the coming
semesters.

Traditional/Complementary Medicine (T/CM) Division, Ministry of Health


Malaysia had recognized and listed five main local T/CM practice and their
practitioner bodies (Table 1, Ministry of Health Malaysia [14]).

Table 1: Five main T/CM practice and their practitioner bodies (Ministry of Health
Malaysia).

Traditional & /
No. Complementary Practitioner bodies
Medicine Practice
1 Traditional Malay Medicine Persekutuan Perubatan Tradisional
Melayu Malaysia (PUTRAMAS)
2 Traditional Chinese Medicine i. Federation of Chinese Physicians
and Medicine-Dealers Associations
of Malaysia (FCPMDAM)
ii. Federation of Chinese Physicians
& Acupuncturists Association of
Malaysia (FCPAAM)
iii. Chinese Physician’s Association of
Malaysia (MCPA)
3 Traditional India Medicine Pertubuhan Perubatan Tradisional India
Malaysia (PEPTIM)
4 Complementary Medicine The Malaysian Society for
Complementary Therapies (MSCT)
5 Homeopathy Medicine Majlis Perubatan Homeopathy Malaysia
(MPHM)

At present, the T/CM Division monitors entry of foreign T/CM


practitioners and is in the process of listing all the T/CM practitioners in the
country. A T/CM Act is being prepared to ensure that T/CM practitioners are
registered with the government, based on standards and code of ethics, set up
by the Ministry of Health [15]. With the T/CM Act coming in force in 2007, all local
and foreign practitioners will be required to join their respective practitioner
bodies and with T/CM Division.

A check list for the application of foreign practitioners for T/CM has been
prepared [14]. These include a comment from the Practitioner Body, certified
copies of academic certificate (certificate / diploma / degree / others), company
registration certificate and a business license. A testimony / recommendation
letter on working experience, together with birth / citizenship certificate / passport
are required. In addition, three advertisements in the local newspapers should be
attached with the application form.

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Referring to the students’ response, most of them considered that having


“state license” and “national certification in TM practice” (both n=81) were the
minimum criteria for recruiting TM practitioner. This is a good reflection on the
students’ knowledge on how and whom to seek information of TM.

In addition, almost equal students’ perceptions on the minimum TM


practitioner criteria were observed on the “educational standard 2- to 4-year
degree”, “professional association membership”, “city/local license” and
“pharmacy” (n=51, 50, 49, 47, respectively). This understanding is timely, by
referring to the several efforts performed recently. Malaysian delegation to China,
comprising officials from the Higher Education and Health ministries, visited
Beijing, Shanghai and Nanking universities. They were in a mission to seek
information for their proposal to Malaysia government for considering the
recognition of China universities, so that Malaysian students can pursue degree
programmes in traditional Chinese medicine [16]. Some of UiTM pharmacy
students from East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia might recognize The Faculty of
Homeopathy Malaysia & Hospital, located at Kelantan [17]. They might have
understood the importance of having a professional degree in TM (e.g.
homeopathy). However, some of them might not hear about the Degree of
Bachelor of Pharmacy in Chinese Medicine (BPharm in Chin Med) program,
offered at The University of Hong Kong [18].

Finally, the students’ least perception on the minimum TM practitioner criteria


were observed on the “Nursing or other healthcare professional”. Small
percentage of UiTM pharmacy students might not notice on the nurses’
significant role in health-caretaker. In China, School of Traditional Chinese
Nursing, at Beijing University of Chinese Medicine is offering the Program of
Chinese Medicine Nursing [19].

Beside this, other TM practices could be informed to the students, in order to


enhance their knowledge. Referring to the approved total foreign practitioners by
T/CM Division from Jan – July 2006 [14], topics such as Podiatri, Myotheraphy
and Tuinalogist, have been introduced into our health care system. The
awareness of pharmacy students towards these subjects are left for further
study.

CONCLUSION

Findings generally indicated that various descriptions of TM will still allow the
possible generations of “alternative medicine pharmacist” since the students
were aware of their position in channeling the information on TM to the public.
This study has also given the educators/lecturers on the updated information of
TM in their task to disseminate the knowledge and instill the interests of TM
among the students.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank the students of Faculty of Pharmacy, UiTM Shah Alam for
their support.

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REFERENCES

[1] Hon, E. K. L., Lee, K., Tse, H. M., Lam, L. N., Tam, K. C., Chu, K. M.,
Lee, V., Lau, C. & Leung, T. F. 2004. A survey of attitudes to Traditional
Chinese Medicine in Hong Kong pharmacy students. Complementary
Therapies in Medicine, 12, 51 – 56.

[2] Furnham, A., Hanna, D. & Vincent, C. A. 1995. Medical students'


attitudes to complementary medical therapies. Complementary
Therapies in Medicine, 3, 212-219.

[3] Morgan, D., Glanville, H., Mars, S. & Nathanson, V. 1998. Education and
training in complementary and alternative medicine: a postal survey of
UK universities, medical schools and faculties of nurse education.
Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 6, 64-70.

[4] Muhsain, S. N. F., Dianita, R. & Farooqui, M. 2007. Attitudes towards


Complimentary and Alternative Medicines: a Survey amongst Diploma of
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Pharmacy Students. The 7 Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society
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Pharmacy Scientific Conference & 9 Commonwealth Pharmaceutical
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Association Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 1 – 5 August 2007.

[5] Lua, P. L. & Abdul Wahab, I. 2006. Perception towards Traditional


th
Medicine: A Survey among UiTM Pharmacy Students. The 6 National
th th
Symposium on Health Sciences, Kuala Lumpur, 6 - 7 June 2006.

[6] Wilkinson, J. M. and Simpson, M. D. 2001. Complementary therapy use


by nursing, pharmacy and biomedical science students. Nursing and
Health Sciences, 3, 19 – 27.

[7] Owen, D. & Lewith, G. T. 2001. Complementary and alternative


medicine (CAM) in the undergraduate medical curriculum: the
Southampton experience. Medical Education, 35, 73 – 77.

[8] Lewith, G.T. & Owen, D. 2000. Complementary medicine: the


Southampton undergraduate experience. Complementary Therapies in
Medicine, 8, 202 – 206.

[9] Abdul Rahman, A. R. 2007. Traditional and complimentary Medicine:


th
Education and access. Proceedings of 6 International Traditional
rd
Complementary Medicine Conference (INTRACOM) / 3 International
Congress on Traditional Medicine & Material Medica (ICT MMM), in
conjunction with Traditional & Complimentary Medicine Exhibition (TCME
th th
2007), 17 – 19 July 2007, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pg. 45.

[10] Kim, C.-Y., Lim, B. (2004). Modernized education of traditional medicine

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in Korea: is it contributing to the same type of professionalization seen in


Western medicine? Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1999 – 2008.

[11] Abdul Wahab, I., Ariffin, S. A. & Jahidin, A. H. 2007. Traditional Medicine
Teaching For Pharmacy Undergraduates at Universiti Teknologi MARA.
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Women’s Health & Asian Traditional Medicine Conference, 16 – 18
November 2007, Kuala Lumpur (abstract accepted).

[12] World Health Organization (WHO), 2007. http://www.who.int/en/


(accessed September 2007).

[13] World Health Organization (WHO) Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002–


2005 (2002). World Health Organization (WHO) http://www.who.int/en/
(accessed September 2007).

[14] Traditional And Complementary Medicine (T/CM) Division, Ministry Of


Health Malaysia. http://tcm.moh.gov.my (accessed September 2007).

[15] Merican, I. 2002. Traditional/Complementary Medicine: The Way Ahead.


The Medical Journal of Malaysia, Malaysian Medical Association.
http://mma.org.my/mjm/mmj.htm (accessed on September 2007).

[16] The New Straits Times. Traditional Chinese medicine degree in


rd
accreditation process. 23 September 2007.

[17] Fakulti Homeopathy Malaysia, Pasir Mas, Kelantan.


http://kelantan.xaper.com/ (accessed on September 2007).

[18] The University of Hong Kong. http://www.hku.hk/ (accessed on


September 2007).

[19] Beijing University of Chinese Medicine.


http://www.bjucmp.edu.cn/english/newpage1.htm (accessed on
September 2007).

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TAHAP KEFAHAMAN KEMAHIRAN MEREKA BENTUK EKSPERIMEN DAN


KEMAHIRAN MENGEKSPERIMEN DI KALANGAN PELAJAR TAHUN DUA
PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN FIZIK MERENTAS JANTINA

(1)
Noor Anita Binti Ali ABSTRAK - Tahap kefahaman KPS di
(2)
Shaharom Bin Noordin kalangan pelajar tahun dua Program
Pendidikan Fizik di UTM Skudai telah
(1)
Fakulti Pendidikan, mendapat perhatian penyelidik. Kajian ini
(2)
Jabatan Pendidikan Sains menumpukan kepada dua kemahiran, iaitu
dan Matematik, kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, kemahiran mengeksperimen. Pemboleh ubah
manipulasi yang terlibat dalam kajian ini ialah
(1)
ninakhainita@yahoo.com jantina dan program pengajian. Seramai 38
(2)
p-sharom@utm.my orang pelajar 2SPF dan 2SPP di Fakulti
Pendidikan UTM Skudai terlibat dalam kajian
ini. Alat kajian yang digunakan untuk
mengukur tahap kefahaman kemahiran
mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran
mengeksperimen ialah Ujian Penilaian
Kemahiran Mereka Bentuk Eksperimen Dan
Kemahiran Mengeksperimen (UPKMBEM).
Alat kajian mengandungi 40 item yang
berbentuk objektif. Kebolehpercayaan alat
kajian ini ialah α = .82. Analisis data bagi
kajian ini menggunakan statistik deskriptif
dalam bentuk min, sisihan lazim, peratusan,
maksimum dan minimum. Dapatan kajian ini
menunjukkan tahap kefahaman bagi kedua –
dua kemahiran di kalangan pelajar tahun dua
Program Pendidikan Fizik adalah baik
(71.98%). Dapatan kajian juga mendapati
tidak terdapat perbezaan tahap kefahaman
bagi kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen
dan kemahiran mengeksperimen merentas
jantina. Tahap kefahaman merentas jantina
© Universiti Putra Malaysia adalah baik dengan (70.95%) bagi lelaki dan
2007. Semua Hak Cipta (72.50%) bagi perempuan. Secara
Terpelihara. Prosiding keseluruhan, dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan
Persidangan Pengajaran dan bahawa tahap kefahaman kemahiran mereka
Pembelajaran di Peringkat bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi mengeksperimen di kalangan pelajar tahun
(CTLHE07), The Palace of dua Program Pendidikan Fizik di UTM Skudai
Golden Horses, Seri berada pada tahap yang baik. Ini memberi
Kembangan, Selangor 12-14 gambaran bahawa penekanan KPS dalam
Disember 2007 P&P sains di UTM telah meningkatkan tahap
kefahaman pelajar dalam KPS.

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1.0 PENGENALAN

Dalam usaha negara untuk merealisasikan matlamat menjadi sebuah


negara maju pada tahun 2020, bidang pendidikan di Malaysia kini dianggap
sebagai satu bidang yang amat penting untuk melahirkan insan yang seimbang,
harmonis dan bermoral tinggi seperti yang dinyatakan dalam Falsafah
Pendidikan Kebangsaan (FPK).Selain itu, pendidikan sains juga telah diberikan
tumpuan oleh negara ini supaya warganegaranya dapat menguasai ilmu sains
dan seterusnya berupaya untuk menangani cabaran dalam dunia sains dan
teknologi yang kian mencabar kini. Sehubungan dengan itu, pendidikan sains
dalam Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah (KBSR) dan Kurikulum Bersepadu
Sekolah Menegah (KBSM) telah diwacanakan oleh negara agar dapat
memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu [1].
Menurut Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (PPK), kurikulum sains di negara
ini telah memberi penekanan kepada proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran
(P&P) secara berfikrah yang berteraskan Kemahiran Saintifik (KS) dan juga
Kemahiran Berfikir (KB). KS yang dinyatakan dalam kurikulum sains terbahagi
kepada dua iaitu Kemahiran Proses Sains (KPS) dan juga Kemahiran Manipulatif
(KM). KPS telah dimasukkan dalam kurikulum kerana kemahiran ini merupakan
kemahiran yang perlu dikuasai oleh pelajar supaya mereka dapat mencari
jawapan kepada sesuatu masalah dan mampu membuat keputusan secara
bersistem [1].
Laporan yang dikeluarkan oleh Lembaga Peperiksaan Malaysia (2004)
menunjukkan antara kesilapan yang sering ditemui dalam Peperiksaan Kertas 3
bagi mata pelajaran Fizik ialah terdapat pelajar yang tersilap menulis pemboleh
ubah seperti pemboleh ubah dimanipulasi (PUM) dan pemboleh ubah bergerak
balas (PUB) dalam menghuraikan rangka kerja eksperimen. Dua penyebab
utama telah dikenal pasti sebagai penyebab kepada masalah ini.

1.1 Masalah Dalam Penguasaan Konsep ( Fizik )

Masalah dalam penguasaan konsep Fizik bukan sahaja berlaku


kepada pelajar tetapi ia juga berlaku kepada guru. LPM telah memberi
saranan kepada guru agar menguasai konsep fizik dengan betul dan
mendalam. Selain itu, guru juga perlu memberi penekanan kepada KPS
dan juga KB dalam P&P [2].

Seterusnya, pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar turut mempengaruhi


tentang sesuatu konsep. Maka salah satu cara yang berkesan bagi guru
untuk menghapuskan konsep fizik yang salah ini adalah melalui
mengeksperimen. Dengan melakukan eksperimen, ia boleh
mendedahkan salah konsep pelajar.

1.2 Masalah Penguasaan KS yang Lemah di kalangan Guru dan


Bakal Guru
Dalam satu kajian awal yang dilakukan oleh Mohamed Isa dari
Maktab Perguruan Perlis beliau mendapati penguasaan KPS dikalangan
bakal guru yang mengikuti pengkhususan sains adalah lemah. Dua

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aspek yang amat lemah dikalangan bakal guru ialah mengenali


pemboleh ubah dan menyatakan hipotesis [3]. Selain itu satu kajian telah
dijalankan oleh Tan (2000) [4] terhadap guru sains di Negeri Sarawak
yang sedang mengikuti Program Khas Pensiswazahan Guru (PKPG)
menunjukkan bahawa separuh daripada guru sains tersebut masih
belum mempunyai KS yang mantap dalam mereka bentuk eksperimen
dan mengekperimen terutama yang berkaitan dengan aspek – aspek
seperti pengulangan, mentafsir data, dan kebolehpercayaan eksperimen.

Sehubungan dengan itu guru dan bakal guru perlu menguasai


kurikulum fizik kerana mereka bertanggungjawab untuk merealisasikan
objektif yang ketiga dalam kurikulum fizik yang mahukan supaya pelajar
dapat menyelesaikan masalah secara bersistem dan seterusnya
berupaya berfikir secara berkesan. Justeru,bakal guru khususnya perlu
mempersiapkan diri mereka dengan kemahiran saintifik (KS). Hal ini
kerana guru perlu lebih pengetahuan dan maklumat berkenaan KS
sebagai persediaan untuk mengajar kelak.

Untuk memastikan objektif kurikulum fizik tercapai, kurikulum


mata pelajaran sains telah dibuat di maktab atau di universiti.
Contohnya seperti di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), pelajar yang
mengambil program pendidikan fizik telah diwajibkan untuk mengikuti
Kursus Pendidikan Amali Fizik I, Kursus Pendidikan Amali Fizik II.
Justeru itu, satu kajian perlu dijalankan untuk mengukur tahap
kefahaman KS, dalam aspek kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan
kemahiran mengeksperimen di kalangan pelajar tahun dua Program
Pendidikan Fizik.

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1.3 Rangka Kerja Konsep

KS

Kemahiran Mereka Bentuk Kemahiran Mengeksperimen


Eksperimen
- Menyusun dan
- Menyatakan inferens memasang radas
- Menyatakan hipotesis mengikut prosedur.
- Menyatakan tujuan - Mengendalikan radas,
eksperimen bahan, dan alatan
- Menyatakan pemboleh mengikut prosedur
ubah yang ditetapkan
- Menyatakan senarai - Mengambil dan
radas dan bahan membaca ukuran
- Menerangkan dengan kaedah dan
pemasangan radas teknik yang betul
- Menyatakan
pengkaedahan
- Menunjukkan kaedah
penjadualan data

Tahap Kefahaman
( Dalam bentuk ujian
Tahap Kefahaman pencapaian )
(Dalam bentuk ujian
pencapaian)

Sangatbaik, Baik, Sederhana,


Lemah, Sangat Lemah
Sangatbaik, Baik, Sederhana,
Lemah, Sangat Lemah

HASIL

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Rajah 1 : Rangka Kerja Konsep

2.0 PENGKAEDAHAN
2.1 Reka Bentuk Kajian
Penyelidikan yang dijalankan ini merupakan penyelidikan
kuantitatif. Hasil kajian akan dibentangkan dengan menggunakan
statistik deskriptif kerana daripada objektif kajian, kajian yang dijalankan
ini adalah bertujuan untuk menilai tahap kefahaman pelajar tahun dua
Program Pendidikan Fizik di UTM Skudai dalam kemahiran mereka
bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran mengeksperimen. Selain itu kajian
ini juga bertujuan untuk membandingkan tahap kefahaman mereka
bentuk eksperimen dan mengeksperimen merentas jantina.

2.2 Subjek Kajian


Dalam kajian ini, subjek kajian adalah 38 daripada 43 orang
pelajar tahun dua Program Pendidikan Fizik di UTM Skudai yang
mempunyai julat umur di antara 20 tahun hingga 21 tahun. 5 orang
Pelajar lepasan diploma yang mengikuti Program Pendidikan Fizik tidak
dilibatkan. Oleh kerana populasi kajian ini adalah pelajar tahun dua
Program Pendidikan Fizik yang mempunyai julat umur antara 20 hingga
21 maka cara pemilihan sampel adalah melalui cara persampelan
bertujuan iaitu penyelidik sengaja memilih sampel dengan tujuan
mendapatkan jumlah sampel yang mewakili populasi.

2.3 Alat Kajian


Alat kajian yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah ujian
pencapaian yang dinamakan sebagai Ujian Pencapaian Kemahiran
Mereka Bentuk Eksperimen dan Mengeksperimen (UPKMBEM) dan
pengesahan bagi alat kajian ini telah dilakukan oleh dua orang pakar
bidang di Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Ujian ini mengandungi dua bahagian iaitu Bahagian A dan


Bahagian B. Bahagian A mengandungi maklumat pelajar seperti jantina,
dan program pengajian. Bahagian B pula mengandungi 40 item yang
digunakan untuk mengenal pasti tahap kemahiran mereka bentuk
eksperimen dan mengeksperimen. Terdapat 20 item yang digunakan
untuk mengukur tahap kefahaman kemahiran mereka bentuk
eksperimen dan 20 item lagi digunakan untuk mengukur tahap
kefahaman kemahiran mengeksperimen. UPKMBEM ini merupakan
ujian yang berbentuk objektif yang mengandungi empat pilihan jawapan
iaitu A, B, C, dan D.

Berikut merupakan subskala bagi kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen


dan kemahiran mengeksperimen yang akan digunakan sebagai panduan
untuk membina item bagi UPKMBEM.

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Jadual 2.1 : Item – item Kemahiran Mereka Bentuk Eksperimen Mengikut


Aspek Penilaian

Kemahiran Aspek Nombor Item


Menyatakan Inferens 3, 8, 11,
Menyatakan hipotesis 2, 33, 38
Menyatakan tujuan 18, 28,
eksperimen
Menyatakan pemboleh 1, 19, 10, 27,
ubah
Menyatakan senarai 20, 23,
Mereka Bentuk radas dan bahan
Eksperimen Menerangkan 21, 36
pemasangan radas
Menyatakan 17, 12
pengkaedahan
Menunjukkan kaedah 35, 39
penjadualan data

Jadual 2.2 : Item – item Kemahiran Mengeksperimen Mengikut Aspek Penilaian

Kemahiran Aspek Nombor Item


Menyusun dan 7, 13, 37
memasang radas
mengikut pengkaedahan
Mengendalikan radas, 24, 29, 32, 40
bahan, dan alatan
mengikut pengkaedahan
yang ditetapkan
Mengeksperimen Mengambil dan membaca 4, 5, 6, 9, 14, 15, 16,
ukuran serta membuat 22,
pertukaran unit dengan 25, 26, 30, 31, 34,
kaedah dan teknik yang
betul

2.4 Tatacara Kajian


Penyelidik sendiri telah mentadbirkan UPKMH bagi memastikan
proses pengumpulan data dijalankan dengan lancar. Masa secukupnya
telah diberikan untuk para pelajar menjawab soalan UPKMBEM.

2.5 Analisis Data


Analisis data bagi kajian ini menggunakan statistik deskriptif
dalam bentuk markat min, sisihan lazim, peratusan, maksimum dan
minimum. Data yang diperoleh melalui UPKMBEM dianalisis dengan
menggunakan perisian Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
(SPSS). Min dan sisihan lazim yang diperoleh daripada analisis

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digunakan untuk menentukan tahap kefahaman kemahiran mereka


bentuk eksperimen dan mengeksperimen bagi pelajar 2SPF dan 2SPP
merentas jantina. Nilai peratusan yang diperolehi telah dibahagikan
kepada lima tahap iaitu sangat baik (80% - 100%), baik (65% - 79%),
sederhana (50% - 64%), lemah (40% - 49%) dan sangat lemah (0%-
39%).

3.0 KEPUTUSAN DAN PERBINCANGAN

Tahap kefahaman kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran


mengeksperimen dan keseluruhan ditentukan berdasarkan pada nilai markat
min.

3.1 Tahap Kefahaman Kemahiran Mereka Bentuk Eksperimen


dan Kemahiran Mengeksperimen Secara Keseluruhan

Berikut adalah analisis statistik deskriptif tentang tahap kefahaman


kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran mengeksperimen secara
keseluruhan.

Jadual 3.1: Analisis Statistik Deskriptif Tahap Kefahaman Kemahiran


Mereka Bentuk Eksperimen Dan Kemahiran
Mengeksperimen

Kemahiran Bilangan Min Sisihan Maksimum Tahap


N = 38 Subjek Lazim (Minimum) Kefahaman
Mereka Bentuk 38 13.34 2.35 18.00 Baik
Eksperimen
(7.00)
(20 Item)
Mengeksperimen 38 15.45 1.70 19.00 Baik
(20 Item)
(13.00)
Keseluruhan 38 28.79 3.46 35.00 Baik
(40 Item)
(21.00)

Berdasarkan Jadual 3.1, dapatan kajian mendapati tahap kefahaman


pelajar tahun dua Program Pendidikan Fizik terhadap kemahiran mereka bentuk
penyiasatan dan kemahiran mengeksperimen adalah baik, ( M = 28.79, SL =
3.46) dan peratusannya adalah 71.98%.

40 item telah digunakan untuk mengukur tahap kefahaman kemahiran


mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran mengeksperimen di kalangan pelajar
tahun dua Program Pendidikan Fizik di UTM Skudai. Setiap kemahiran tersebut
telah diuji dengan 20 item setiap satu. Julat bagi kemahiran mereka bentuk
eksperimen dan kemahiran mengeksperimen masing – masing adalah 11.00 dan
6.00. Min bagi setiap kemahiran masing – masing adalah 13.34 (66.70%) dan
15.45 (77.25%). Peratus taburan serakan bagi setiap kemahiran masing –

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masing adalah 17.69% dan 11.00%.

Julat bagi kedua - dua kemahiran (mereka bentuk eksperimen dan


mengeksperimen) bagi 40 item ialah 14.00. markat min keseluruhan kemahiran
adalah 28.79 (71.98%). Peratus taburan serakannya pula adalah 12.02%.

3.2 Tahap Kefahaman Kemahiran Mereka Bentuk Eksperimen Dan


Kemahiran Mengeksperimen Merentas Jantina

Jadual 3.2 menunjukkan keputusan kajian terhadap tahap kefahaman


kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran mengeksperimen
merentas aliran.

Kemahiran Jantina Min Sisihan Maksimum Tahap


N = 38 Lazim (Minimum) Kefahaman
Mereka Bentuk Lelaki 13.31 2.69 17.00 Baik
Eksperimen (N = 13)
(7.00)
(20 Item)
Perempuan 13.36 2.23 18.00 Baik
(N= 25)
(9.00)
Mengeksperimen Lelaki 15.08 1.26 17.00 Baik
(20 Item) (N= 13)
(13.00)
Perempuan 15.64 1.89 19.00 Baik
(N = 25)
(13.00)
Keseluruhan Lelaki 28.38 3.52 33.00 Baik
(N = 13)
(21.00)
Perempuan 29.00 3.48 35.00 Baik
(N = 25)
(23.00)

Dapatan kajian mendapati tidak terdapat perbezaan terhadap tahap


kemahiran mereka bentuk penyiasatan dan mengeksperimen merentas jantina di
mana kedua – dua kelompok jantina berada pada tahap yang baik iaitu (M =
28.38 , SL = 3.52) dan peratusannya bernilai 70.95% bagi jantina lelaki dan (M =
29.00 , SL = 3.48) bagi jantina perempuan dengan nilai peratusan 72.50%.

Julat kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran


mengeksperimen bagi jantina lelaki masing – masing adalah 10.00 dan 4.00.
Markat min masing – masing adalah 13.31 (66.55%) dan 15.08 (75.40%)
Peratus taburan serakannya pula masing – masing adalah 20.21% dan 8.36%.

Julat kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran


mengeksperimen bagi pemboleh ubah perempuan, masing – masing adalah 9.00
dan 6.00. Markat min masing – masing adalah 13.36 (66.80%) dan 15.64

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(78.20%) manakala peratus taburan serakannya masing – masing adalah


16.69% dan 12.08%.

Julat keseluruhan kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran


mengeksperimen bagi pemboleh ubah lelaki ialah 12.00, dengan peratus min
70.95% dan peratus taburan serakannya ialah 12.40%. Manakala julat
keseluruhan kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran
mengeksperimen bagi pemboleh ubah perempuan ialah 12.00, peratus min
berjumlah 72.50% dan peratus taburan serakan bernilai 12.00%.

4.0 IMPLIKASI

Penekanan terhadap bidang sains dan teknologi juga turut dinyatakan


dalam falsafah pendidikan sains negara iaitu untuk memupuk budaya sains dan
teknologi dengan memberi tumpuan kepada perkembangan individu supaya
menguasai ilmu sains dan ketrampilan teknologi. Seterusnya penekanan
terhadap ilmu sains dan ketrampilan teknologi ini dijelmakan melalui kurikulum
fizik yang dilaksanakan di sekolah. Manakala bagi peringkat pengajian tinggi
khususnya di UTM, ia dijelmakan melalui Kursus Pendidikan Amali Fizik I (SPN
2221) dan Kursus Pendidikan Amali Fizik II (SPN 3231) yang menjadi medium
untuk menghasilkan bakal guru yang dapat mengaplikasikan pengetahuan dan
kemahiran dalam bidang sains dan pendidikan. Sehubungan itu, bakal guru
perlu mempunyai tahap kefahaman yang baik dalam KPS khususnya bagi
kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran mengeksperimen.

Untuk membentuk masyarakat yang bersifat progresif serta


mengamalkan budaya sains dan teknologi moden, bakal guru perlu mempelajari
dan menguasai bidang sains yang mengutamakan kaedah inkuiri dan
penyelesaian masalah. Sehubungan itu, kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen
dan kemahiran mengeksperimen yang terkandung dalam KPS merupakan antara
aspek yang perlu dikuasai oleh bakal guru untuk melakukan sebarang aktiviti
mengikut kaedah saintifik [1].

Seterusnya, KPS merupakan kemahiran yang perlu dikuasai bukan


sahaja oleh pelajar tetapi juga oleh guru. Guru perlu mengenal pasti bagaimana
kemahiran ini akan digunakan dalam P&P di dalam kelas [5]. Lembaga
Peperiksaan Malaysia, 2004 juga menyarankan kepada guru untuk memberi
penekanan kepada KPS dalam P&P disamping memberikan perhatian yang
serius dalam PEKA terutamanya dalam aspek kemahiran mengeksperimen dan
KPS yang lain [2]. Sehubungan itu, adalah relevan jika KPS diajar kepada bakal
guru di peringkat pengajian tinggi supaya mereka benar – benar menguasai
kemahiran ini dan seterusnya dapat digunakan dalam P&P fizik di sekolah nanti.

Selain itu, implikasi kajian ini kepada UTM khususnya kepada pihak
Fakulti Pendidikan ialah, ianya dapat menggambarkan tahap penguasaan
kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran mengeksperimen di
kalangan pelajar tahun dua Program Pendidikan Fizik sebelum kumpulan pelajar
ini melakukan latihan mengajar. Memandangkan UTM merupakan sebuah
universiti yang menitik beratkan sains dan teknologi maka sewajarnya kesemua
pelajar UTM terutamanya pelajar Program Pendidikan Fizik menguasai KPS

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terutamanya bagi kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan kemahiran


mengeksperimen. UTM perlu memastikan graduan yang dihasilkan menguasai
ilmu sains dan ketrampilan teknologi sejajar dengan falsafah pendidikan sains.

KESIMPULAN

Secara keseluruhan, tahap kefahaman kemahiran mereka bentuk


eksperimen dan kemahiran mengeksperimen merentas jantina tidak
menunjukkan sebarang perbezaan tahap kefahaman kerana kedua –dua jantina
mencatatkan tahap kefahaman yang baik dengan keputusan masing – masing
ialah (70.95%) bagi lelaki dan (72.50%) bagi perempuan.
KPS membolehkan pelajar untuk memperolehi pengetahuan dalam
bidang sains dengan lebih berkesan. Ini kerana melalui KPS pelajar dapat
melihat bahawa sains merupakan satu bidang yang mempunyai pelbagai disiplin
dan ia bukan hanya mengumpul fakta semata – mata [6].

Oleh itu, nyata bahawa kemahiran mereka bentuk eksperimen dan


kemahiran mengeksperimen yang terkandung dalam KPS merupakan satu alat
yang membolehkan bakal guru untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan selain daripada
fakta semata – mata tetapi ia membolehkan bakal guru untuk memahami dan
mengetahui dengan lebih mendalam tentang konsep, prinsip, hukum dan teori
fizik yang telah dipelajari.

RUJUKAN

[1] Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (2003). Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran


Fizik.
Kuala Lumpur Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
[2] Lembaga Peperiksaan Malaysia (2004). Laporan Prestasi SPM 2003
Jilid II.
Kuala Lumpur:Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.
[3] Mohamed Isa Khalid (1999). Kemahiran Proses Sains Di Kalangan Guru
PelatihDiploma Pendidikan Maktab Perguruan: Satu Kajian Awal.
Maktab Perguruan Perlis.
[4] Tan,M.T.(2000). Mengenal Pasti Pengetahuan Kemahiran Prosedural
Sains Di Kalangan Guru Sains PKPG 14 Minggu Di Maktab
Perguruan Batu
Lintang.http://www.mpbl.edu.my/inter/penyelidikan/2001/2001_tan.pdf
[5] Wan,Y.K. et al.(2004). Process Skills in Teaching – Learning Primary
Science. In Yap, K.C. et al. Teaching Primary Science. Singapore:
Pearson Prentice Hall.31-40.
[6] Burns,J.C., Okey, J.R., dan Wise, K.C.(1985). Development Of An
Integrated Process Skill Test: TIPSII. Journal Of Research In Science
Teaching. 22(2):169 – 177.

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NUN-FORECASTER - FAST FORWARD INTO THE CORPORATE FUTURE


WHAT LIES AHEAD OF YOU?

ABSTRACT - This paper is presented to support


ROZAINUN ABDUL AZIZ our poster presentation which the approach is
Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti two-fold; firstly to introduce the board game, nun-
Teknologi MARA forecaster, and secondly, the spill-over from the
40450 Shah Alam
rozainun@salam.uitm.edu.my
game into proposing concepts in
forecasting.Nun-forecaster is an educational
board game, just like the most familiar ‘snake
and ladder’. This idea symbolizes the
importance of forecasting in business, also in our
everyday life. The board game takes us through
a journey of ups and downs as well as
uncertainties where we are not sure what lies
ahead. So, we are forced to accept events and
circumstances here, nevertheless we must
proceed till we finish. This game tests
perseverance, patience and it educates us. The
board game camouflages the academic value of
forecasting, researched from an observation of a
scenario in a U.K. university, which in this paper,
we offer further concepts to be applied onto
practice. This paper proposes the use of poster
presentation, and discusses highlights of
identifying events that lie ahead of a business.
We use the board game and mathematical
modelling to support forecasting function in order
to narrow the gap between actual and forecast
performance. An insight into the mathematical
model proposed is given in concept with the hope
that both academicians and practitioners will
progress in achieving forecast accuracy. The
model explains the use of probability distribution
against point forecasts, the cost function and
© Universiti Putra Malaysia fundamentals of Bayesian methodology in
2007. Semua Hak Cipta approach. In this case, the emphasis is to index
Terpelihara. Prosiding the cost of under and over-forecast of figures that
Persidangan Pengajaran dan the business predicts. The paper attempts to give
Pembelajaran di Peringkat explanations for and cost effects of imperfect
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi forecasts, an oversight which frequently occurs to
(CTLHE07), The Palace of management. It is hoped that readers
Golden Horses, Seri acknowledge this approach as an interesting
Kembangan, Selangor 12-14
Disember 2007
method to attract ‘investors’ of teaching and
learning fraternity for future purposes.

Keywords: board game, forecasting,


mathematical model.

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
This paper extends the findings of a postal survey and case study on
practices and perceptions of forecasting [1], which addresses modelling issues
for forecasting scenarios. Its intention is to raise awareness of various modelling
approaches that can be used to enhance the quality of forecasting processes,
rather than to identify specific models, which tend to be user-specific.
It has been noted that organisations make forecasts and that forecasting
accurately is rarely achieved. As many business decisions involve forecasting,
successful forecasting practice is crucial to reduce or close the gaps in this
process [2]; [3]. This failure is due to the behaviour of forecasters. Three reasons
are offered here, namely, the process of interpreting data, forecaster bias and
forecaster preferences [4].
Using a Bayesian approach to understand and interpret the above,
subjective probabilities for the likelihood of an event are elicited and revised as
new information is received. In support of this approach, there is also a need to
emphasise to consider the individual’s role in the forecasting process [4].
Observing the practice, and learning about the perceptions, of
forecasting from the study samples are not complete if the practice and
perceptions are not represented by models. Ultimately, an organisation or a unit
could forecasts for profits, sales, investments, cash flow surplus, student
numbers, teaching loads and other resources using such models and, depending
on the nature of its activities.
Forecasts are prepared based on estimates, which, in practice,
correspond with point predictions. Typically, a single estimate is obtained as a
result of group decision-making in predicting future performance. This group
decision-making is done through members offering their expert opinions with
regard to a particular issue. Forecasts are said to be imperfect when actual
performances do not turn out as predicted. This paper offers some mathematical
modelling and consideration of cost implications for this forecasting scenario [5];
[6]; [7].

2.0 THE ISSUE OF MODELLING


How and why modelling comes into play for forecasting functions in
commercial and service industries were highlighted in the literature [1]; [4]; [9].
One particular situation identified is where the reactions of the forecasting team
towards a set of available information can affect the initial forecast predictions,
which are usually inaccurate.
A case study observation was conducted that uses Fisher’s exact test to
delineate significant associations in order to identify important variables [7]. We
observe the weakness in estimating forecasts using single point predictions, and
our study should offer possible and reliable solutions to overcome this weakness.
What interests us are issues relating to the outcome of the forecasting teamwork
and what forecast estimates are involved. Three parts contribute to our analysis,
namely:

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1) mathematical modelling involving establishing a suitable probability


distribution and loss function in order to apply Bayesian decision theory;
2) cost implications with respect to imperfect forecasts;
3) differential equations involving rates of change among variables, to
describe and explain the underlying structural behaviour.

3.0 BAYESIAN APPROACH FOR ENHANCING POINT PREDICTIONS


From the investigations carried out, we observed that targets or single
point predictions determined by an organisation, or particular unit within an
organisation, become the platform towards which actual performances are
inclined [10]. Even at the setting stage of targets and forecasts, the process of
decision-making can be demanding to ensure crucial factors are not excluded.
Single point predictions also add to the mood and motivation of people involved
with the forecasts, be they preparers or users. These single point predictions do
not allow for variations in case the outcomes of the actual performances turn out
different from planned due to uncontrollable factors. Once the actual results are
noted, the management will look back at their forecasts to identify what and why
are the differences. By looking at just one figure, any deviation may incur costs
and thereafter affect the people involved.
A previous study indicated that an essential aspect of decision-making
involves consulting experts, who usually give differing opinions of information [7];
[8]. A considerable volume of literature is available to provide solutions
addressing this problem. It is recommended that expert opinions be treated as
data for further analysis in arriving at more reliable point predictions. In this
analytical part of the research, three aspects of modelling, namely a probability
distribution, cost function and Bayesian decision analysis are described.
3.1 Probability distribution
At a university in United Kingdom, the current forecasting
situation is that point predictions are prepared and then passed on to
users [1]. As these are invariably inaccurate, we regard this as a flaw
and now propose that forecasts should consist of probability distributions
rather than point predictions to allow for this in accuracy. Our emphasis
is on the outcome from the interaction of people, not only on the results
achieved. We believe that there must be a build up of managerial
structures and communication networks to increase and improve stability
in the forecasting function. On the basis of extensions to the central limit
theorem, the normal distribution is deemed appropriate here. This choice
is supported by general theory relating to the laws of error [11].

Adopting the normal distribution, we assume X| µ , σ ~N ( µ , σ )


2

where X is the actual profit, which is an unknown random variable at the


time of preparing a forecast, µ = x̂ is a point forecast for the value of X
and σ is the standard deviation which measures the uncertainty of our
point forecast.
The benefits of establishing variations from point predictions and

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assigning normal distributions to these point predictions are now given.


Firstly, as forecast accuracy is unexpected, the variation will improve
motivation and drive. As such, management is better prepared in all
kinds of possible situations and this does not affect forecasters’
capability as a measure of improving the accuracy of forecasts.
3.2 Cost function
The element of costs is introduced and illustrated here as
funding and money are important sources of running the business.
When actual performance conflicts against forecasts, there is a loss
involved and this results in a cost to the organisation [10]. This
aspect of loss may take the form of functional relationships which,
in their simplest but most common form, are bilinear. The
following illustration explains this situation:
Let the forecast be x̂ and the actual be x; when the actual
conflicts with the forecast, there is a difference and an element of
cost is involved. Therefore, for example,
if x̂ = RM1000; x = RM500 cost is 5 units

if break-even i.e. x̂ = RM1000 and x = RM1000 cost is 0 units

if x̂ = RM1000; x = RM1200 cost is 2 units or less

Figure 1 shows a graph depicting the above effects. We measure cost in


units to indicate that the costs involved are not just monetary, but include time
and effort wasted. Therefore, a measurement for these must be devised
collectively by the people involved. This may mean that the cost involved is less
when actual is more than forecast rather than when actual is less than forecast.
This difference may be due to intangibles and may represent the hidden costs.
As long as the difference between actual and forecast results is material, further
breakdown of the costs involved must be scrutinised and addressed to find
solutions to improve future forecasts. For example, when x̂ = RM1000 and x =
RM500, this is a situation of over-forecasting. Among the consequences of this
condition are:

1) employees will be demotivated as their high expectation of the


company to perform is diminished. As a result, this might lead to a
high turnover of employees;
2) resources will be over-utilised as unrealised provisions are used;
3) the reliability of forecasts will be in question;.
4) the forecasting exercise will not be cost-effective.

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Similarly, when x̂ = RM1000 and x = RM1200, this is a situation of under-


forecasting. The consequences of this condition are:
1) under-utilisation of resources;
2) potential investments will be withdrawn;
3) doubts about the reliability and cost effectiveness and cost-effectiveness
of forecasting will arise.

Cost
(unit)
5
y = c1 ( xˆ − x)
4

3
2

1 y = c 2 ( x − xˆ )

Profit (RM)
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

Figure 1 - GRAPH SHOWING THE COST OF UNDER- AND OVER-
FORECAST OF PROFITS

3.3 Bayesian methodology


The classical, or frequentist, approach to estimation corresponds
here to the generation of point predictions enhanced by prediction
intervals, though managerial decisions are usually based on the point
predictions only. Regarding the observed profit as arising from a normal
distribution, however one can establish a subjective predictive
distribution by looking at the chances or likelihoods of achieving various
targets away from this point prediction. This variation provides an
indication of how the actual outcome evolves around its forecast. This
explains and allows for the differences between the actual and forecast
values.
For example, we might present forecasts in terms of relative
likelihoods like this: it is twice as likely to achieve a profit of RM10,000

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than a profit of RM15,000. Better still, we could present quantiles or


even the full distribution for profit. Bayesian decision theory allows
distributions of predictions to model possible departures from point
forecasts like this to make sure that the uncertainty of achieving them is
considered. This uncertainty is here expressed using a normal
distribution of relative likelihoods for the probability density function of
profits. As for any density, the area under the normal curve is one. For a
simplified analysis, one could consider a two-phased outcome, or binary
response, so that if there is two-thirds of a chance that the profit is at
least RM10,000, then the chance of not making that amount of profit is
one third. This enhances the quality of forecasts but ignores system
feedback, which we consider shortly.
The distribution for the variation of profits can be obtained in two
ways: subjectively or objectively. For example, we might establish a
normal distribution with associated loss function objectively. Using an
ARIMA model requires no subjective devising, revising and adjusting. At
this point, the expected cost of a poor forecast can be calculated. If
profits are more than RM2500, for example, the cost involved is
proportional to the difference between the point prediction and the
actual profit achieved.
Applying the recommendation given by [9], the mathematical
functions involved in this modelling of imperfect forecasts take the
following forms for this application, where x̂ is a point prediction and x
is the actual profit:

1. Normal distribution function for profits


1 x−µ 2
1 − ( )
f ( x) = e 2 σ
; −∞< x < ∞ (1)
σ 2π
2. Cost function for this application is the bilinear form

 c1 ( µ − x); x < µ
where c(x) =  (2)
c 2 ( x − µ ); x > µ
which is illustrated in Figure 1.
This means that there is a cost involved when the actual profit is more or
less than the forecast profit. This cost refers to the cost associated with
imperfect forecasting. The costs in this study may include time, effort wasted,
opportunity loss, penalty loss, and also not being able to invest in fixed assets,
projects and profitable contracts.

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Then, decision analysis is based on minimising the expected cost


E(c(X)) = ∫−∞
c( x) f ( x)dx
1 x−µ 2 1 x−µ 2
µ 1 − ( ) ∞ 1 − ( )
= ∫
−∞
c1 ( µ − x)
σ 2π
e 2 σ
dx + ∫µ c2 ( x − µ )
σ 2π
e 2 σ
dx (3)

The loss function c(x) can be bilinear, as in our analysis, or of some other
unspecified form. The bilinear cost function shows a proportionate increase in
cost with the difference between actual and forecast performances. This is true
for both sides of the relationship, x > µ and µ > x. However, it does not assume
symmetry unless c1 = c 2 above.
To evaluate equation (3), we make the substitution
2
x−µ 2
y=   ⇒ dy = 2 ( x − µ ) dx
 σ  σ
(4)
in both integrals, so that

σ2 σ2
y y
0 1 − ∞ 1 −
E{c(X)} = ∫∞
− c1
2 σ 2π
e 2
dy + ∫
0
c2
2 σ 2π
e 2 dy

(c1 + c 2 )σ
y
∞ −
=
2 2π
∫ 0
e 2
dy


(c1 + c 2 )σ  − 
y
=  − 2 e 2

2 2π  0
(c1 + c 2 )σ
=

(5)

 c1 ( µ − x); x < µ
and X| µ , σ ~N ( µ , σ
2
where c(x) =  )
c 2 ( x − µ ); x > µ
(6)
This clearly illustrates how, under the assumption of a normal distribution and
bilinear loss function, the expected cost of inaccurate forecasting is directly
proportional to the standard deviation of the predictive distribution.
Since forecasting considers the future, which is usually unpredictable, any

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incidences of unexpected outcomes should be precautioned and any remedial


actions should be recommended. These initiatives are taken so that
organisations will be ready to face the future. Any strong form of information,
available at the last minute, may force the organisation to change forecasts
abruptly. It is at this point that top management intervenes to allow forecasts to
reflect reality. As events like this may be difficult to measure, the use of
modelling will be a helpful support tool for guiding calculations.

4.0 EXPLANATIONS FOR AND COST EFFECTS OF IMPERFECT


FORECASTS

To explain the cost implications of imperfect forecasts, we now consider


these in the context of service industries. There are various indicators that can be
used to measure performance, such as patients per day for hospitals, customers
per hour of service utilities and passengers per destination for the flight industry,
to name a few. In our case, we consider the university scenario in terms of
student numbers as a performance measure. If the actual number of students is
more than the forecast number of students, there is a need for extra logistics,
including space, rooms, lecturers, time-tabling, accommodation, computer
facilities and administration. The quality of teaching and success of graduates
might be compromised because of mass production. There will be more drop-
outs and a higher failure rate which will affect the image of the university.
While universities commit themselves to provide facilities for the extra
students, it may be for the short-term only. There will be insufficient budget
available to sustain over-capacity as a result of inefficiency on the part of
management not being able to forecast and cater for extra students.
However, if the actual number of students is less than the forecast
number, these results in under-capacity, as facilities are under-utilised or idle.
The university over-pays the lecturers in terms of salary per student and so the
marginal cost per student is higher.
The whole idea of this modelling is to arrive at not just effective and efficient
solutions to account for and minimise the total loss, but also to be aware of
situations and consequences arising from inaccurate forecasting.

5.0 CONCLUSION

Modelling in our case attempts to describe the mechanism of


relationships between variables that operate in practice; an extension we offer to
integrate with management accounting. In demarking the selected variables, we
use the law of parsimony or Occam’s Razor in that the model includes only
required and important variables and does not include all reasonable predictor
variables automatically. It should also be noted that parsimony is a principle in
science where the simplest answer is always preferred.
Several aspects constitute the modelling process. We first saw how
single point estimates or predictions can be improved by assigning probability
distributions to describe variations that may be possible, hence increasing the
reliability and credibility of the forecasts. Then, we saw the measure of loss
functions as a result of imperfect forecasts and how it can be quantified, using

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Bayesian decision theory, according to whether actual results are less than
forecast or vice-versa [2]; [4]; [7].
The effects of imperfect forecasts were also explained for both service
industries, and manufacturing and trading industries. The cost factor came in as
a break-even analysis and differential equations were introduced to render the
whole modelling aspect complete. They give a clearer perspective of empirical
evidence cultured with mathematics and functional relationships objectively. It
can be seen that outcomes of improved teamwork and decision making, for
example, are related in this way.
Last but not least, in order to get a total picture of the whole research
implication onto practice, future study to reflect impact is recommended.

REFERENCES
[1] Aziz-Khairulfazi, R. (2004). An empirical and analytical investigation of
forecasting practices and perceptions: a case study on University of
Salford, United Kingdom. Unpublished Thesis. University of Salford, U.K.

[2] Drury, D. H. (1990). "Issues in Forecasting Management." Management


International Review 30(4): 317-329.

[3] Moon, M. A., T. M., John and C. D. Smith (2003). "Conducting A Sales
Forecasting Audit,." International Journal of Forecasting 19: 5-25.

[4] Stekler, H. O. (2003). "Improving Our Ability to Predict the Unusual


Event." International Journal of Forecasting 19(Editorial): 161-163.

[5] Armstrong, J. (2001). Principles of Forecasting: A Handbook for


Researchers and Practitioners, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

[6] Clemen, R. T., S.K. Jones and R.L. Winkler (1996). Aggregating
Forecasts: an Empirical Evaluation of some Bayesian Methods.
Bayesian Analysis in Statistics and Econometrics. D. A. Berry, Chaloner,
K.M. and Geweke, J.K.: 3.

[7] Aziz-Khairulfazi, R. and D.Percy (2003). Postal survey on forecasting.


Technical Report. School of AEMS. University of Salford, U.K.

[8] Edwards, M. and R. Aziz (2000). Forecasting: Meeting 21st Century


Challenges. Asian Accounting Academics Association (AAAA) World
Inaugural Conference, Proceeding, Singapore.

[9] Moon, M. A (2005) Demand: What Drives It and How It Impacts


Forecasting,” presented at the Materials Handling and Logistics
Conference, Park City, UT, September 20.

[10] Goodwin, P. (2002). "Integrating Management Judgement and Statistical


Advice About Empirical Research Methods to Improve Short-term
Forecasts." International Journal of Management Science 30: 127-135.

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[11] Eisenhart, C. (1983). Laws of Error II: the Gaussian Distribution.


Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences. S. Kotz and N. L. Johnson, Wiley,
New York. 4: 547-562.

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PERLAKSANAAN KAEDAH SCL DALAM PENGAJARAN DAN


PEMBELAJARAN KURSUS KENEGARAAN MALAYSIA DI UNIVERSITI
PUTRA MALAYSIA DAN KESANNYA KE ATAS PELAJAR DAN GRED
PENCAPAIAN PELAJAR

ZARINA BINTI MUHAMMAD ABSTRAK - SCL atau kaedah pembelajaran


Jabatan Pengajian Kenegaraan berpusatkan pelajar adalah kaedah pengajaran
dan Ketamadunan
terkini yang diterapkan dan digunapakai dalam
Fakulti Ekologi Manusia
Universiti Putra Malaysia, proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran di UPM.
43400, Serdang, Selangor Berbeza dengan kaedah berpusatkan pengajar,
zbm@putra.upm.edu.my kaedah SCL yang bersifat focus on students,
constructivism, active learning, ownership of the
experience, dan encourage students to search
and research dilihat mampu untuk
mendapatkan hasil pembelajaran sepertimana
yang disasarkan khususnya dalam
menghasilkan pelajar yang berilmu, aktif,
produktif, berkebolehan dan berketerampilan.
Sehubungan dengan itu, kajian ini dijalankan
untuk mengenalpasti kaedah pengajaran
berasaskan SCL yang digunakan oleh
pengajar-pengajar kursus umum UPM
khususnya pengajar kursus Kenegaraan
Malaysia serta menilai keberkesanannya
melalui persepsi pelajar kursus Kenegaraan
Malaysia terhadap hasil pembelajaran dan
melalui pencapaian gred pelajar sebelum dan
selepas perlaksanaan kaedah SCL. Menerusi
kajian yang telah dijalankan didapati kaedah
SCL telah dilaksanakan di dalam pengajaran
dan pembelajaran kursus Kenegaraan Malaysia
oleh tenaga pengajar yang terlibat. Segelintir
pensyarah dikesan mempelbagaikan kaedah,
pendekatan pengajaran dan penilaian. Dapatan
kajian juga menunjukkan bahawa persepsi
pelajar kursus Kenegaraan Malaysia kesan
© Universiti Putra Malaysia 2007. pengajaran dan pembelajaran berasaskan SCL
Semua Hak Cipta Terpelihara. adalah postitif dan berada pada tahap yang
Prosiding Persidangan tinggi. Perbandingan pencapaian gred pelajar
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran di sebelum dan selepas perlaksanaan kaedah
Peringkat Institusi Pengajian SCL juga menunjukkan kepelbagaian kaedah,
Tinggi (CTLHE07), The Palace of pendekatan pengajaran dan penilaian yang
Golden Horses, Seri dilaksanakan oleh pensyarah memberi kesan
Kembangan, Selangor 12-14
positif kepada keputusan gred pelajar daripada
Disember 2007
kaedah, pendekatan pengajaran dan penilaian
yang lazim digunakan

Kata kunci: Student Centered Learning (SCL);

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Kaedah Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran; Kursus