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DOSAGE AND DOSAGE

FORMS IN PHYTOTHERAPY

DOSAGE AND DOSAGE FORMS IN


PHYTOTHERAPY
THE PHYLOSOPHIES ABOUT THERAPEUTIC ACTION OF
MEDICINAL PLANTS
THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT RELIES ON A SPESIFIC
DOSE OF THE ACTIVE CHEMICALS CONTAINED IN
EACH PARTICULAR PLANT
A HERBAL MEDICINE BEING DERIVED FROM LIVING
ORGANISM, CARRIES CERTAIN ENERGY OR VITAL
FORCE. THE QUALITY OF ENERGY CONFERS THE
THERAPEUTIC EFFECT

DOSAGE APPROACH OF
CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE
THE DAILY DOSE FOR INDIVIDUAL NON TOXIC
HERBS : 3 9 GRAMS TAKEN THREE TIME
DAILY GIVEN AS A DECOCTION, PILLS, OR
POWDERED FORMS
DOSE ALSO VARIES ACCORDING TO THE
WEIGHT AND AGE OF PATIENTS AND
ACUTNESS OF THEIR CONDITION.

DOSAGE APPROACH OF
CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE
(continued)

IF FORMULAS GAVE IN A GRANULATED


FORM, THE GRANULES WERE PREPARED BY
DRYING OR FREEZE DRYING THE DECOCT.
THE DAILY DOSE OF GRANULES : 2 GRAMS
CORESPONDING TO ABOUT 6-10 GRAMS OF
ORIGINAL DRIED HERBS TAKEN THREE TIME
DAILY

DOSAGE APPROACH OF
AYURVEDIC
THE DAILY DOSE FOR INDIVIDUAL NON TOXIC HERBS
: 1-6 GRAMS AS POWDER OR TINCTURES
HIGHER DOSE OFTEN RECOMMENDED FOR
DECOCTION
MORE DOSAGE DIVERSITY THAN CHINESE HERBAL
MEDICINE
AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE OFTEN INVOLVES
COMPLEX FORMULATIONS WHICH ARE PREPARED
OVER SEVERAL DAYS AND CAN CONTAIN MANY
HERBAL AND MINERAL COMPONENTS

DOSAGE APPROACH OF
BRITISH HERBAL
PHARMACOPOEIA
THE DOSE GIVEN BY BRITISH HERBAL
PHARMACOPOEIA CONTAIN SOME
INCONSISTENCY
DOSE FOR TINCTURES OFTEN DO NOT
CORRELATE TO CORESPONDING DOSE
FOR LIQUID EXTRACT

DOSAGE APPROACH OF
BRITISH HERBAL
PHARMACOPOEIA
(continued)
THE BHP DOSE WERE IN PART DERIVES
FROM SURVEY OF HERBAL PRACTITIONER. IT
IS PROBABLE THAT THERE WERE DIFFERENT
DOSAGE PHYLOSOPHY
THE DIFFERENT TECHNIQUE OF
MANUFACTURING IS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT
WHICH CAN CAUSE INCONSISTENCY IN THE
DOSE

DOSAGE APPROACH OF
COMMISION E MONOGRAPH

DOSE FOR INFUSIONS OR DECOCTIONS


ARE REFLECTS THE COMMON USE IN
THE GERMAN MARKET PLACE
THE DAILY DOSES ARE USUALLY IN
RANGE OF 2 10 GRAMS

DOSAGE APPROACH OF
COMMISION E MONOGRAPH
(continued)

TINCTURES AND EXTRACTS DOSE ARE


GIVEN BY THE COMMISION E THERE IS
NOT ALWAYS A GOOD CORRELATION
CAUSE OF THE SAME REASON WITH
BRITISH HERBAL PHARMACOPOEIA.

RATIONAL SYSTEM FOR


MODERN PHYTOTHERAPY
A RATIONAL APPROACH
ESTABLISHED BY
CLINICAL TRIALS CAN
BE USED AS A
PROBLEM SOLVING OF
DOSE INCONSISTENCY

THE CONCEPT OF
HERBAL PHARMACOLOGY

THE BASIC IS A QUESTION :


WHY PLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES HAVE
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN BODY ?

THE ANSWER ARE :


PLANTS AND HUMAN BODY HAVE SEVERAL
ENZYMES AS CATALYST FOR MANY
BIOCHEMICAL REACTION
BOTH OF THE ENZYME SYSTEM CAN REACT
WITH AN IDENTIC SUBSTRATS
(SECONDARY METABOLITES ACT AS A SUBSTRAT
FOR ENZYMATIC REACTIONS IN PLANTS AND
HUMAN BODY)
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THE CONCEPT OF
HERBAL PHARMACOLOGY

PLANT METABOLITES :
PRIMARY METABOLITES :
PROTEINS, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS,
CHLOROPHYL
NECESSARY TO SUSTAIN THE LIFE

SECONDARY METABOLITES
DO NOT APPEAR TO BE NECESSARY TO
SUSTAIN THE LIFE
INCREASING SURVIVAL IN ITS NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT
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THE CONCEPT OF
HERBAL PHARMACOLOGY
MODEL OF HERBAL PHARMACODYNAMIC
TANNINS
HYDROLYZABLE TANNIN
GALLOTANNIN
ELLAGITANNIN
CONDENSED TANNIN
CATECHIN
EPICATECHIN
OPC (OLIGOMERIC PROCYANIDIN)
13

THE CONCEPT OF
HERBAL PHARMACOLOGY
MODEL OF HERBAL PHARMACODYNAMIC
(Continued)
TANNINS

ADSTRINGENT
ANTI ULCER
ANTI OXIDANT
NEUTRALIZE INFLAMATION PROTEIN

TANNINS CAN COMPLEXING METAL ION AND


INHIBIT THEIR ABSORPTION
TANNIN CAN ALSO REACT WITH THIAMINE AND
DECREASE ITS ABSORPTION
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THE CONCEPT OF
HERBAL PHARMACOLOGY
MODEL OF HERBAL PHARMACODYNAMIC
(Continued)
PHENOLIC
BACTERIOSTATIC BACTERICIDE
ANTI OXIDANT
ANTI THYROID
CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDE
ANTI CANCER

CANCER TISSUES CONTAIN GLUCOSIDASE THAT WAS


CONYUGATED TO TUMOR ASSOCIATED ANTIBODY
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THE CONCEPT OF
HERBAL PHARMACOLOGY
MODEL OF HERBAL PHARMACODYNAMIC
(Continued)

MUCILAGE
ANTI GI TRACT INFLAMATION
ANTI OBESITY
LAXATIVES

FLAVONOIDS
ANTI OXIDANT
ANTI INFLAMATION
IMUNNOMODULATOR

VOLATILE OILS
ANTIBACTERIAL
CARMINATIVES
EXPECTORANT
SPASMOLYTIC
SEDATIVES

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ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE

POWDERS
LIQUIDS
TABLETS
CAPSULES
STANDARDIZED
EXTRACT

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE
POWDERS
PARTICULARLY APPLIES TO MUCILAGE CONTAINING HERBS. WHEN
THESE HERBS ARE MIXED WITH WATER, THE MUCILAGE REACT WITH
WATER TO FORM , AND THE WET HERBS SWELL TO MANY ITS ORIGINAL
VOLUME

APPLIES TO TANNIN CONTAINING HERBS FOR TREAMENT OF COLON


PROBLEMS. THIS BECAUSE THE TANNINS ARE ONLY SLOWLY DISSOLVED
IN HERB MATRIX AND ARE THEREFORE STILL BEING RELEASE IN AN
ACTIVE FORM WHEN THE HERB REACHES THE COLON

WHERE THE FAT SOLUBLE COMPONENTS ARE IMPORTANT PART OF THE


ACTIVITY OF THE HERBS, THE POWDER SHOULD BE FOLLOWED BY A
DOSE OF VEGETABLE OILS OR LECITHIN TO ASSIST ABSORPTION

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE

LIQUIDS
THE ADVANTAGE OF LIQUIDS DOSAGE FORM :

EASY PREPARATION OF FORMULATIONS FOR EACH


INDIVIDUAL PATIENT
INVOLVE MINIMAL PROCESSING
DOSAGE FLEXIBILITY
READILY ABSORBED

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE

LIQUIDS
(continued)
THE DISADVANTAGE OF LIQUIDS DOSAGE FORM :

UNPLEASANT TASTE CAN NOT BE ELIMINATED


THE ALCOHOL CONTENT
IN CASE OF WATER AS SOLVENT, STABILITY OF
LIQUIDS FORM BE A PROBLEMS, ESPECIALLY IN CASE
OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI GROWTH

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE

LIQUIDS
(continued)

INFUSION and DECOCTION


INFUSION AND DECOCTION ARE MAINLY USED WERE THE
ACTIVE COMPONENTS OF THE HERBS ARE WATER
SOLUBLE
MAJOR DISADVANTAGE OF THOSE FORMS IS THAT WATER
IS NOT GOOD SOLVENT FOR MANY OF THE ACTIVE
COMPONENTS IN HERBS

TINCTURES
EXTRACTS

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE
THE PREPARATION OF THE HERBAL
LIQUIDS
THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE PREPARATION OF HERBAL LIQUID

THE STRENGTH OF RATIO


THE STRENGTH OF LIQUIDS PREPARATIONS IS USUALLY
EXPRESSED AS RATIO, FOR EXAMPLE 1 : 5 MEANS THAT 5 mL
OF THE FINAL PREPARATIONS IS EQUIVALENT TO 1 GRAM OF
DRIED HERB FROM WHICH THE PREPARATION WAS MADE
LIQUID PREPARATION WHICH HAVE RATIO 1 : 1 OR 1 : 2 ARE
CALLED EXTRACT WHEREAS WEAKER THAN 1 : 2 ARE CALLED
TINCTURES
INCTURES ARE USUALLY MADE BAY MACERATION, WHEREAS
EXTRACT ARE BEST MADE USING PERCOLATION WITH
ETHANOL AS THE SOLVENT.

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE

THE PREPARATION OF THE HERBAL LIQUIDS


(CONTINUED)
THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE PREPARATION OF HERBAL
LIQUID

DER (DRUG TO EXTRACT RATIO)


DER IS THE RATIO OF THE MASS OF HERBAL DRUG
(STARTING MATERIAL) TO THE MASS OF RESULTING NATIVE
HERBAL PREPARATION (NATIVE EXTRACT)
HIGH VALUE OF DER ALWAYS STAND FOR LOW QUANTITY OF
EXTRACTABLE MATTER AND VICE VERSA.
DER 20 : 1 MEANS THAT THE EXTRACT CONTAIN OF 5 % EXTRACTABLE
MATTER
DER 2 : 1 MEANS THAT THE EXTRACT CONTAIN OF 50 %
EXTRACTABLE MATERIAL

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE
THE PREPARATION OF THE HERBAL
LIQUIDS

(CONTINUED)
CALCULATION OF THE DER :
HERBAL DRUG (Kg)
DER = ------------------------------NATIVE EXTRACT (Kg)

100 Kg OF NATIVE HERBAL DRUG PREPARATION (NATIVE


EXTRACT) ARE OBTAINED FROM 400 Kg OF HERBAL DRUG
400 (Kg) . 1
X = ------------------ = 4
100 (Kg)

-------- DER = 4 : 1

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE
THE PREPARATION OF THE HERBAL
LIQUIDS

(CONTINUED)
CALCULATION OF THE DER AT THE STAGE OF SOFT EXTRACT
HERBAL DRUG (Kg). 1. 100%
DER = ---------------------------------------- --- DS = DRY
SUBSTANCE
SPISSUM EXTRACT (Kg). DS (%)
200 Kg OF SOFT EXTRACT CONTAINING 50% DRY
SUBSTANCE ARE OBTAINED FROM 400 Kg HERBAL DRUG
400 (Kg) . 1. 100 (%)
X = ------------------------------ = 4 ------ DER = 4 : 1
200 (Kg) . 50 (%)

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE
THE PREPARATION OF THE HERBAL LIQUIDS
(CONTINUED)

CALCULATION OF THE DAILY DOSE OF NATIVE EXTRACT


DD HERBAL DRUG (g)
DD = ---------------------------------------DER
FOR VALERIAN EXTRACT, THE DOSE TO BE ADMINISTERED SHOULD BE 9
GRAMS OF HERBAL DRUG DIVIDED INTO THREE TIMES PER DAY. THE DER
IS 3 : 1
DD VALERIAN ROOTS (GRAMS)
9
DD = ------------------------------------------ = ------------- = 3
DER
3
THE DAILY DOSE OF THE EXTRACT IS 3 GRAMS DIVIDED INTO THREE
TIMES EACH OF 1 GRAM

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE
TABLETS
NO PROBLEMS WITH TASTE AND ALCOHOL CONTENT
MAJOR PROBLEM IS THE DEGREE OF PROCESSING REQUIRED

TABLETS ARE USUALLY MADE FROM EXTRACTS WHICH ARE MORE


CONCENTRATED THAN THE ORIGINAL HERBS
THE HERBS ARE FIRST EXTRACTION WITH A SOLVENT
THE RESULTANT LIQUID IS THEN DRIED TO EITHER SOFT EXTRACT OR
POWDERED CONCENTRATE USING PROCESS
HEAT SENSITIVE OR VOLATILE COMPONENTS CAN BE DAMAGE OR
LOST BY THE PROCESS

ORAL DOSAGE FORMS


IN HERBAL MEDICINE

THE HERBALIST SAID THAT HERBS ACTION IS AN


EXPRESSION OF THE SUM TOTAL OF KNOWN AND
UNKNOWN CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT

THERE IS STRONG BELIEVE THAT THE


RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE CONSTITUENTS MAY BE
AS IMPORTANT AS ACTUAL CONSTITUENT
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