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Mitochondria:(The power house of cell)

The double membrane bounded organelles present in eukaryotic cells

The mitochondria is derived from two Greek words mito meaning


Thread and Chondrion meaning Granules.
The number and size of mitochondria vary from cell to cell and
species to species. It depends on physiological activity of the cell.
For example in some algae only one mitochondrion is present while
in frogs egg their number reaches to 10,000.Most of the
vertebrates usually have 500-1000 mitochondria per cell.

Structure of mitochondria:
Under compound microscope mitochondria appear to be
vesicles,rods or filaments.
Under electron microscope they show complex morphology.
1. A mitochondrion is bounded by double membrane
Outer membrane is smooth
Inner membrane is highly folded inward and these infolds are known
as cristae.
Function of cristae:They increase the surface area of inner membrane and
provide abundant space for respiratory reactions.

2. The space between outer and inner membrane is called


intermembranous space.
3. The area enclosed by inner membrane of mitochondria is called
matrix.
Composition of matrix: Chemically matrix is composed of
DNA,RNA,ribosomes,enzymez,co-enzymes,organic and inorganic salts.

F1-Particles:The inner surface of cristae in the mitochondrial matrix has


small knob like structures called F1 particles.Each particle consist of
Head,Stalk and base and composed of different proteins.Its head is
associated with ATP synthesis.

Functions of mitochondrion:
Because they provide energy to the cell so they are called power
house of cell.
Krebs cycle,aerobic respiration and fatty acid metabolism takes
place in mitochondria.
Presence of DNA and ribosomes indicate that some proteins are
formed in mitochondria and it is also self-replicating.