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SCHIZOPHRENIA

WHAT IS SCHIZOPHRENIA?

WHAT IS SCHIZOPHRENIA?
a severe mental disorder, characterized by profound disruptions in
thinking, affecting language, perception, and the sense of self
includes psychotic experiences, such as hearing voices or delusions
Schizophrenia typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood
Schizophrenia affects 1% of the Canadian population
Schizophrenia affects slightly more males than females
It occurs in all ethnic groups around the world

WHAT CAUSES
SCHIZOPHRENIA?
Scientists believe that many different genes contribute to an increased
risk of schizophrenia, but that no single gene causes the disorder by itself
An imbalance in the complex, interrelated chemical reactions of the brain
involving the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate, and possibly
others, plays a role in schizophrenia.
The brain structures of some people with schizophrenia are slightly
different than those of healthy people.

WHERE ARE THEY?


6% are homeless or live in shelters
6% live in jails or prisons
5% to 6% live in Hospitals

Supervised Housing

Homeless/Shelters
Jail
Hospitals

10% live in Nursing homes


25% live with a family member

Nursing Homes

28% are living independently


20% live in Supervised Housing
Independently

With Family

After 10 years

After 30 years

Dead (Mostly Suicide); 10%


Completely Recover; 25%

Dead(suicide); 15%

Hospitalized; 15%

Completely Recover; 25%

Hospitalized; 10%
Inproved but require extensive support; 25%
Require Extensive Supprt; 15%
Relatively Independent; 25%

Relatively Independent; 35%

HISTORY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
The word "schizophrenia" is less than 100 years old
Disease was first identified as a discrete mental illness by Dr.
Emile Kraepelin in 1887
the illness itself is generally believed to have accompanied
mankind through history
Early theories supposed that mental disorders were caused by
evil possession of the body
appropriate treatment was then exorcising these demons,
through various means, ranging from exposing the patient to
certain types of music, to releasing the evil spirits by drilling
holes in the patient's skull.

HISTORY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
CONT.
Institutions for the mentally ill were established beginning in the 14th
century.
These facilities, or asylums, were opened in Florence, Spain, Belgium, and
England.
One of the most renowned was St. Mary of Bethlehem, located outside
London -- better known as Bedlam
This asylum was well known for the brutal treatment of the insane.
Bedlam was later used as a term to refer to all asylums.

FAMOUS PEOPLE WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

Albert Einstein's son - Eduard Einstein

Mary Todd Lincoln, wife of Abraham Lincoln (past-President of the United States)

Age:Died at 55 (1910-1965)

Age:Died at 64 (1818-1882)

Birthplace:Zrich, Switzerland

Birthplace:Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America

Profession:Psychiatrist

Died:1882

Died:1965

Medical Conditions:Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia

Cause Of Death:Stroke

Medical Conditions:Schizophrenia

Age:Died at 60 (1946-2006)

Birthplace:East of England, Eurasia, Cambridgeshire, United


Kingdom, Cambridge+3more

Jack Kerouac

Age:Died at 47 (1922-1969)

Birthplace:Lowell, Massachusetts, United States of America

Syd Barrett of the band Pink Floyd

Profession:Painter, Poet, Novelist, Screenwriter

Died:1969

Cause Of Death:Cirrhosis

Profession:Guitarist, Songwriter, Musician, Singersongwriter, Singer

Age:Died at 37 (1853-1890)

Birthplace:Zundert

Died:2006

Profession:Painter, Artist

Cause Of Death:Cancer, Pancreatic cancer

Died:1890

Medical Conditions:Bipolar disorder, Asperger syndrome

Cause Of Death:Ballistic trauma, Suicide

Vincent van Gogh

SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND


SCHIZOPHRENIA
Substance abuse is the most common co-occurring disorder in people
with schizophrenia, and the complex relationships between substance use
disorders and schizophrenia have been extensively studied
People with schizophrenia are much more likely to smoke than people
without a mental illness
90% of people with schizophrenia are addicted to nicotine
People living with schizophrenia tend to use substances that are
affordable, easily accessible and readily available, such as alcohol,
cannabis and nicotine

SCHIZOPHRENIA IN THE FAMILY


Scientists have long known that schizophrenia sometimes runs in
families.
The illness occurs in less than 1 percent of the general population, but it
occurs in 10 percent of people who have a first-degree relative with the
disorder, such as a parent, brother, or sister
People who have second-degree relatives (aunts, uncles, grandparents, or
cousins) with the disease also develop schizophrenia more often than the
general population

SUICIDE AND SCHIZOPHRENIA


Among people diagnosed with schizophrenia, an estimated 20% to 40%
attempt suicide. From 5% to 13% actually complete the act of suicide
Compared to the general population, people with schizophrenia have 8x
increased risk
teens with schizophrenia have approximately a 50% risk of attempted
suicide

SCHIZOPHRENIA IN OTHER
CULTURES
basic schizophrenia symptoms such as hallucinations, anhedonia,
antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, emotional processing, and
mood induction, vary across cultures
A team of researchers hailing from seven different countries showed that
hallucinations vary greatly both in incidence and in type across cultures

SCHIZOPHRENIA IN THE WORLD


1.1% of the world population over the age of 18 has schizophrenia (51
million people)
6 to 12 million people in China (a rough estimate based on the
population)
4.3 to 8.7 million people in India (a rough estimate based on the
population)
2.2 million people in USA
285,000 people in Australia
Over 280,000 people in Canada
Over 250,000 diagnosed cases in Britain

SCHIZOPHRENIA TREATMENTS:
CLOZAPINE
Clozapine (Clozaril) was the first atypical antipsychotic in
the United States and it has demonstrated a clear
advantage over the other medications for difficult-to-treat
symptoms.
Clozapine appears to reduce the symptoms of
schizophrenia in some people, but it is hard on the body and may lead to
weight gain, diabetes and other medical conditions

SCHIZOPHRENIA TREATMENTS:
REHABILITATION
Like all people, individuals living with schizophrenia typically have
important goals for themselves in the areas of relationships, work and living
Psychiatric rehabilitation strategies are designed to enable people to
compensate for, or eliminate, the environmental and interpersonal barriers
as well as the functional deficits created by this illness
Professionals work with individuals living with mental illness to address
problems proactively, helping to make sure that crises do not happen,
ensure medications are being properly taken and assist in helping
individuals meet the routine challenges of daily life

SCHIZOPHRENIA TREATMENT:
CBT
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective
part of a treatment plan for some people living with schizophrenia
engages the individual who needs mental health help, in developing
proactive coping strategies for persistent symptoms
Many people report that it is beneficial to have someone to discuss their
experiences with; talk therapy is a helpful tool in learning how to better
manage mental illness