You are on page 1of 34

1.

1.1.

1.1.1. m n
m n

a11
a
21

a m1

a1n
a 2 n

a mn

a12
a 22

am2

, i = 1, , m, j = 1, , n.
: A, B , C ,...
aij , i = 1, , m, j = 1, , n .

ai1 , ai 2 , , ain (i = 1, ..., m ) i - .


a1 j , a 2 j , , a nj ( j = 1,..., n ) j - .
aij i - j - .
1.1.1.

1
A=
2

3
e 2 2 ,
1

C = e 2
0

sin

4 e o 3 2,
6

19 0
4

B = 4 2 7 e o 3 3,
3 5 3 12
0,3

D = ln 2 e o 3 1.
1


. .
A B . A
2, a B e o 3.
1 .
1.1.2. e
. ,
, e
, E I. ,

.
1.1.2. : 2, 3
3 2, 1,

5.

0 0
O=
,
0 0

0
0 .
5

2 0
D = 0 1
0 0

1 0 0
E = 0 1 0 ,
0 0 1

1 n . A = a1 , a 2 , a n

b1

, a m 1 . B =
bm

1.1.3. :

a11
a
21

a n1

a 22
an2

a11

a nn

a12
a 22

a1n
a 2 n

a nn

. (
.)
, .
1.1.4. A B a
A B.

[ ] B = [b ] m n

A = aij
:

ij

aij = bij (i = 1, , m, j = 1, , n ).

1.1.3. :

0 3
1
A = 1 2 0 ,

2 3 1
2


cos
sin 2
2

D = 2o
2 sin
2

1

ln 3
sin 4
e

1 0 3
B=
,
1 2 0

ln 1
C=
tg
4

0 1

tg ln e , H =
,
4

1 2

555

,
2 ln e

e0

e ln 3

1 0
F=
.
1 2

: ,
B .
:

ln1
C=
tg 4

0 1
=
=H
2 ln e 1 2

e0


sin 2

D = 2o


sin 4

2
3
2 sin
2
1
ln 3
e
cos

tg ln e =
4


55
5

e ln 3

1
1
2
2

0 3
2 0 = A .

3 1

1.1.4. a, b c A B ,
:

1
c

A= b
c + a ,
a b
1

a b 2

B = 2b 3 .
a
a

: A B
:

a b = 1, c = 2

b = 2b, c + a = 3 .
a b = a, a = 1
a = 1, b = 0, c = 2.

1.2

[ ]

[ ] m n.

1.2.1. A = aij B = bij

A B e C m n,
A B,
= + = + = , ( = 1, , ; = 1, , )
,
:
:
A+B=B+A
:
(A + B) + C = A + (B + C)
1.2.1.

1
A = 1
0.2
7

D=2
5

0 3
2 0 ,
3 1
6 25

32 19 ,
94 5

1 0 3
B=
,
1 2 0

2 56

C = 1 24 ,
8 7

3 1 8
H=
,
3 12 53

1 0
F=
.
1 2

,
.
: A D 3 B H
2 3. :

6 28
8
4 1 11

A+ D = 3
30 19 , B + H =
.
2 10 53

4,8 91 6
1.2.2 A D

11 10 13

H = 21 22
20 , ( + ) + = + ( + ).
2 15 9

[ ]

1.2.2. A = aij
, = = .
(1) + () = + = ,
e .
: = + ().

1 0 3
.
1 2 0

1.2.3. 3B B =

1 0 3 3 0 9
3B = 3
=
.
1 2 0 3 6 0
1.2.1. ,
. :
( + ) = + ,
( + ) = + ,
() = (),
1 = .
1.2.3. e e
. e :

cij = ai1b1 j + ai 2 b2 j ++ ain bnj ,

i = 1,2,... m,

j = 1,2,...... p.


e e
. .

2 0
5 7
B=

.
1 2
9 13

1.2.4. A =
AB.

2 0 5 7 2 5 + 0 ( 9 )

=
1 2 9 13 ( 1) 5 + 2 ( 9 )
1 3
1.2.5. C =
8 1
: AB =

2 7 + 0 13 10 14
.
=
( 1) 7 + 2 13 23 19
0
1 4
D=

.
5
1 9

CD.
: C e 2 3 , a D o 2 2 ,
CD .
1.2.6. AB BA

0 3
3 5 1
1

A = 0 3 1 B = 4 1 2 .
4 1 2
1 2 1
:

3 5 1 1
AB = 0 3 1 4
4 1 2 1
0 3 3
1

BA = 4 1 2 0
1 2 1 4

0 3 18
1 2 = 11
2 1 10
5 1 15
3 1 = 4
1 2 7

7 18
1 7
5 12
AB BA .
2
5
19 9
2 1

.
1.2.2. A, B C AB BC,
() () (
):
() = ().

1 2
0 3
1 1
, B=
C=

.
1 2
1 4
1 0
A(BC ) ( AB )C .

1.2.7. : A =
:

11
3 0
=
,
BC
5 1 .
5

2
A(BC ) = ( AB )C .
13 2
( AB )C =

7 2
2
AB =
2
13
A(BC ) =
7

Teorema 1.2.3. A, B C :
( + ) = + ( ),
( + ) = + ( ),
() = () = (), ,
.


:
A e m n . E m A = A, AE n = A
m n .
A e , EA = AE = A.

A e , A n =
A
A.

A B = 0, A 0, B 0.
= = .

n -

0 0
1 0
B=

.
0 1
0 0

1.2.8. A =

0 0 1 0 0 0

=
= O.
0 1 0 0 0 0

: AB =

1.2.9. :

0 1
1 0
1 0 1

A = 2 0 2, B = 1 0 C = 0 1 .
1 0
0 1
0 1 1
AB AC.
:
1 0 1 1 0 1
AB = 2 0 2 1 0 = 2
0 1 1 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 1 1
AC = 2 0 2 0 1 = 2
0 1 1 1 0 1

1
2
1

AB = AC B C.

1
2
1

1.3
1.3.1. o

a11
a
21
=

a m1

a11
a
12
T
A =

a1n

a12
a 22

a m2

a1n
a 2n
,

a mn

a 21 a m1
a 22 a m2
,

a 2 n a nm


, .

1.3.1. :

3 1
3 0 1

A = 1 0 1 B = 0 0 .
1 1
2 0 0
6

3 1 2
3 0 1
A = 0 0 0 B T =
.
1 0 1

1 1 0
T

( AT ) T = A ,

( A + B) T = A T + B T ,

(A)T

= AT ,

( AB) = B T A T .
1.3.2. e
a A = AT ,
T

a A = AT ,

AA T = A T A = E ,

A2 = E ,

k A k +1 = A , k e
. Ao A 2 = A A e .

k a A k = O .

1.3.3. , :
a A = A T ,
a A = A T ,
a A T A = E ,
a A T A = AA T .
1.3.2. :

0 1 0
1 2 6
1 2 2
1

9 C = 0 0 1 .
A = 2 1 2, B = 3 2
3
0 0 0
2
2 2 1
0 3
:
) A e , .
) B + B T e , a B B T e , B
.
) B e 2.
) C e 3.
:
1 2 2
1
T
a)
A = 2 1 2 = A A e .
3
2 2 1
1 2 2 1 2 2
9 0 0
1 1
1

AA = 2 1 2 2 1 2 = 0 9 0 = E A e .
3 3
9
2 2 1 2 2 1
0 0 9
T

AA = AA T = E o .
)

1 2
B + B = 3 2
2
0
1
0

T
B B = 1 0
8 9
T

6 1 3 2 2 - 5 - 4
9 + 2 2
0 = - 5 4
9 e ,
3 6 9 3 - 4 9 6
8
9 e .
0

) B 2
5 6 6 1 2 6 1 2
3
2
9 = 3 2
B = B B = 9 10 9 3 2
4 4 3 2
0 3 2
0

B 3 = B .
6
9 = B .
3

) C 3 = O :
0 0 1 0 1 1
C = C C = 0 0 0 0 0 1 = O .
0 0 0 0 0 0
1.3.3. :
1 + i 2 + 3i 2 i
0 1 + i 3 i
1 i 2 2i

0
1 H = 1 i
1
i .
A=
, B = 3i
0
i

3
i

1
3 + i i
i
2i
2
3

a) A .
) AB = A B .
) B + B T e e, a B B T e a .
) H ?
) B ?
:
1 + i 2 2i
a)
.
A=
i 3i
0
)

1 i 2 3i 2 + i
B = 3i
0
1 ,
1
i
2i

1 + i 2 + 3i 2 i
1 i 2 2i
2 + 8i 3 + i 1 3i
AB =
0
3i
1 =
,

i 3i
3 3i
3
6 i
0

1
i
2i
2 8i 3 i 1 + 3i
.
AB =
3
6 + i
3 + 3i

1 i 2 3i 2 + i
1 + i 2 2i
2 8i 3 i 1 + 3i
.
AB =
0
3i
1 =

i 3i
3 + 3i
3
6 + i
0

1
i
2i

AB = A B .
)

B + B T e B + B T

= B + BT .
1 2
2 + 6i 3 i
1 + i 2 + 3i 2 i 1 i 3i

T
1 i
C = B + B = 3i
0
1 + 2 3i 0 i = 2 6i
0
1
i
2i 2 + i 1 2i 3 + i 1 + i
0

2 + 6i 3 i
2

C = 2 6i
0
1 i = C B + B T e e .
3 + i 1 + i
0
1 2i
2
1 i
1 + i 2 + 3i 2 i 1 i 3i

T
0
0 1 + i ,
D = B B = 3i
1 2 3i 0 i = 2
1
2i 2 + i 1 2i 1 i 1 + i
4i
i
2i 2 1 + i
T
D = 2
0
1 i = D B B T e a .
1 + i 1 i 4i
T

0 1 + i 3 i

i = H ,
1
) H = 1 i

3 + i i
2
0 1 + i 3 i 0 1 + i 3 i 12 . .
T
H H = 1 i
i 1 i
i = . . . E
1
1
3 + i i
2 3 + i i
2 . . .
T

H .
)

1 20 . .
1 + i 2 + 3i 2 i 1 i 3i

BB = 3i
0
1 2 3i 0 i = . . . .
1
i
2i 2 + i 1 2i . . .
T

1 1 + i 2 + 3i 2 i 12 . .
1 i 3i

1 = . . . ,
B B = 2 3i 0 i 3i
0
2 + i 1 2i 1
i
2i . . .
T

B .

2 1
0 1

Zada~a 1.1. Dadeni se matricite A = 1 0 , B = 2 7 i

3 2
1 1
1 0 2 3
C=
. Da se presmeta 2, 3 i .
0
1

1 4
2
2

Re{enie: 2A = 2 1 0 = 2 0 ,

3 2 6 4
1 0
1 6
2
2

3 A B = 3 1 0 2 7 = 1 7 ,
3 2 1 1 10 5
A3 2 C2 4 = AC 3 4 , vo ovoj slu~aj mno`eweto e dozvoleno pa }e imame :
1
2
3
1 0 2

A C = 1 0
=
0 1 1 2

3 2
2 0 + 1 1
2 2 + 1 ( 1)
2 ( 1) + 1 0

= ( 1) ( 1) + 0 0 ( 1) 0 + 0 1
2 2 + 1 ( 1)
( 3) ( 1) + 0
( 2) 1 + 0 ( 3) 2 + ( 2) ( 1)

2 3 + 1 ( 2 )

( 1) 3 + 0 ( 2 ) =
( 3) 3 + ( 2 ) ( 2 )

2 1 3 4
= 1 0 - 2 - 3.
3 - 2 - 4 - 5
2 1
.
3 3

Zada~a 1.2. Da se presmeta f ( A) ako f ( x ) = x 2 5 x + 3 i A =

1 0
e edine~na matrica.
0 1

Re{enie: f ( A) = A2 5 A + 3E kade {to E =

5
7
A2 = A A =

15 12
5 10 5 3 0 0 0
7
f ( A) =

+
=
.
15 12 15 15 0 3 0 0
3 2
.
4 1
Re{enie: Sekoja matrica komutativna so A mora da e od ist red kako i A.
x x2
3x + 2 x3 3x2 + 2 x4
3x + 4 x2 2 x1 + x2
AX = XA, X = 1
, AX = 1
, XA = 1

.
x3 x4
4 x1 + x3 4 x2 + x4
3x3 + 4 x4 2 x3 + x4
Zada~a 1.3. Da se najdat site matrici komutativni so matricata A =

Od ednakvosta na poslednive dve matrici go dobivame sledniov sistem :

10

3x1 + 2 x3 = 3x1 + 4 x2 x3 = 2 x2
3x2 + 2 x4 = 2 x1 + x2 x2 = x1 x4

4 x1 + x3 = 3x3 + 4 x4 x3 = 2( x1 x4 )

od kade {to se gleda deka toj e dvojno neoprelen

4 x2 + x4 = 2 x3 + x4 x3 = 2 x2

i site negovi re{enija se od oblik ( x1 , x1 x4 ,2( x1 x4 ), x4 ) . Otuka sleduva deka site

matrici {to komutiraat so matricata A se od oblik X =

x1

2( x1 x4 )

x1 x4
.
x4

a b c

Zada~a 1.4. Dadena e matricata A = 0 a d , kade {to , , se realni broevi.

0 0 a

a) Da se opredeli matrica taka {to = + ;


b) Da se opredeli B n , n N
v) Koristej}i go (b) da se opredeli An , n N .

0 b c

Re{enie: a) B = A aE = 0 0 d ,

0 0 0
0 0 bd
b) B = 0 0 0 , B 3 = O B n = O n 3.
0 0 0
2

n
E n k B k = a n E n + na n 1E n 1B + a n2 E n2 B 2 + + B n
k =0
2
n
n
kade {to E = E , n N B = O n 3 .
n
Spored toa se dobiva An = a n E + na n 1EB + a n 2 EB 2 , odnosno
2
v) An = (aE + B ) =
n

A =0
0

n
a

=0

k a

0
an
0

nk

n n2
a bd
0
0

0 0 na b na c
2



0 + 0
0
0
na n 1d + 0 0
=
n

0
0 0 0
0
a 0

n 1

n 1

n
na n 1b na n 1c + a n 2bd
2

n
.
a
na n 1d

0
an

1 0
n
Zada~a 1.5. Ako e n N A =
da se doka`e deka A = E + n( A E ) .
1
1

11

Re{enie: a n = 1, A = E + 1 ( A E ) = E + A E = A , va`i .
Pretpostavuvame to~nost za n = k :

Toga{ za n = k + 1 imame :

1 0
0 0 1 0
Ak =
+ k

=
.
0 1
1 0 k 1

0
1 0 1 0 1

=
A k +1 = A k A =

,
k 1 1 1 k + 1 1
od druga strana :

0
1
E + (k + 1)( A E ) =
.
k + 1 1
Zna~i An = E + n( A E ), n N .
1 1 0
Zada~a 1.6. Da se presmeta A , n N , A = 0 1 1 .
0 0 1
n

1 4 6
1 3 3
1 2 1

3
2
4
Re{enie: A = A A = 0 1 2 , A = A A = 0 1 3 , A = 0 1 4 .

0 0 1
0 0 1
0 0 1
2
3
4
n
n!
Ako se potsetime deka =
imame = 1, = 3, = 6 . Spored toa
2
2
2
k k! (n k )!
2

k
1 k
2

mo`e da pretpostavime deka A k = 0 1


k , k 2 .
0 0 1

k
1 k + 1 + k 1 k + 1
2

Toga{ za n = k + 1 imame Ak +1 = 0
k + 1 = 0
1
1
0
0
1 0
0

k + 1

2
k + 1 , pritoa
1

k
k k k + 1
+ k = + =
pretpostavenoto va`i n N .
2
2 1 2
a b
Zada~a 1.7.
Da se doka`e deka matricata A =
ja zadovoluva ravenkata
c d
x 2 (a + d )x + ad bc = 0.
n

a b
Koristej}i go toa da se najde
.
c a

12

a 2 + bc ab + bd
Re{enie: A 2 =
; A 2 (a d )A + (ad bc )E = O
2
ac
cd
bc
d
+
+

0 0
ab + bd ad bc
+
=
2
ad bc 0
ad + d 0
O=O
Ako e d = a toga{ ravenkata }e glasi : x 2 (a a )x a 2 bc
a 2 + bc ab + bd a 2 + ad

2
ac + cd bc + d ac + cd

0
,
0

= 0 , odnosno

A a + bc E = O .
2

Spored toa

(
= (a

)
+ bc ) E ,

A 2 = a 2 + bc E , A 3 = a 2 + bc A
A4
pa mo`e da zaklu~ime deka :

(
(

A 5 = a 2 + bc A

)
)

a 2 + bc k E , n = 2k

A =
.
k
a 2 + bc A , n = 2k + 1
Zada~a 1.8. Dadeni se matricite
1 0 0
2 1 1

A = 0 3 0 , B = 0 1 1 .
0 0 2
0 0 3
Da se doka`e deka:
n

a)

A 2 e dijagonalna matrica ;

b)
B 2 e gorno triagolna matrica ;
v)
Matricata se dobiva koga sekoja redica od se pomno`i so soodvetniot
~len aii od .
g)
Sekoja matrica , komutativna so e dijagonalna.
Re{enie:
1 0 0
4 3 6
2 1 1

2
2
a)
b)
3 3 i
B = 0 1 4 , v) AB = 0
A = 0 9 0 ,
0 0 4
0 0 9
0
0
6
c12 = 3c12

c13 = 2c13

c
c
c
c
3
c
2
c
11
11
12
13
12
13
3c 21 = c 21

g)
AC = 3c 21 3c 22 3c 23 = c 21 3c 22 2c 23 = CA

3c 23 = 2c 23
2c31 2c32 2c33 c31 3c32 2c33
2c31 = c31

2c32 = 3c32
site ~lenovi so indeksi i j se ednakvi na nula, a ~lenovite so indeksi i = j se
izbiraat proizvolno, toga{ C e dijagonalna matrica red 3.
Zada~a 1.11. Da se poka`e deka proizvod na dve ortogonalni matrici e ortogonalna
matrica.
Re{eni: Neka se ortogonalni matrici. Toga{ za nivniot proizvod imame:
( AB )T ( AB ) = B T AT ( AB ) = B T AT A B = B T EB = B T B = E ,

13

pa dobivame deka i e ortogonalna matrica.


Zada~a 1.12. Neka e involutorna matrica. Da se poka`e deka ( )( + ) = .
Da se poka`e deka va`i i obratnoto.
Re{enie: Neka e involutorna matrica, odnosno 2 = . Toga{:
(i )

(E A)(E + A) = E A + A A2 = E E = O .

Obratno, neka va`i ( )( + ) = . Toga{ dobivame A 2 E = O od kade sledi


deka e involutorna matrica.
Zada~a 1.13. Neka e matrica kolona. Da se formiraat matricite AAT AT A . Da
se ispita dali tie matrici se simetri~ni.
Re{enie: Bidejki e matrica kolona nejziniot oblik e A = [a1 a 2 a n ]T ,
dodeka za transponiranata matrica dobivame matrica redica AT = [a1

a1

aa
T
AA = 2 1

a n a1
2

Zna~i matricata

a1a 2
2
a2

an a2

a1a n

a2 an

2
a n

e o red

a2

a n ].

n , a matricata

AT A = a1 2 + a 2 2 + a n 2 ima samo eden ~len. deka tie


matrici se simetri~ni.
Zada~a 1.14. Neka i se kvadratni matrici so red i e ermitska matrica. Da se
T

poka`e deka A BA e ermitska matrica.

Re{enie: Imame deka B T = B. Dobivame A T BA

( )

= AT B T A T

= A T BA ,

{to s deka A BA e ermitska matrica.

1.4
1.4.1. a e

.
1.4.2.
() :
1) i j- () : Ri R j ; K i K j

2) j- () c: R j cR j ; K j cK j

3) i- () c - j- () i - :
Ri Ri + cR j ; K i K i + cK j .

1.4.3.
.
1.4.1. ,
:

1 3 0 1
1 2 5
0

A= 2
2 4 2 0 B = 4 1 6 .
6 3 4
4 4 8
4 1

14

0
A = 2
4
1
R1 R1 1
2

0
4

2
3 0 1 R R 2
1
2

1
4 2 0 0
4 4
4 1
4 8
1 2 1 0 R R + 4R 1 1
3
3
1

1 3 0 1
0 1
0 0
4 1
4 8
1
2

4 2 0
3 0 1
8
4 1
2 1 0
3 0 1 ,
0
0 1

R2 + 4 R1
5 R R + R 1 2 5
1 2
1 2 5 RR2
3 R3 6 R1
3
3
2

B = 4 1 6 0 9 26 0 9 26 .
0 0
0 9 26
6 3 4
0

2.
2.1

{a1 , a 2 , , a n } n .

, .
n Pn = n!

.
.
P {1,2 , , n} .
(1,2 ,..., n )
. p i j
i > j i j . i j
.
, .
.

2.2

2.1. A n

a11
a
A = 21

a n1

a12
a 22

an 2

a1n
a 2 n
,

a nn

A e

15

a11
a
det A = 21

a n1
det A =

( 1) a
k

1k1

a12
a 22

an2

a1n
a2n
,

a nn

a 2 k2 a nkn . k1 , k 2 , k n e e

1,2, n , a k e k1 , k 2 , k n .
1 3 0
2.1. D = 2 1 1 .
3 1 3
:
det D = 1 1 3 + 3 3 1 + 2 1 0 3 1 0 3 2 3 1 1 1 = 3 + 9 18 1 = 7 .
:
1. det A = det AT
2. A e ()
() det = 0.
3.
() .
4. A e ()
() det = 0.
5.
() ()
.
6. A () ,
.
7. det () = det det .

k k
k- k-
.

.

2.2.
M = aij e Aij = ( 1)i + j M ij , M ij M = aij .


.
2.1.

1
2
A=
1

3
2
1
2

2 1
1 2
3 1

1 1

) ,
) ,
,

16

) .
: )
1 3 2 1
2 1 2
2 1
2 2 1 2
2
3
det A =
= ( 1) 1 3 1 + ( 1) 3 1 3
1 1 3 1
2 1 1
2 1
2 2 1 1
= 15 + 63 24 0 = 24
2
1
1 3 2 1 R R + ( 2 )R 1 3
2
2
1

+
R
R
R
3
3
1
2 2 1 2
0 4 3 0
) det A =
=
=
5
2
1 1 3 1 R4 R4 + ( 2 )R1 0 4
0 4 3 3
2 2 1 1
1 3 2
2 2 1
) det A =
1 1 3
2

1
2

4 3
4

0
2 = 84 36 24 = 24

4 3 3

1 3
2
1
R3 R3 + R4 0 4 3
0
=
=
= 29
1 R4 R4 + ( 2 )R1 0 4
5
2 R4 R4 R2 0 0
2
2
2 1 1
0 4 3 3
0 0
0 3
R2 R2 + ( 2 )R1
R3 R3 + R1
0

3
2
4 3

2
2 2 2
2 2 1
4
5
1 + ( 1) 2 1 1 1 + ( 1) 1 1 3 =
1
2 2 1
2 2 1

1
0

2.2. :
1
0 0
1
0 1 1 1

1 4
1 0 1 0
0 0

.
B=
A=
1 0
3 1 0 1
1 1

0 1 1 2
1 1 2 0
detA, detB detAB det () =
det det .
: A A
:

1
1
0
1 4 0
det A =
1 0 1
0 1 1

0
4 0 0
1 0 0
0
2
3
= ( 1) 0 1 1 + ( 1) 1 1 1 = 12 + 3 = 15 .
1
0 1 2
1 1 2
2

B,
:

0 1 1
2 0 1
det B =
3 1 0
1 1 2

1
2 0 1
0 1 1
0
5
7
= ( 1) 3 1 0 + ( 1) 2 0 1 = 5 .
1
1 1 2
1 1 2
0

AB:

1
0
1
1 4 0
AB =
1 0 1

0 1 1

0 0 1 1
0 2 0 1

1 3 1 0

2 1 1 2

17

1 2 1
0 8
1
=
1 4
1

0 3 3

2 1
3 1
.
1 0

3 1

1
8
1
det AB =
4
1
3 3
2

2
R1 R1 R3

11
4
3

3 1
1 0
3 1

1 0
2 0
1 1
3

10
R1 R1 + R 2

0 5

8 1 3 1
4 1 1 0
3 3 3 1

R2 R2 R4

2 0 1 0
11 2 0
0
5
=
4
1
1
0
3 1
3 3

4 2 0 0
15 0
R1 R1 R 2
0
5 11 2
5 11 2 0 0
=
=
1
1 1 0
0
2 4
2 4
3 3 3 1
3
3
3 1
0

0
0
1

0
0
5
= ( 30 ) = 75
0
2
3 1


det AB = 75 = 15 ( 5) = det A det B .
2.3.

12541 12541 12541


B = 12551 12541 45726 .
23841 23841 23842
:

12541 12541 12541


0 12541
0
K1 K1 K 2
12541 0
= 10 12541 33185 = 10
= 125410 .
det B = 12551 12541 45726
K3 K3 K 2
23841 1
23841 23841 23842
0 23841
1

3.
3.1.

a11
a
A = 21

a n1

a12
a 22

an 2

a1n
a 2 n
.

a nn

Aij e a () aij A,

A11
A
adj A = 12

A1n

A21 An1
A22 An 2

A2 n Ann

A.
3.1.

18

1 2 1
A = 1 1 1 .
2 1 2
:

2 1
= 5,
1 2

A31 = ( 1)

A22 = ( 1)

1 1

A32 = ( 1)

A23 = ( 1)

1 2

A11 = ( 1)

1 1
= 1,
1 2

A21 = ( 1)

A12 = ( 1)

1 1

= 4,

A13 = ( 1)

1 1

= 3,

1+1

1+ 2

1+ 3

2
2

2
1

2 +1

2+ 2

2+3

2 1

= 4,

= 3,

3+1

3+ 2

A33 = ( 1)

3+ 3

2 1
= 3,
1 1
1

1 1

= 0,

= 3.

1 5 3
adj A = 4
4 0 .
3 3 3
3.1. A e

A adj A = (adj A) A = (det A) E .

3.2. e ()
= = .
3.3. = =
1 .
3.4.
.
3.2. .
3.3. det 0.
3.4. ,
A .
. 1
:

A 1 =

1
adjA. .
det A

.
.

(A )

1 1

= A.

1 .
( AB )1 = B 1 A 1 .

(A ) = (A )
1 T

T 1

4 7
.
5 9

3.2. B =

: .

det B =

4 7
=1 0
5 9

19

a b
.
c d

B . B 1 =
BB 1 = E = B 1 B .

4a + 5b 7 a + 9b
4a + 7c 4b + 7 d
=E=
BB 1 =
= B 1B

4c + 5 d 7 c + 9 d
5a + 9c 5b + 9d
1 5b

a = 4
1 5b

a=

+
=
4
a
5
b
1
a = 9

4
7 1 5b + 9b = 0

b = 7
7 a + 9b = 0

7 35b + 36b = 0

4
.

c = 5
c = 5 d
c = 5d
4c + 5d = 0
d = 4

7c + 9d = 1
4
4
35d + 36d = 4
5d
7
+ 9d = 1
4

9 7
B 1 =
.
5 4

3.3. :

1 4 3 5
1 2 0
3 10 9 12
.
A = 1 0 2 B =
2 6 7 8
1 1 0

1 2 5 6

: .

1 2 0
det A = 1 0 2 = 2 0
1 1 0

A 1 =

A11 = ( 1)

0 2
= 2,
1 0

A21 = ( 1)

A12 = ( 1)

1 2

A13 = ( 1)

1 0
= 1,
1 1

1 +1

1+ 2

1+ 3

= 2,

1
adj A .
det A

2 0
= 0,
1 0

A31 = ( 1)

A22 = ( 1)

1 0

= 0,

A32 = ( 1)

A23 = ( 1)

1 2
= 1,
1 1

A33 = ( 1)

2 +1

2+ 2

1 0

2+3

2 0 4
1
A = 2 0 2 .
2
1 1 2
1

B.

20

3 +1

3+ 2

3+ 3

2 0
= 4,
0 2
1

1 2

= 2

1 2
= 2.
1 0

1 4 3 5
3 10 9 12
det B =
= 108 0
2 6 7 8
1 2 5 6
B e .
() :

1 4 3 5 1
3 10 9 12 0

2 6 7 8 0

1 2 5 6 0

0 0 0
3
5 1 0
1 4
R2 R2 3 R1

1 0 0 R3 R3 2 R1 0 2 0 3 3 1
0 1 0 R4
2 1 2 2 0
R4 + R1 0

0 0 1
0 6 2 11 1 0

3 1 5 2
1 0
0 2 0 3 3 1

0 0
1
1 1 1

0 0 2 2 8 3

1 0
0 2

0 0

0 0

0
0
1
0

0
0 R1 R1 3 R3
0 R4
R4 + 2 R3

0 4 8 5 3
0 3 3 1
0
1 1 1 1 1
0 4 6 1
2

0 R1 R1 + R4
1
R R
0 2 2 2
0 R 1 R
4 4 4
1

6
14
1 1
3
R R R
1 0 3 2 3 2 1 2 0
0 2 2 2 4
0 1 1
1
1
0 R3
1
R3 R4

0 0 1 3 2 1 4 1 2 1 4
6
1
1
1 0 0 0 14
0 1 0 0 15 4 7 8 3 4 3 8
.

0 0 1 0 5 2 5 4 1 2 1 4

12
14
0 0 0 1 3 2 1 4

1
0

0 0

1
6
1
14
15 4 7 8 3 4 3 8
.
B 1 =
5 2 5 4 1 2 1 4

12
14
3 2 1 4

Zada~a 3.1. Da se najdat inverznite matrici za slednite matrici:

21

0 0
R1 R1 + 2 R2
0 0 R3 R3 R2
1 0 R4
R4 + 3 R2

0 1

0 0 3
A = 0 2
4 ,
1 5 0

1 1 0 1
2 1 1 2
.
C=
3 3 1 2

1 1 2 2

2 0 1
B = 2 0 0 ,
3 1 0

Re{enie: det A = 6 0 pa A 1 postoi i toa:

20 15 6
1
A = 4 3 0 .
6
2 0 0
1
0
0
1
1
0
3 2 .
Analogno det B = 2 0 pa B =

2
2 2 0
1

Inverznata matrica na matricata }e ja presmetame so elementarni


transformacii:

1 1 0 1
2 1 1 2

3 3 1 2

1 1 2 2

1
0
0
0

1
0

0
1
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

2
1
0
1

2
1
4
7

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
1 1
R2 R2 2 R1

0 R3 R3 3 R1 0 1
0 R4
0
R4 + R1 0

1
0 0

1
1 1 0 2
0 1 1 3
0 0 1 7
0 1

1 1
1 1
0 1
0 2

0
0 R1 R1 2 R4
1 R2
R2 R4

1
1
0
0
1
0

0 1
1 0
1 1
2 1

1 0
2 1
3 0
1 0

0
R1 R1 R3
0 0 R2 R2 R3
1 0 R4
R4 + R3

2 1
0 0 0 12
1 0 0 6
0 1 0 4
0 0 1 7

0
0
1
0

0
0 R1R1+ R2
0 R4
R4 2 R2

1 3 2
1 1 1
.
0 1 1

0 2 1

Zada~a 3.2. Za koe matricata }e bide: a) singularna, b) nesingularna ako

x
3
A=
0

1
x
2
0

0
2
x
1

Re{enie: a) Matricata e singularna akko


nula. Za taa cel
x 1 0 0
x
3 x 2 0
det A =
= x2
0 2 x 3
0
0 0 1 x

22

0
0
?
3

nejzinata determinanta e ednakva na

2 0 3 2 0
x 30 x 3 ,
1 x 0 1 x

) (

det A = x x 3 3x 4 x 3x 2 9 = x 4 10 x 2 + 9 .
Sleduva det A = 0 ( x = 1 x = 1 x = 3 x = 3) .
b)
Matricata e nesingularna (regularna) akko nejzinata determinanta e
razli~na od nula. Spored prethodnoto }e bide nesingularna akko
(x 1 x 1 x 3 x 3) .

a b
kade {to
b a

Zada~a 3.3. Neka e S mno`estvoto od site matrici od oblik A =


a ,b R .

a) Dali za sekoja matrica A S postoi inverzna matrica A 1 taka {to A 1 S .


b) Da se najdat site matrici A S za koi A + A 1 = O .
Re{enie : a) Za sekoja matrica A S , det A = a 2 + b 2 . Matricata }e ima inverzna
matrica akko a 2 + b 2 0 (a 0 b 0 ) . Vo toj slu~aj imame
A 1 =

a b

S .
a + b b a
1

a 3 + ab 2 + a a 2b + b3 b 0 0
2
=

3
3
2
a b b + b a + ab + a 0 0
a=0
a 3 + ab 2 + a = 0
a (a 2 + b 2 + 1) = 0 a 0 b 0 a = 0

2
b = 1
b = 1
b3 + a 2b b = 0
b(b 2 + a 2 1) = 0

1
A+ A = O 2
a + b2
1

b)

od kade {to sleduva deka edinstveni matrici koi gi zadovoluvaat baranite uslovi
0 1 0 1
se matricite

.
1 0 1 0
Zada~a 3.4. Neka e nesingularna matrica. Da se poka`e deka:

( )
det (A BA) = det B .

a) det A 1 = (det A) =
1

1
.
det A

b)

( )

( )

Re{enie: a) 1 = det E = det AA 1 = det A det A 1 det A 1 =

( )

1
.
det A

b) det A 1 BA = det A 1 det B det A = (det A) det B det A = det B .


Zada~a 3.5. Neka e kvadratna matrica o red i neka postoi priroden broj taka
{to A k = E . Da se poka`e deka e nesingularna matrica, i deka A 1 = A k 1 .
Re{enie: Prvo }e poka`eme deka e nesingularna matrica. Bidej}i

( )

1 = det E = det A k = (det A) sleduva deka det A = k 1 0. Toa zna~i deka A 1 postoi.
k

Ako sega ravenstvoto A k = E go pomno`ime so A 1


A 1 = A k 1 .
2 5 4
2

Zada~a 3.6. Dadeni se matricite: A = 0 5 8 B = 1


3 15 1
2

go dobivame rezultatot:
0 1
3 3 .
5 5

a) Bez da se izvr{i mno`eweto da se doka`e deka AB = E + B 2 ;


b) Koristej}i go doka`anoto pod a) da se presmeta A n .

23

Re{enie: a) det B = 1 0 B 1 . Inverznata matrica na


so pomo{ na elementarni transformacii o redici:
R2 2 R1 1
R2 1
3 3 0 1 0 RR2
2 0 1 1 0 0 RR1
R3 2 R1
2 R3
3
2 5 5 0 0 1

1 3 3 0 1 0
0

2 0 1 1 0 0
0
2 5 5 0 0 1
R1 R1 + 3 R2
R3 R3 6 R2
R2 R2

3
3 0 1 0
1 1 0 2 1
6 5 1 2 0

1 0 0 0 5 3 R R R 1 0 0 0 5 3
0 1 1 0 2 1 2 2 3 0 1 0 1 8 5 .

0 0 1 1 10 6
0 0 1 1 10 6

Spored toa

2 5 4
B 1 A = 0 5 8 = B 1 + B .
3 15 1

0 5 3
B 1 = 1 8 5 AB = E + B 2
1 10 6
b) Spored prethodnoto , mo`e da zapi{eme :
n
n
n
An = B + B 1 = B n k B 1
k =0 k

Zada~a 3.7.

( ) = kn B

nk

k =0

n
n
B k = B n 2 k .
k =0 k

Neka e matrica takva {to za proizvolen priroden broj va`i

A = O . Da se najde inverznata matrica na matricata E A .


Re{enie : Ako e A2 k = O A2 k +1 = O isto taka. Toga{
2k

E = E O =

= E A 2 k +1 =

(
)
= (E A)(E + A + + A ).

= ( E A) E + A + + A 2 k =
2 k 1

Ako za nekoja matrica postoi matrica taka {to CD = E , toga{ D = C 1.


Vo konkretniov primer toa zna~i deka

(E A)1 = E + A + + A 2 k 1

so {to poka`avme deka matricata E - A e nesingularna.


Zada~a 3.8. Neka i se realni ortogonalni matrici o ist neparen red. Da se
poka`e deka edna od matricite + ili e singularna.
Re{enie: Bidej}i i se ortogonalni matrici imame deka AAT = E i BB T = E . Da
se poka`e deka edna od matricite + ili e singularna zna~i da se poka`e
deka barem edna od determinantite na tie matrici e nula. Zatoa go razgleduvame
nivniot proizvod:

)
B ) = det (E + B

det ( A + B )det ( A B ) = det ( A + B ) det ( A B ) = det AT + B T det ( A B )


T

(
(

= det A A + B A A B B
= det B T A AT B .
Neka e matricata B T A AT B . Toga{
T

T
det X = det X T = det B T A AT B

((

))

A AT B E

= det AT B B T A

= det B T A AT B = det ( E ) det X = det X .

24

Posledniot del od ravenstvoto go dobivame koristej}i go faktot deka i se


matrici od neparen red. Toga{ i E }e bide matrica od neparen red pa det ( E ) }e
bide -1. Zaradi det X = det X dobivame deka

det X = det ( A + B )det ( A B ) = 0

{to treba{e da se poka`e.

4.
4.1. A o m n .
(, ) e A
A.
.
4.1.

2 1
1
1 3 2
.
A=
1 0
1

0
0
0

: 3
. 2,
. 18 .

1 1
.
0 0

4.2. e rang
, .


.

.
4.1. A e ( det A 0 ) n, rang = .

. A e e
. .
4.2.

1 0 0 0
A = 0 0 0 0 .
0 2 3 4
: A :

1 0 0 0
A = 0 0 0 0 ~
0 2 3 4

1 0 0 0
0 2 3 4


0 0 0 0

= 2.
Zada~a 4.1. Da se najde rangot na slednite matrici :

25

5 3 1 2 8
2 3 7
10 13 5 21 16
.
A = 8 4 12 i B =
2 4 0 7 1
6 5 13

1 2 4 5 6

Re{enie: Bidej}i det A = 0 rangot na matricata }e bide pomal od nejziniot red (vo
primerov < 3).
R2 4 R1 1
3
7 R3 R3 1 R2 1 3
7
2 3 7 K1 1 K1 1 3 7 RR2
R3 3 R1
3
2
2

A = 8 4 12 4 4 12
0 8 16 0 8 16 .
0 0
0 4 8
3 5 13
6 5 13
0

Brojot na nenulti redici vo transformiranata matrica e 2, pa sleduva deka i


rangot na matricata iznesuva 2.
e
.

4
5
6
5 3 1 2 8
1 2 4 5 6
1 2
R 2 10 R1

10 13 5 21 16 R1 R4 10 13 5 21 16 RR32
R3 2 R1
0 7 35 29 44

B=
2 4 0 7 1 2 4 0 7 1 R4
0
8 3 11
R 4 5 R1 0

1 2 4 5 6
5 3 1 2 8
0 7 19 23 22

R4 R4 R2

4
5
6
4
5
6
1 2
1 2
0 7 35 29 44 R4 R4 + 2R3 0 7 35 29 44

rang = 3.
0 0
0 0
8 3 11
8 3 11

16
6
22
0
0
0
0 0
0 0

Zada~a 4.2. Da se najde rangot na matricata

2 4
0
1 4 5

A= 3
1
7 .

5 10
0
2
3
0
Re{enie:
2
4 R3 R3 + 3R2 1 4
5
0
1 4

R3 R3 + 11 / 2 R2
2

+
5
0
2
4

R
R
R
5
5
2

R R 5 / 2R
3
2
0 11 22 3
A= 3
1
7
~
~

5 10 R2 R2 0 5 10
0
R R3 + 5 / 2 R 2
2
0 5 10 3
3
0
R1 R2
pa rangot na e dva.
Zada~a 4.3. Da se re{i matri~nata ravenka

1 2
1 5
1 2 X = 1 5,

a potoa da se ispita rangot na .

26

1
0

0
0

4 5
2 4
0 0

0 0
0 0

a b
. Toga{ od matri~nata ravenka go dobivame sistemot
c d
1 2c 5 2d
a + 2c = 1
, pa dobivame deka X =
kade {to i se proizvolni

d
c
b + 2d = 5

Re{enie: Neka X =

parametri. Ako e nesingularna matrica ako


det X 0 d 5c ,
nejziniot rang }e bide dva; (bidejki redot na matricata e dva). Ako = 5, toga{

1 2c 5( 1 2c )
, pa jasno e deka rangot na vo ovoj slu~aj e
5c
c

e od oblik X =

eden. Rangot na ne mo`e da bide nula bideji za = 0 se dobiva nenulta matrica so


rang eden.

a 0 a

Zada~a 4.4. Dadena e matricata X = 0 b 0 . Da se re{i ravenkata X 2 = X .

c 0 c

Potoa da se opredeli rangot na matricata .


Re{enie: Baranata ravenka e ekvivalentna so ravenkata X 2 X = O od kade so
zamena na 2 i go dobivame sistemot:

a 2 + ac a = 0
2
.
b b = 0
c 2 + ac c = 0

Od vtorata ravenka jasno e deka imame dve re{enija za i toa = 1 ili = 0. Od


druga strana so odzemawe na prvata i tretata ravenka se dobiva (a c )(a + c 1) = 0 .
Vo prviot slu~aj ako = , ima oblik

a 0 a
X = 0 b 0 .
a 0 a

rang = 2 za = 1, 0,
rang = 1 za = 1, = 0,
rang = 0 za = = 0.

1 c 0 1 c

b
0 i
Vo vtoriot slu~aj ako = 1 matricata ima oblik X = 0

c
0
c
rang = 2 za = 1, rang = 1 za = 0. Rangot na ne mo`e da bide nula bideji
ako = 0 prvata redica }e bide razli~na od nula.

27

5. m n
m n

a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + ... + a1n x n = b1

a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + ... + a 2 n x n = b2

.....................................................
.....................................................

a m1 x1 + a m 2 x 2 + ... + a mn x n = bm

(1)

(1) n -
.
(1) AX = B
T
T
A = [aij ] mn , B = [b1 , b2 , , bm ]m1 X = [x1 , x 2 , , x n ]n1 . A
. A ,
X = A 1 B .
, (1)
.
C
(1):

a11
a
21
C= .

.
a m1

a12
a 22
.
.
am2

.
.
.
.
.

. a1n
. a2n
. .
. .
. a mn

b1
b2
. .

.
bm

5.1. ( - ): (1) e
.
1 n = k (rang = rang = ),
(1) ,
2 o k < n (1) .
b j = 0 , j = 1, m , .
: x1 = x 2 = ... = x n = 0 .

? - :
1) Ao rang ( A) = n .
2) Ao rang ( A) < n .
Ao m = n det A = 0 .

1 2
1 3 3
0

Zada~a 5.1. Dadeni se matricite A = 1 3 4 i B = 1 0 3 . Da se re{at

1 4 3
2 3 0
matri~nite ravenki AX = B i YA = B .

28

Re{enie: Mno`eji ja prvata ravenka so A 1 od levo (determinantata na A e


razli~na od nula, pa nejzina inverzna matrica postoi), i vtorata ravenka so A 1 od
1

desno se dobiva X = A B, Y

7
X = A B = 1
1
1

7 3 3
1 imame:
= BA . Bidejki A = 1 0
1 1
0
1 2 9 16 5
3 3 0

0
1 1 0 3 = 2 4 2 i
1
0 2 3 4 1 1 1
1

1 2 7 3 3 3 2 1
0

1 = 10 6 3 .
Y = BA = 1 0 3 1 0
2 3 4 1 1
0 11 6 3
1

0 1 1

Zada~a 5.2. Dadena e matricata A = 1 0 1 . Da se opredelat realnite broevi p

1 1 0
i q , takvi {to za p > 0 , q 0 matricata B = pE + qA go zadovoluva uslovot B 2 = E .
Za taka najdenite vrednosti da se re{i matri~nata ravenka BX = A .
p q q

Re{enie: Matricata B = pE + qA = q p q treba da go zadovoluva uslovot

q q p
p 2 + 2q 2

B 2 = E t.e. B 2 = 2 pq + q 2
2 pq + q 2

2 pq + q 2
p 2 + 2q 2
2 pq + q 2

2 pq + q 2 1 0 0

2 pq + q 2 = 0 1 0 = E , od kade {to se
p 2 + 2q 2 0 0 1

p 2 + 2q 2 = 0
dobiva sledniov sistem ravenki za p i q :
. Od uslovite p > 0 , q 0
2 pq + q 2 = 0
se

dobiva

2 p + q = 0 q = 2 p
1
2
p = ,q = .
2
2
2
3
3
p + 8 p = 1 9 p = 1

Zna~i

za

se

dobiva

1 2 2
1
B = 2 1 2 . Sega ja nao|ame determinantata na B: det B = 1 0 taa e
3
2 2 1
nesingularna matrica i ima inverzna, koja vo ovoj slu~aj e ednakva na B, {to
sleduva od ravenstvoto B 2 = E . Imeno od BB = E = BB 1 B = B 1 . Spored toa za
matri~nata ravenka se dobiva :

4 1 1
1
BX = A X = B A = 1 4 1 .
3
1 1 4
1

29

Zada~a 5.3. Da se najde matrica X za koja va`i :

2 6
0
1 2 0
1 1 1 X 4 2 2 = X .

3 7 3
3 1 1
Re{enie: Dadenoto ravenstvo e od oblik AX B = X AX X = B odnosno
( A E )X = B . Ja presmetuvame matricata i nejzinata determinanta :
0 2 0
A E = 1 0 1 , det ( A E ) = 6 0 sledi postoi ( A E )1 :
3 1 0
1 0 2
1
1
( A E ) = 3 0 0.
6
1 6 2

Toga{ ( A E )1

( A E )X = B X = ( A E )1 B , taka {to dobivame :


1 2 0
X = 0 1 3 .
3 0 2

Zada~a 5.4. Da se re{i so pomo{ na matrici sledniot sistem :

x1 + 3 x2 + 2 x4 = 1

2 x1 + 4 x2 2 x3 x4 = 3
x1 7 x2 + 3 x3 3 x4 = 2

3 x1 x2 + 4 x3 = 3
Re{enie: Dadeniot sistem mo`e da go napi{eme vo matri~en oblik na sledniov
na~in :

3
0
2 x1 1
1
2 4 2 1 x 3

2 = ili AX = B .
1 7 3 3 x3 2


0 x4 3
3 1 4
14
40 23
67
1
2
0
1
1
1
1
.
Bidej}i det A = 10 0 X = A B . A =
10 50 10 30 20

30 10 20 10
x1 4
x 1
2
Za re{enieto na sistemot se dobiva = x1 = 4, x2 = 1, x3 = 4 i x4 = 1 .
x3 4

x4 1

30

6. ,

6.1. A e . B
A S, :
A = S 1 B S S A = B S , A B .
,

1 A B B A ,
2 A B B C A C .
6.1. A e B.
A n e B n .
: S
A = S 1 BS .

A n = S 1 BS

) = (S BS)(S
BS ) (S BS ) =

= S B S S B S S BS = S 1

BB
B S = S 1 B n S .

6.2. A e H 1 AH , H e
. A e
HAH 1 .
: S A = S 1 H 1 AH S .

)(

A = S 1 H 1 AH S = S 1 H 1 H 1 H A H 1 H HS = H 2 S

) (HAH )(H S )
2

A e HAH 1
H 2 S .
6.2. A = [aij ] e n. E A
( A E ) A , a
det(E A)
n -
( ) = det (E A) = n (a11 + a 22 + ... + a nn ) n 1 + ... + (1) n det A .
6.1. A B
.
:

det(E A) = det(E C 1 BC ) = det(C 1C C 1 BC )


= det(C 1 (C BC )) = det(C 1 (E B )C )
= det C 1 det( E B ) det C
= det(E B ) det C 1 det C
1
= det(E B) det(C
C)

= det(E B).
: !

31

6.3. A e ( ) = det(E A) e
.
A .
( A)
A ( ) .
6.3. ( ) = 3 32 + 2 5
A . ( A) .

: ( A) = A 3 3 A 2 + 2 A 5 E .

6.2. (-): A ( ) e
A , ( A) = 0 , A e
( A) .
,
AX = X , A = [aij ]
, - X - .
(E A)X = 0 X

, det( E A) = 0 (
- ). det( E A) = 0
A 1 , 2 ,..., n

() .

X 1 , X 2 ,...., X n
() .

(E A)X = 0

1 3
.
4 2

6.4. A =

det( E A) = 0 ,
1 = 2, 2 = 5 . 1 = 2

2 3 10 = 0

3 x1 3 x 2 = 0
3 3 x1 0
=
1 = , 2 = ,

4 x1 4 x 2 = 0
4 4 x 2 0

(1 E A)X 1 = 0

1
X 1 = t , t R \ {0} .
1

3 / 4
2 = 5 X 2 = t
, t R \ {0} .
1

0 0 2

6.4. A = 1 2 1 .

1 0 3
: det( E A) = 0 , 1 / 2 = 2, 3 = 1 .
1 / 2 = 2 :

32

2 0 2 x1 0
1 0 1 x = 0 = , = , = .
1
2
3

2
1 0 1 x3 0

1 0
s s 0

X = t = 0 + t = s 0 + t 1 t , s R \ {0}.


1 0
s s 0
t = s = 1

1
X 1 = 0 ,
1

0
X 2 = 1 .
0

3 = 1 :

2
0
2 x1 0
1

1 1 1 x 2 = 0 1 = 2 , 2 = , 3 = , X 3 = 1 .

1 0 2 x3 0
1
6.3. Ao e A k, kN e
Ak.
6.4. Ao P e
A , P 1 AP
D A.
( .)
6.1. A D = P 1 AP .
6.2. A k = PD k P 1 , kN,
1k 0 ... 0

0 k2 ... 0
Dk =
.
... ... ... ...

0 ... kn
0
6.5. P

1 3
P 1 AP = D, D
A=

4 2

A.
: A 1 = 2, 2 = 5 ,
3 / 4
1
X 1 = X 2 =
.
1
1
1 3 / 4
1 4 3
P=
P 1 =

1
7 4 4
1
2 0
P 1 AP =
= D.
0 5

33

0 0 2
6.6. A = 1 2 1 .
1 0 3
6.6. ,
A , 1 / 2 = 2, 3 = 1 ,

1
X 1 = 0 ,
1

0
2

X 2 = 1 X 3 = 1 .
0
1


1 0 2
1

1
P = 0 1 1 , P = 1
1 0 1
1
2 0 0
1
P AP = 0 2 0 = D . ( 6.1) D
0 0 1
A.

34

0 2
1 1 .
0 1