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Blake Busby
English 102
Adam Padgett
Commented [AH1]: Date format is 30 March 16

3/30/16
New Torture Methods

Commented [AH2]: Make sure to add the title changes


discussed in class with the title and subtitle

Everyday, thousands of innocent people are killed or harmed for reasons that cannot be
explained. People everyday are also accused of things that they have nothing to do with and have

Commented [AH3]: Would reword slightly, a little


confusing

to suffer from it in some sort of way. This brings me to the topic of torture because it relates to

Commented [AH4]: First person pronouns??

both of these very true statements. Torture is an act that some consider harsh, some consider
wrong, and some consider necessary. While it may be hard to believe, all of these things can be

Commented [AH5]: Too many some

true but it all depends on a case by case bias. The sentence that sounds like it contradicts itself
but comes out to make much sense and have understanding is that "torture shouldnt be allowed
nor should it be outlawed." Through researching both the good qualities and the bad qualities of
torture, I came to the conclusion that there isn't one side of torture legalization that should be
okay, but that they should make a new law, maybe named the "torture warrant" or something,

Commented [AH6]: Who is they?

that causes the act of torture to only be committed in certain circumstances with pretty strict rules
and guidelines.
Throughout my research, I came to the realization that there were many more negative
effects that torture played rather than good effects. But that one good effect was a pretty
significant one. The bad things consisted of things like how victims come out traumatized by
what went on behind the doors and how torture is ineffective in terms of reducing the amount of

Commented [AH7]: Would remove this, repetitive

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attacks. Sullivan states in his article that act of torture fails for two main reasons, one being that
it fails to reduce the insurgents capacities for violence, and two because torture increases the
incentives for the insurgent to commit more acts after finally being released (Sullivan). Just like
Sullivan, Boehm states that "These practices(torture) threaten imminent death, could result in
prolonged mental harm, and are engaged in under the color of law. Therefore, they qualify as
torture (Boehm)." The act of torture can cause people to feel dehumanized and make them start
to live their lives once finally being released in a dark and helpless way. This is also mentioned
by Boehm as he conducted interviews and noticed that "According to the waterboarding
recipients interviewed by the Commission, in addition to feelings of helpless, most recipients had
experienced feelings of deep humiliation and felt that their lives were entirely at the mercy of
their torturers (Boehm)." Sullivan also conducted some studies that the act of torture is
associated with the increased amount of killings by insurgents during the month following the
torture (Sullivan). In the 7 key points from the CIA Torture Report, it also uses some of the same
thoughts as Sullivan and Boehm, as the authors believe that "The act of torture was to blame for
the death of a detainee, and the harsh techniques were described as leading to psychological and
behavioral issues, including hallucinations, paranoia, insomnia, and attempts at self-harm and
self-mutilation (Ashkenas)." For these reasons, it makes you open your eyes and think that
nobody should be tortured no matter the circumstance.
However, these reasons begin to fade away once you see the positive impact the act could
have. For instance, youve heard of the tragedy's such as 9/11 and the Boston Massacre, now
imagine if these acts could have been prevented. All those innocent people still be alive, doesnt
make torture seem so bad after all. The act as Arrigo talked about was something known as the
"copycat." The copycat was a situation in which a murder that has certain killing tactics is finally

Commented [AH8]: Break up your quotes more in this


paragraph. I feel it is quote after quote. As the reader, it is
too much specific information thrown at you at once. You
should break it up some with commentary and explanations
of each quote. Great quotes though!

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caught and locked away. Although locked away the same murders begin to reappear because he
has someone else out there to continue his dirty work. The act of torture could have the potential
to stop something like this. Along with this situation, McMahan talks about the issue known as
the "Ticking bomb." This is an issue where the government have capture the terrorist that has
planted a bomb somewhere. They have very little time and no idea where it could be. The way to
retrieve this bomb is to use the act of torture (McMahan)." Along with Mcmahan, both Shunzo
and Arrigo, use the same exact issue. This is an issue where torture is necessary to use and will
help save the lives of innocent people. These are the situations, where I think the "Torture
Warrant" could come into play and have a very positive effect. Another reason to see it from the
positive side is because of the people that serve this great nation. Wallace reported a study where
the results showed that veterans are "significantly more likely to support torture compared to
civilians without any prior military background (Wallace)." This is relevant because it lets you
know that the people who are defending our country every night and day are in support of
something that most disagree with. They see things first hand and realize that the process of
torture can be necessary under certain circumstances.
So, now that youve seen the good and the bad, let me implement the thoughts of the
"torture warrant." As Boehm made it clear, President Obama and President Bush clearly had very
different views when talking about the policy of torture. Just days after being sworn into office,
President Obama issued an executive order overhauling the United States interrogation policy
(Boehm). This shows that the two leaders of our nation have completely different views on the
issue which shows it has relevance in both good ways and bad ways. He thinks that the "majority
of techniques advocated by the Bush Administration, many of which President Obama
suspended, are not torture and should remain valid options in U.S. interrogation policy" which

Commented [AH9]: This is a nice paragraph. Showed a


new perspective for me on torture and made me look at it
from a different point of view.

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shows she has a similar view as me in terms of how only certain circumstances should still be
allowed (Boehm). There's no doubt that torture can be both effective and ineffective regarding
the situation. Everyone sees torture in a different ways whether its the view of a soldier or
veteran that has seen people get killed first hand or even if its just a normal civilian who only
hears things. That is why the conclusion of some sort of torture warrant should be invented. It
would go along the lines of what Majima thinks. The theory that Majima mentioned in his article
that is known as "Just Torture." This theory completely backs up my thoughts as it has a certain
criteria that torture must follow. First of all, the theory states that the act must be done on rightful
grounds. Then, the act must be done by a legitimate person with authority. There must be an
appropriate purpose for committing the act of torture or in other words, the reason for being
torture must pass through a board of people to see if it will be allowed. Finally, you have to
review and see how reasonable the chance of success will be. You have to be almost positive that
the reason you are torturing will be accomplished. Another rule of this theory is that medical care
must be granted after the torture has been completed. No matter what is wrong with the person
whether it is physical or mental, it must be treated professionally (Majima). Also, McMahan
mentions a very good statement that "Capital punishment should be legally permitted, only when
it could be shown to be justified as a form of just defense rather than retribution." This goes in
hand with what Majima mentions about how it should be legally permitted under the "Just
Torture" theory as it would have to be reviewed by a Judge. The law could also help prevent
things such as false information. For instance, the C.I.A Torture Report states that "the C.I.A.
never produced an accurate count or list of those it had detained or subjected to brutal
interrogation techniques (Ashkenas)." This law would watch for things like that more clearly as
each case would have to be carefully viewed and documented. There was a suggestion that the

Commented [AH10]: Things about what?

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"EIT Ethics Argument would require the army to grant a select group of phycologist a special
dispensation to assist the EIT techniques(Arrigo)." This is parallel with what I have suggested
because the government should appoint a certain specialist to do the act of torture if the
permission shall be granted. The judge must consider "any independent evidence that the
applicant would be tortured, even if it rejects the applicant's own testimony as not credible
(Boehm)." This can relate to my personal opinions as I think that there should be a judge/judges
who can make a final decision and consider all circumstances that will be at stake.
In conclusion, my original thoughts going into this paper changed in some sort of way.
There is definitely more bad than good that comes from the overall acts of torture. But the reason
it is hard to jump on the train with banning it entirely is that the one major good that comes from
it is a huge and meaningful one. The fact that 100's of innocent people could be save has to open
up peoples minds a little and let them understand why there should be a bigger and better plan
put into place. At first, I was all for the act of torture as I only looked at in the view of saving
many peoples lives. But after doing research and finding some opposition, it made me have a
more neutral mind set on issue and made me come up with a solution of my own that I thing
would be valuable. Through reasons debated in the above paragraphs, I think something like the
"Torture Warrant" is necessary and would be helpful to add it into the government in some sort
of way. Under a case by case decision, the act of torture could be put into play. Doing this could
be huge in terms of saving peoples lives while preventing ruining others peoples lives as well.
There are just to many or to big of outcomes when talking about torture which makes it nearly
impossible to pick a side in this once because you want to be right in the middle. That is what a
torture warrant can do for us. Now, along with what is being done, there should also be rules to

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who is committing the act. Torture should only be trained by highly trained specialist and it
should also be done in a professional manner.

Commented [AH11]: This is a whole lot of conclusion. I


think I might remove some of the more personal things you
learned in this research and stick to just summarizing the
facts of what the paper was about.

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Works Cited
Arrigo, Jean Maria, et al. "The Good Psychologist, Good Torture, And Good
ReputationResponse To ODonohue, Snipes, Dalto, Soto, Maragakis, And Im (2014)
The Ethics Of Enhanced Interrogations And Torture." Ethics & Behavior 25.5 (2015):
361-372. Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.
Ashkenas, Jeremy, Hannah Fairfield, Josh Keller, and Paul Volpe. "7 Key Points From the C.I.A.
Torture Report." The New York Times. The New York Times, 08 Dec. 2014. Web. 04 Apr.
2016.
Boehm, Dana Carver. "Waterboarding, Counter-Resistance, And The Law Of Torture:
Articulating The Legal Underpinnings Of U.S. Interrogation Policy." University Of Toledo
Law Review 41.1 (2009): 1-41. Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.
Majima, Shunzo. "Just Torture?." Journal Of Military Ethics 11.2 (2012): 136-148. Academic
Search Complete. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.
McMahan, Jeff. "Torture, Morality, And Law." Case Western Reserve Journal Of International
Law 37.2/3 (2006): 241-248. Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.
Sullivan, Christopher Michael. "The (In)Effectiveness Of Torture For Combating Insurgency."
Journal Of Peace Research51.3 (2014): 388-404. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4
Apr. 2016.

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Wallace, Geoffrey P.R. "Martial Law? Military Experience, International Law, And Support For
Torture." International Studies Quarterly 58.3 (2014): 501-514. Academic Search
Complete. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.