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Perdagangan elektronik

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Perdagangan elektronik (bahasa Inggris: electronic commerce atau e-commerce) adalah


penyebaran, pembelian, penjualan, pemasaran barang dan jasa melalui
sistem elektronik seperti internet atau televisi, www, atau jaringan komputerlainnya. E-commerce
dapat melibatkan transfer dana elektronik, pertukaran data elektronik, sistem manajemen inventori
otomatis, dan sistem pengumpulan data otomatis.
Industri teknologi informasi melihat kegiatan e-commerce ini sebagai aplikasi dan penerapan dari ebisnis (e-business) yang berkaitan dengan transaksi komersial, seperti: transfer dana secara
elektronik, SCM (supply chain management), pemasaran elektronik (e-marketing), atau pemasaran
online (online marketing), pemrosesan transaksi online (online transaction processing), pertukaran
data elektronik (electronic data interchange /EDI), dll.
E-commerce merupakan bagian dari e-business, di mana cakupan e-business lebih luas, tidak
hanya sekedar perniagaan tetapi mencakup juga pengkolaborasian mitra bisnis, pelayanan
nasabah, lowongan pekerjaan dll. Selain teknologi jaringan www, e-commerce juga memerlukan
teknologi basisdata atau pangkalan data (databases), surat elektronik (e-mail), dan bentuk teknologi
non komputer yang lain seperti halnya sistem pengiriman barang, dan alat pembayaran untuk edagang ini.
Daftar isi
[sembunyikan]

1 Sejarah dan Perkembangan E-Commerce

2 Model-Model E-Commerce di Indonesia

3 Kunci Sukses dalam E-Commerce

4 Masalah E-Commerce

5 Aplikasi bisnis

6 Perusahaan terkenal

7 Kecocokan barang

8 Lihat pula

9 Bacaan lanjutan

10 Pranala luar

Sejarah dan Perkembangan E-Commerce[sunting | sunting sumber]


E-commerce pertama kali diperkenalkan pada tahun 1994 pada saat pertama kali banner-elektronik
dipakai untuk tujuan promosi dan periklanan di suatu halaman-web (website). Menurut Riset
Forrester, perdagangan elektronik menghasilkan penjualan seharga AS$12,2 miliar pada 2003.
Menurut laporan yang lain pada bulan oktober 2006 yang lalu, pendapatan ritel online yang bersifat
non-travel di Amerika Serikat diramalkan akan mencapai seperempat trilyun dolar US pada tahun
2011.
Istilah "perdagangan elektronik" telah berubah sejalan dengan waktu. Awalnya, perdagangan
elektronik berarti pemanfaatan transaksi komersial, seperti penggunaan EDI untuk mengirim
dokumen komersial seperti pesanan pembelianatau invoice secara elektronik.
Kemudian dia berkembang menjadi suatu aktivitas yang mempunyai istilah yang lebih tepat
"perdagangan web" pembelian barang dan jasa melalui World Wide Web melalui server aman
(HTTPS), protokol server khusus yang menggunakan enkripsi untuk merahasiakan data penting
pelanggan.
Pada awalnya ketika web mulai terkenal di masyarakat pada 1994, banyak jurnalis memperkirakan
bahwa e-commerce akan menjadi sebuah sektor ekonomi baru. Namun, baru sekitar empat tahun
kemudian protokol aman seperti HTTPS memasuki tahap matang dan banyak digunakan. Antara
1998 dan 2000 banyak bisnis di AS dan Eropa mengembangkan situs web perdagangan ini.

Model-Model E-Commerce di Indonesia[sunting | sunting sumber]


1. Iklan Baris, merupakan salah satu bentuk e-commerce yang tergolong sederhana, bisa
dianggap sebagai evolusi dari iklan baris yang biasanya ditemui di koran-koran ke dalam
dunia online. Penjual yang menggunakan social media atau forum untuk beriklan, biasanya
tidak bisa langsung menyelesaikan transaksi pada website yang bersangkutan. Namun
penjual dan pembeli harus berkomunikasi secara langsung untuk bertransaksi. Contoh iklan
baris: OLX.co.id (sebelumnya Tokobagus), Berniaga, dan FJB-Kaskus.
2. Retail, merupakan jenis e-commerce yang dimana semua proses jual-beli dilakukan melalui
sistem yang sudah diterapkan oleh situs retail yang bersangkutan. Oleh karena itu, kegiatan
jual-beli di retail relatif aman, namun biasanya pilihan produk yang tersedia tidak terlalu
banyak, atau hanya fokus ke satu-dua kategori produk. Contoh retail: Berrybenzka, Zalora,
dan Lazada.
3. Marketplace, bisa dianggap sebagai penyedia jasa mall online, namun yang berjualan bukan
penyedia website, melainkan anggota-anggota yang mendaftar untuk berjualan di website
marketplace yang bersangkutan. Marketplace umumnya menyediakan lapisan keamanan
tambahan untuk setiap transaksi yang terjadi, seperti sistem pembayaran escrow atau lebih
umum dikenal sebagai rekening bersama. Jadi setiap terjadi transaksi di dalam sistem
marketplace tersebut, pihak marketplace akan menjadi pihak ketiga yang menerima
pembayaran dan menjaganya hingga produk sudah dikirimkan oleh penjual dan diterima

oleh pembeli. Setelah proses pengiriman selesai, barulah uang pembayaran diteruskan ke
pihak penjual.

Kunci Sukses dalam E-Commerce[sunting | sunting sumber]


Dalam banyak kasus, sebuah perusahaan e-commerce bisa bertahan tidak hanya mengandalkan
kekuatan produk saja, tapi dengan adanya tim manajemen yang handal, pengiriman yang tepat
waktu, pelayanan yang bagus, struktur organisasi bisnis yang baik, jaringan infrastruktur dan
keamanan, desain situs web yang bagus, beberapa faktor yang termasuk:
1. Menyediakan harga kompetitif
2. Menyediakan jasa pembelian yang tanggap, cepat, dan ramah.
3. Menyediakan informasi barang dan jasa yang lengkap dan jelas.
4. Menyediakan banyak bonus seperti kupon, penawaran istimewa, dan diskon.
5. Memberikan perhatian khusus seperti usulan pembelian.
6. Menyediakan rasa komunitas untuk berdiskusi, masukan dari pelanggan, dan lain-lain.
7. Mempermudah kegiatan perdagangan

Masalah E-Commerce[sunting | sunting sumber]


1. Penipuan dengan cara pencurian identitas dan membohongi pelanggan.
2. Hukum yang kurang berkembang dalam bidang e-commerce ini.

Aplikasi bisnis[sunting | sunting sumber]


Beberapa aplikasi umum yang berhubungan dengan e-commerce adalah:

E-mail dan Messaging

Content Management Systems

Dokumen, spreadsheet, database

Akunting dan sistem keuangan

Informasi pengiriman dan pemesanan

Pelaporan informasi dari klien dan enterprise

Sistem pembayaran domestik dan internasional

Newsgroup

On-line Shopping

Conferencing

Online Banking/internet Banking

Product Digital/Non Digital

Online SEO

Perusahaan t

Workflow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it
has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducingmore precise
citations. (April 2009)
A workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the
systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or
process information.[1] It can be depicted as a sequence of operations, declared as work of a person
or group,[2] an organization of staff, or one or more simple or complex mechanisms.
From a more abstract or higher-level perspective, workflow may be considered a view or
representation of real work.[3] The flow being described may refer to a document, service
or product that is being transferred from one step to another.[4]
Workflows may be viewed as one fundamental building block to be combined with other parts of an
organisation's structure such as information technology, teams, projects and hierarchies.[5]

Artikel Pengertian & Definisi E-Commerce


Pengertian
Apa itu E-Commerce? E-Commerce adalah kegiatan-kegiatan bisnis dengan tujuan mengambil
keuntungan seperti penjualan, pembelian, pelayanan, informasi, dan perdagangan melalui perantara
yaitu melalui suatu jaringan computer, terutama internet.
E-commerce atau bisa disebut Perdagangan elektronik atau e-dagang adalah penyebaran, pembelian,
penjualan, pemasaran barang dan jasa melalui sistem elektronik seperti internet atau televisi, www,
atau jaringan komputer lainnya. E-commerce dapat melibatkan transfer dana elektronik, pertukaran
data elektronik, sistem manajemen inventori otomatis, dan sistem pengumpulan data otomatis
Industri teknologi informasi melihat kegiatan e-dagang ini sebagai aplikasi dan penerapan dari e-bisnis
(e-business) yang berkaitan dengan transaksi komersial, seperti: transfer dana secara elektronik, SCM
(supply chain management), e-pemasaran (e-marketing), atau pemasaran online (online marketing),
pemrosesan transaksi online (online transaction processing), pertukaran data elektronik (electronic
data interchange /EDI), dll.

E-dagang atau e-commerce merupakan bagian dari e-business, di mana cakupan e-business lebih luas,
tidak hanya sekedar perniagaan tetapi mencakup juga pengkolaborasian mitra bisnis, pelayanan
nasabah, lowongan pekerjaan dll. Selain teknologi jaringan www, e-dagang juga memerlukan teknologi
basisdata atau pangkalan data (databases), e-surat atau surat elektronik (e-mail), dan bentuk teknologi
non komputer yang lain seperti halnya sistem pengiriman barang, dan alat pembayaran untuk e-dagang
ini.
E-commerce pertama kali diperkenalkan pada tahun 1994 pada saat pertama kali banner-elektronik
dipakai untuk tujuan promosi dan periklanan di suatu halaman-web (website). Menurut Riset Forrester,
perdagangan elektronik menghasilkan penjualan seharga AS$12,2 milyar pada 2003. Menurut laporan
yang lain pada bulan oktober 2006 yang lalu, pendapatan ritel online yang bersifat non-travel di
Amerika Serikat diramalkan akan mencapai seperempat trilyun dolar US pada tahun 2011.
Dalam banyak kasus, sebuah perusahaan e-commerce bisa bertahan tidak hanya mengandalkan
kekuatan produk saja, tapi dengan adanya tim manajemen yang handal, pengiriman yang tepat waktu,
pelayanan yang bagus, struktur organisasi bisnis yang baik, jaringan infrastruktur dan keamanan, desain
situs web yang bagus, beberapa faktor yang termasuk:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Menyediakan harga kompetitif


Menyediakan jasa pembelian yang tanggap, cepat, dan ramah.
Menyediakan informasi barang dan jasa yang lengkap dan jelas.
Menyediakan banyak bonus seperti kupon, penawaran istimewa, dan diskon.
Memberikan perhatian khusus seperti usulan pembelian.
Menyediakan rasa komunitas untuk berdiskusi, masukan dari pelanggan, dan lain-lain.
Mempermudah kegiatan perdagangan

Beberapa aplikasi umum yang berhubungan dengan e-commerce adalah:


* E-mail dan Messaging
* Content Management Systems
* Dokumen, spreadsheet, database
* Akunting dan sistem keuangan
* Informasi pengiriman dan pemesanan
* Pelaporan informasi dari klien dan enterprise
* Sistem pembayaran domestik dan internasional
* Newsgroup
* On-line Shopping
* Conferencing
* Online Banking

Tutorial

Why customer data is important for your


ecommerce business
by Josh PigfordAugust 1, 2013
Collecting information about your customers can have a number of benefits for your ecommerce business, from getting a clearer view of your target market to improving
customer communications. Here are the areas where collecting customer data can
really move the needle.
Your target market

Every business should know who its target market is. Ideally you would know this
before you even started making sales. However, businesses evolve and so do
markets. The group you once thought was your target market may no longer be.
Keep an eye on the customer data you collect from your website, as itll make it easier
for you to keep your brand and communications on target and relevant to the people
who really buy from you.
Sales emails
Collecting email addresses and other contact information makes it easy to get in touch
with past and potential customers if you have something new they might be interested
in.
But click-to-open rates fell 11.4%, from 16.2% in 2011 to 14.4%, at the end of 2012
(source: Experian). It seems that customers are becoming less and less interested in
marketing emails, so use insights about your customers to make sure yours are on
target and contain something thats of interest.
Other communications
Sending out relevant news and offers to your customers can strengthen their
relationship with your brand, even if it doesnt get them to buy from you again right
away.
Problem solving
If you are armed with all the details of a customer, then you are going to be better
empowered to resolve any issues they might have. This might be in terms of payment,
a shipment thats gone missing or a complaint on another matter. These sorts of
issues need to be dealt with promptly and efficiently, and its easier to do that if you
have all the customer details on hand.

91% of unhappy customers will not use your company again. However, if you can
resolve the complaint, those customers will do business with you again 70% of the
time (source: Lee Resources).
Improve your service
Having customer data such as buying patterns and demographic details can really
help you improve customer service and marketing. Youll be able to get an idea of
customer buying habits and how they can work for you.
According to an American Express survey, 78% of customers have bailed on a
transaction or not made an intended purchase because of a poor customer service
experience. If you can pick up on these, you can deal with the underlying problems.
Customer loyalty
Tracking how customers shop lets you offer them reasons to keep coming back to
your store. If you notice that someone is often buying a product to be shipped as a gift,
give them money off for the next holiday or special occasion that comes around.
Loyalty cards and points are another great way to track your customers spending
habits while also giving them a reason to come back to the site. A loyal customer is
worth 10x more than their first purchase, according to the White House Office of
Consumer Affairs.
Social media
If you are collecting social media information from your customers, then you can use it
to engage with them. Its a good way to let your customers know that youre on their
favourite social network, and will hopefully prompt them to include you in a tweet/post
when they write about the brand.
According to a survey from Touch Agency, people are 75% more likely to buy from a
brand they follow on Twitter, so get yourself on the network and start engaging with
potential customers.

Pairing customer data with other sources of information


You can paint a very good picture of how people use your website by combining your
customer data with statistics from other sources such as Google Analytics.
You can tell where your traffic is coming from, what page they land on, how many
people get to the checkout process and how many people complete that process. This
gives you the chance to identify things that are stopping people from placing orders, or
perhaps will show you other routes you could be taking to get people to the check out.
Recommendations
You can drive more sales by looking at your customers buying habits and
recommending products they might be interested in. You can also take a look at a
customers recently viewed items. Is there a reason they didnt buy these items? Or
perhaps they just need a bit more of a push to make that order.
With this sort of data, you can give customers those extra incentives to buy or
introduce them to something they didnt even know they needed.

Variations: questionnaire, e-survey, telephone interview, face-to-face interview, focus group.


Surveys collect data from a targeted group of people about their opinions, behavior or knowledge. Common types of
surveys are written questionnaires, facetoface or telephone interviews, focus groups and electronic (e-mail or Web
site) surveys.
Surveys are commonly used with key stakeholders, especially customers and employees, to discover needs or
assess satisfaction.

When to Use a Survey

When identifying customer requirements or preferences.

When assessing customer or employee satisfaction, such as identifying or prioritizing problems to


address.

When evaluating proposed changes.

When assessing whether a change was successful.

Periodically, to monitor changes in customer or employee satisfaction over time.

Survey Basic Procedure


Note: Its often worthwhile to have a survey prepared and administered by a research organization. However, you will
still need to work with them on the following steps so that the survey will be most useful.
1.

Decide what you want to learn from the survey and how you will use the results.

2.

Decide who should be surveyed. Identify population groups; if they are too large to permit surveying
everyone, decide how to obtain a sample. Decide what demographic information is needed to analyze and
understand the results.

3.

Decide on the most appropriate type of survey.

4.

Decide whether the surveys answers will be numerical rating, numerical ranking, yesno, multiple choice
or open-endedor a mixture.

5.

Brainstorm questions and, for multiple choice, the list of possible answers. Keep in mind what you want to
learn, and how you will use the results. Narrow down the list of questions to the absolute minimum that
you must have to learn what you need to learn.

6.

Print the questionnaire or interviewers question list.

7.

Test the survey with a small group. Collect feedback.

Which questions were confusing?

Were any questions redundant?

Were answer choices clear? Were they interpreted as you intended?

Did respondents want to give feedback about topics that were not included? (Open-ended
questions can be an indicator of this.)

On the average, how long did it take for a respondent to complete the survey?

For a questionnaire, were there any typos or printing errors?

Also test the process of tabulating and analyzing the results. Is it easy? Do you have all the data you need?
8.

Revise the survey based on test results.

9.

Administer the survey.

10. Tabulate and analyze the data. Decide how you will follow through. Report results and plans to everyone
involved. If a sample was involved, also report and explain the margin of error and confidence level.

Survey Considerations

Conducting a survey creates expectations for change in those asked to answer it. Do not survey if action
will not or cannot be taken as a result.

Satisfaction surveys should be compared to objective indicators of satisfaction, such as buying patterns for
customers or attendance for employees, and to objective measures of performance, such as warranty data
in manufacturing or re-admission rates in hospitals. If survey results do not correlate with the other
measures, work to understand whether the survey is unreliable or whether perceptions are being modified,
for better or worse, by the organizations actions.

Surveys of customer and employee satisfaction should be ongoing processes rather than one-time events.

Get help from a research organization in preparing, administering and analyzing major surveys, especially
large ones or those whose results will determine significant decisions or expenditures.

Excerpted from Nancy R. Tagues The Quality Toolbox, Second Edition, ASQ Quality Press, 2004, pages 487489,
494.

Monday, March 22, 2010

Maslows Hierarchy of Enterprise 2.0 ROI Needs


You may be familiar with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, a theory Abraham Maslow
proposed in 1943, that provides a structure of priorities that relate to human needs. At
the bottom of the pyramid are basic physiological needs: breathing, food water, etc.
The fundamentals needed for basic survival. The needs then climb the pyramid,
becoming more intangible as one goes along: safety, love/belonging, esteem, selfactualisation, variety.
The theory's structure of moving from tangible/tactical needs to those that are
intangible and more impactful is used here to examine the software decision-maker
inside modern companies.

Maslows Hierarchy of Enterprise 2.0 ROI


The decision to purchase an enterprise software application is one that generally
demands a variety of different views about benefits. Because with most enterprise
systems - Enterprise 2.0 included - there are a variety of benefits:

Cost Savings
Saving money is one of the easier ways for an enterprise decision-maker to justify an
investment.
The savings can more than offset the costs of a enterprise system. This correlates to
Maslow's original hierarchy of physiological needs. The dollars saved cover the cost to
purchase.
Saving money occurs in multiple ways when it comes to software. While a traditional
measure is that the new application replaces a more expensive one, that's a benefit
that doesn't scale.
A stronger benefit is one which opens up a pipeline of new cost-cutting and operational
efficiency measures.
You've covered the lowest level ROI needs with this one, the benefit that is easiest to
see and measure. The importance of this should not be underestimated. However, it's
also the benefit with the lowest impact on the organization.
Revenue Generation
Next rung up the ROI hierarchy is creating new revenue. In this case, the benefit is

more localized to new products and services, as opposed to entirely markets.


Increasing the top line is great for the social software ROI calculation. It's not surprising
to see the social CRM space heating up.
Getting ideas from employees and customers that lead to new revenue-generating
products is a solid business case for Enterprise 2.0. Employees have ideas, but have
lacked effective means of making them known to a wider audience.
Customers have great ideas, and provide great direction for new products. They also
love to hear about your new product concepts, and will gladly offer feedback.
The reason revenue generation is above cost-cutting is that there is an increased level
of uncertainty as to how the revenue will come about, from which idea. Still, this is a
solid level that deeply satisfies the ROI needs of companies.
Customer Satisfaction
Happy customers. What every great company wants and continually works for. Anyone
with experience on the "front lines" of a company understands the importance of this.
Enterprise 2.0 platforms that help companies find ways to increase customer
satisfaction hit on an important need for companies.
Having customers suggest their ideas is a valuable approach to improving products and
ideas. With an eye toward higher satisfaction and lower churn.
There's also a new factor emerging: social media. Customers who are unhappy can
create publicity problems for companies. Companies should factor in the power that
social influence has in total Customer Value.
The other value of engaging customers is that while their ideas may be incremental,
there may be patterns companies can pick up in what the customers are proposing. In
other words, look beyond the tactical feature or service idea, and see what the
customer really wants from your service offering.
This benefit scales well, and is of high value to companies. It does have a softer ROI
story, however.
Employee Satisfaction
Enterprise 2.0 has more highly engaged and connected employees at its core. The
ability to make a more substantive impact. The ability to find that right person to help
with an idea or project.

The aha moments of discovering information you need. Making connections with people
who see the possibilities you do. The ability to carve out a basis for recognition more
broadly than has been available previously.
All of these relate to the issue of more satisfied employees. Now a social software
application cannot on its own get you there. But it can play an important role in making
that goal a reality. In Ideas Are Core to Enterprise 2.0, four elements of ideas are
identified relating to higher employee engagement:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ideas
Ideas
Ideas
Ideas

are me
Are the Basis for Finding Like-Minded Colleagues
Are Social Objects
Become Projects

Now the benefit of employee satisfaction is moving higher up the pyramid. Which
means its measurability is limited. But it also means its impact is higher.
Cross-Organisation Collaboration
An important objective of companies to getting employees to work together. It's not
enough to have the expertise and experience resident in employees. People need to
work together to achieve the various objectives of a company.
Cross-organization collaboration does three things:
1.Improves outcomes as a diversity of knowledge and perspectives are brought to bear
2.Strengthen bonds for the next initiative an employee works on
3.Reduces cases of duplicative efforts and unnecessarily starting from scratch
As has been discussed here previously, people with access to a wider range of
viewpoints consistently produce higher quality ideas. That only happens when the full
intellectual power of employees can be tapped through collaborative networks.
There is a tremendous opportunity for organisations to help their employees increase
the closer ties and extract much more value from those who are more distant, away
from one's strong ties. Because for most workers, those distant connections are
practically non-existent.
We're getting pretty high up on Maslow's ROI Hierarchy. The previous level of employee
satisfaction was more emotional. This level weaves in intellectual benefits as well.
Innovation Culture
Innovations that arise from a social software initiative can be measured; indeed they
are the most tangible ROI of Enterprise 2.0.

Ideas that are discovered and turned into action have produce an economic return of
business value. Where we are finding it tougher to quantify is, determining
improvements in team collaboration, communication, individual productivity and the
softer side of enterprise 2.0.
It's harder to measure; how deep is a company's innovation culture? This is a culture
where the nine principles of innovation management flourish inside an
organisation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Innovation benefits from a range of perspectives


Four of the most damaging words an employee can say: "Aww, forget about it".
Allow some freedom to try things that don't work
Create a culture of constant choices
Looking at innovation as a discipline
Focus employees' innovation priorities
Recognize innovation as a funnel with valuable leaks
Establish a common platform for innovation
Innovation must be more than purely emergent, disorganised and viral

What is the value of creating a sustainable innovation culture - as opposed to a series


of one-off innovations?Recent reports tell us that companies that are the innovation
leaders in their industries generate 430 basis points more in shareholder returns than
do average companies.
We're talking culture here, so it's a soft ROI discussion but the end-results are quite
measurable and powerful for this part of Maslow's ROI Hierarchy. Combined with
executive commitment, strong incentives and a can-do attitude, social software
becomes a critical tool for helping companies achieve an innovation culture.
Organisational Agility
This is the equivalent of self-actualisation, the top of Maslow's needs hierarchy.
Companies that have achieved the other benefits, both hard and soft, will find they
have a much higher level of organisational agility. Including:

Seeing changes in the market faster


Shifting resources in response to new opportunities
Mixing incremental and disruptive innovation
Moving on from initiatives, programs,markets, products that no longer work
Employees can recognise opportunities and threats themselves, and act accordingly

Introduction to E-marketing
Checklists

Planning Tools

Return to chapter video

Click on the links below to learn more


What is E-marketing?
Benefits of E-marketing
E-marketing Objectives

E-marketing refers to the use of the Internet and digital media capabilities to help sell your products
or services. These digital technologies are a valuable addition to traditional marketing approaches
regardless of the size and type of your business. E-marketing is also referred to as Internet marketing
(i-marketing), online marketing or web-marketing.
As with conventional marketing, e-marketing is creating a strategy that helps businesses deliver the
right messages and product/services to the right audience. It consists of all activities and processes
with the purpose of finding, attracting, winning and retaining customers. What has changed is its
wider scope and options compared to conventional marketing methods.
E-marketing is deemed to be broad in scope, because it not only refers to marketing and promotions
over the Internet, but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media. E-marketing also
embraces the management of digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management
(ECRM) and several other business management functions.
E-marketing joins creative and technical aspects of the Internet, including: design, development,
advertising and sales. It includes the use of a website in combination with online promotional
techniques such as search engine marketing (SEM), social medial marketing, interactive online ads,
online directories, e-mail marketing, affiliate marketing, viral marketing and so on. The digital
technologies used as delivery and communication mediums within the scope of e-marketing include:

Internet media such as websites and e-mail

Digital media such as wireless, mobile, cable and satellite.

Case Studies