You are on page 1of 72

UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA

Faculty of Engineering
Non-GPA Module 3992: Industrial Training
TRAINING REPORT

Training Establishments:
DIMO Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd
Lanka Electricity Company (LECO) Pvt. Ltd
Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB)
Overall Training Period: 14/05/2012 to 02/11/2012
Name: S. B. Nawarathne
Registration No: 090594D
Field of Study: Electrical Engineering
Date of submission: 16/11/2012
i

Preface
This report contains an overall assessment of my 24 week training period from my
perspective. The training period was divided into 3 parts: The 12 weeks at DIMO Power
Solutions Pvt. Ltd, 4 weeks at LECO Pvt. Ltd and 8 weeks at the Ceylon Electricity Board.
The report consists of three chapters:
Chapter one gives basic introduction to the three training establishments, including their
functions, organizational structures, etc It also focuses each companys strengths,
weaknesses, its importance for the power sector and my own personal thoughts on how to
improve their functions.
Chapter two will focus in detail the entries of my training diary, i.e. details of work I had to
carry out, difficulties faced while I was up to those tasks and a detailed description of
plant/equipment/process (and how they are interconnected) that I had the chance to observe
during my training period.
Chapter three will feature an evaluation of my whole training experience from my point of
view. In which, I will comment on the effectiveness of the training program, to what extent it
has helped me to understand the industry and provide suggestions on how it could be further
improved.

Acknowledgement
It was a great privilege to complete my 24 months of training as part of my Undergraduate
course. Obviously, this experience would not have been possible without the help of some
really collaborative, understanding and experienced people who helped us to get a first
person, hands on experience of some major parts of the power sector.
First and foremost I would like thank the National Apprentice and Industrial Training
Authority (NAITA), Director and staff of the industrial training division of the University of
Moratuwa for offering such a program to undergraduate students who have not yet seen the
light of industry such as I was before this experience.
Secondly, I would like to express my great appreciation towards Dr. Satish Namasivayam
(lecturer in charge of industrial training for the Electrical Engineering department) who
cooperated as responsively as possible between the students and the private sector/CEB in
order to realize our preferences.
I would like to further extend my gratitude to the following people who I had the pleasure of
meeting during my training experience (in chronological order):
Mr. Jude Fernando (Deputy General Manager, DIMO Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd.) for
interviewing and accepting me as a trainee and advising me on how to progress in the first 12
weeks.
Mr. Pubudu Niroshan (Project Manager, DIMO Power Solution Pvt. Ltd.) and Mr. Rajiv
Nagayodavithana (Electrical Engineer, DIMO Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd) for assessing and
advising me on my attitude, conduct and correcting diary entries.
Mrs. Manel Nanayakkara (Electrical Engineer, Internal training, Ceylon Electricity Board)
for making the arrangements for eight weeks of valuable training at CEB.
Mr. B. Bernard Perera (Training Consultant, TTC, Lanka Electricity Company Pvt. Ltd) who
arranged the 4 weeks of valuable and unique training at LECO Pvt. Ltd.
Last but not least I would like to acknowledge the contribution of all Engineers, Technicians
and Other employees who have influenced my training experience for the better good.

ii

Contents
I. Preface ............................................................................................................................... i
II. Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................ ii
III. Content.......................................................................................................................... iii
IV. List of Figures ............................................................................................................... vii
IV. List of Tables ............................................................................................................... viii
1. INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING ESTABLISHMENTS ................................................ 1
1.1 DIMO Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd .................................................................................. 1
1.1.1 Organizational Structure ........................................................................................ 2
1.1.2 Strengths ............................................................................................................... 2
1.1.3 Weaknesses ........................................................................................................... 2
1.1.4 Suggestions for improvements ............................................................................... 3
1.1.5 Threats to survivability and Profitability ................................................................ 3
1.1.6 Usefulness to the country ...................................................................................... 3
1.2 Ceylon Electricity Board .............................................................................................. 3
1.2.1 Functions of CEB .................................................................................................. 4
1.2.1.1 Generation ..................................................................................................... 4
1.2.1.2 Transmission .................................................................................................. 4
1.2.1.3 Distribution .................................................................................................... 4
1.2.2 Organizational Structure ........................................................................................ 5
1.2.3 Strengths ............................................................................................................... 5
1.2.4 Weaknesses ........................................................................................................... 5
1.2.5 Suggestions for improvements ............................................................................... 6
1.2.6 Threats to survivability and Profitability ................................................................ 6
1.2.7 Usefulness to the country ...................................................................................... 6
1.3 Lanka Electricity Company Pvt. Ltd ............................................................................ 6
1.3.1 Organizational Structure ........................................................................................ 7
1.3.2 Strengths ............................................................................................................... 7
1.3.3 Weaknesses ........................................................................................................... 7
1.3.4 Suggestions for improvements ............................................................................... 8
1.3.5 Threats to survivability and Profitability ................................................................ 8
1.3.6 Usefulness to the country ...................................................................................... 8
iii

2. TRAINING EXPERIENCE............................................................................................... 9
2.1 Training Experience at DIMO Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd .............................................. 9
2.1.1 TSSGSP Lot A_2 Project ..................................................................................... 9
2.1.2 CEB SCADA/DMS ............................................................................................ 10
2.1.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 10
2.1.2.2 Deficiency Clearing ..................................................................................... 11
2.1.2.3 SCADA system in Ring/Radial Substations.................................................. 13
2.1.2.4 Components used in the RTU panel ............................................................. 14
2.1.2.5 Siemens TM 1703 ACP Automation Unit .................................................... 17
2.1.2.6 Equipment used on the panel side ................................................................. 17
2.1.2.7 Communication method ............................................................................... 20
2.1.2.8 SCADA overview ........................................................................................ 20
2.1.3 Details on exposure to other equipment while on deficiency clearing................... 21
2.1.3.1 Satellite Switchgear...................................................................................... 21
2.1.3.2 High Voltage Switchgear in Ring/Radial Substations ................................... 23
2.1.3.3 Low Voltage Switchgear in Ring/Radial and Satellite Substations ................ 24
2.1.3.4 Numerical relay - SIPROTEC Compact 7SJ80 ............................................. 25
2.1.3.5 DC power supply system in the Ring/Radial substations .............................. 24
2.1.3.6 Transformer at Primary Substation ............................................................... 26
2.2 Training Experience at the Ceylon Electricity Board .................................................. 26
2.2.1 Samanalawewa Hydro Power Station. ................................................................. 26
2.2.1.1 General/Technical specifications of the plant ............................................... 27
2.2.1.2 The process of generating electricity ............................................................ 28
2.2.1.3 Starting and Synchronising........................................................................... 28
2.2.1.4 Maintenance................................................................................................. 28
2.2.2 Kukuleganga Hydro Power Station. ..................................................................... 29
2.2.2.1 General/Technical specifications of the plant ............................................... 29
2.2.2.2 Synchronising the generator ......................................................................... 30
2.2.2.3 Excitation..................................................................................................... 30
2.2.2.4 Mechanical Auxiliaries ................................................................................ 31
iv

2.2.3 Kelanitissa Power Station (KPS) ......................................................................... 32


2.2.3.1 Specifications for the 20 MW Gas turbines .................................................. 33
2.2.3.2 Specifications on GT-7................................................................................. 33
2.2.3.3 Starting Sequence of the 20 MW Gas turbine ............................................... 33
2.2.3.4 How it works. .............................................................................................. 34
2.2.3.5 Synchronous condenser mode ...................................................................... 34
2.2.3.6 Excitation..................................................................................................... 34
2.2.3.7 Ratcheting and Barring................................................................................. 35
2.2.4 KCCPS (Kelanitissa Combined Cycle Power Station) ......................................... 35
2.2.4.1 Specifications of the plant ............................................................................ 35
2.2.4.2 The HSRG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) ............................................. 36
2.2.4.3 Auxiliaries ................................................................................................... 36
2.2.5 Sapugaskanda Diesel Power Station .................................................................... 37
2.2.5.1 Station A, specifications ............................................................................... 37
2.2.5.2 Station B, specifications ............................................................................... 37
2.2.5.3 Station Switchyard ....................................................................................... 38
2.2.5.4 Starting of the diesel engine/generator .......................................................... 38
2.2.5.5 Excitation system for station B generator ..................................................... 39
2.2.6 Transmission Operations and Maintenance .......................................................... 39
2.2.6.1 Pannipitiya Grid Substation .......................................................................... 39
2.2.6.1.1 Switchyard components.......................................................................... 39
2.2.6.1.2 Protection ............................................................................................... 41
2.2.6.2 Biyagama grid substation ............................................................................. 44
2.2.6.2.1 Line Maintenance ................................................................................... 44
2.2.6.2.2 Transmission equipment ......................................................................... 45
2.3 Training Experience at Lanka Electricity Company Pvt. Ltd. .................................... 46
2.3.1 Branch Office ...................................................................................................... 46
2.3.1.1 Accounts division......................................................................................... 46
2.3.1.2 Customer Service ......................................................................................... 46
2.3.1.3 Administration ............................................................................................. 47
v

2.3.2 Systems Operations ............................................................................................. 47


2.3.2.1 Control centre scheduling ............................................................................. 47
2.3.2.2 Meter testing lab .......................................................................................... 48
2.3.2.3 Transformer repair workshop ....................................................................... 49
2.3.3 Customer Service Centre ..................................................................................... 49
2.3.3.1 Materials used by LECO for distribution purposes ....................................... 49
2.3.3.2 Energy meter replacement ............................................................................ 50
2.3.4 Engineering and Operations ................................................................................ 50
2.3.4.1 Procurement ................................................................................................. 51
2.3.4.2 Load forecasting .......................................................................................... 51
2. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 52
V. Abbreviations .................................................................................................................. ix
VI. References ..................................................................................................................... xi
VII. Annexes ....................................................................................................................... xii

vi

List of figures
Figure 1.1 DIMO Power Solutions Organizational Structure ................................................. 2
Figure 1.2 CEB Organizational Structure .............................................................................. 5
Figure 1.3 LECO Organizational Structure ............................................................................ 7
Figure 2.1 Front view of RTU panel .................................................................................... 14
Figure 2.2 Basic diagram of interposing relay...................................................................... 18
Figure 2.3 Voltage transducer connection ............................................................................ 19
Figure 2.4 Current transducer connection ............................................................................ 20
Figure 2.5 SCADA network ................................................................................................ 21
Figure 2.6 Internal diagram of RMU ................................................................................... 22
Figure 2.7 Single line diagram for a typical LV distribution in Ring/Radial Sub. ................ 24
Figure 2.8 Block diagram of DC supply .............................................................................. 25
Figure 2.9 Turbine bearing locations ................................................................................... 31
Figure 2.10 HVAC system .................................................................................................. 32
Figure 2.11 Method of rotating diode excitation .................................................................. 34
Figure 2.12 Distance Protection........................................................................................... 42
Figure 2.13 Arrangement for differential protection ............................................................ 42
Figure 2.14 Power Transformer arrangement ....................................................................... 43

vii

List of tables

Table 1.1 Generation Details ................................................................................................. 4


Table 1.2 Substation Details .................................................................................................. 4
Table 2.1 Test Results ......................................................................................................... 10
Table 2.2 Different types of signals ..................................................................................... 13
Table 2.3 Disc error test and results ..................................................................................... 48

viii

1.

INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING ESTABLISHMENTS

1.1

DIMO Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd.

Vision: To be the team who sets standards while providing total solutions for the energy
sectors needs
Mission: To set the benchmark in the power industry by delivering innovative, reliable and
efficient solutions for the nations energy demands through a team of dedicated and
competent staff.
DIMO Power Solutions (formerly known as DIMO Power Engineering) falls under of the 5
business sectors of DIMO (Diesel and Motor Engineering) Pvt. Ltd which is the
Electromechanical and Biomedical Engineering Sector. DIMO power solutions is in the
business of providing turn-key solutions for power transmission and distribution. DIMO
has been a partner of Siemens (India) for over 50 years, most of the products offered are from
Siemens and they comply with all IEC regulations and ISO requirements.
In the fiscal year 2011/2012 profits have risen, with DIMO Power solutions completing a
major project; the SCADA/DMS project, they were also able to built the step up substations
for the first ever private sector owned wind turbine plant. DIMO together with Siemens has
secured some projects under the TSSGSP that has been put in effect by the CEB, this
involves augmentation and construction of some substations.

1.1.1 Organizational Structure

Chairman/CEO

Managing Director

Director In-Charge

Business Unit Manager

Commercial
Executive

Administrative
Executive

Design/Commissioning
Engineer

Assistant
Engineers

Project
Manager

Key Account
Manager

Project Engineers

Sales
Engineer

Service Engineer

Electrical
Foreman
Assistant
Engineer

Site
Supervisor
s

Figure 1.1 DIMO Power Solutions Organizational Structure

1.1.2 Strengths

Partner of globally recognized power engineering company Siemens

Run under an experienced and well known company DIMO Pvt. Ltd.

Run by an adequate and competent amount of staff

Hire labor/man power separately as sub-contractors

1.1.3 Weaknesses

Some products from Siemens India are not up to the standards of Siemens Germany
(subjective)

Difficult to monitor labor or progress at all times, due to lack of supervisors

1.1.4 Suggestions for improvements

To gain success and recognition in the power sector by completing more high end
projects

To expand the department as to provide an easier working environment for Engineers


(especially during times of projects when there is not enough space for employees, not
just trainees).

1.1.4 Threats to survivability and Profitability

Since almost all huge projects that DIMO undertake are contracts from CEB, the
departments existence is highly dependent on the performance of CEB.

There are a few serious competitors such as ABB or LTL that can pose a threat to the
Siemens market.

1.1.5 Usefulness to the country


With an increasing growth accompanied by a greater demand for power; the installation,
maintenance and repair of electrical equipment from MCBs to switchgear to transformers to
substations becomes an even greater challenge. With new and affordable technologies
coming into the world, we need companies like DIMO and Siemens to introduce them to Sri
Lanka in order to maintain the reliability and safety of the power supply for our day to day
works.
1.2

Ceylon Electricity Board

Vision: Enrich Life through Power


Mission: To develop and maintain an efficient, coordinated and economical system of
electricity supply to the whole of Sri Lanka, while adhering to our core values Quality,
Service to the nation, Efficiency and effectiveness, Commitment, Safety, Professionalism,
Sustainability.
The CEB is a government owned corporation involved in generation, transmission and
distribution of electricity. It was developed for the sole purpose of providing electricity to all
types of customers of the country. The second main objective is to provide electricity to the
vulnerable customers at an affordable price, wherever they may be located. Therefore, it is
not-profit oriented.
3

1.2.1 Functions of CEB


CEB has most ownership over the countrys generation and distribution assets, while has full
ownership over transmission.
1.2.1.1 Generation

Source of Power

Table 1.1 Generation Details


No. of power stations
Installed Capacity (MW)

Hydro

16

1207

Thermal-Oil

548

Thermal-Coal

300

Wind

Total

24

2058
Source: CEB Statistical Digest 2011

1.2.1.2 Transmission
Table 1.2 Substation Details
Substation type

No. of substations

Capacity (MVA)

132/33 kV (Grid)

46

3043

220/132/33 kV (Grid)

2100/500

220/132 kV (Grid)

405

132/11 kV (Grid)

369

33/11 kV (Primary)

124

1090

33 kV/LV and 11 kV/LV

22839

5625

(Distribution)
Source: CEB Statistical Digest 2011
This gives a total of 23021 substations with a total capacity of 13134 MVA.
1.2.1.3 Distribution
From Table 1.2, it can be seen that there are 22839 distribution substations. The total number
of consumers has increased by 5.3% from 2010 to 2011. The distribution area has been
divided into 4 regions Region 1, Region 2, Region 3 and Region 4 with a total of 194
Customer Service Centers.

1.2.1 Organizational structure


AGM Generation
AGM Transmission
AGM Distribution Region 1
AGM Distribution Region 2
AGM Distribution Region 3
Chairman and
members of the
board

General
Manager

AGM Distribution Region 4


AGM Asset Management and
Centralized Services
AGM Corporate Strategy
AGM Projects
AGM Finance Manager

Figure 1.2 CEB Organizational Structure

1.2.3 Strengths

CEB is government owned and therefore pledges to provide reliable and affordable
electricity to the community

CEB has the freedom to plan and augment the existing system without external
interferences (national and international).

1.2.4 Weaknesses

Since CEB owns almost all of the generating assets of the country, it has to make
comprises to keep up with the demand.

CEB has some outdated equipment; hence there are problems in importing spare parts
from manufacturers as some of them do not even exist in the market at this point in
time or simply the products have been discontinued.

1.2.5 Suggestions for Improvements

Move towards sustainable energy sources such as Wind, Solar, Hydro, etc

Encourage more IPPs (Independent Power Producers)

Invest in newer technologies for communications, materials and control systems for
the sake of both reliability and safety.

1.2.6 Threats to Survivability and Profitability


Currently there is no huge threat to the survivability. However, CEB is always incurring
losses. The only good thing to say is that the magnitude of loss has decreased from the year
2010 to 2011. CEB is a government-owned corporation; any threat to the governments
financial status is also a threat to its survivability as long as CEB still depends on imported
Oil (Naphtha, Auto Diesel, Heavy Fuel, etc).
1.2.7 Usefulness to the country
Since CEB owns most part of the power sector, it is important to note that it plays a huge role
in the countrys development. The availability of electricity is a catalyst to any sector of the
country; be it education, business, agriculture, etc Therefore it is vital to reach out to each
and every individual as well as to protect the vulnerable consumers. Since CEB stands for
these claims, it is a very useful asset to the country.
1.3

Lanka Electricity Company (LECO) Pvt. Ltd.

Vision: Enjoy being the light for lives of people through innovative eco-friendly business
Mission: To provide the best energy solutions to the society through continuous innovations
LECO was a company first established in 1983 for the purpose of electricity distribution. The
main reason for this was that before there were large inefficiencies in the network; high
losses, incorrect billing, theft of electricity, etc Today LECO has 7 branches in Galle,
Kaluthara, Kotte, Kelaniya, Moratuwa, Negombo and Nugegoda. LECO is by majority
owned by the CEB and the Treasury and the rest by the UDA and local authorities.
The main function of LECO is to purchase electricity from CEB 33/11 kV substations and
sell to the 230/400 V consumer end. LECO also needs to make sure inefficiencies in the
system are kept to a minimum (like those discussed above). LECOs tariff structure is

prepared by the PUCSL (Public utilities commission of Sri Lanka) in a way that the
companys survivability is assured.
1.3.1 Organisational Structure

Chairman & Board


of directors

General Manager

Head of Operations

System
Operations
Manager

Chief Financial
Officer

Branch Manager

Control
Centre
System
Operations

Customer
Services

Head of
Engineering

Training
Manager

Branch
Enginee
r
Electrical
Engineer

Human Resources
& Administration

Systems
Development
Manager

Design
Engineers

IT Section

Procurement/
Supply
Manager

Test
Engineer

Administrative
Officer
Branch
Accountant

Communications

Figure 1.3 LECO Organizational Structure


1.3.2 Strengths

Breakdowns are immediately addressed, overall state of customer service is


satisfactory

There is adequate staff and the organization is well structured

1.3.3 Weaknesses

There are no plans for future expansion, the growth of customers will one day saturate
7

Old technology in most places

Street lamp consumption is considered as a loss

1.3.4 Suggestions for improvements

Replace old analog energy meters by new digital meters (although this is being
carried out it is still not 100% in effect)

Introduce remote switching as well (for LBS and Auto reclosers)

The control centre mimic is very much out of date and replacement by a digital
system would make handling interruptions more efficient

1.3.5 Threats to survivability and Profitability


Maintaining profit is the key to its survival therefore it should cut down on losses and prevent
theft of electricity as much as possible. Mismanagement can be a key factor in incurring
losses as we see that some branches are making profits while others are making losses.
1.3.6 Usefulness to the country
LECO has set the benchmark for Electricity distribution. Its customer service centers and
branch offices are responsive and apt. It has also helped to take the load off CEB in an area
where it is difficult to maintain a good quality of supply due to the large concentration of
consumers.

2.

TRAINING EXPERIENCES

2.1

Training Experience at DIMO Power Solutions Pvt. Ltd

Our first 12 weeks of training was held here, we reported to Mr. Jude Fernando who was the
DGM (who had previously interviewed us). He introduced us to Mr. Pubudu Niroshan
(Project manager) who in turn acquainted us with all the other Engineers in the department.
When we first arrived there were currently no projects of great importance, DIMO had
recently won a bid for the Transmission System Strength Grid Substation Project (TSSGSP)
LOT A_2. This project involved 2 main components:
i.

Construction of new grid substations at Naula, Maho and Pallekele

ii.

Augmentation of existing grid 132/33kV Grid Substations at Galle, Habarana, Matara,


Panadura and Puttlam.

The other major project that was available at that time was the CEB SCADA/DMS
(Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition/Distribution Management System) project. This
project had already been commissioned and was now in a later post-commissioning stage.
2.1.1 TSSGSP Lot A_2 Project
This project was still in its blooming stages, drawings were still being approved and
foundations were still being laid out (substation/transformer). I had the least exposure to this
project during my 12 weeks at DIMO. The first 2 weeks I spent at the office were highly
focused on tender documents regarding this project, where I learnt a lot about the structure of
the tender documents and some highly technical terms used in power engineering.
Regarding the project I only had the chance of studying an approved document for the
transformer foundations. This involved some calculations that were highly Civil Engineering
related although it was important to our department as well.
Since building a grid substation is a very long process, I had the chance to read a preliminary
report:
Report on quarry dust fill material for use under the main transformer at CEB grid
substation at Matara This report is basically about of the assessment of the suitability of
quarry dust as a fill material for the transformer foundation at the Matara 132/33 kV GSS.

The report features 3 types of tests that were carried out in the laboratory:

Atterberg limits

Sieve Analysis test

Proctor Compaction test

The specifications for a good fill material are:

The minimum dry density when compacted to 95% proctor density shall be 1800
kg/m3

The soil is well graded (That is the grading curve is within the acceptable limits
defined by BS 882: 1992)

The following results were obtained from the samples supplied:


Table 2.1 Test Results
Proctor dry density (kg/m3)
2064
Optimum moisture content (%) 9.9
Soil Plasticity

Non-Plastic

Based on the above information, quarry dust material can be recommended as a suitable fill
material for the transformer foundation.
2.1.2 CEB SCADA/DMS (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition/Distribution
Management System) project.
2.1.2.1 Introduction
This also known as Package D under CCEDD project, Package D involves the
implementation of a SCADA system, including construction of the Distribution Control
Centre (situated at Primary A). The system will gather data from over 200 substations (i.e.
real time values pertaining to any substation) to monitor and control the 11 kV supply within
the Colombo region.

10

The scope of the work consisted of the design, supply, installation and commissioning of the
following:

The SCADA and DMS itself and full functionality from a central control centre
(DCC) and data communication system (optic-fiber, leased lines, wireless
communication, etc)

Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at Primary Substations (132/33 kV)

Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at Ring/Radial Substations (11/0.4 kV)

Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at Satellite substations (11/0.4 kV)

This project was by now already commissioned and in proper working condition for the most
part. However, there was still a post-commissioning process going on, known as deficiency
clearing. So for the next 10 weeks I had the opportunity to go to these various substations and
take part in them, which will be explained in the next sub section.
2.1.2.2 Deficiency Clearing
This is where a list of deficiencies is prepared by a CEB Engineer after visiting some of the
substations involved in the project. The Engineer in charge of the project at DIMO then
creates a template deficiency clearance list, which has to be checked at each and every
substation. So during deficiency clearing each and every possible deficiency has to be
checked so that it is compliant with the checklist.
For Primary and Ring/Radial Substations, a folder is maintained which contains details of;
the type of deficiency, action performed in order to correct, and signatures from both an
employee of DIMO and an Electrical Superintendent from CEB (which has been assigned to
the project). This document is usually signed whenever a deficiency is cleared, sometimes if
it cannot be cleared a comment has to be made (this will be later on inspected by an
Engineer) and later on an action will be taken to resolve it.
Satellite stations are much simpler as they are smaller in size and the number of defects is
less. They too have a checklist which is used to correct defects.
Each day an agreement is made between the DIMO assistant engineer and the ES from CEB
on the substation locations to which they are to visit during that day. Deficiency clearing is
usually a laborious job and is carried out by technicians; these are sub-contractors hired by
DIMO (as they do not provide man power). The technicians are usually divided into teams of
11

two along with a supervisor; they are then dropped off at several substations. Once all
possible deficiencies are cleared the Supervisor and the ES will sign the checklist ensuring
that both parties are satisfied.
During my upcoming 10 weeks of training, I was placed as such a supervisor. I started off
with Ring/Radial substations under the guidance of the assistant engineer; together we
covered over 70 Ring/Radial substations (a 100% of defects were not rectified due to lack of
time/material).
By 02/07/2012, deficiency clearing of satellite stations began and so I was assigned sole
responsibility of a group of technicians. I was to supervise the work, give any directions
necessary, complete the checklist and finally coordinate with ES to see if everything was up
to their expectations. I was given the task of keeping track of labor allocation during that day.
During the period of 02/07/2012 to 02/08/1012 my training partner and I managed to cover
all the satellite stations (over a 100). A copy of the deficiency clearing forms and labor
allocation forms are provided in the annex.
There were a number of difficulties I had while on deficiency clearing. The main one was
labor management, laborers are sometimes dodgy and they like to do things their own way.
This is sometimes a problem when following a deadline. It was in fact very challenging as
there was also a notable age gap between some of the laborers and me. However, my duties
were only to keep their minds on the job and remind them if they missed anything.
Another problem was that most workers do not like to adhere to safety regulations such as
wearing overalls, safety shoes, etc I did not directly intervene with any technicians, but I
simply relayed this information to my superior Assistant Engineer. Another challenge was
adapting to the conditions of the substations such as heat, noise, pollution, etc
Since we had the job of supervising work and visiting many different substations, we had
exposure to a lot of different equipment, especially the ones used in the SCADA project. We
also had the chance to observe different kinds of transformers, circuit breaker panels, diesel
generators, etc The next chapter will feature technical details regarding the overall nature
of the SCADA system.

12

2.1.2.3 SCADA system in Ring/Radial Substations


There are over a 100 Ring/Radial Substations, each one contains a number of panels (Feeder
panels, Metering panels, Bus couplers). The purpose of SCADA is to supervise and control
(from the DCC), for this it must be capable of obtaining signals and sending signals to and
from the panels respectively. There are 4 types of signals involved:
i.

Single Information Signals

ii.

Double Information Signals

iii.

Double Command Signals

iv.

Analog Values
Table 2.1 The different types of signals

Single Information Signals

Double Information

Double Command

Analog

Signals

Signals

Values

Aux. Power Supply fault(1)

Circuit breaker open

Circuit breaker open

Current +

RTU Alarm(1)

Circuit breaker closed

Circuit breaker closed

Current

Communication Alarm(1)

Earth switch open

Dummy Relay ON(1)

Voltage +(3)

Over Current Alarm

Earth switch closed

Dummy Relay OFF(1)

Voltage (3)

Earth Fault Alarm

Local Indication

Circuit Breaker Faulty

Remote Indication

Busbar 1 Voltage status

Dummy Relay ON(1)

alarm(2)

Dummy Relay OFF(1)

Busbar 2 Voltage status


alarm(2)
(1) These signals are only used for components within the RTU panel itself
(2) These signals are used only for the Bus Section
(3) These signals are only used for the Metering panels
Note: All other signals are common to every feeder panel
The RTU panel needs to send and receive signals to and from the panels using some sort of
equipment (which is held inside the RTU). This will be discussed in the next chapter.

13

2.1.2.4 Components used in the RTU panel


As discussed above there are three types of signals involved, these signals are handled by
different modules inside the RTU panel known as modules, they are:

DO (Digital Output) modules

DI (Digital Input) modules

AI (Analog Input) modules

PS (Power Supply) modules

PE (Peripheral Interface) modules

Communication and Processing module

Cubicle Lamp 60 W
Master Control
Element

Thermostat

DI-6102

DI-6102

DI-6102

DI-6102

PE- 6400

PS-6620

AI-6300

DI-6102
AI-6300

DI-6102
DO-6212

DO-6212

PE- 6400

PS-6620

ACIN, DCIN,
AC MCB, DC
MCB, DCDI,
DCDO (These
are all MCBs)

Door limit
switch

Inverter

Heater
switch and
plug point

Heater

Terminal
blocks

Figure 2.1 Front view of RTU panel


All modules used in this project are from Siemens AG, they are made to communicate with
the TM 1703 ACP Automation Unit. I will now elaborate on the ratings of modules one by
one;

14

1. DO module DO 6212
No. of Outputs

8 Binary Outputs

Nominal Voltage

24 VDC (As used in the project)

Maximum continuous current

2 A, 5 A for 1 minute

Power Supply Operating Voltage 4.75.1 VDC, 800 mW

2.

DI module DI 6102

No. of Inputs

16 Binary Inputs

Nominal Voltage

24 VDC

Operating points

< 12 V (logic 0)
>16 V (logic 1)

Rated Current

11.5 mA

Power Supply Operating voltage 4.75.1 VDC, 170 mW

3.

AI module AI 6300

No. of Analog inputs

4 inputs (2 groups of 2 each)

Measuring ranges

Current measurement -200+20 mA


Voltage measurement -100+10 V

Resolution

0.013% at 20 mA
0.025% at 10 V

Power Supply Operating voltage 4.75.1 VDC, max. 480 mW

4.

PS module PS 6620

Operating Voltage

24 VDC

Output voltage (TM Bus)

5.1 VDC 1% (as used in the project)

Max. Output Power

8W

15

PE module PE 6400

5.

Processor

80C251SQ-16, 16 MHz

Program Memory

PE-ROM 256 Kbytes

Main Memory

RAM 64 Kbytes

Power Supply Operating Voltage 4.75.1 VDC, max. 720 mW

A PE-6400 module can communicate with up to 8 I/O modules (AI, DI or DO) with the TM
1703 ACP via the Ax 1703 Peripheral bus at a transmission rate of 16 Mbps. Each PE module
is equipped with a power supply.
Master Control Element CP 6014

6.

This is the module responsible for acquisition, processing and output of processed data. This
Unit is capable of communicating with the above modules (except PS module) through the
Peripheral Element. Furthermore it is responsible for communicating data between that
substation and the DCC using some form of communication. This module can interface up to
16 PE modules. The master control element contains several communication interfaces;
-

Serial Interface for point to point or simply running diagnostics or tests on site

LAN/WAN Ethernet for communication of data from substation to DCC

Profibus DP for communication between Master Control and Numerical Relays


within the 11 kV panels.

This module contains a small flashcard; this card contains the firmware that runs the whole
SCADA system. Furthermore, it holds the parameters for each and every DO, DI and AI
module.
E.g.

D00 of DI-6102 will hold the Circuit breaker OFF indication


D01 of DI-6102 will hold the Circuit breaker ON indication

The flash card may be programmed on site or using a computer, to the users wishes.
Note: The number of modules used in the RTU, i.e. AI, DI, DO or PE depend on the number
of signals used, which in turn depends on the number of panels at the substation, E.g. Satellite
stations only one DO, DI and CP module (instead of Master Control Element) because there

16

is need to control only the PCB actuator. Another thing is that there are extra modules in
some substation for spare signals.
2.1.2.5 Siemens TM 1703 ACP Automation Unit
TM 1703 ACP is the name given to the whole system inside the RTU (when all the above are
connected). There are several advantages of this system:

If a module fails, it can easily be replaced

There is room for more expansion (up to 16 peripheral elements)

Allows setting of parameters or diagnostics or testing both locally and remotely using
a software called TOOLBOX II

Can be compatible with other SAS from Siemens

2.1.2.6 Equipment used on the panel side


There are several components within the panel side which are used to transmit and receive
data to and from the panels. These are:
i.

Terminal blocks

A terminal block consists of a set of knife type gate terminals. These are found inside the 11
kV panels. The terminal blocks are like an intermediate point between the RTU and the 11
kV panel. The use of the knife gate terminal is to easily isolate any necessary connection
from the RTU panel for maintenance or repairing.
ii.

Local/Remote Switches

When the switch is on Local, the supply to all DO modules are cut off, meaning that remote
operation of that breaker panel is not possible, also supply will be given directly to the circuit
breaker tripping/closing circuit and not through the interposing relays (will be discussed next)
so that the breaker can be tripped on site.
When switch is set to Remote, supply to all modules are available, the circuit breaker
tripping/closing circuit is supplied through the interposing relays, meaning that only Remote
operation of breakers is possible.

17

iii.

Interposing relays

Since the PLC contacts of the DO modules are not rated for operating the tripping circuit
directly, interposing relays need to be used. In this case, the interposing relay coil is
connected across the PLC circuit, but the relay contacts are rated for the tripping circuit.
There are two kinds of interposing relays used:
Interposing relay open which is used for the circuit breaker trip circuit; this is controlled by
one DO module relay output.
Interposing relay output which is used for the circuit breaker close circuit; this too is
controlled by one DO module relay output.

24 VDC

0 VDC

DO Module

Interposing
relay OPEN
or CLOSE

Circuit breaker
trip/close circuit

Figure 2.2 Basic diagram of interposing relay


iv.

Transducers

Voltage transducers are used to convert the value of r.m.s voltage into a dc current. The VTs
are directly connected to the existing metering Potential transformer (11/0.11 kV) within the
metering panel. The VT can be easily programmed using the software via a USB/Serial port.
The ratings of the VT are given below:
Power supply

24 VDC (< 4 VA)

Accuracy class

0.5%

Voltage measuring range 0 to 110 V


Frequency

50 Hz

DC output current

4 to 20 mA (as programmed)

18

3 phase, 50 Hz, 11 kV Busbar


Withdrawable
VCB

Metering
Voltmeter

Fuse

Voltage
transducer
Earth
Switch
Fuse

Metering Potential
Transformer

24 VDC

0 VDC

To AI module

Figure 2.3 Voltage transducer connection

Current transducers are used to convert the value of r.m.s current into a dc current. The CTs
are directly connected to the existing metering Current transformer (400/1 or 200/1 in most
cases). The CT can be easily programmed using the software via a USB/Serial port. The
ratings of the CT are given below:
Power supply

24 VDC (< 4 VA)

Accuracy class

0.5%

Current measuring range

0 to 1 A and 0 to 5 A (depending on current


transformer)

Frequency

50 Hz

DC output current

4 to 20 mA (as programmed)

19

3 phase, 50 Hz, 11 kV Busbar

Withdrawable
VCB

Current
Transformer

Metering
ammeter

C/T
Shortlinks

Current
Transducer
0VDC

24 VDC

Earth
Switch

To AI module

Figure 2.4 Current transducer connection

2.1.2.7 Communication method


The TM 1703 ACP unit needs to communicate with the DCC using some form of
communication; this is done through fibre-optic cables or leased lines from SLT (Sri Lanka
Telecomm) network. An Ethernet Media Converter is used to convert the output from the TM
1703 (Ethernet) to fibre-optic cables. An SLT modem is used where fibre-optic cables are
unavailable; this is a leased line from SLT. The standard use is IEC 60870-5 which sets
standards for communication between any two systems in the SCADA network.
2.1.2.8 SCADA Overview
Each RTU panel has an IP address in the network that its connected in which allows to
specifically identify it. Below is the overview diagram of SCADA:
Note: Not only Ring/Radial Sub. Are involved in SCADA, there are Primary and Satellite
stations but they are not explained here as the concept is the same. Drawings for Ring/Radial
subs are too cumbersome, a wiring diagram for Satellite station is provided in Annex 4.
20

IEC 60870-5-104

Figure 2.5 SCADA network


2.1.3 Details on exposure to other equipment while on deficiency clearing.
2.1.3.1 Satellite Switchgear
The Trident Fused Oil Ring Main Unit (RMU) is the main feature of a satellite station. RMUs
are usually connected to another RMU (in a different satellite station) or they are connected
to at least one Ring/Radial Substation. The RMU has 3 connections, two of which are Ring
Switches and the other is a TEE OFF for the transformer feeder (the feeder is protected by an
internal fused switch).
One ring switch is always connected to a motorized actuator therefore only one feeder can be
controlled using SCADA. By controlling I mean turning the switch on and off. Only one DO
module is used here and there are two interposing relays located inside the PCB Control
actuator. The interposing relays operate the motorized circuit that drives the actuator back
and forth in order to turn the switch ON and OFF. A wiring diagram of the SCADA in
satellite stations is given in Annex 4.

21

To
RMU/Sub

To
RMU/Sub

Internal diagram
of RMU

11/0.4 kV
Transformer

Figure 2.6 Internal diagram of RMU

The ratings of a typical RMU are given below:


Ring Switch
Rated Current

630 A

Making Capacity

50 kA (peak)

Breaking Capacity

630 A

Short time withstand

20 kA/3 s

Basic impulse level

95/110 kV

Fuse switch
Rated Current

200 A

Making Capacity

50 kA

Breaking capacity

20 kA

Short time withstand

3.15 kA/3s

Basic impulse level

95/110 kV

22

2.1.3.2 High Voltage Switchgear in Ring/Radial Substations


The main switchgear I observed were Air Insulated, Vacuum Circuit Breaker Switchgear.
The Switchgear has 4 main compartments:

Low Voltage chamber; which houses metering equipment, SCADA equipment


(discussed above) and Numerical relays, etc

Circuit breaker chamber; which houses the vacuum circuit breaker itself (The VCB is
on a withdrawable truck)

Busbar compartment; contains the busbar which runs throughout the whole set of
panels

Cable compartment; which houses the incoming/outgoing feeder, also has current and
voltage transformers for measurement (discussed in the previous section)

The ratings are:


Rated Voltage

12 kV

Rated feeder current

Up to 1450 A

Rated busbar current

2000 A

Vacuum Circuit Breaker


Rated current

Up to 1600 A

Rated power frequency withstand voltage 1


min.(r.m.s)

28 kV

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

75 kV

Rated short circuit breaking current(r.m.s)

26.3 kA

Rated short time current (r.m.s) withstand (3 sec.)

26.3 kA

Rated short circuit making current(peak)

66 kA

23

2.1.3.3 Low Voltage Switchgear in Ring/Radial and Satellite Substations


From transformer feeder

MCCB

HRC Fuse

Figure 2.7 Single line diagram for a typical


LV distribution in Ring/Radial Sub.
Usually MCCBs (Moulded Case Circuit Breakers) are directly connected to the LV side of
the transformer. They are usually rated for 690 VAC, 1600 A (depends on requirement).
Settings can be made on the MCCB itself and even a short time delay can be set when
grading two MCCBs in series.
HRC fuses are normally connected to the supply from MCCB. The most common type of
fuse used is:
Rated voltage(AC)

690 VAC

Rated voltage(DC)

440 VAC

Rated short circuit breaking capacity

120 kA (AC) and 25 kA (DC)

Rating

400 A (depending on need)

HRC fuses need to be placed on fuse links, 3 per each phase. The fuse links need have the
same voltage ratings as the HRC fuse.
2.1.3.4 Numerical relay - SIPROTEC Compact 7SJ80
This is a commonly used numerical protection relay for 11 kV circuit breaker panel. Its
features are:
24

Instantaneous and definite-time overcurrent protection(1)

Inverse time overcurrent protection(1)

High impedance restricted ground fault protection(2)

Overvoltage/Undervoltage

Over-frequency/Under-frequency

(1) Used for feeder protection


(2) used for transformer protection
Although there are many protection features, only overcurrent and earth fault protection has
been implemented for the breakers. One of the advantages of this unit is that it is capable of
communicating with the master control element in the RTU panel using the Profibus-DP
protocol.
2.1.3.5 DC power supply system in the Ring/Radial substations
There are a number of reasons to supply DC voltage inside the substation:

To supply PS modules in the RTU panel

To supply the tripping/closing circuit in the circuit breaker panels

To supply transducers and interposing relays as described in section 2.1.2.4

To supply power to the Numerical relays

To supply power for motor operated spring charging

To supply the emergency 24 VDC battery bank

Below is an illustration of the DC supply distribution within the substation:

AC Supply

AC
Breaker

Battery
Charger

DC
Breaker

RTU Panel

11 kV panels

24 VDC Battery Bank

Figure 2.8 Block diagram of DC supply

25

The Battery charger consists of 3 phase rectifiers that convert 400 VAC to 24 VDC to
maintain a continuous DC supply. It also supplies the emergency battery bank. In the event
that the converter fails, the DC supply is provided through the battery bank.
2.1.3.6 Transformer at Primary Substation
The typical rating of a Transformer at a Primary Substation is:
Rated voltage

132/11 kV

Type of cooling

ONAN/ONAF

Rated power

15000/30000 kVA

Rated primary current

65.6/131.2 A

Rated secondary current 787.5/1575 A


Connection symbol

YNyn0

Year of manufacture

1984

Manufacturer

BBC (Brown Boveri & Cie)

2.2

Training Experience at the Ceylon Electricity Board

Our training experience at CEB happened during the period of 8 weeks from 27/08/2012 to
19/10/2012. The first 4 weeks comprised of Generation, 2 weeks at Hydro Power Stations;
Samanalawewa and Kukuleganga (1 week each) and the next 2 weeks at Thermal Power
Stations; Kelanitissa Power Station, Kelanitissa Combined Cycle Power Station and
Sapugaskanda Power Station.
The next 4 weeks of training was under the Transmission Operation and Maintenance, which
comprised of 2 weeks at the Pannipitiya Grid Substation (of which 3 days was at the
communication branch) and 2 weeks at the Biyagama Grid Substation (of which 3 days was
Hotline maintenance).
2.2.1 Samanalawewa Hydro Power Station
The project started in 1986, with the financial aid from Japan and the British government, it
was commissioned in 1992. The plant is capable of generating a maximum of 120 MW to the
national grid.

26

2.2.1.1 General/Technical specifications of the plant


Generator ratings

Turbine ratings

Type

Vertical shaft salient pole

Type

Vertical shaft Francis

Output (MVA)

70.6

Rated output

70.2 MW (320 m head)

Output (MW)

60

Max. output

73.3 MW (345 m head)

Power factor

0.85

Discharge

21 m3/s

Output voltage

10.5 kV

Speed

500 Rev/min.

Amperes

3882 A

Poles

12

Generator Transformer Ratings

Speed

500 Rev/min

Capacity

71 MVA

Max. Over Speed

884 Rev/min

Power factor

0.85

Excitation

153 V/ 1543 A

Voltage

138/10.5 kV

Manufacturer

GEC ALSTHOM (Made in

Current

297/3904 A

Vector symbol

YNd11

Cooling method

ONAN/ONAF

UK)

Reservoir Details
Catchment area

Power Tunnel
341.7 km2

Type

Concrete Steel-lined
horseshoe type

Gross capacity

274 x 106 m3

Length

5.15 km

Live storage capacity

215 x 106 m3

Diameter

4.5 m

Gradient

1:100

Dam

Surge Chamber

Type

Clay core rock-fill

Diameter

18 m

Embankment length

480 m

Depth

95 m

Height

100 m

Spill limit

460 m AMSL

Spillway gates

3 - Radial Crest type

27

2.2.1.2 The process of generating electricity


Water enters through the main intake point through the control gate; this water comes down
through the power tunnel. Then it transitions into the penstock (at the portal valve house).
The penstock leads directly to the MIV (Main Intake Valve); this is a spherical type valve.
The main objective of the MIV is to allow/disallow water through to the turbine side. Before
opening the MIV, pressure must be equalized on both sides of the MIV (prevent exposure of
turbine blades to sudden high pressure). This is done using a by-pass valve.
The water then enters the turbine blades through a spiral casing which decreases in diameter.
This makes sure that the pressure on the turbine blades are equalized everywhere as to
maintain a constant torque (otherwise the turbine blades will be damaged).
The rate of water flow into the turbine wheel is controlled by the guide vanes (there are 20
guide vanes). The extent of opening of the guide vanes controls the rate of water flow into the
turbine; this in turn is controlled by the governor. The governor is of electro-mechanical type,
the droop setting is normally set to 4.5% and a dead-band of 0.5% of 50 Hz is maintained.
2.2.1.3 Starting and Synchronising
There are 3 generator controlling modes:

Supervisory: This is a sequence of automated steps that can be monitored from the
TOSHIBA control system

ULCP (Unit Local Control Panel): All steps of the Supervisory mode can be done
manually from this panel

LCP (Local Control Panel)

2.2.1.4 Maintenance
In the event of any kind of maintenance (preventive or corrective likewise), there are several
safety procedures that must be followed. First all generating equipment from the generator to
the switchyard must be isolated and earthed from the live bus. A series of steps must be
followed by the ES or Engineer, this involves following a sequence of steps and interlocks.

28

The main steps are given below:

Trip Air Circuit breaker which is connected to the 10.5/0.4 kV auxiliary busbar

Earth the auxiliary transformer

Confirm that the Synchronizing breaker has been turned OFF

Make sure the Synchronizing breaker is isolated from both ends and earthed properly

Note: Before maintenance a work permit must be issued by the OE and then cancelled after
the work has been completed.
2.2.2 Kukuleganga Hydro Power Station
This is the first run-off river type hydro project in Sri Lanka. The specialty of this plant is that
it can run as a base load power plant as long as there is a continuous flow of water up to a
certain level. The main advantage is that upstream populations do not need to be resettled as
there is no need for a catchment area. The main disadvantage is that there is no way of storing
the energy and therefore no power over matching demand with generation in times of need.
2.2.2.1 General/Technical specifications of the plant
Generator ratings

Turbine ratings

Type

Vertical shaft salient pole

Type

Vertical shaft Francis

Output (MVA)

42

Rated output

35.3 MW (183 m head)

Output (MW)

35

Max. output

40 MW (177 m head)

Power factor

0.85

Discharge

21.30 m3/s

Output voltage

13.8 kV

Speed

500 Rev/min.

Amperes

1758 A

Poles

12

Generator Transformer Ratings

Speed

500 Rev/min

Capacity

46 MVA

Max. Over Speed

865 Rev/min

Power factor

0.85

Excitation

94.8 V/ 1120 A

Voltage

132/13.8 kV

Manufacturer

Toshiba Corporation

Current

209.2/1925 A

Vector symbol

YNd5

Cooling method

OFWF

29

2.2.2.2 Synchronising the generator


The generator starting and synchronizing is fully automated. The system has to follow a
certain number of steps before this happens:
i.

Standstill

ii.

Turbine Operation

iii.

Line Operation (used only when synchronizing to a live bus)

iv.

Line Charging (used only when synchronizing to a dead bus)

The above steps can occur under 3 different modes:

Auto mode: Each step is carried out automatically within a predefined time period, if
this is exceeded all the steps are rolled back to the initial position.

BP (Break Point) mode: Similar to Auto mode, but if the time period is exceeded then
the system waits for someone to take corrective action (this is usually used after
maintenance).

Step mode: Here each step needs to be carried out/confirmed one by one either locally
or remotely.

2.2.2.3 Excitation
Static excitation is used here, it is provided to the rotor through the slip ring compartment.
Initial excitation is carried out by the field flashing unit, this occurs for a few milliseconds
until the voltage of the generator builds up to a certain level. Flashing is done using a dc
supply from the battery bank (38 VDC). Afterwards the field breaker is closed.
The field current is then set through the AVR; which adjusts the firing angle to the Thyristor
Bridge to acquire the desired value of excitation. The power for excitation is derived from a
13.8 kV/155 V, 340 kVA transformer.

30

2.2.2.4 Mechanical Auxiliaries


i.

Bearings
There are four different types:

Thrust bearings: Used to support the turbine shaft while it is in operation

Turbine Guide bearings: Since the turbine wheel is subjected to instability and
vibrations, these are used to keep from swaying along the horizontal plane

Upper guide bearings and Lower guide: Keep the top part of the shaft horizontal and
the centre of the shaft from buckling. They are named respective to the generator
position.

High pressure pumps are used to maintain a thin layer of oil between the bearings and the
shaft collar (approx. 140 bar). Low pressure pumps are used to circulate this oil in and out of
the sump as to remove the heat from the oil. So oil is used as both a lubricant and a coolant.

Thrust bearings
Upper guide bearings
Generator
Lower guide bearings
Shaft coupling
Turbine guide bearings

Figure 2.9 Turbine bearing locations

31

ii.

Braking
Braking is usually applied at 165 rpm while stopping the generator. During
emergencies, it is applied at around 250 rpm. A separate dust collection system is
available to remove any dust that can be formed from the wearing off of brake pads.

iii.

Chiller System (HVAC)


Since this is an underground power cavern, air supply and quality is of great
importance, as well as maintaining the temperatures for personnel, relays, breakers
and other electrical equipment.
Below is a block diagram of the HVAC in the underground power cavern:
Chilled water supply (at 6 oC)

Refrigerant

Air Handling Unit


(AHU)

Water from
draft tube

Chiller/ Evaporator
Chilled water
(at 9 oC)

Condenser
Intake Air

Refrigerant
Supply Air
Water to
draft tube

Figure 2.10 HVAC system

2.2.3 Kelanitissa Power Station (KPS)


KPS is one of the 3 plants under the Thermal Complex of CEB. Here are some facts about it:

First commissioned in 1964 with 2 x 25 MW steam turbines

In 1980, 3 gas turbines were added (20 MW each) named GT1 ,GT2, GT3

3 more gas turbines installed in 1981 (20 MW each) named GT4, GT5, GT6

FIAT GT7 installed in 1997 with a capacity of 115 MW

32

2.2.3.1 Specifications for the 20 MW Gas turbines


Turbine rated speed

5100 rpm

Generator rated speed 3000 rpm


Generating voltage

11 kV

Fuel Type

Auto Diesel

GT1-3 are connected to the 11/132 kV GIS, whereas GT4-6 are connected the 11/33 kV AIS.
The rotor coupled to the turbine is meant to rotate at 3000 rpm using a gear reduction unit.

2.2.3.2 Specifications on GT-7


Turbine rated speed:

3000 rpm

Generator rated speed:

3000 rpm

Generating voltage:

11.5 kV

Fuel Type:

Auto Diesel

2.2.3.3 Starting Sequence of the 20 MW Gas turbine


1. Once all the auxiliaries are in working condition, the Check/Ready indicator lights up
2. The master control switch is then set to start position, there are 3 different modes of
operation:

Crank mode: The diesel engine rotates up to 1000 rpm without firing up the
combustion chamber.

Fire mode: Occurs at crank speed, the combustion chambers are fired up using the
spark plugs

Auto mode: The turbine is accelerated to 3000 rpm, then the diesel engine disengages
and the hot, high pressure gasses drive the turbine up to the rated speed of 5100 rpm.

Remote mode: The starting operations can be controlled from the export control
centre.

3. After reaching 5100 rpm, the Complete Sequence indicator lights up


4. Synchronise to system either automatically or manually
5. Select peak or base, depending on requirement (Base runs on maximum possible load
depending on the ambient temp.)

33

2.2.3.4 How it works.

Air is drawn through an inlet filter to remove any harmful solid particles

Air is compressed through a multistage axial compressor

Atomizing air is prepared by further compressing using a pressure pump

Atomizing air and fuel are directed into the combustion chamber, spark plugs are used
to ignite the chamber

The hot, high pressure gasses from the chambers are used to drive the turbine. The
turbine produces enough power to drive the auxiliaries, compressor plus 20 MW of
useful energy.

2.2.3.5 Synchronous condenser mode


In this mode, the machine acts as a synchronous motor. It absorbs active power (a small
amount) and supplies or absorbs reactive power based on the requirement. This method is
very useful for voltage regulation or power factor correction in the grid. This is one of the
main features of the plant.
2.2.3.6 Excitation
GT1-6 uses rotating diode excitation method, whereas GT7 uses static shunt type excitation.

Figure 2.11 Method of rotating diode excitation


The permanent magnet induces an AC current in the stator winding; the AVR adjusts the
firing angle according to the required excitation current, this produces a DC current, which
then induces an AC voltage in the exciter rotor winding. This AC voltage is rectified through
a set of rotating diodes to produce a dc voltage to the generator rotor winding.
34

2.2.3.7 Ratcheting and Barring


Gas turbines operate at high temperatures, if it was left idle the shaft would sag (this is an
undesirable effect). To prevent this ratcheting is done where the turbine is rotated 1200 every
3 minutes (for 20 MW turbines only). For the GT7, barring is done where the shaft is rotated
continuously at 3 rpm.
2.2.4 KCCPS (Kelanitissa Combined Cycle Power Station)
KCCPS consists of a Gas turbine rated 110 MW and a steam turbine (High pressure and Low
Pressure) rated at 55 MW. Therefore the total output of the plant is 165 MW with a gross
efficiency of 46%.
2.2.4.1 Specifications of the plant
Gas Turbine Ratings
Power output

110 MW

Fuel

Naphtha/Auto Diesel

Speed

3000 rpm

Exhaust temperature

5600C

Steam Turbine Ratings


HP turbine pressure

72 bar

LP turbine pressure

6.8 bar

HP turbine / LP turbine Speed 9000/3000 rpm


ST Generator Ratings
Output

76 MVA

Power factor

0.80

Voltage

11.5 kV

Excitation method

Rotating Diodes

GT transformer rating
Capacity

147 MVA

Voltage

15/220 kV

ST transformer rating
Capacity

83 MVA

Voltage

11.5/220 kV

35

2.2.4.2 The HSRG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator)


As the name implies, the main objective of the HSRG is to recover the heat from the flue
gasses that result from the GT and provide ideal temperatures and pressure for the steam
before entering the steam turbines. There are two main objectives of the HSRG:
To provide superheated, high pressure steam to the HP turbine at around 510 oC, 70

i.

bar.
To provide superheated, low pressure steam to the LP turbine at around 215 oC, 6.8

ii.

bar.
A diverter damper is located before the HSRG, to act as a by-pass valve if any maintenance is
to be done on the steam turbine side.
The water required for steam is held in the feedwater tank, a de-aerator is present before this
to remove any oxygen from the water that may later cause erosion in the turbine blades.
2.2.4.3 Auxiliaries
There are several mechanical auxiliary systems in place to make sure that the machines run in
good condition and up to maximum efficiency:

Feedwater pumps; one for the LP steam and the other for the HP steam

Circulating water pumps which remove heat from the final stage of the process to
convert steam back to water.

Cooling tower which cools the water in the circulating water pumps

Water treatment plant

AC lube oil pumps

There are several electrical auxiliaries; these are derived from the 6.6 kV busbar. The busbar
supplies power to the AC circulating water pumps, Feedwater pumps and starting motor for
GT.
The 6.6 kV supply is then stepped down to the 415 V busbar. This busbar supplies power to
the 415 VAC/ 128 VDC converter, plus it charges the 128 VDC battery bank. A 128 VDC
supply is necessary for the DC lube oil pump. In the event that the AC lube oil pump fails this
is critical.
A 48 VDC system is also there to supply relays and other control systems.
36

2.2.5 Sapugaskanda Diesel Power Station


This power station consists of two stations, A and B. Station A has an installed capacity of 80
MW (4 x 20 MW machines), it was commissioned in 1984. Station B has been divided into
two; Station B1 has an installed capacity of 40 MW and was commissioned in 1998 and
Station B2 also has a capacity of 40 MW and was commissioned in 1999. So altogether,
Station B has 10 x 8 MW diesel generators.
2.2.5.1 Station A, specifications
Station A, comprises of 4 PIELSTICK Engines, the pistons of V-18 type. They run on diesel
(for start/stop) and heavy fuel (while running).
Generator Ratings
Output

26.5 MVA

Power factor

0.85

Voltage

11 kV

Speed

428 rpm

No. of poles

14

Excitation

100 V/1156 A

Manufacturer

ALSTHOM

2.2.5.2 Station B, specifications


Station B, comprises of 10 MAN, B&W engines, the 8 pistons are of Inline type.
Generator Ratings
Output

12.9 MVA

Power factor

0.80

Voltage

11 kV

Current

677 A

Speed

428 rpm

No. of poles

14

Excitation

77 V/415 A

Manufacturer

SIEMENS

37

2.2.5.3 Station Switchyard


Station A and B are both connected to the 11 kV busbar. Station A is connected to two
transformers, whereas Station B is connected to two transformers, there is another
transformer although it is for spare use only. The difference in this power station is that the
generator output is not directly connected to the transformer, instead all generators are
connected to a common busbar and then a connection between the transformer and the busbar
is made.
Station A and B are connected to earth through 2, 6.5 resistors each. The station A 400 V
busbar is supplied by 2, 3150 kVA transformers whereas Station B 400 V busbar is supplied
by 3, 2000 kVA transformers. The 400 V busbar is used to supply station auxiliaries such as
the Lube oil pumps, cooling water pumps, compressed air system.
2.2.5.4 Starting of the diesel engine/generator
Below is the sequence of steps to be followed while loading and de-loading the engine.

Before starting the auxiliaries must be working condition

A process called barring is done where the engine is rotated twice to see if the pistons
are stuck.

A process called blowing is done using compressed air to remove any water or any
other remaining

The engine is then rotated to around 100 rpm using compressed air

The airing valve is then closed, and diesel is used as the fuel.

When generator speed reaches 428 rpm, synchronizing is done.

The generator is then loaded (1 MW/3 min. for Station A and 1 MW/1.5 min. for
Station B).

Once the generator reaches 30% of its full load and the temp. of cooling water leaving
the cylinders is greater than 70 oC, auto changeover to heavy fuel will occur. This
means that the engine temp. is high enough to maintain the viscosity of the fuel

During de-loading, a rate of 1 MW/min. is maintained

Switchover from heavy fuel to diesel is done at 70% of full load; this is done to flush
out any heavy oil that may remain in the cylinders (which may later solidify and cause
problems). The machine must run on diesel for at least 45 min. before disconnecting
form the system.
38

2.2.5.5 Excitation system for station B generator


The excitation for the generator is provided by the SIDUR 2000 excitation unit (AVR) from
Siemens. The power for this unit is derived from a separate 5 phase winding connected to the
generator. The exciter on the other hand takes the form of an external-pole generator, which
has a separate rotor and stator winding but it coupled to the same shaft as the main rotor.
The AVR consists of two main parts, a power controller that produces an exciter current into
the exciter stator winding and a digital PI controller that keeps the voltage at a given set
point. Therefore the PI controller has to communicate with the power controller to set the
correct value of excitation. The PI controller has input from the generator output voltage and
current.
Once the stator exciter current has been set, a voltage will be induced in the exciter rotor
winding, since this is an AC voltage, it is rectified via a set of rotating diodes and a DC
voltage is fed to the generator rotor winding. Therefore by changing the exciter stator current
we can change the main generators rotor current. Here excitation current for exciter stator is
9 A at rated load which means about 415 A in the main rotor winding.
2.2.6 Transmission Operations and Maintenance
2.2.6.1 Pannipitiya Grid Substation
The substation consists of:
i.

220 kV AIS double busbars fed from Biyagama lines 1 and 2. The double busbars are
in turn connected to 6 single phase Auto Transformers (220/132/33 kV)

ii.

132 kV AIS double busbars fed from the Auto Transformers plus from lines:
KOLONNAWA 1, KOLONNAWA 2, RATHMALANA 1, RATHMALANA 2,
DEHIWALA, HORANA, MATHUGAMA.

iii.

33 kV Indoor GIS which is fed from the three 132/33 kV transformers

2.2.6.1.1 Switchyard components


There are various equipment for each incoming and outgoing line. Some of them will be
explained next;

39

i.

Surge arrestors
These are normally used at the entry point to a GSS and on either side of power
transformers. They protect the other switchgear from high voltage surges, especially
due to lightning.

ii.

Wave trap
These are only seen on the Y phase of each incoming line, they prevent high
frequency components from passing through. It is usually used to extract the signal
for PLC communication.

iii.

CVT (Capacitive Voltage Transformer)


These are used to step down line voltages for energy, voltage metering and protective
relays. The usually they have two windings that have rated voltage of 11 kV and
110 V.

iv.

Isolators
These are like normal switches, mostly based on either side of a circuit breaker. They
are accompanied with earthing switches and are useful for maintenance of the
switchgear on site.

v.

Current Transformers
These step down line currents to acceptable values for protection and metering
equipment. Usually there are a number of tapings on a C/T for both protection and
metering.

vi.

Circuit breakers
This is the main protection for switchyard equipment including busbars, transformers
and lines. Ratings may vary according to the line capacities and voltages. They are
also used for bus coupling/decoupling.

vii.

Busbars
This is like an intermediary interconnection point or a node for power flow in the
system. They can come in U & I, single and double busbar types. In most substations,
a single busbar is rated to carry the whole load current in the event that the other fails.
40

2.2.6.1.2 Protection
At Pannipitiya GSS, we were given a rather detailed introduction to the types of protection
available. There are various kinds of protection available for different equipment in a
substation. They will be explained below.
i.

Grid Protection

During earth faults, the flow of current into the earth results in a Ground Potential
Rise (GPR). If a person is standing on the grid during a fault the potential gradient
across the person may be sufficient to pass a harmful/fatal current through the
persons body. For this several protection schemes are in place:

Earthing mesh: To keep step, touch, mesh voltages within acceptable values

Layer of crushed rock on surface: To act as an insulator between the personnel and
the earth.

ii.

Transmission line protection

For 33 kV radial feeders, overcurrent and earth fault protection is used and for larger
networks 132 kV or 220 kV, distance protection is used.

Distance protection

This is used for lines interconnecting two grids. Distance protection relays are used on either
end of the lines to monitor the line impedance based on the values of voltage and current at
the relaying point. If the impedance calculated by the relay is less than the reach point
impedance, the relay determines that there is a fault in that zone.
Typical time delays used for protection:
132 kV lines

220 kV lines

Zone 1: 0s

Zone 1: 0s

Zone 2: 0.5s

Zone 2: 0.25s

Zone 3: 1.0s

Zone 3: 0.5s

41

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Figure 2.12 Distance Protection

Differential protection

In this method the two relays on either side of the lines check to see if the current entering
one side is the same as the other. This is a very effective form of protection

OPGW cable

Relay

Relay

Figure 2.13 Arrangement for differential protection

If the OPGW fails, then distance protection will be activated by both relays.

Busbar protection

Provides protection for busbar earth faults, here the busbar can be divided into zones and
selective tripping of the busbar can be achieved.

Breaker failure protection

In the event that a breaker fails to trip after a set amount of times, breaker failure protection
will take over. This scheme will trip any other breakers to clear the fault with minimal impact
on the power system.

iii.

Transformer protection

A transformer is a crucial and expensive equipment of the grid substation, therefore its
protection must be ensured in the highest manner.

42

Mechanical protection

Figure 2.14 Power Transformer arrangement


1 Buchholz relay, 2 Protective relay, 3 OLTC oil conservator, 4 Transformer oil conservator, 5
Transformer body, 6 OLTC compartment, 7 Dehydrating breather for conservators

Note: OLTC and Main tank are separated, tap changing causes arcs which may operate the
buchholz relay or deteriorate the insulation level provided by the oil to the t/f windings.

Buchholz relay

There are 3 functions of the buchholz relay:

An accumulation of gas causes the upper float of the relay to rise and send a alarm
signal

A loss of oil causes the upper float of the relay to drop sending a trip signal, a much
greater loss of oil causes the lower float to drop sending a trip signal and so
disconnecting the transformer

An arc inside the transformer causes a high pressure wave towards the conservator
tank enough to activate a damper which immediately disconnects the transformer.
43

Protective relay

This is only for the OLTC; it consists of a flap valve that operates to a very high flow rate.
This in turn disconnects the transformer from the system.

Pressure relief valve

Springs out when a certain value of pressure inside the transformer is exceeded.

Silica GEL

This is used to absorb water vapor inside the transformer tank, which may lead to dielectric
failure.
2.2.6.2 Biyagama grid substation
The substation consists of:

220 kV double busbar AIS fed from lines; KOTUGODA 1, KOTUGODA 2,


KOTHMALE 1, KOTHMALE 2, KELANITISSA 1, KELANITISSA 2,
PANNIPITIYA 1 AND PANNIPTIYA 2. The double busbars are connected to 6
single phase Auto Transformers (220/132/33 kV).

132 kV double busbar fed from the Auto Transformers plus lines;
SAPUGUASKANDA 1, SAPUGASKANDA 2, SAPUGASKANDA DIESEL 1,
SAPUGASKANDA DIESEL 2. There are also 2 SPARE lines.

33 kV single busbar AIS fed from the output of the tertiary winding of the Auto
Transformer.

2.2.6.2.1 Line Maintenance


There are two types of maintenance:

Hot line maintenance: Is done while the line is energized, involves changing line
hardware or insulators, etc.

Cold line maintenance: Is done while the line is de-energized, involves conductor
repairing, etc

44

Advantages of Hot line maintenance:

Reliability of the power supply is improved

No power loss during maintenance

Increases the lifetime of switchgear

Methods of carrying out hot line maintenance:

Hot stick method: Worker is usually at ground potential and uses an insulating stick to
carry out work

Bare hand method: Work is carried out while at the same voltage as the live parts,
care is taken to keep clearance from other objects at ground potential.

Safety procedures taken before and while hot line maintenance:

Wearing safety shoes, straps, helmets and overalls before commencing work.

Maintaining the minimum safety clearances with live parts; i.e. 3.5 ft. for 132 kV
lines and 5.0 ft. for 220 kV lines.

2.2.6.2.2 Transmission equipment


Transmission tower types:

Single circuit Double earth

Single circuit Single earth

Double circuit Double earth

Double circuit Single earth

Type of cable used for transmission:


ACSR (Aluminum core steel reinforced) cables and AAACs (All Alloy Aluminum
Conductors) are used for HV transmission. The advantages of ACSR are; low coefficient of
linear expansion, light weight and comparatively low cost.
Insulator types:

Suspension

Tension

Heavy suspension (for mountainous towers)


45


2.3

Guide sets (used where the angle between two lines are small)
Training experience at Lanka Electricity Company (LECO) Pvt. Ltd.

Our training at LECO consisted of 4 weeks; 2 weeks from 13/08/2012 to 24/08/2012 and the
rest of the 2 weeks from 22/10/2012 to 02/11/2012. Each week we were placed under a
different section, they were in chronological order:

Branch Office (Kotte)

Systems Operation

Customer Service Centre

Engineering and Operation

2.3.1 Branch Office


Here we reported to the Branch Engineer at the Kotte office. Unfortunately we could not get
hold of the Branch Manager during this period of time as he was unavailable.
2.3.1.1 Accounts division
The main functions are:

Customer billing which is done by the revenue officer (RO). RO takes meter
readings during the first 20 days of the month.

Revenue Collection Customers can make payments to branch offices, banks,


selected supermarkets. They may pay in cash or by cheque. Each day the accountant
receives a payment journal and a billing journal which must be verified and
accounted.

Non-payment disconnection If a customer fails to pay within 30 days, a


disconnection notice is present on the next bill. The customer must then pay the
arrears within 10 days plus a 2% surcharge to avoid disconnection.

2.3.1.2 Customer Service


The main facilities offered here are:

Providing new connections

Meter testing

Customer requested shifting


46

2.3.1.3 Administration
This section is under the Administration Officer, he has a number of duties pertaining to that
particular branch:

Providing necessary facilities for the employee

Equipment/Vehicle repair and maintenance

Implementing management decisions made by the head office within the branch

Employee profile management

Employee attendance, leaves and OT management

Employee welfare and taking disciplinary action

Maintaining customer records

2.3.2 Systems Operations


2.3.2.1 Control centre scheduling
This unit is responsible for interrupt and switch operation scheduling.
i.

Interruption Scheduling
When a repair or maintenance is to take place, the CSS of the depot must request the
control engineer. The report contains details of what work to be done, what sections to
be isolated and the date and time of the operation. Once the interruption is scheduled,
the consumers are informed 30 days prior.
Work permit
It is compulsory that a work permit be issued by the CSS before beginning any work.
The permit ensures that all safety precautions have been taken, after work is complete
and the line is energized, the CSS must cancel the work permit; meaning it is no
longer safe to work in that area

47

ii.

Switch operation scheduling


When an interruption is to take place, instructions or procedures must be written. A
diagram of the area to be isolated is prepared. This diagram features line details and
LBS locations, etc Then switching instructions are prepared, this contains details of
the switch to be operated, state of the switch, location of the switch, time of
switching, etc
The control centre has a mimic of the entire LECO distribution system. This contains
details of feeders, primary substations, spurs, LBS status, etc Whenever an LBS
status changes, the mimic is updated accordingly. The mimic helps to visualize the
network and minimize the area affected by the interruption by finding alternate ways
to supply power to the areas affected.

2.3.2.2 Meter testing lab


There are several tests that are done on new and old meters, these will be explained:
i.

Disc error test meters are fed with rated voltage and current for a predetermined
number of turns and at the end, the error for one rotation is calculated. The error is
defined as the divisions by which the 0 position on the disc is offset from the centre.
Table 1.3 Disc error test and results

ii.

Load current

Power factor

Percentage error

5% of balance current

< 3.5%

100% of balance current

< 2.5%

Full load current

< 2.5%

100% balance current

0.5 lag

< 3.0%

Dial test This is done to check if the dial should increment by exactly 1 unit when 1
kWh of energy is consumed by the user.

iii.

Creep test 110% of rated voltage is applied to the meters for about 20 minutes to see
if the disc rotates by 1 revolution; if so then the meter is faulty.

48

2.3.2.3 Transformer repair workshop


Here we learnt about the different tests performed on transformers. The good thing here was
that we had a first person hands-on view of how the tests were performed.
i.

Insulation resistance test (also known as Megger test)


This is done to see if the insulation level is up to the standard. This involves applying
2500 VDC between the HV/LV, HV/GROUND and LV/GROUND. The results
obtained should be within an acceptable value of resistance.

ii.

Ratio test
Here 415 V is applied to the HV windings of the transformer. Then measure the
following voltages on the LV side; na, nb, nc, ab, bc, ac. The voltage ratio for all three
phases must then be similar and close to the actual value. The actual voltage ratio =
11/(400/3 ) = 47.63

iii.

Oil test
The oil test is done in accordance with IEC 156/ BS 5874. In this a sample of oil is
used to check the voltage at which the breakdown occurs. If the oil fails, it can be
purified using the oil treatment plant.

2.3.3 Customer Service Centre


In this week I chose the Pitta-Kotte branch as my training location. During the week I had the
opportunity to go out on the field and observe the functions carried out by the TO (Technical
Officer), I also had the chance to observe some energy meter replacements (analog and
digital).
2.3.3.1 Materials used by LECO for distribution purposes
For 11 kV:

Cross-arms are used to mount insulators; insulators are post, pin or tension type

H type connectors are used for 11 kV tee-offs

AAC (All Aluminium Conductors) are used for 11 kV transmission (160 mm2 and 60
mm2 )

Boundary meters, auto-reclosers and load break switches (LBS)


49

For 400 V:

ABC (Aerial bundled conductors) are used for transmission, there are two types:

3 x 70 mm2 + 1 x 50 mm2 + 1 x 16 mm2

3 x 50 mm2 + 1 x 35 mm2 + 1 x 16 mm2

Phase + neutral + street lamp


wire

Suspension clamps are used for pulling the ABC through straight paths

Tension clamps are used where the ABC path changes direction

Service lines are terminated by a dead end clamp

For a 3 phase supply 5 tee-offs are used, 3 for the phases and 2 for neutral (one is used
as backup in the case the other fails)

For a single phase supply only 2 tee-offs are used

For transformer and feeder protection

Transformers are protected by surge arrestors and drop down lift operate switches
(DDLOs).

ABC feeders are protected by feeder disconnection switches; these contain HRC fuses
rated at 250 or 100 A.

2.3.3.2 Energy meter replacement


The steps involved are:
i.

De-energize the transformer by switching off the DDLO switch

ii.

Disconnect all feeder disconnection switches to that transformer

iii.

Replace old meter with new meter while adhering to the wiring diagram

iv.

Re-energize transformer by switching on DDLO

v.

Reconnect all feeder disconnection switches

vi.

Check for correct phase sequence using phase sequence meter (only required for
analog meters)

2.3.4 Engineering and Operations


Our last week of industrial training was held at the LECO Head Office, we were placed under
the engineering and operations department. At first we were given a basic introduction to the
functions carried out by the department:

Updating construction manuals


50

Proposing new technologies

Preparing standard cost manuals

Load forecasting

Load flow studies

GPS/GIS (Mapping)

Procurement handling

However, we only got the opportunity to know a few of these in detail, which will be
explained in the next sections.
2.3.4.1 Procurement
Procurement is necessary for new service connections, breakdowns and maintenance. It is
useful to supply materials, services and consultancies. Regulations for procurement are set by
the National Procurement Agency in which LECO falls under the direct procurement
committee (DPC). There are two committees; DPC minor which handles procurement less
than LKR 10 million and DPC major which handles less than LKR 50 million.
There are two main ways to procure; tendering (used by DPC major) and quotations (used by
DPC minor). Tendering is classified according to the type of bid (National/International
limited bid or National/International competitive bid) and bidding conditions and procedures
may change according to that. Quotations are usually submitted by a list of registered
suppliers.
The TEC (Technical Evaluation Committee) is responsible for selecting the winning bid. The
recommendations are sent back to the DPC major/minor. Once the DPC approves award
letters are sent to the winning bidder/supplier. When the materials arrive they are kept at an
inspection bay, a group of engineers (inspection committee) will then inspect a sample. If the
materials are in good condition, the stock level will be updated or else the TEC or inspection
team will be held responsible.
2.3.4.2 Load forecasting
The main purpose of load forecasting is for planning, budgeting and expansion activities.
Some of the values forecasted are: Energy sales, No. of customers, kVA sales, Purchases,
Losses, Revenue, Specific consumption, Consumer mix, Energy mix. There are 4 basic
approaches to load forecasting:
51

Judgmental: An expert panel anticipates future growth; it is subjective from panel to


panel.

Regression: To develop a statistical correlation between a dependent and independent


variable (usually time). The results are limited by the data available.

Econometric: Consider complex parameters, only used on a macro economical scale.

End use approach: Data collected on the smallest level (e.g. consumption of a simple
appliance). Depends on the reliability of survey data.

LECO uses the simple linear regression model. The model uses past 10 years of data to
model for the next 5 years. The model will always have inaccuracies, e.g. meter reading itself
has an error of + or 2.5%.
3. CONCLUSION
It was a great accomplishment to complete my 24 weeks of industrial training. The
experiences I had were unparalleled to any of that which I have had earlier in my life. During
the period of time I had hands on first-person experience of what was going on in the outside
world related to the power sector. I was able to bridge the gap between theory and practical
and the experience also helped me to learn and understand some parts of theory which I was
unable to grasp before.
The training program offered by the department of electrical engineering is different from
other departments. Overall I believe that it is a successful training schedule, however there
are minor imperfections. Both CEB and the private sector offer a different kind of experience.
I was fortunate to join a well known company. Working in the private sector is very much
different from that of the government. Private firms are always profit oriented; there is
always a different atmosphere as long as there is some kind of a project. It is very challenging
to work together with the other engineers and learn from them. However, when I arrived
there were currently no projects of great importance, the only ongoing project was deficiency
clearing for the SCADA/DMS. I was assigned as a supervisor to a group of technicians; here
the major challenge was labor and material management. Here I had to adapt to some harsh
conditions and sometimes late working hours. However, I only looked at these experiences in
a positive manner because it helped me to grow as a responsible and dedicated worker.
During deficiency clearing I was exposed to a wide range of electrical equipment in Satellite,
Ring/Radial and Primary substations. I would have never had this opportunity if I had stayed
52

in the office and read documents instead. However, the major drawback was that I was
always out in the field and with little time to actually study the equipment or even consult
with the engineers about it. Therefore, I had to find extra time to study wiring diagrams and
other catalogues to see what it was that I was actually dealing with. I am glad to say that I
was given some responsibility (at this stage in time) although it compromised by training to a
certain extent. Another difficulty was that I did not get time to receive proper feedback from
the engineer in charge of my diary as we were both busy and our schedules didnt match.
However, I overcame that problem and he was also happy to provide advice over the phone
as well.
So during those 3 months I felt that I had exposure to the actual conditions under which
engineers have to work, especially in the private sector. To future trainees who do undergo
training at a private firm, I advise that they do some background research to see if there are
any projects underway at that time. Otherwise, it would be a waste of time just sitting around
in an office space with no exposure to any kind of engineering.
The CEB was a totally different experience, for me it was like a knowledge hub. I was not
given any responsibilities or work therefore I had the freedom to read documents, look
around and ask questions from the Engineers, Electrical Superintendents and Technicians.
CEB has trained many undergraduates for a long time and furthermore it has many training
centers in place for engineers and technicians likewise. Therefore, CEB is the best place to
get fundamental knowledge about generation and transmission. I was satisfied and humbled
by how some engineers and other employees took time from their own schedules to teach us.
A problem with CEB is that it does not provide exposure to the latest technologies, trainees
are only able to learn about the equipment which is already there and most of them are
outdated.
Regarding the CEB schedule four weeks were assigned for transmission where we had to
spend two weeks and two different substations each. We covered the grid substations in less
than a week and realized that there was not much to do during the rest of the period. Also grid
substations seem very idle and it is not a place where electrical engineering is actually
practiced. This is obvious also due to the fact that there are no engineers assigned to a certain
Grid substation. However, there are many other sectors of CEB that I thought I could learn
from during that time period. For example we only had 3 days of training at KPS and KCCP
each while others had a full week.
53

Training at LECO was also an enlightening experience although we did have some trouble
getting in touch with some very busy people. I believe that training schedule was properly
organized and thought of because we had exposure to almost all sectors of LECO during the
four weeks of training. All employees such as Engineers, Accountants, AO, Stores managers,
technicians and other staff were very welcoming and informative. I believe LECO is the best
place for training under the distribution sector.
Finally I believe that the 24 weeks of training has helped me to grow as a student and
prepared me to a certain extent to face the outside environment. Apart from the minor defects
I have mentioned above, I believe that my training was a success and that it will greatly help
me in the future.

54

Abbreviations
AAAC

All Aluminium Alloy Conductor

ABC

Aerial Bundled Conductor

AC

Alternating Current

ACSR

Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced

AGM

Additional General Manager

AIS

Air Insulated Substation

AVR

Automatic Voltage Regulator

CCEDDP

Colombo City Electricity Distribution Development Project

CEB

Ceylon Electricity Board

CEO

Chief Financial Officer

CSS

Customer Service Superintendent

CT

Current Transducer

C/T

Current Transformer

CVT

Capacitive Voltage Transformer

DC

Direct Current

DCC

Distribution Control Centre

DDLO

Drop Down Lift Operate

DIMO

Diesel and Motor Engineering

DMS

Distribution Management System

DPC

Direct Procurement Committee

GIS

Gas Insulated Substation

GSS

Grid Substation

GT

Gas Turbine

HP

High Pressure

HSRG

Heat recovery Steam Generator

HV

High Voltage

HVAC

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

IPP

Independent Power Producers

KCCPS

Kelanitissa Combined Cycle Power Station

KPS

Kelanitissa Power Station

LBS

Load Break Switch

ix

LECO

Lanka Electricity Company

LP

Low Pressure

LTL

Lanka Transformers Limited

LV

Low Voltage

MCB

Miniature Circuit Breaker

MCCB

Moulded Case Circuit Breaker

OLTC

On Load Tap Changer

OPGW

Optical Ground Wire

PI

Proportional Integral

PLC

Power Line Carrier

PUCSL

Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka

RMU

Ring Main Unit

RO

Revenue Officer

RTU

Remote Terminal Unit

SCADA

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

SLT

Sri Lanka Telecomm

ST

Steam Turbine

TEC

Technical Evaluation Committee

TSSGSP

Transmission System Strengthening Grid Substation Project

VCB

Vacuum Circuit Breaker

VT

Voltage Transducer

References

DIMO Website www.dimolanka.com

CEB Website www.ceb.lk

LECO Website - leco.lk

DIMO Annual Report 2011

CEB Annual Report 2010

CEB Statistical Digest 2011

LECO Annual Report 2011

xi

Annexes

Annex 1: Deficiency Clearing form (Page 1)

xii

Annex 2: Deficiency Clearing form (Page 2)

xiii

Annex 3: Labour allocation form

xiv

Annex 4: SCADA wiring diagram for Satellite stations

xv