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I.

t vn
1. L do chn ti:
a. rn luyn k nng, phng php gii ton cho hc
sinh ngoi vic trang b cho hc sinh kin thc c bn, ngi
thy gio cn gip cc em tng hp phn loi cc phng php
gii v cc dng thng gp cc em d nh, d vn dng.
b. Bt ng thc l mt trong nhng mng kin thc
kh v rng ca b mn Ton nhng nh cc bi tp v bt
ng thc m hc sinh c th hiu k hn, su hn v gii
v bin lun phng trnh, bt phng trnh; Tm gi tr ln
nht, nh nht ca mt biu thc, v mi lin h gia cc yu
t trong tam gic v trong qu trnh gii ton kh nng t duy
sng to ca ngi hc c pht trin mnh. Thc t khi gii cc
bi tp v bt ng thc hc sinh thng gp nhiu kh khn
v cch gii chng khng hon ton c mt mu quy tc no
nh mt s mng kin thc khc.
Qua nhiu nm ging dy ton trng ph thng, l ngi
thy, ti thng trn tr suy ngh, thu thp ti liu, c gng
sp xp hp l mt s phng php v bi tp v chng minh
bt ng thc vi mong mun gip hc sinh t tin hn khi
ng trc mt s bi ton v bt ng thc c th l cc bi
ton chng minh bt ng thc.
c. Phm vi v gii hn bi vit.
Khun kh bi vit c hn nn ti mun tng hp phn
loi cc phng php chng minh bt ng thc v cc v d

p dng dnh cho hc sinh THCS c bit l hc sinh kh gii


lp 8; 9.
bi vit khng qu di, phn gii cc v d ti khng
trnh by chi tit.
2. Kin thc cn nm vng

2.1. nh ngha bt ng thc:


Vi hai s a, b bt k ta ni rng a b a -b 0
a b a -b 0
2.2. Tnh cht:
1. a > b ; b >c a > c
2. a >b a + c > b + c
3. a > b ; c > 0 ac > bc
a > b ; c < 0 ac < bc
5. a > b ; c > d a + c > b + d
a>b;c<d a-c<b-d
6. a > b 0 ac > bd
7 a > b > 0 ; 0 < c < d

a
c

>

b
d

8. a > b > 0 an > bn


a > b an > bn (n l)
a b

an > bn ( n chn )

9. Nu m > n >0 th a >1 am > an


a =1 am = an
0 < a < 1 am = an

10. a > b , ab > 0

1
a

<

1
b

2.3. Cc hng bt ng thc:


1. a2 0 vi mi a. Du bng xy ra a = 0
2.
3.

a
a

0 vi mi a. Du bng xy ra a = 0
a vi mi a. Du bng xy ra a 0

4.

ab

5.

a b

vi mi a,b. Du bng xy ra ab

0
v

vi mi a,b. Du bng xy ra ab > 0

II. Ni dung:
1. Phng php s dng nh ngha:
1.1. Phng php gii: Mun chng minh A > B hy xt hin A
- B. Nu hin A - B dng th khng nh c A > B l bt
ng thc cn chng minh.
1.2. V d p dng:
+

1
b

- 2) + ( c +

c
b

V d 1: Cho a,b,c > 0. chng minh rng (a + b + c) (


1
c

1
a

) 9
1

Gii: Xt hiu H = (a + b + c) ( a +
a

=(b +

b
a

1
b

- 2) + (

1
c

a
c

)-9
c
a

2)
2
2

a b
a c

ab

ac

b c 2
bc

Do a,b,c > 0 H 0 Theo nh ngha bt ng thc:

(a + b + c) (

1
a

1
b

1
c

) 9

Du = xy ra H = 0 a = b = c
V d2: Cho a > 0, b > 0. chng minh rng:
Gii: Xt hiu: A =

a3 b3 a b

2
2

a3 b3 a b

2
2

B ngoc, phn tch thnh nhn t ta c: A =

3
8

(a + b) (a -

b)2 V a > 0 , b > 0 a + b > 0 m (a - b)2 0 A 0


Theo nh ngha

a3 b3
2

a b

Du bng xy ra a = b
1.3. Bi tp tng t:
Bi 1: Chng minh:

a
b

b
a

2 vi ab > 0

Bi 2: Chng minh: x2 + y2 + z2 2xy + 2yz - 2x


Bi 3: Cho a,b,c > 0 chng minh:
a2
b2 c2

b2
c2 a2

c2

a2 b2

a
bc

b
ca

c
ab

2. Phng php s dng tnh cht


2.1. Phng php gii: S dng mt hay nhiu tnh cht
nu 2.2 bin i. T khng nh bt ng thc
cn chng minh
2.2. V d p dng:
V d 1: Cho a, b > 2. Chng minh ab > a + b
Gii: Ta c: a > 2 , b > 0 ab > 2b (1) (Tnh cht 3)
b > 2 , a > 0 ab > 2a (2) (Tnh cht 3)
T (1) v (2) 2ab > 2 (a + b) (Tnh cht 4)

ab > a + b

(Tnh cht 3)

V d 2: Cho x 0, y 0, z 0. Chng minh rng:


(x + y) (y + z) (z + x) 8xyz
Gii: Ta c:

(x-y)2 x2 - 2xy +y2 0


x2 + 2xy +y2 4xy (Tnh cht 2)

(x+y)2 4xy (1)

Tng t ta c: (y+z)2 4yz (2)


(x+z)2 4xz (3)
Nhn tng v (1),(2),(3) [(x+y)(y+z)(x+z)]2 (8xyz )2
(Tnh cht 6)
(x+y)(y+z)(x+z)

8xyz

(Tnh

cht 8)
2.3. Bi tp tng t:
Bi 1: Cho a + b > 1. Chng minh rng a4 +b4 >
Bi 2: Chng minh rng:

a2
b2

b2
c2

c2
c

2
b
a

b
a

1
8

a
c

Bi 3: Cho x + y = 2. Chng minh : x4 + y4 2


3. Phng php phn tch: ( Bin i tng ng)
3.1. Phng php gii: Xut pht t bt ng thc cn
chng minh ta bin i n tng ng vi mt bt ng
thc khc m ta bit l ng t suy ra bt ng thc
cn chng minh l ng.
3.2. V d p dng:
V d 1: Chng minh rng: (a + b)2 2 (a2 + b2) vi mi a , b.
Gii:

(a + b)2 2(a2 + b2)

(1)

a2 +2ab +b2 - 2a2 - 2b2 0

-(a2 - 2ab + b2) 0

-( a - b)2 0

(2)

Bt ng thc (2) lun ng bt ng thc (1) ng


(pcm)
V d 2: Cho 2 s a, b tho mn: a + b = 1
Chng minh: a3 + b3 +ab
Gii:(1) a3 + b3 +ab -

1
2

(1)

(a + b) (a2- ab + b2) +ab a2- ab + b2 + ab -

a2 + b2 -

1
2

1
2

0 (v a + b = 1)

2a2 + 2b2 - 1 0

2a2 + 2(1 - a)2 - 1 0 ( v b = 1 - a)


4 (a -

1
2

2 0

(2)

Bt ng thc (2) lun ng m cc php bin i trn l tng ng


(1)

ng

Du bng xy ra a =

1
2

=b

3.3. Bi tp tng t
Bi 1: Vi mi a, b chng minh a4 + b4 a3b + ab3
Bi 2: Cho a > 0, b > 0. Chng minh
Bi 3: Chng minh x4 + y4
4. Phng php tng hp

x6 y6

y2 x2

a
b
a b
b
a

vi x

0, y 0

4.1. Phng php gii: T mt bt ng thc bit l


ng, dng cc php bin i tng ng bin i bt
ng thc v bt ng thc cn chng minh.
Phng php gii ny lm cho hc sinh thy kh ch l
khng bit nn bt u t bt ng thc no nhng nu bit
phng php gii ny ngc vi phng php phn tch th cng
rt d tm ra bt ng thc xut pht.
4.2. V d p dng
V d 1: Cho a, b 0. Chng minh

ab
2 ab
2

(Bt ng thc

Csi)
Gii: Theo gi thit a, b 0 ab 0

ab

xc nh.

Ta c: ( a - b)2 0
a2 - 2ab +b2 0

a2 + 2ab +b2 4ab


( a - b)2 4ab

a + b 2

ab
ab
2

ab

(v a + b 0 )

(pcm)

Du = xy ra a = b.
V d 2: Cho a, b, c, d > 0. Chng minh rng:
a 2 b2

c2 d 2

a c 2 b d 2

Gii:
Ta c: (ad - bd)2 0
a2d2 - 2adbc + b2c2 0
a2d2 - 2adbc + b2c2 + a2c2 + b2d2 a2c2 + b2d2

a2d2 - 2adbc + b2c2 + a2c2 + b2d2 a2c2 + 2acbd + b2d2

a2(c2 + d2) + b2(c2 + d2) (ac + bd)2

b 2 c 2 d 2

ac + bd ( v ac + bd > 0)

a2 + b2 + 2 a 2 b 2 c 2 d 2 + c2 + d2 2ac + 2bd + a2 +

b2 + c2 +d2
( a 2 b 2 c 2 d 2 )2 (a + c)2 + (b + d)2

a 2 b2

c2 d 2

a c 2 b d 2

(pcm)

a c

b d

Du = xy ra

Ch : vi a, b, c, d >0 th cc php bin i trong cch gii


trn l tng ng.
4.3. Bi tp tng t: Chng minh cc bt ng thc
Bi 1: a2 + b2 + c2 ab + bc + ca vi mi a, b
Bi 2: (x-y)2+ (y -z)2 + (z -x)2 3(x2 + y2+z2) vi mi x, y, z
Bi 3:

a3 b3 a b

2
2

vi a > 0 , b > 0

5. Phng php phn chng:


5.1. Phng php gii: Nu bi ton yu cu chng minh bt
ng thc A B ( hoc A < B) th ta gi s A < B (hoc A
B). T iu m ta va gi s cng vi gi thit ca bi ton ta
suy ra mt iu mu thun vi gi thit vi cc kin thc
hc. Cui cng ta khng nh kt lun ca bi ton A B
( hoc A < B) l ng.
Gii nh vy gi l phng php phn chng.
5.2. V d p dng
V d 1: Cho a2 + b2 2 . Chng minh: a + b 2
Gii: Gi s: a + b > 2

a2 + 2ab + b2 > 4

(1)

Ta c: (a - b)2 0 a2 - 2ab + b2 0
2ab a2 + b2

a2 + b2 + 2ab 2(a2 + b2)

Mt khc theo gi thit ta c: a2 + b2 2


2(a2 + b2) 4

Suy ra: a2 + b2 + 2ab 4 (2) mu thun vi (1). Vy phi c a


+b 2
V d 2: Chng minh rng:
Nu a + b + c > 0; abc >0 , ab + bc + ac > 0 th a > 0, b > 0,
c > 0.
Gii: gi s a 0
Nu a = 0 th abc = 0 tri vi gi thit abc > 0
Nu a < 0 : do a + b + c > 0 nn b + c > 0
Do abc > 0 nn bc < 0
a(b + c) + bc < 0

Hay ab + ac + bc < 0 tri vi gi thit ab + ac + bc > 0


Vy a > 0. Tng t ta chng minh c b > 0, c > 0
5.3. Bi tp tng t:
Bi 1: cho cc s a, b, c , m, n, p tho mn: ap - 2bn + cm = 0
v ac - b2 = 0
chng minh mp - n2 0
Bi 2: chng minh rng: Nu a 3; b 3; a2 + b2 25 th a
+b 7
Bi 3: Cho a3 + b3 = 2. Chng minh a + b 2
6. Phng php quy np ton hc

6.1. Phng php gii: Nu c 2 v ca bt ng thc phi


chng minh u ph thuc vo i s t nhin n th c th
dng phng php quy np ton hc. Khi i hi phi chng
minh:
+ Bt ng thc ng vi n = 1 (hoc ng vi n = n 0 l gi
tr t nhin b nht tha nhn c ca n theo yu cu ca
bi)
+ Tha nhn bt ng thc ng vi n = k (k > 1 hoc k >
n0) ri chng minh bt ng thc ng vi n = k + 1.
6.2. V d p dng:
V d 1: Chng minh rng vi mi s nguyn n 3 th 2n >
2n + 1 (1)
Gii:
Vi n= 3 ta c 23 = 8,; 2n + 1 = 7
2n > 2n + 1 ng vi n = 3

Gi s (1) ng vi n = k (k

N, k 3 )

Tc l 2k > 2k + 1. Ta phi chng minh (1) ng vi n = k+1


hay 2k+1 > 2(k+1) +1
hay 2k+1 > 2k+3

(2)

Tht vy: hay 2k+1 =2.2k m 2k > 2k +1


2k+1 > 2. (2k +1) = (2k+3)+(2k-1) > 2k+3 (v 2k -1>0)

(2) ng vi k 3

Vy 2n > 2n + 1 vi mi n nguyn dng v n 3.


V d 2: chng minh rng vi mi s t nhin n > 1 th
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3).2n > 2n (1)
Gii: Vi n = 2 th (1) ng vi n = k (k N, k 2) tc l

(k+1)(k+2)(k+3).2k > 2k. Ta phi chng minh (1) ng vi n


= k+1 tc l phi chng minh (k+2)(k+3)(k+4)2(k+1) > 2k+1
Hay (k+2)(k+3)(k+4)(2k+2) > 2k+1
Tht vy: Theo gi thit quy np ta c:
(k+2)(k+3)(k+4)2k > 2k
(k +1)(k+2)(k+3)(2k)(2k+1) > 2k

2(k +1)(k+2)(k+3)(2k)(2k+1) > 2.2k


(k+2)(k+3)(2k)(2k+1)(2k+2) > 2k+1

Vy bt ng thc (1) ng vi mi s t nhin n >1 ngha


l:
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3).2n > 2n
6.3. Bi tp tng t
Bi 1: Cho a 0, b 0, n N. Chng minh rng
a b

an bn
2

Bi 2: Chng minh rng vi mi s nguyn dng n 3


th

n2 > n + 5

Bi 3: Chngminh rng vimi s nguyn dng n th


1
1
1

...
1
n 1 n 2
3n 1

7. Phng php xt cc khong gi tr ca bin


7.1. Phng php gii: C nhng bi ton yu cu chng minh
bt ng thc A(x) > 0 m khng cho thm gi thit no na
ta c th suy ngh theo cch gii sau: Nu biu thc A(x) vit
c v dng tng cc hng t nx(x-a) th ta xt cc khong
gi tr ca bin x chng hn nh x a v x < a s dng

nh ngha bt ng thc x a x a 0 hay x < a x -a <


0.
Trong trng hp bt ng thc cn chng minh cha c dng
A(x) > 0 hay A(x) < 0 trc ht ta chuyn v a v dng
.
7.2. V d p dng:
V d 1: Chng minh x10 -x9 +x4 - x+ 1 >0
Gii:
Xt A = x10 -x9 +x4 - x+ 1
= x9(x-1) + x(x3 -1) +1
Hoc A = x10 + x4(1-x5) +(1-x)

(1)
(2)

+ Nu x 1 x9 > 0; x-1 0; x3+1 0


Nn t (1)

A>0

+ Nu x < 1 1-x5 > 0; 1-x > 0 m x10 0 v x4 0 nn t


(2) A > 0.
V d 2: Chng minh 12x4 + 8x3 +11x2 +7x+10 >0
Gii: xt B = 12x4 + 8x3 +11x2 +7x+10 (1)
Hoc

B= 10(x4 + x3 +x2 +x+1) + 2x4 +x2 -2x3 -3x (2)

+ Nu x 0 th t (1) B > 0 ( v x4 + x3 +x2 +x+1 >0 tng


t v d 1 v 2x4 +x2 > 0; -2x3 -3x > 0 ( do x<0)
Vy B > 0 (pcm)
7.3. Bi tp tng t
Bi 1: chngminh x8 +x4 +1 > x7 + x
Bi 2: Chngminh x6 - x5 + x4- x3+x2 - x + 1 > 0
Bi 3: Chng minh x6 - x5 + x4- x3+x2 - x +

3
4

>0

8. Phng php lm tri ( hoc lm gim)

8.1. Phng php gii: chng minh A < B ta lm tri A


thnh C (A < C) ri chng minh C B (biu thc C ng vai
tr trung gian so snh A v B)
Tng t i vi phng php lm gim
8.2. V d p dng:
V d 1: Chng minh rng vi mi s t nhin n 2 ta c:
A=

1
1
1 1
3 ... 3
3
4
2
3
n

Gii:

Lm tri mi phn s A bng cch gim mu

Ta c:

1
1
1
1
3

3
2

k 1 k k 1
k
k k k k 1

Do : A <
t C =

Vy:

1
1
1
1
1
1
3
... 3

...
n 1 n n 1
2 2 3 3
n n 1.2.3 2.3.4
3

1
1
1

...
n 1 n n 1
1.2.3 2.3.4

1 1
1
1
1
1
1

...

2 1.2 2.3 2.3 3.4


n 1 n n n 1

1 1
1
1
1
1

2 2 n n 1
4 2n n 1 4

1
1
1 1
3 ... 3
3
4
2
3
n

V d 2: Chng minh rng vi mi s t nhin n 2 ta c:


1
2

1
3

A = 1+ ...

1
n
2 1
n

Gii:

A= 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1
1
2 3 ... ... n 1 ... n
5 6 7 2 9
15
2 1
2 3 2
2

mi nhm trong A ta lm tri bng cch thay cc phn s bi


phn s ln nht trong nhm, ta c

n 1
A< 1 2 .2 2 .4 3 .8 ... n 1 .2 =
2 .
2
2

11412
...
1 n
43
n

Vy A < n (pcm)
8.3. Bi tp tng t
Bi 1: Cho A =

2 4 6 200
. . ...
1 3 5 199

Chng minh 14 < A < 20


Bi 2: Chng minh:

1
1
1
1

...
2
n 1 n 2 n 3
3n 1

Vi n nguyn dng

9. Phng php s dng cc bt ng thc kinh in (


bt ng csi v bt ng thc bunhiacpxki)
9.1. Phng php gii: chng minh mt bt ng thc
no ngoi cc cch gii thiu ta c th s dng cc bt
ng thc kinh in. Trong phm vi chng trnh THCS , ti
xin gii thiu v hng dn hc sinh vn dng bt ng thc
Csi v bt ng thc Bunhiacpxki chng minh cc bt
ng thc khc.
a. Bt ng thc Csi: Cho a1, a2,.,an l cc s khng m.
Khi ta c:
a1 a 2 a n n
a1 a 2 a n
n

Du bng xy ra a1= a2 = = an
b. Bt ng thc Bunhiacpxki: Cho hai dy s a1,a2,v
b1,b2,bn. khi ta c:
(a1b1+ a2b2 + + anbn)2 (a12 +a22 + + an2)(b12 +b22 +
+bn2)

Du bng xy ra

a
a1 a 2

... n
b1 b2
bn

vi quy c nu mu bng 0

th t bng 0.
9.2. V d p dng:
V d 1: Cho a, b, c l cc s dng. Chng minh rng:
a2
b2
c2
abc

bc ca ab
2

Gii: Do a, b, c >0

bc
a2
0
0 v
4
bc

p dng bt ng thc csi cho 2 s

a2
bc

bc
4

ta c

a2
bc
a2 b c
a

2
.
2. a
bc
4
bc 4
2

a2
bc
a
bc
4
b2
ac
b
ac
4

Tng t ta c:

c2
ab
c
ab
4

Cng tng v ca 3 bt ng thc trn ta c:


a2
b2
c2
abc abc

(a b c)

bc ac ab
2
2

Vy

a2
b2
c2
abc

bc ac ab
2

(pcm)

V d 2: Cho a, b, c l cc s khng m v a+b+c=1. Chng


minh rng:
ab+ bc

ca

Gii: a, b, c 0 a+b 0; b+c 0; c+a 0

ab,

bc

ca

c ngha.

p dng bt ng thc Bunhiacpski vi 2 b s:

a1=1, a2=2, a3=3, b1=

ab,

b2

ta c: (1.

+1.

c a )2

ab

+1.

bc

( a b b c c a ) 2 3.2

ab bc ca 6

bc

, b3=

ca

(1+1+1)(a+b+b+c+c+a)

(v a+b+c=1)
(pcm)

*Lu : + Vic chng minh cc bt ng thc csi v bt


ng thc Bunhiacpxki y khng cp m ch
hng dn cc em chng minh bt ng thc bng cch
s dng mt hoc nhiu bt ng thc bit khc.
+ Khi s dng bt ng thc csi th cn ch
cc s p dng phi c iu kin 0 cn bt ng
thc Bunhiacpxki th khng cn iu kin cc s 0
nhng phi p dng cho 2 b s.
+ Ngoi 2 bt ng thc hay s dng cho hc
sinh THCS nu trn th cc em c th s dng mt
s bt ng thc bit chng minh mt bt
ng thc khc.
9.3. Bi tp tng t:
Bi 1: cho a, b, c >0. Chng minh
a
b
c

2
bc
ac
ab

Bi 2: Cho a+b = 2. Chng minh a4+b4 2


10.Phng php tam thc bc hai
10.1. Phng php gii: Dng nh l v du ca tam thc
bc hai chng minh bt ng thc
nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai:
nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai f(x) = ax2 + bx + c (a 0)

= b2 - 4ac

- Nu < 0 th f(x) lun cng du vi a vi mi gi tr ca x


(ngha l a.f(x) > 0)
- Nu =0 th f(x) lun cng du vi a vi mi gi tr ca x, tr
khi x=

b
2a

th f(x) = 0 (ngha l a.f(x) 0, af(x) = 0 khi x=

b
2a

);
- Nu > 0 th f(x) cng du vi a khi x nm trong khong hai
nghim (x1, x2) v khc du vi a khi x nm trong khong hai
nghim.
10.2. V d p dng
V d 1: Cho bn s thc a, b, c, d tho mn h iu kin

a 2 b2 1

cd 6
Chng minh rng: c2 + d2-2ac -2bd 18 -

6 2

(1)

Gii: c + d = 6 d = 6- c . Khi bt ng thc (1) c dng:


c2+ (6-c)2 -2ac -2b(6-c) -18+

6 2

(2)

Quan nim v tri ca (2) l tam thc bc hai ca c, ta c:

' a 6 b 2 12b 18 6 2
2

= - (a+b)2 + 12(a+b) + 2 -12


Do a2+b2 =1

(3)

2 ab 2

Xt tam thc bc hai f(x) = -x2 +12x+2-12

Ta c bng xt du sau:
x

12-

f(x)

Do

2 ab 2

nn t (3) v bng xt du ' 0 . Theo nh

l v du ca tam thc bc hai th (2) ng vi mi c. l


iu phi chng minh.

Du = xy ra

ab 2 2
a b
a6b 2
c cd 3
2

V d 2: Chng minh bt ng thc Bunhiacpxki nu


trong phn <9>
Gii: Xt tam thc bc hai
F(x) = (b1x - a1)2 + (b2x - a2)2+.+(bnx - an)2
Ta thy f(x) 0 vi mi x. Ta vit f(x) di dng sau
F(x) =( b 12 b22 bn2 ) x2 - 2(a1b1+a2b2++anbn)x + a12 a 22 a n2
Do f(x) 0 vi mi x nn t (1) suy ra:

a b a

' a1b1 a 2 b2 a n bn a12 a 22 a n2 b12 b22 bn2 0


2

a1b1 a 2 b2

n n

2
1

a 22 a n2

2
1

b22 bn2

Du = xy ra ' 0
phng trnh f(x) =0 c nghim kp

a
a1 a 2

n
b1 b2
bn

* Nhn xt: khi s dng phng php tam thc bc hai


chngminh bt ng thc nh v d 1, v d 2 ca <10>

nu trn th hc sinh cn bit nh l v du ca tam thc


bc hai nhng kin thc cha c chnh thc gii thiu bc
THCS nn hi kh i vi cc em. V th ti xin gii thiu 2 v
d HS tham kho ch khng yu cu cc em t lm bi tp
phn ny.
11. Phng php th v hnh hc
11.1. Phng php gii: Vn dng cc kin thc hnh hc
chng minh cc bi ton v bt ng thc i s.
11.2. V d p dng:
V d 1: Chng minh rng vi a, b ta c:
Gii: Xt ABC c = 900, AB =
AC =

Theo nh l Pi ta go ta c: BC =
Trong ABC ta c: BC < AB + AC

ab a b

ab a b

(pcm)

ab

ab

V d 2: Cho a,b,c,d > 0 . Chng minh rng:


a2 b2 c2 d 2

a c 2 b d 2

Gii: Trn trc honh Ox t lin tip hai on OA = a, AB =


c, cn trn trc Oy t lin tip OC = b, CD = d. Xt hnh
ch nht COAE v DOBF. Theo nh l pitago ta c:
y
OE =
EF =

a2 b2
c2 d 2

OF = a c

b d

D
d
C
b
O

E
a

A c B

M OE + EF OF

a2 b2 c2 d 2

a c 2 b d 2

Du bng xy ra OAE

a c

b d

EFG

V d 3: Cho x, y l 2s tho mn:

2x y 2 0

2x y 2 0
2y x 4 0

Chng minh: x2 + y2

4
5

Gii:

Gi I(x;y) l im trn
A 2

mt phng Oxy trong x, y tho mn


bi. Tp hp cc im I(x,y) l min
t phng gii hn bi tam gic ABC.

Nh vy mun chng minh x + y


2

ta cn chng minh : OI2


M OH

AB; OI OH

Vy OH2 =

4
4
OI2
5
5

-4

HB
1

4
5

1
1
1

2
2
OH
OA
OB 2

Hay x2 + y2

4
5

11.3. Bi tp tng t
Bi 1: Chngminh rng vi a > b > 0 th

Bi 2: Chng minh rng vi x, y, z, t > 0 th

z 2 y 2 z 2

t 2 y 2 t 2 x y z t

ab

Bi 3: Chng minh rng:

x 2 6 x 34

x 2 6 x 10 4

III. Kt lun
Hc sinh bit c cng nhiu phng php chngminh bt
ng thc th khi gii cc loi bi tp lin quan n vic
chng minh bt ng thc c nhiu hng suy ngh nn d
tm ra cch gii qua cng pht trin c t duy v nng
cao c nng lc sng to.
Trn y l mt vi kinh nghim m ti tch lu trong
qu trnh ging dy v hng dn hc sinh hc ton, rt mong
c s ng gp kin ca cc thy, cc c cng cc bn ng
nghip.

PHNG GIO DC VINH

Sng kin kinh nghim mn ton

" Gip hc sinh THCS h thng cc


phng php chng minh bt ng thc"
(sng kin vit ln 1)

Nm hc 2007-2008

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