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HRNMASTER

MERCANTYLISM

WRITTEN BY: ROY DENTON

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

MERCANTYLISM _ 1
MODULE CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
Mercantylism is the practice, methods, or spirit of merchants, not just those
traveling from place to place buying and selling goods but also the craftsman
selling his wares locally; these are just some of the aspects of mercantylism that
touches everyone in the Hrnic world. Mercantylism involves not only the large
and/or small merchants who buy and sell goods; but also the individuals who
assist in the collecting of raw materials, transportation, manufacturing, and a
myriad of other activities involved along the way. This module has been
developed to bring as many of these aspects together as possible. Instead of
focusing on the island of Hrn, this module will look at the whole of Western
Lythia and the various aspects that affect the region overall. This is not an allinclusive module, but a base upon which further ideas and concepts can be
built.

Merchant Guilds: A description of the three broad


guild organizations that make up this group with
a focus on the Mercantylers Guild.
Guild Halls: A look at guild halls and their use(s).
Mercantile Law: A description of the laws
governing mercantile operations.
Mercantile Operations: A look at how to conduct
various aspects of mercantile operations.
Commercial Documents: A look at the various
mercantile documents a character may run across
or use.
The Tashal Mercantylers Guild Hall: A floor plan
and description of the place.
The Hall of Circles: A floor plan and description
of the Hall of the Mangai in Thay.

WESTERN LYTHIA VS MEDIEVAL EUROPE


As with the early and middle periods of medieval Europe, Western Lythia is
also experiencing growth within its economic concepts and operational
practices. In Europe most of the advanced concepts of banking, contract law,
commercial companies, etc. started in the region we now know as Northern
Italy and spread north into France, Germany, England, and on up into
Scandinavia and the regions bordering the Baltic. At the same time this was
happening, these regions were not devoid of any mercantile operations of their
own; however, many of these operations were very basic in concept and
complexity.
This same phenomenon is also occurring within Western Lythia. In this
case, the region encompassing the Karejian League, in the Venarian Sea, is
playing the same role in Western Lythia as Northern Italy did in medieval
Europe. Like the Northern Italian city states, the Karejian League is in a position
to intercept and control luxury trade coming from the east and bulk goods
coming from the west.
It is in this region that the concepts developed within the Italian city states
have also come to life. With the decline of the Azeryan Empire and the growing
strength of the Karejian League, these concepts have spread throughout the old
territories of the Empire. With the arrival of the Karejian Laruns into the far
flung ports of Northwestern Lythia, their ideas and practices are just now
beginning to arrive within these farthest regions and in time may replace some
of the less complex practices already being practiced there. Although an
existing system is in place, many see these new ways of as being more efficient
as the scale of business grows. However, there are those who believe that their
ways work just fine for their own purposes and have no desire to change. As
with Europe, the ports or regions that deal predominately with the merchants
from these more advanced regions are more likely to adapt or adopt these new
ideas. Whereas those who have no contact or limited contact will continue in
their own ways until necessity demands some form of change.

CLIPART AND GRAPHICS


Medieval/Renaissance Food Clip-Art Collection
http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/food-art/
Medieval Woodcuts Clipart Collection
http://www.godecookery.com/clipart/clart.htm
Regia Anglorum http://www.regia.org/

RESEARCH RESOURCES
Medieval Trade in the Medieval World,
By: Robert S. Lopez and Irving W. Raymond
Power and Profit
By: Peter Spufford
The German Hansa
By: Philippe Dollinger

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTYLISM _ 2
MERCHANTS VS MERCANTYLERS
MERCHANT CRAFTSMEN
Throughout Western Lythia, craftsmen can be found selling merchandize
they have crafted within their own shops. When shopping for supplies these are
the merchants the average character will encounter. They are usually found
within their shops, or in a local market, working on or selling their handicrafts.
Their incomes are derived from the making and selling of items related to their
guilds specialty. Some of the more affluent craftsmen buy imports (usually
items related to their business) at wholesale from the Mercantylers Guild and
then resell the item(s) from their shops and/or the local market. Local and
international guild rules restrict these craftsmen to producing and selling items
related to their guilds charter. However, due to its initiative, the Chandlers
Guild buys and sells limited amounts of goods produced by other guilds, at a
higher price of course; again, doing this within the limitations set by their guilds
ordinances and the local Mangais by-laws. Finally, the key feature of the
merchant craftsmans business is that they generally sell their wares at retail to
local customers, seldom endeavoring into wholesale trade unless working with
a mercantyler.

MERCANTYLERS
Mercantylers are the true adventurers and gamblers of Kethira. The
occupation offers a Player Character (PC) the opportunity to travel, have
adventures in diverse places, and to make (or lose) money at the same time. A
mercantylers occupation encompasses the buying and selling of goods at
wholesale, acting as an agent for parties interested in trade, or extending loans
as a Usurer. Mercantylers are an organized trade that tends to deal within their
own organization exclusively, giving themselves a de-facto stranglehold on
most trading activities throughout Western Lythia. To this end, most major
towns will have a Mercantylers Hall for guild member use only. Through this
establishment, they are able to control the import/export trade within the area
controlled by their home towns.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

THE GUILDS
Guilds in Western Lythia are international
organizations. However, each local chapter of a
guild has its own by-laws describing its
operations and the restrictions it has placed on its
members. Although a chapter does recognize
foreign guildsmen of the same guild, it may
restrict their activities within the local chapters
area of operations.

PROFIT VS. LOSS


The chance for profit is a big draw for many
individuals to join the ranks of the Mercantylers.
However, due to the extreme dangers of travel
throughout Kethira, and the fluctuations of local
markets, the chance for loss is just as great.

HrnWorld

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 1
MARKET AND FAIR RIGHTS

MERCHANT GUILD GROUPINGS


THE MANGAI
On Hrn, the Mangai is a joint association of all Hrnic Guilds; throughout
the rest of Western Lythia, these joint associations are found within each
kingdom instead of each region; local chapters are found in each town in one
form or another. The Mangais primary function is to regulate guild activities,
settle any disputes between them, and work with the local or regional
governments concerning guild rights and privileges. The Mangai operates under
the Charter of the Mangai; a law enacted by most civilized governments of
Western Lythia. This charter fosters and protects the legal monopolies held by
all guilds. A Mangai chapter includes at least one representative from each local
guild. Each chapter elects an executive council, which oversees the
implementation and execution of local by-laws. Although it wields enormous
power, the Mangai stays out of feudal and/or imperial politics. Governments
respond by limiting their involvement in guild affairs to taxation.

CRAFTGUILDS
The craftguilds produces commodities for local consumption and/or
export. A specific craftguild is a brotherhood of craftsmen banded together to
control economic activities in a specific trade, such as the Potters guild.
Throughout Western Lythia, virtually all commercial activities are within the
realm of these powerful guilds whose rights are protected by the Charter of the
Mangai. Most towns are dominated by their guilds.
The prime purpose of a craftguild is to provide economic security for its
members. Towards this end they employ their legal monopolies to limit
competition. This is done by restricting the number of franchises within a
specific market. A franchise is a license granted to individuals, by a guild,
allowing them to own and operate a business in a specific area.
Most craftguilds are urban while others are rural or both. Some guilds are
weak, with loosely defined monopolies; however, most are strong. In Orbaal
and among the Khuzdul and Sindarin, the functions of the guilds are performed
by clans, equally monopolistic, but simpler in organization.

TRAINING AND ADVANCEMENT


Most craftguilds requirements are not as demanding as the mercantylers
guild. At most, aspirants need only be proficient with their own native tongue
and have the aptitude and ability to perform the necessary skills of the guild.
The more prosperous guildsmen will attempt to place their younger offspring
into some kind of early educational program. Since the younger offspring do not
stand to inherit the family franchise, this enables them to look at other
opportunities, such as the priesthood or a more prosperous guild. Once an
apprentice has been promoted to the rank of journeyman he may return to the
family franchise and wait to inherit it from his father. If his family has no
franchise, or he is a younger son, he will travel from location to location
improving his skills and awaiting his chance to advance to the rank of master
and eventually gain a franchise.

SPECIALIZATION
Most craftsmen do not know every aspect of their guild. Instead, they tend
to specialize in one or more areas of their craft. As these individuals improve on
these specialties, they also seek out others to expand their knowledge and
acquire additional specializations. Through such endeavors, these individuals
advance in their skills, reputation, and wealth.

HrnWorld

A crucial function of the Mangai is its exclusive


right to sponsor, and organize, all fairs and
markets within its area of operations. The Mangai
pays the appropriate fees to whomever governs
the area for the right to conduct a market or fair;
it then recoups its investment by charging fees
(usually 1d per day) to all whom wish to sell their
wares within the market and/or fair. However,
fees for major fairs can be higher and involve
many other charges as well.

MANGAI CONVENTIONS
On Hrn, the Mangai holds triennial conventions
at alternating sites, moving from one town to
another, the representatives of every Hrnic guild
and their local chapters attend it. The
conventions are democratic gatherings used by
the Mangai to standardize guild activities
throughout Hrn. Thay will host the next
convention in 721. In the rest of Western Lythia,
each association follows a similar format,
although the time may vary.

CRAFTGUILDS
Apothecary
Herbalist
Pharmacist
Chandler
Lamp Maker
Candle Maker
Charcoaler

Locksmith

Metalsmith
Coppersmith
Toolmaker
Perfumer
Perfume Maker
Soap Maker
Clothier
Potter
Weaver
Earthenware
Tailor
Stoneware
Terracotta
Glassworker
Salter
Glassblower
Pickling
Stained Glass
Smoking
Salting
Hideworker
Tentmaker
Tanner
Canvas Maker
Leatherware
Tentmaker
Jeweler
Weaponcrafter
Silversmith
Swordsmith
Engraver
Armorer
Lexigrapher
Woodcrafter
Parchment Maker Joiner
Mapmaker
Cooper
Ink Maker
Quill Maker
NOTES: This is a sample of specializations, not
an all-inclusive listing.

DUAL ROLE GUILDS


Harper
Innkeeper
Mason

Miller
Ostler
Shipwright

NOTES: Most dual role guilds are usually more of


a service provider than craft organizations;
therefore, most of them have limited
specializations.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 2
TRADEGUILDS
Unlike the craftguilds, the tradeguilds provide specific services to their
communities, such as the Physicians guild, instead of commodities. However,
some of these guilds also serve as craftguilds on a limited basis. One of these
dual guilds is the Innkeepers guild; this guild provides a service through its inns
and taverns; but they also produce limited amounts of beverages for the local
market or for export. Unlike the craftguilds, the tradeguilds are more rural and
defend their rights just as doggedly.

THE MERCANTYLERS GUILD


Mercantylers are guildsmen involved in the trading of goods, or acting as
agents for other individuals in some economic transaction. Most mercantylers
are simple merchants, buying and selling goods within their towns local area or
just within the confines of their own country. The more adventuresome of
mercantylers engage in foreign trade, either through caravan or maritime
enterprises; although many trade in a variety of goods, some specialize in
specific commodities such as furs, slaves, or wines.

TRADEGUILDS
Arcane Lore
Courtesan
Embalmer
Herald
Litigant
Mercantyler

Miner
Physician
Pilot
Seaman
Thespian
Timberwright

NOTES: Although there is specialization within


these guilds, it is not as pronounced as it is in the
craftguilds.

A TOWNS SPHERE OF INFLUENCE


A towns economic and political sphere of
influence reaches out for a number of leagues
equal to its market size. For example, Tashal has
a market size of six and a sphere of influence of
six leagues.

The mercantylers monopoly is very ambiguous; therefore, enforcing rigid


control over all trading activities would be impossible. Because of a towns
limited sphere of influence, numerous areas are free of any guild control. In
these areas, anyone can conduct trading activities, as they like; however, once
they enter a towns sphere of influence the chance of being confronted by the
guild for a breach of its rights increases significantly. In addition, there are the
numerous peddlers, tinkers, and other minor merchants that the guild does not
usually bother with, unless they become flagrant in their activities. It is for this
reason that most mercantylers will only conduct business with each other.
Consequently, most major towns have a Mercantylers Hall for guild members
only. Non-guild members can participate in this private market only by hiring a
mercantyler as an agent for a fee or commission averaging 5-10% of the
exchanged good's value.
To insure that the guild remains at the center of economic activity, they
have acquired one important monopoly that they rigidly enforce. Only
Mercantylers can practice usury, the changing and loaning of money for profit
(interest). Some mercantylers (usurers) specialize in this activity. The financing
of trade generally involves such men; with the proper incentives, they will
finance the ambitions and comforts of kings and other prominent individuals.
Interest rates are high, ranging from 5-20% per month, compounded monthly.
The rate charged is based on risk, collateral, and social standing. Nobles
customarily enjoy the benefit of lower rates.
Usurers also exchange foreign coinage for a negotiable discount, 20% being
normal, and issue various notes for payment, the closest thing to paper money
on Hrn, or Western Lythia. Usurers will redeem their own notes in full when
presented back to them. A usurer in another city will also redeem their
colleagues notes at a discount of 5-20%, although higher discounts usually
apply to foreign notes.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 3
EDUCATION AND TRAINING

SUBJECTS COVERED BY THE


EDUCATIONAL MODIFIER

EDUCATION

Trivium: Language Skills Script Skills Rhetoric


Oratory Quadrivium Mathematics Astrology
Musician Singing Law

For those characters whose parents have the money and desire to have
their offspring receive an education in the liberal arts, there are two ways to
achieve their goal. The first is the church of Save-Knor and the second is
through private tutors. By receiving an early education in the arts, the chances
of obtaining an apprenticeship in the mercantylers guild or another prominent
urban guild are greatly improved. In general, most characters are enrolled in
these educational programs between the ages of seven and nine.
The church of Save-Knor is the most respected, expensive, and difficult
means of gaining an education. The church itself has a reputation for excellence
in intellectual matters and teachings. The instruction provided by the church is
very similar to those instructed in medieval universities. They instruct students
in the Trivium and the Quadrivium. The Trivium covers the subjects of
grammar, rhetoric, and dialectics; usually in High Azeryani, but also in the local
tongue. The Quadrivium covers the subjects of arithmetic, geometry, music,
and astronomy. In addition, a student can also receive additional instruction in
additional languages, scripts, and material on urban and/or merchant law. To
become a lay student in the church the parents of the character would have to
pay a substantial fee for the privilege. This fee is very stiff and is usually no less
than 100 a year. The fee covers the student's tuition and living expenses. Once
admitted to the school, students will live in the acolytes' quarters and perform
the same duties as the other acolytes; in addition; they would be on probation
for one year. Students that demonstrate the intellect to continue their education,
they may remain until the age of 13. At that time they could leave the school
and move on to another profession, or they could elect to join the church as an
acolyte.
The second method of education, using private tutors, is open to all who
can afford their fees and not those of the Save-Knoran church. The parents of a
character would hire a tutor to teach their child the same material as taught
within the church schools; however, the quality of education received would
vary depending on the instructor and the time invested. Most tutors are retired
mercantylers, Save-Knoran priests who have been granted permission to act as
tutors, and anyone else who fancies themselves knowledgeable in intellectual
matters. Because of these variances in tutors, the knowledge a student receives
can also vary. This in turn can degrade or improve a character's initial opening
skills.

HrnWorld

EDUCATIONAL MODIFIER FOR OMLS


Determine a ML for the instructor or school
giving the instruction. If more than one instructor
or school is involved, then determine a ML for
each then average the results. Determine ML as
follows: (3d6 x 5) + 10. The church of Save-Knor
adds +10 to this.
Determine success of the tutor or school in
delivering its instructions and compare the results
to the following table to determine an OML
modifier. Multiply the resulting modifier by the
skill's OML and round up the result.

OML MODIFIER
SI

CF

MF

MS

CS

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15

0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25

0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35

Example: A mercantyler has an OML of 32 in


Mathematics. He received an education at a
Save-Knoran church with a ML of 87. The
success roll generates an MS for a modifier of
1.05. Therefore, the OML of the character is now
34. As you can see, the worse the education the
character receives, the worse the character's
OML will be.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 4
The OML Modifier may also be applied
to
skills
acquired
during
an
apprenticeship; or towards skills
opened during the course of play
involving an instructor.

TRAINING GENERAL
In the first few years of an apprenticeship, apprentices will perform menial
tasks within their masters shop and/or residence or carry their masters
messages to destinations within town. During this time, they are expected to
learn the terms used in everyday operations, and how to store and/or pack
merchandise. The next few years will have them working with journeymen
within the shop learning the basic skills of their trade. In addition, they will learn
how to identify and grade samples of various products and may even
accompany their master or another employee on local business transactions.
During their last years as an apprentice, they are given more responsibilities
within the shop. They may be put in charge of simple operations, or conducting
minor sales within the shop. As they approach the end of their apprenticeship
they will be introduced to the more skilled tasks of their profession and allowed
to do assignments that are more complex. A mercantylers apprentice will also
be introduced to the shops books and instructed in how to maintain them.
Through this steady increase of responsibility, a master prepares their
apprentices for the time when they will be working on their own, keeping
records, and conducting transactions as journeymen and eventually masters.
After completing their apprenticeship and becoming journeymen, or even
advancing to be a master in their craft, most individuals will still seek to
improve upon their own skills and knowledge. Since most individuals will never
learn all the skills of their craft or trade during their apprenticeship, they will
continue their education by seeking out others to acquire further expertise
within their chosen field. In doing so, they must expend sufficient time to learn
the skill to its base level. This time is equivalent to 80 hours of instruction per
their Skill Index (SI) of the skill being learned. Once a new skill has been
acquired, the individual may improve it as outlined on SKILLS 7 of HM3.

TRAINING FOR MERCANTYLES


Of all the trade guilds, the mercantylers are the most demanding in their
requirements for education, training, and admission. Mercantylers must be
proficient in their own language and at least one other, know at least one script,
be proficient in mathematics, have an understanding of the laws involving trade
and contracts, and know the ins and outs of the mercantylers art. Parents who
have the money and wish to see one or more of their offspring become
mercantylers will attempt to get them an education in their early years. This is
the best route for those who are not mercantylers themselves. Unlike the other
trade guilds, the line between the journeyman and the master in not as well
defined in the mercantylers guild; it is more a matter of money and reputation.
In rare instances, non-mercantylers are admitted to the guild as a master;
however, this usually involves large amounts of money and concessions
between the parties involved. Overall, a mercantylers rise through the
hierarchy of the guild has more to do with how much money they control than
how well they perform their duties. Although, if they do not know their
profession well, the money they do have will disappear quite rapidly.

HOURS INSTRUCTION PER SI


SI

Hours of Instruction

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

N/A
80
160
240
320
400
480
560
640
720
If desired, a character can adjust hours
of instruction for new skills that are in
the same specialization category as
ones the character already has. To do
this, take the existing skills SI and
subtract the new skills SI to generate a
new SI for the adjusted hours of
instruction.

Example: A mercantyler currently has the skill of


wool cloth at a ML of 58. He is opening the skill
linen cloth, which is in the same specialization
category, at ML 35. Since they are of the same
category, he can adjust the hours of instruction
by subtracting 3 (SI of 35) from 5 (SI of 58) for a
result of 2; therefore, he under goes 160 hours of
instruction instead of 240 hours.

ACQUIRED SKILLS
During a mercantylers early education and apprenticeship, they will gain
the skills necessary to succeed as a mercantyler. Some of the training will allow
them to sharpen their communications skills enabling them to deal with others
more effectively and to maintain a record of their business dealings. Along with
these skills, they will also learn those skills directly related to a mercantyler.
Through repetitive use, study, and further training mercantylers can improve
and broaden their skillbase.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 5
TRADE SKILLS
Throughout the mercantylers apprenticeship, they will receive instruction
on mathematics and law. Mathematics enables the mercantyler to make
calculations, keep books, and so forth. One specialty of mathematics that most
mercantylers focus on is bookkeeping. Through the study of law, the
mercantyler learns about local and customary laws, contracts, and how to
litigate a legal problem. Specialties for this skill include mercantile law and
contracts. In addition to these two skills, the mercantyler also learns the skill of
mercantilism.

MERCANTILISM SKILL

MERCANTILISM SKILL

Mercantilism is the ability to analyze the quality and value of merchandise


being dealt with. A mercantyler does not have to have the trade skill associated
with the item to appraise it; this skill is more dependent on his training and
handling of such items that provides this ability. This skill is never open as a
general skill, but in a specific skill area such as cloth, spices, wines, etc. In
addition, each of these skills is usually broken down into specialties. For
example, the cloth skill can be broken down further to woolens, linens, cottons,
or silks. See SKILLS 2 in HM 3 for more on specialization.
When generating a character, the player can open two mercantilism skills at
OML. Additional mercantilism skills are opened at SB. See the side table for
details on skill specialties.

This skill is used to determine the quality and an


expected price range of desired trade goods. This
is a prime skill of mercantylers, but may also be
opened by other craftsmen.
Mercantylers OML:
Others OML:
Skill Base:
Sunsign:

SB x 4
SB
Eye/Int/Int
Tai/Tar +2; Sko +1

MERCANTILISM SKILL
(EXAMPLES)
Skill
Cloth

Specialty
Wool
Linen
Cotton
Silk

Metalware

Hides

Pottery

Pewterware
Brassware
Copperware
Leatherware
Furs
Leather Armor
Clay Utensils
Ceramics
Glazes

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 6
ANALYZING QUALITY
Using the appropriate mercantilism skill characters can attempt to analyze
the quality of an item they wishes to examine. To appraise the item the
merchant must have access to it. If the item to be examined is in bulk (for
example, grain, wool, wine, cloth, etc) the merchant must examine at least 5%
of the goods being appraised. For items that can be broken down into smaller
packages the character must expend a minimum of five minutes per ten pounds
of goods being examined. This only includes the percentage being examined,
not the whole lot. For items such as logs, the time allotment is per 5 square feet.
Luxury items, such as jewelry, are examined individually for the same minimum
period. For every five minutes not used of the required time, or fraction there of,
the character receives a -5 penalty to their EML. For every 10 minutes added to
an examination, the character receives a +2 bonus to their EML. The reason
being, the time allotted for the minimum is plenty of time to get a good
appraisal. However, longer times may not be beneficial, but cutting back on the
minimum requirement may cause something vital to be missed.
Merchants can only examine a lot once unless they increases the skills
EML or have acquired an object that will enable them to conduct a better
examination of the product. At GM discretion, the merchants EML increases
when using a device such as a magnifying glass, litmus test, etc.
Once merchants have determined their EML, they roll for success on the
Quality Check Table. At the same time, the GM determines the lots actual
quality by rolling a 2d3-1, comparing the result to the stars on the Quality Table
above. The last number of the skill roll is used to determine if the success
modifier is decreased or increased. An even number increases the result and an
odd number decreases it. The determined quality cannot be more than five
stars, nor less than one.

ASSESSING A PRICE
Once the character has analyzed a products quality, a range for its
expected price can be determined. To do this, add and subtract 10 from the
price adjustment percentage listed on the Quality Table. Multiply the result
against the actual product price to determine what the character expects the
items price range is to be.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS
The communication skills that a mercantyler works with are broken down
into two spheres; intrinsic skills and learned skills. The learned skills include
languages and scripts, while the intrinsic skills cover rhetoric and intrigue.
Characters start their training knowing their native tongue moderately well.
By way of their early education and apprentice years they will improve this skill
and learn an additional language. Unless otherwise desired, most mercantylers
will learn High Azeryani as a second language, High Azeryani being the
common language of the elite and learned of Western Lythia.

QUALITY TABLE
1d6-1 Stars

Rating

Price Adjustment

Poor

75%

**

Inferior

85%

***

Average

100%

****

Good

120%

*****

Excellent 140%

QUALITY CHECK TABLE


Success

Result

CS

Extra Details

MS

Correct Assessment

MF

+/- 1 level to actual quality

CF

+/- 2 levels to actual quality

Example: A mercantyler wishes to assess the


quality of a lot containing worsted woolen cloth.
There are 20 bolts of cloth in the lot; at a
minimum the mercantyler must examine at least
one bolt to determine the lots quality.
Before the attempt, the GM secretly rolls on the
Quality Table to generate the quality of the
item(s) to be examined. The roll results in a 3 or
an average quality product. The GM checks the
price list and sees that worsted goes for 24d a
square yard. He determines that a bolt is about 45
yards long and about a yard wide, or 45 square
yards; this gives a price of 1,080d (45 x 24) for the
bolt retail. The GM determines the wholesale
value to be a tenth of this and assigns a price per
bolt of 108d.
The mercantyler has decided to examine two
bolts of the load. It will take him 10 minutes to
examine the two bolts, five minutes each;
however, he has decided to take about twenty
minutes for a +2 bonus to his EML of 76, making
it a 78. The GM rolls a 1d100 to check his success
and generates a 61, according to the Quality
Check Table his check was marginally
successful or his assessment was right on.
Next, the mercantyler determines what he
believes is a fair range for the price of the cloth.
Since he has assessed the goods to be of average
quality, he has also determined that the price
range is +/- 10% of the actual price, or 90% to
110% of the price. Since the GM has determined
the price of each bolt to be 108d, he tells the
mercantyler his price range is 97d to 119d a bolt.

As with languages, a mercantyler will also learn a script during his early
education and apprenticeship. The script will usually be common to the area
that the mercantyler has received his instruction. Even so, some mercantylers
wishing to show their importance will learn to write in Ayaran, the official script
of the Venarian Sea region.
During the mercantylers apprenticeship, they will be instructed in the skills
of rhetoric and intrigue. During this time they receive guidance on how to
improve these areas and are provided with plenty of opportunities to improve
them.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 7
GUILD ORGANIZATION
GETTING AN APPRENTICESHIP
Throughout most of Western Lythia, apprenticeship is deemed a privilege,
usually being granted to the eldest son of an existing master. Most guild
chapters also permit the selling of additional apprenticeships, mostly to the
younger offspring of masters, or to non-guildsmen able to pay for the privilege.
Typically, two masters in nearby settlements will exchange their children as
apprentices. Wealthy guildsmen often try to place their children with highly
skilled and respected masters, paying such mentors a fee for this privilege. Nonguildsmen will always have to pay a master to take their children on as an
apprentice. The fees for this privilege are always negotiable and usually start at
no less than 2. In addition, a contract is usually drawn up specifying what
duties the apprentice must do to earn his keep and education in the trade. The
contract also stipulates any obligations that the master agrees to honor before
being paid the fee. Once all conditions have been agreed upon, the new
apprentice moves in with his new master to begin his apprenticeship.

THE APPRENTICE
An apprenticeship generally lasts from four to seven years, with the average
being six years. Most apprentices are between the ages of thirteen and fifteen
when they begin their apprenticeship. However, this depends on the influence
of the apprentices father, how attentive the apprentice is, and on the disposition
of the apprentices master. The treatment received by an apprentice varies;
frequent beatings and long hours of menial labor are considered normal. The
apprentices receive room and board; and may receive pocket money if their
master is in the mood or is bound by a contract to provide a stipend; even so, it
still may be withheld. Generally, apprentices will be treated well by their
masters and their households. If there is any trouble to be had, it usually stems
from the masters spouse trying to exercise authority over the unknowing
apprentice. Many guilds have passed by-laws dealing with such actions;
however, it is hard to police such abuses and then its the apprentices word
against the spouses word.
For those apprentices whose families can not afford to provide them with a
proper education, prior to their apprenticeship, their masters may arrange for a
tutor to instruct them during the evening hours. Of course, this will usually cost
the apprentices families more when obtaining their apprenticeship. The
instruction will be in the same areas as discussed in the section on early
education and the educational modifier will still apply to those subjects
instructed.
During the last years of an apprenticeship, militia duty may be required of
male apprentices who reside within a town. If it is determined that the
apprentice has performed militia duty during this time he would also have
learned to handle up to two different weapons types. However, because of his
having to perform militia duty his free time to learn other skills outside his trade
will also be curtailed.

COMMON MILITIA WEAPONS


Unless the GM allows it, the following weapons
are all that can be opened due to militia duty:
Shields:
Buckler
Round
Tower
Blades:
Knife
Dagger
Shortsword
Clubs/Axes:
Club
Maul
Handaxe
Polearms:
Spear
Glaive
Bows:
Shortbow

MILITIA SKILLS
Refer to Character 16 in HM3 when generating
optional skills and militia skills.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 8
THE JOURNEYMAN
The rules governing promotion from apprentice to journeyman vary from
chapter to chapter. The candidate may have to pass a practical and/or oral
examination before the chapters board of syndics; sometimes the simple
vouching of ones master is generally sufficient. Basically, apprentices have five
obligations to fulfill. First supplying a certificate from their master, and past
masters if required, stating that they are prudent and loyal. Second, they must
demonstrate that they know their craft or trade. Third, they must show that they
have the tools and/or capital to function within their chosen profession. Fourth,
they must swear an oath to uphold the guilds laws and customs. Lastly, they
must pay an entrance fee to become a guild member. The fee is usually no more
than 5s, the norm being 2s. Once apprentices have passed these obligations,
they are admitted into the ranks of the guilds journeymen.

THE EXAMINATION
The examination for an apprentice to become a
journeyman may consist of the following:
1.

They are presented with a selection of


wares of various qualities. They must
identify and classify the items correctly.
Usually, only a margin of error of 10% is
allowed.

2.

They must demonstrate that they


understand the skills of their craft or trade.

3.

They must answer questions concerning the


by-laws of their local guild.

Journeymen within a guild have numerous positions they can fill. First,
there are the journeymen who work in the shops of freemasters. These
individuals may be provided with room and board and are paid a monthly salary
for their services. They act as clerks, workers, salesmen, messengers, and
agents within their employers shop and/or business. Second, they can be
employed by other wealthy guildsmen to work on their behalf as factors in
another location or as traveling agents. Third, they can be employed by wealthy
patrons who wish some form of access to the guilds privileges. In addition,
journeymen may start a business on their own in locations that are not within a
town or guilds sphere of influence.
During their time as journeymen, most guildsmen will do their best to save
or reinvest their funds. One common form, for a mercantyler, is to sign on as an
agent for someone who does not wish to travel and then conduct their business
for them. By doing so, journeymen strive to acquire enough capital to pay for
their advancement to master and have enough capital left over to start their
own businesses as a master.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 9
Advancement Fees Based on Market
Size

THE MASTER
Guilds in Western Lythia have three types of masters within their
organizations. First is the freemaster; this individual has been granted a license
to own and operate a business. Next is the bonded master, this individual works
under contract for a wealthy patron or institution. Last, there are the masters
that are neither enfranchised nor bonded. These individuals are simply called
master and make up the bulk of individuals of this rank in the mercantylers
guild and other trade guilds throughout Western Lythia.
In most guilds journeymen will need the recommendation of three masters
they have worked for and then complete an examination or masterpiece for the
guilds syndics in order to become a master. The examination similar to the
examination taken to become a journeyman and will be administered by the
syndics. However, these examinations are more complex and lengthy, some
examinations taking up to two days to complete. Even after prospective
journeymen have their three recommendations in hand, and have passed the
examination, the board will not confirm them as masters until they provide
proof that they have the assets to conduct their own business operations. The
total amount of assets needed varies from chapter to chapter, but the normal
amount is no less than 10. Because of this requirement, many mercantylers
live out their lives as journeymen attempting to amass the required assets. On
average, a large percentage of journeymen will obtain the rank of master within
three to four years; however, there will be those who do not make master for a
longer period and even some who never attain the rank.
Newly created masters are not automatically granted a franchise; these
must be inherited or purchased. New masters will return home to work
alongside their fathers until they inherit the family franchise, or seek
employment as bonded masters until they can afford to purchase a franchise.
Those who do not find either will become itinerate until a position is found. The
fee to buy a franchise is very stiff, ranging from two to ten years of a masters
income, plus the customary bribes. Many masters, either by choice or financial
circumstances, never obtain a franchise. A lot of this has to do with the current
holders of franchises also being the prominent members on the board of
syndics. In an attempt to maintain a balance of power, they also control the
number of franchises allowed within their jurisdiction.

ADVANCEMENT FEES
Market
SizeFee

App
Fee

Jour
Fee

Mast
Fee

Franc

.5

0.5s

10

100

1.0

1.0s

20

200

1.5

1.5s

30

300

2.0

2.0s

40

400

2.5

2.5s

50

500

3.0

3.0s

60

600

3.5

3.5s

70

700

4.0

4.0s

80

800

4.5

4.5s

90

900

5.0

5.0s

100

1000

App Fee Apprenticeship Fee: This is how much


a family will have to pay to get their child an
apprenticeship.
Jour Fee Journeymans Fee: This is how much
an apprentice has to pay when he becomes a
journeyman.
Mast Fee Masters Fee: This is how much a
journeyman has to pay when becoming a master.
Franc Fee Franchise Fee: How much a
franchise would cost in a city of that market size.
NOTE: All these fees are base amounts and are
negotiable.

BRIBES
To determine how much bribe money a character
has to pay roll 2d4+2. This is the percentage of
the franchise fee paid in bribes. For example, a
mercantyler in a town with a market size of 3 has
to pay 400 to get his franchise. In addition, his
bribe roll comes to 7. Therefore, he has to pay an
additional 7 percent of the franchise fee, 28, as
bribes.

As stated, the freemasters are enfranchised to run and operate their


businesses within a specific location. Within their shops they can sell, store, or
buy whatever they desire, within the limits of their guilds charter. Because they
are local franchise holders, they are also exempt from hawking and bonding
fees that other masters who are not enfranchised have to pay. Therefore, their
profit margins are higher, giving them immense power over their nonenfranchised contemporaries. Within their shops, they employ both journeymen
and bonded masters, in addition to some apprentices they may be training.
However, many chapters have by-laws stating how many apprentices,
journeymen, and masters a shop may have resident, usually no more than ten
all together. In addition, a freemaster mercantyler may employ numerous
journeymen and masters acting as agents for them in other towns, kingdoms, or
regions.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCHANT GUILDS _ 10
MERCANTYLERS
Bonded masters serve wealthy individuals who wish to participate in
trading activities, but do not want to get their hands dirty or give up the time to
do so. The individuals they serve range from freemaster mercantylers who do
not wish to travel; to nobles who want the profits, but do not want to lower
themselves to the level of a mere tradesman. Some functions they may have to
fulfill are to travel to other markets or to make transactions at the local
mercantylers hall. They are compensated for their work through wages or a
percentage of the profits. A contract describing their obligations and that of
their employers is usually drafted once an agreement is made. One usual
stipulation is that they are not liable for loss due to market changes, or calamity.
However, they can be held responsible for matters of negligence. One form of
bonded master is the supercargo. These individuals sign onto a ship to act as its
commercial representative and agent. Many of these supercargoes have a desire
to obtain a ship of their own. Some however do own their own ship and travel
the seas, buying and selling cargoes, and/or letting out space to others for a fee.

CONTRACTS
Hrn and Ivinia: Within these regions and even
those controlled by the Ivinians, contracts are
executed in two ways. First is the oral contact,
something done predominately by the Ivinians,
and within areas inhabited by the Jarin. Second,
there are contracts written out by the parties
involved in the deal.
Western Lythia: Although the two methods above
are present in some backwater areas, most
merchants are adopting the methods developed
within the area of the Karejia League. See
Commercial Documents in this module for more
information.

Masters that are neither enfranchised, nor bonded, will work for
themselves, although they are always on the lookout for a wealthy patron.
These individuals live their lives in constant travel, going from location to
location chasing profits. Many accept assignments to carry goods for someone
else and a share in the profits, but do not consider themselves bonded to the
owner of the goods since the assignment is only a short-term affair. Some
masters become caravan masters, organizing and running caravans throughout
Western Lythia. Usually these individuals have had a great deal of experience in
working with caravans and have the organizational abilities for putting them
together. In addition, they are usually very familiar with the area being traveled,
its inhabitants and dangers. No matter what a master is doing, many of them
have the same goal, to own a franchise or a ship.

CRAFTSMEN
Bonded master craftsman are employed for a specific job or period by
wealthy patrons. The individuals they serve range from freemasters, to nobles
requiring their expertise. Most reside in a workshop provided by their employer,
while others may be required to travel from place to place. They receive
monthly wages as compensation for their work. A contract is usually draw up
describing both theirs and the employers obligations.
As with mercantylers, masters who are neither franchised nor bonded work
for themselves, although they are always on the lookout for a wealthy patron.
These individuals will travel from location to location looking for a patron. No
matter what a master is doing, many of them have the same goal, to own a
franchise.

GUILD LEADERSHIP
All masters are members of the local guilds chapter and have the right to a
vote in most guild matters. They elect a board of syndics from among their
number, from whom a guildmaster is appointed. The syndics are responsible for
the daily administration of the chapter, and except for the very wealthy,
continue to be practicing masters. Some may receive a stipend for their
position. The guildmaster represents his guild in the local chapter of the
Mangai, and at any regional conventions the guild may hold. The way in which
a specific chapter is actually run depends mostly on the personalities involved.
The organization of the Board of Syndics is consistent throughout all the
guilds; but it may be modified when applied to smaller guilds. The leadership of
the Mangai also follows the same organization for its leadership.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

GUILD ORGANIZATION
All guilds are headed by their elected
Guildmaster, sometimes termed Alderman. In
addition, the following officers are usually present
in the guilds leadership:
Guildmaster (Alderman): Guild leader
Mangai representative.

and

Steward: Second in command of the guild;


Ensures guild by-laws are observed and violators
are brought before the guild court; Maintains
guild records and its treasury.
Chaplain: Looks after the guilds spiritual needs,
distributes alms, says prayers for deceased
members, and presides over guild members'
weddings, funerals, and like events.
4 Skevins (Sergeants at Arms): These men are
responsible for keeping order during guild
functions and assisting the steward in his duties.
Usher: Responsible for arranging guild functions,
greeting visitors to the guild, and announcing
visitors to the guild assembly.

HrnWorld

GUILD HALLS _ 1
THE MERCANTYLERS HALL

THE MERCANTYLERS HALL


Towns with a market size of 4 or greater will have a Mercantylers Hall;
however, towns with a market size of 3 or less will usually have one only if they
are located on or near the juncture of major trade routes, fairs, or commercial
centers. Otherwise, mercantylers in the smaller towns will use the local Hall of
the Mangai as a Mercantylers Hall. If this is done, they will pay rent to the
Mangai for the privilege; after all, the Mangai is a joint association of all Hrnic
guilds and could not show favoritism towards just one of their member
organizations. Smaller towns throughout Western Lythia, that have neither a
Mercantylers Hall nor a Hall of the Mangai, will do one of the following. First,
they could use a local mercantylers shop as a hall. Second, they could have an
agreement with a local Innkeeper to use their facility for business purposes.
Lastly, they could rent a warehouse or similar building to serve as their hall.

HALL OPERATIONS
When a mercantyler enters a town, he has three options open to him. First,
he could proceed directly to the Mercantylers Hall with his goods. Second, he
could impound the bulk of his goods within the towns bonding house and go
on to the hall with a small sample of his wares. Lastly, he could take his goods
directly to the market place and bypass the hall completely.
In the first two cases, the mercantyler goes on to the Mercantylers Hall, or
the bonding house, and presents his wares to the towns tax/customs collectors.
These officials act on behalf of the towns Bondmaster. They inspect the
mercantylers goods, assess any fees (taxes and bribes, at GM discretion) due on
the merchandise, and verify product type and quality as declared by the
mercantyler. Once the tax collectors have inspected the goods, the mercantyler
can then bring them into the hall for display and sale. The steward of the hall
will then assign the mercantyler a place in the hall to display his goods. In
addition, many towns and kingdoms may charge customs duties on a variety of
products, in addition to the normal taxes that the mercantyler has to pay before
conducting business.

HALL MANAGEMENT
The hall is under the authority of the local guild guildmaster. However, the
guildmaster does not usually supervise all the operations. The majority of
Mercantyler Halls have a steward that assists the guildmaster in managing the
operations of the hall. Besides these two individuals, the guilds prominent
officers also conduct various tasks within the confines of the hall. These officers
include the treasurer, secretary, and provost.
Before beginning business the mercantyler must first seek out the local
guildmaster, or the hall steward, and receives instructions on the rules of
business within the hall and with the other mercantylers. In addition, he
receives a listing of services, and their cost, the hall has to offer. The
mercantyler can then begin conducting his business with the other
mercantylers.

HrnWorld

The hall is the guilds local headquarters and


commodities exchange for the surrounding
region. Some halls are even strong enough to
control commerce within an entire kingdom.
HALL SIZE
Determine the dimensions of the entire
site by multiplying the towns market
size times (750 square feet). Thus a
town with a market size of 4 would
have a hall measuring on average 3,000
square feet. Most of these buildings will
be two stories or more in height.

THE BONDING HOUSE


Every town that conducts any large-scale export
and/or import operations will have a bonding
house. These buildings are nothing more than
huge warehouses used to store inbound or
outbound trade goods. A Bondmaster, appointed
by a towns authorities, oversees the operations
of the bonding house. The town provides him
with a detachment of guards to protect the
building and its goods. In addition, he may have a
variable number of assistants to help him with his
duties. These assistants also act as the towns tax
and customs collectors. Some towns also use
their bonding houses as impound facilities for
confiscated goods. When this happens, the
bondmaster and his guards are responsible for
confiscating the indicated property and securing
it at the bonding house.

CUSTOMS DUTIES
Customs duties are imposed in an attempt to
raise funds, curtail the import of certain items,
stem the export of raw materials, and many other
reasons. The town or local ruler imposes them.
Custom fees can range from 10-50% of the goods
value. The GM determines what items will be
charged a customs duty. He then rolls 2d3-1 to
determine the percentage charged on each item
or class of items; or the GM can roll the
percentage and charge that against the
mercantylers merchandise as a general rule.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

GUILD HALLS _ 2
TOWN TAX COLLECTORS

HAWKING TAX

When a mercantyler brings all of his goods directly to the hall, the tax
collectors will assess a hawking tax upon his trade goods, if they did not
originate within the town. However, if he places the bulk of his trade goods into
the towns bonding house and continues with only a token sample, he will only
pay the bonding fee. In the last case, the hawking tax is deferred until the final
sale of his goods. Mercantylers, who have placed their goods in bonding and
continued on to the Mercantylers Hall, must present the bonding receipt to the
tax collector at that location to avoid being charged a hawking tax until they
have sold their goods. Many Mercantylers conduct their business in the latter
fashion; in this manner, they defer the hawking tax until they find a buyer.

A tax payable to the bondmaster or one of his


officers on all trade goods brought into a town to
be sold. This tax usually excludes foodstuffs,
unless they are sold for the purpose of re-export.
The tax is usually a percentage of the declared
value. Assessments are usually low unless the
mercantyler runs across an exceptionally honest
collector. The average tax is around 10%.

THE TRADING FLOOR


Buying and selling within the hall occurs from noon until dusk. This is done
to avoid conflicts with the local market and the Mangai. The only area allowed
for displaying trade goods, within the hall, are the great hall and its gallery.
When the steward assigns a mercantyler his position he offers the mercantyler a
table to use in displaying his trade goods. To conduct business, a mercantyler
moves from display to display and inspects the goods presented for sale. When
he finds something he likes, he must contact the owning mercantyler and
initiate a bargaining session. Upon striking a deal they may draft a bill of sale, a
new innovation originating from Karejian practices. The mercantylers can draft
the bill themselves or use the services of a notary. The towns tax collector
and/or the hall steward must verify all sales conducted within the hall, either
with a signed note or by putting their seals on the bill of sale. Many towns
require these actions as a means of ensuring that the appropriate taxes are paid.
The bondmaster also checks for tax documentation when goods are recovered
from bonding.
Most towns also have a standing agreement with the guild that allows them
to do periodic inspections of all trade goods within the hall. These inspections
are done in order to root out unscrupulous mercantylers, find contraband, and
identify any adulterated goods. Anyone found with contraband, adulterated
goods or trying to cheat others would have their goods confiscated and held for
trial by the guilds court. The town also conducts inspections at the bonding
house and the local market.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

BONDING FEES
The mercantyler can delay payment of the
hawking tax by placing his goods in bond, which
is storing them in the towns bonding house.
Goods temporarily brought into the town, but
destined for re-export, must be placed in bond.
This service incurs payment of a bonding or
storage fee; a percentage of declared value,
payable in advance with a minimum one-month
fee. The average fee is 1% per month.

ADULTERATED GOODS
Adulterated trade goods are items that have been
changed or imitated in some way. Spices are
some of the most common form of trade goods
that
are
adulterated.
An
unscrupulous
mercantyler will take a low-grade spice and add
other materials to it in order to try to pass it off as
a higher-grade product. The selling of common
weaponry as Khuzan weapons would also fall
under this identification. Adulteration of trade
goods is considered a felony in many Lythian
kingdoms.

HrnWorld

GUILD HALLS _ 3
SERVICES

COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

Most guilds offer a variety of services. Mercantylers can rent an office for
conducting business, a chest for storing their belongings, and there are usually
some sleeping accommodations available for visiting mercantylers. When
finalizing a sale, the guild usually has a notary or two available for drafting a bill
of sale, if desired. These notaries are also well versed in contract law and can
draft many forms of commercial contracts and other informal papers. In
addition, the guild treasurer is a bonded usurer who can issue loans and notes in
the name of the guild to interested parties. The hall normally has a detachment
of guards who oversee the security of the hall and its storage areas. For a price,
mercantylers can arrange to have guards provide security on his quarters
and/or belongings. Unfortunately, the kitchen is only open during guild
festivals, so a visiting mercantyler must look elsewhere for something to eat.

While most Ivinian and Hrnic mercantylers


travel with their goods. Most mercantylers in the
more economically advanced regions of Western
Lythia have developed other means to conduct
mercantile operations. Most mercantylers do not
have the capital to conduct long distance trade.
To facilitate this lack of capital, many have
formed partnerships with other mercantylers or
individuals with the funds to spare. To assure
both parties are satisfied with the terms, and to
cut down on litigation, numerous commercial
contracts have been developed. A few of these
are listed here and described later.
The Larun Contract for sea based trade.
The Compagnia Contract for land based trade.

STORAGE SPACE POLICY

The Deposit Contract.

Some Mercantyler Guilds have an agreement with the town to allow their
members to place their goods in the guild's storage facility, instead of the
bonding house. For this service, the mercantyler still pays the required bonding
fee and a rental fee of up too one-half the bonding fee. Many mercantylers find
this acceptable. However, the guild does not actively solicit this service due to
the restricted space available. However, in towns such as Golotha the hall goes
out of its way to ensure adequate space is available. This is primarily due to the
rampant corruption of its town officials and the lack of security at government
facilities.

The Exchange Contract used by usurers.

The Commission Contract.


The Sea Loan used by usurers.
The Common Loan used by usurers.

INFORMAL COMMERCIAL PAPERS


As with commercial contracts, mercantylers have
generated a number of informal commercial
papers. Some are listed below:
Bills of Sale.
Promissory Notes used by usurers.
Documents Ordering Payment

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

GUILD HALLS _ 4
THE HALL OF THE MANGAI
The governing body of all guilds within a city, kingdom, or region is the
Mangai. Therefore, most towns with a market size of 2 or greater will generally
have some kind of structure designated for the Mangais use. Some of these
towns have given their halls a formal title, while others just refer to the building
as the Hall of the Mangai. At a minimum, the hall will consist of its main hall,
two or three administrative chambers, and an archive. Most halls house the
local Mangais administrative officers, host monthly council meetings, and
provide a place for other guilds to conduct their meetings. However, most of the
smaller halls serve no better purpose than to act as social clubs for the masters
of the local guilds. In addition, some of the towns that have no administrative
building for their civic authorities make arrangements with the Mangai to use a
portion of the hall as a town hall. Furthermore, the mercantylers guild may also
try to use the hall as a commodity exchange, see above. Of course, the Mangai
will charge a fee for either of the last two options. Hrnic towns that do not
have a Hall of the Mangai will usually rent space for their officers or have them
use their own shops. They will also rent space at an inn/tavern when they
conduct their monthly meetings or host a social event.

THE HALL OF THE MANGAI


The hall is the focus of all guild activities within a
town, kingdom or region. The hall usually
functions as a social club for guild members only.
HALL SIZE
Determine the dimensions of the entire
site by multiplying the towns market
size times (300 square feet). Thus a
town with a market size of 4 would
have a hall measuring on average 1,200
square feet. Most of these buildings will
be two stories or more in height.

HALL OPERATIONS
A Mangai hall serves two basic purposes. First it is used as an
administrative center for the Mangais day to day operations. Secondly, it is
used to host the monthly Mangais council meetings and the nightly social
gatherings of the towns prominent guildsmen. In addition, some chapters rent
out some of the hall's rooms in an attempt to raise additional funds. However,
the hall is still the primary focus of most of a town's economic activities; this
stems from the Mangais control over local markets and fairs. Anyone wishing
to do business within a towns market must come to the hall and pay fee;
thereafter having permission from the Mangai to sell goods in the towns market
or any fair under its control.

THE FRONT OFFICE


Like the guilds themselves, the local chapters of the Mangai are headed by
elected officials called chairmen. A chairman is elected from among the sitting
members on the local chapters Council and sits in his office for two years. The
chairman can be re-elected any number of times to this position. As head of his
chapter, the chairmans responsibilities are two-fold. First, he must settle all
disputes that arise between the towns guilds. This includes settling
infringements upon guild rights by non-guild organizations or individuals, to
include foreigners. Second, it is his responsibility to present the Mangais
agenda to the local ruling authority. This includes lobbying the local
government to pass laws that the Mangai supports and rejecting laws the
Mangai opposes. In addition, the chairman represents his chapter when dealing
with other chapters of the Mangai and during the triennial conventions.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

GUILD HALLS _ 5
While the chairman looks after political affairs his right hand man, the
steward, sees to the day to day activities of the Mangai. Unlike the chairman the
steward is a member of the chapters general body and is elected by them. The
steward serves in his office for two years, just as the chairman; however, his
election takes place on the off year from that of the chairmans. The stewards
primary duty is to organize and oversee the running of any markets under the
chapters control. Towards this end, he has four or more sergeants to assist him
in his duties. These men ensure that all individuals selling their goods in the
market have paid their fee, are in their assigned area, and collect any fines for
violations of market privileges. In the meantime, the steward is busy at the hall
issuing permits and collecting the market fees from individuals that have come
to the hall and wish to sell their goods in the market. When a chapter controls a
fair, the steward is responsible for planning the sequence of events, posting laws
pertaining to the fair, hiring more support personnel, and coordinating with
local officials for any land needed to conduct the fair. Once a fair has started, he
oversees all operations until it closes down for the season.
After the steward, the next prominent official is the usher. This individual
holds the keys to the hall and the chapters treasury. The usher has three
responsibilities. First, he controls all access to the chapter's leadership;
scheduling appointments and keeping unnecessary business directed to the
lesser officials. Second, he is responsible for organizing and running the
chapters common room. This includes maintaining the rooms furnishings, and
keeping the pantry and buttery stocked with provisions. To as assist him in this
endeavor he will usually hire an innkeeper to run this part of the operation.
Depending on the chapters influence with the Innkeepers guild this individual
may be a master or a journeyman. In an agreement with the Innkeepers guild,
most common rooms can only be open during the fifth watch. The exceptions
to this agreement are the Mangai's annual feast day and/or any town festival
days.

THE GENERAL BODY


The general body consists of all the registered
guilds' members within a chapters area of
influence.

PANTRY
Originally, this was a storage room for bread. The
area is now used to store any kind of dry goods
and food. It is also used to store the chapters
utensils that are used in the common room.

BUTTERY
This is a storage room for beverages.

CHAPTER ARCHIVE
This is a secure room where the chapters
archivist stores all its important documents.
These documents include, but are not limited to
the following:
Guild Charters
Council Minutes
Reports
Account Receipts
Market Permits

Finally, there is the chapters treasurer. Each day, before the fifth watch, he
must ensure that all the day's receipts and cash are locked away in the chapters
treasury. In addition, he makes sure the chapters account books are updated
daily. To assist him in these duties the chapter usually hires a clerk to work the
books.
In addition to the above individuals, the chapter also hires a scribe to
maintain the chapters archives. The archivist is responsible for recording
minutes from all chapter meetings and keeping a record of all-important
transaction. At the end of each week, he collects all the documents and
manuscripts and catalogues and files them in the archive. In addition, he must
be ready to provide members of the chapter with requested items on demand.
Along with the archivist, the chapter also employs two or more scribes to act as
clerks and private secretaries to the chapters leadership. It is these individuals
who normally see to the daily reports, transactions, and correspondence of the
hall's operations.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

GUILD HALLS _ 6
CONTROL OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

FARMING OUT

Throughout Western Lythia, royal and imperial authorities establish their


own standards for weights and measures. In most cases, these authorities farm
out this responsibility to the towns and feudal lords under their control. In a
move to strengthen its economic position, and to gain more control over market
activities, the Mangai has sought after and won the right to control and regulate
weights and measures. Therefore, the standards across a kingdom and
sometimes a region, such as Hrn, are very uniform. For this privilege, the
Mangai has to pay the grantor a substantial fee. To recoup their expenses the
Mangai charges a penny per 100 pounds or less weighed on the city scales
located at ports and/or markets and a penny per measure checked or rented,
per day. In addition, the Mangai charges a fee of one shilling to check the
accuracy of any scale within its area of control. Failure to maintain accurate
weights and measures are punishable with confiscation and/or a stiff fine.

To farm out meant to let someone else maintain


or operate an enterprise for a set amount of
money.

COUNCIL OF THE MANGAI


The governing body of a chapter is the Council of the Mangai. Membership
of the council is comprised of the guildmasters of all guilds within the local
Mangai. The councils main purpose is to regulate the activities of all guilds that
come under its control. The council usually meets once a month, most chapters
using the same day each month. All guild syndics and masters are allowed to
attend council meetings. At the meeting, they may speak but they are not
allowed to vote on council decisions; only the council members are allowed a
vote. When the council does vote on a matter it usually takes a two-thirds
majority to pass. In addition, some of the more prominent guilds may have veto
rights over any council decision. However, the number of guilds wielding this
authority is quite small, usually two or three members at most. The right to veto
being a well-guarded privilege that has often lead to heated debates as other
guilds grow in strength and wish to gain this privilege. Although many of the
decisions that come out of the council are related to guild operations and
economics, a large part of the council's deliberations are quite political. This
involves factions, intrigues, and posturing by all parties to get their own
resolutions passed. Factions usually center around the separate veto powers on
the council.
In addition to the council, some chapters may also have formed advisory
committees. The committee is a subcommittee of five to ten council members
who advise a ruler on economic matters; usually these committees evolve in
towns where royal, senatorial, or baronial authority resides. The committee also
meets once a month; however, some may only meet bimonthly or quarterly.
The council, from among its sitting members appoints the committees
members. To encourage the ruler or his representative to attend these meetings
the chapter will pay him an honorarium of 100d to 500d per month.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

GUILD HALLS _ 7
SERVICES
Since the main purpose of the hall is its function as a social club and
meeting hall for local guilds, the services it has to offer are limited. In its social
capacity these services are as following. First, and foremost, is the enmity the
common room of the hall has to offer. When open a guildsman can obtain a
mug of ale or any other liquor that may be on-hand. In addition, a guildsman
can also pick-up a cold snack of bread, sausage, and cheese. Prices in the hall
are set in accordance with an agreement with the local Innkeepers guild to
ensure the hall does not undercut any local inns or taverns. However, as a rule
these prices are usually set to a mid-range level of what is commonly charged at
the local inns. In addition to the common room, most halls have two or more
luxury rooms available for anyone who can afford the price, the price usually
being 12-18d a night.
The remainder of the services offered by the hall's staff deals with various
guild operations and local politics. To start with, the hall usually has two or
more private meeting rooms available for 1d a day. Next, most chapters are
willing to let out their council chamber for 2-4d a day. When an arrangement
has been agreed to, some chapters also let out a portion of their halls for civil
authorities to use, usually when there is no town hall present. In the same light,
a chapter may also let the Mercantylers guild use the hall's common room for a
commodity exchange when there is no mercantylers hall available. In both
cases, the fee would be quite substantial.
Lastly, the chapters archives are open to any local guildsman. However, no
original documents may be removed from the hall without the chairmans
approval. Even then, the individual wanting the document would have to pay a
deposit of 1-12d, depending on the documents importance. If a guildsman
wants a copy, he can draft it himself or pay 6-12d for the service.

USING THE LOCAL MARKETS


As mentioned in the section on the Mercantylers Hall above, a visiting
mercantyler needs to inform town/Mangai officials that he intends to sell his
goods in one of the towns market places. The officials would then direct him to
the towns bonding house to have his goods inspected, assessed and to pay the
appropriate hawking tax. From the bonding house, the mercantyler would go to
the Hall of the Mangai and pay rent for the stall he intends to operate in the
market place. Once he has paid the hawking tax, the market fee, and had been
assigned a place in the desired market place, he may then proceed and set-up
his stall.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

GUILD HALLS _ 8
Most towns require that mercantylers offer their goods to local merchants
before offering them to the public. After the mercantyler notifies the Mangai of
what he has to sell, they would send word throughout the town to the
appropriate guilds. The customary waiting time before opening sales up to the
public is from one to three hours after notifying the Mangai. The time is
dependent on the size of the town and the Mangais by-laws covering this
subject (GM discretion). Once the mercantyler has satisfied the time restriction
he may start selling his products to the general population. Mercantylers
choosing to operate this way in the larger towns usually will encounter no
problems, as long as their activities are legal. However, a mercantyler carrying
on large scale operations in smaller towns would have to be sure he avoids any
actions that looked as if he is imposing on any local merchants or mercantylers
privileges. Such misconceptions could lead to expulsion, loss of goods, trumped
up legal charges, or anything else a GM can devise.

TOWN MARKETS
The heart of a town is its marketplace, an open
space where exchange freely happens. The
Mangai administers the marketplace and rents
space in it for a penny or two per day. Vendors
can sell from their own carts, tents, or stalls, or
rent them from tentmakers or woodcrafters.
Local craftsmen have an advantage in the towns
economy. For one thing, the aldermen and
mayors of most towns are usually local
guildsmen. For another, they are the only ones
permitted to freely sell their goods within the
town. Goods imported into the town are subject
to a hawking tax. If a local guild's monopoly
covers imported trade goods, the mercantyler
must first offer the goods to local guildsmen
handling such items.

OTHER GUILD HALLS


In addition to the two guildhalls just mentioned, four other guilds maintain
halls. However, unlike like the mercantylers and the Mangai these guilds use
their halls more as hostels and warehouses than as administrative
establishments. Of these four guilds, the miners and timberwrights use their
establishments to house visiting members, and store inbound materials before
their sale or re-export. The pilots and seamans guilds also use their halls as
hostels for members in transit or looking for a job. In addition, all four of these
guilds also use their establishments as hiring halls. If someone needs a seaman,
pilot, lumberman, or miner they would go to the appropriate hall and announce
their requirements and how many individuals are needed. The guild authorities
will then post a notice in the hall or provide the employer with a list of
prospective employees.
One other guild also maintains a building for its use; this is the Guild of
Arcane-Lore. This guild however calls its hall a chantry. The chantry is used in a
similar way to the four guilds above; however, the individuals who stay there
are more sedentary, and use the chantry as a place of study. Unlike the other
halls, the rooms in the chantry are usually not communal and life is more
private within its confines.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

MERCANTILE LAW _ 1
FINES

CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS


The following list identifies crimes a mercantyler can face. Some are
economic crimes and others are crimes that can arise from abuse of a position
held within a guild or town organization. The penalties for each offence show all
the possibilities that could be imposed on an individual convicted of the listed
crime. The type of penalty awarded usually depended on the severity of the
crime, the status of the individual, money, and friends.
Most cases are heard within the local courts, town or feudal. However,
royal courts usually try all felony cases; only a royal court can issue a death
penalty or banish an individual from the kingdom. Town and feudal courts can
issue any other form of punishment; however, these courts are required to give
a third of all proceeds from fines or confiscated property to the royal exchequer.
Guild courts are only allowed to inflict fines, remove guild privileges, and
require restitution of damages.

Fines are based on the crime and the individual's


ability to pay. All fines are paid to the court and
not the injured party.

RESTITUTION
The court determines what damages are due to
the plaintiff and orders the offender to pay that
amount. The plaintiff is usually required to pay a
percentage of this amount to the court, usually
about 5%.

SCOLDING
This is nothing but a formal reproof by the court,
the basic slap on the hand.

PILLORY

PRIVILEGE CRIMES
Abuse of Trust: A character that has been caught abusing his office or
position through graft, embezzlement, accepting bribes, failing to properly
execute customary or legal obligations, or dereliction of his duties may be
charged with this crime. If the character is a royal official, the crime is then
considered a felony.
Penalties: At a minimum, the character can lose his office, title, and
connected privileges. In addition, the courts can confiscate his property and
imprison him. If he is a royal official, the courts can banishment or sentence him
to death by various means.
Oathbreaking: Characters who are caught committing perjury (lying under
oath), or oathbreaking, or breach of contract may be charged with oathbreaking.
Penalties: At most, a character will be charged a fine and if property is
involved made to pay restitution. If the charge resulted in payment not being
received, the courts can confiscate his property. If the character is an official of
some type, he could lose his privileges, title, and office. If the charge involves
feudal or royal rights then banishment, severing of the tongue, scolding, or even
death by stoning could be ordered.

The individual is set in the pillory for a period


determined by the court. This in turn exposed the
individual to public scorn and ridicule.

CONFISCATION OF PROPERTY
The court orders that any property the offender
had used to commit his crime confiscated.
Usually he could pay a fine to recover his
property.

BANISHMENT
Depending on who imposes this verdict
determines where they are banished from town,
shire, or kingdom.

SOCIAL CRIMES
Libel/Slander: A character accused of making a false accusation or
conducting malicious gossip can be found guilty of slander.
Penalties: At the least the excused will receive a scolding and/or be
ordered to pay restitution to the offended party. If the slanderous conduct was
directed at an official of standing he may be flogged and/or have his tongue
removed.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE LAW _ 2
ECONOMIC CRIMES
Breach of Guild Privilege: A character that is found to be usurping the
customary and lawful rights of a guild or guildsman, impersonating a guildsman,
or in violation of a guild monopoly will generally be charged with breach of
privilege.
Penalties: A character found guilty of this crime will most likely have the
property he was using in this crime confiscated. In addition he is fined and in
some cases made to pay the offended party restitution. If the offence was a
repeat occurrence, or a direct affront to the ruling powers, he may even be
banished.
Tax Evasion: A character found to have avoided payment of any lawful
toll or tax will be charged with this crime. In most kingdoms, it is a felony to
avoid paying any lawful toll or tax.
Penalties: At a minimum, the character will be made to pay a fine and/or
restitution. In addition, the character could find himself in the pillory and
possibly receive a flogging for his actions, especially if royal privileges were
involved.
Forgery, Fraud: The counterfeiting of coins or forging of documents,
possession of the same, or obtaining benefits by misrepresentation will cause a
character to find himself being arrested and tried in court. If any royal privileges
are involved the charge will be treated as a felony.
Penalties: In the least the character will be fined and/or made to pay
restitution. If he were an official or guildsman of some kind he could lose his
property, have his privileges suspended, and lose his office. In addition, he
could be put in the pillory, imprisoned, or have a hand severed.
Smuggling: A character found to be engaged in the transporting, selling,
and/or in possession of, any proscribed or contraband goods will be charged as
a smuggler; this charge is usually considered a felony.
Penalties: If lucky, the character will only lose the smuggled goods and
have to pay a fine. Otherwise, he could find himself facing the pillory and/or
imprisonment. If the character is extremely unlucky, he could be hung.

TOWN AND FEUDAL LAW


JUSTICE WITHIN THE TOWN
Mainly freemen inhabit towns; therefore, royal justice is available to most
citizens. Some feudal lords and the king have granted the principal towns of
their domains the right to hold their own courts. These towns regard their right
to operate their own courts as their most treasured prerogatives. The charters of
some towns have also given their courts a place in the judicial hierarchy
equivalent to a shire. Appeal from these courts is directly to the crown.
However, most towns are considered part of the shire in which they lie; appeals
being made first to the shire moot.
One outstanding feature of all these systems is the length of time it takes to
resolve a dispute. If a mercantyler becomes involved with a case outside the
town's, or guilds court system, it could take a year or more before he sees the
case settled. At the same time, the process could be very expensive. He would
have to face the expense of paying for writs, traveling to where the court is held,
expenses while staying at that the location, and any bribes or fees that may be
required. As can be seen, the only case most individuals would pursue to such
lengths is one where the individual had a great deal to lose or gain.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

HrnWorld

MERCANTILE LAW _ 3
THE KINGS PEACE

ROYAL JUSTICE
While royal justice is inaccessible to the unfree majority of the population, it
has grown in significance. The royal system is open to any freeman, and
generally provides better, faster and cheaper justice to those who have access
to it. The preservation of local customs is a high priority of the royal courts, and
from these customs uniform laws have emerged. These are referred to as the
kings common-law, a body of legal tradition that is shared by most of the
realm. Most feudal kingdoms are divided in shires and hundreds, each with its
own legal organs. The sheriff is the chief justice of a shire and the bailiff of the
hundred holds the same position within the hundred and is subordinate to the
sheriff. Their courts, also known as moots or assizes, comprise the bulk of the
royal justice system. They hear cases monthly in each hundred and quarterly for
the shire. To assist them in their duties they have a group of prominent knights
or freemen assist them in trying cases. These men are known as jurors and
perform this service as part of their feudal obligation to the king. These courts
attend to just about any kind of case, but tended to stay away from cases
involving land titles and inheritance, passing them on to the feudal courts.

FEUDAL JUSTICE
Throughout Western Lythia, feudal law is the prominent form of justice;
and subinfeudation has created a natural hierarchy of feudal courts.
Consequently, all feudal lords are responsible for the administration of justice to
the free and unfree tenants within their lands. The manorial lord presides over
his own court, which is at the bottom of the feudal hierarchy. Disputes may be
appealed from the manorial court to the lords liege, and occasionally to a royal
court. Each court has the right to decide which cases it will hear, unless an
individual presents a writ. If a mercantyler finds himself in a town controlled by
a feudal lord, he may find himself in the lord's court trying to right any
grievances he may have or to answer for his own crimes. However, the larger
towns are usually free or royal towns and fall under royal justice.

HrnWorld

Under feudal law, many crimes are usually


matters concerning the rights and privileges of
those involved. Only the injured party or an
immediate relative can initiate legal action. Any
breach of the kings peace however is deemed a
felony. During the moot the jurors are questioned
about and must report any know breaches of the
king's peace; these cases are then tried or
warrants issued for the offending partys arrest.
The injured party, who will usually obtain a royal
writ in order to be heard, must still make
accusations of crimes not against the kings
peace; such as, civil or financial suits.

ROYAL WRITS
Writs are written commands to any feudal or
royal court that a plaintiffs case is to be heard.
Because all courts decide which cases they will
hear, a writ ensures a case will come before the
court. Although not mandatory, their use in shire
courts is almost a prerequisite. The formula for
writing writs has become standardized with its
common use, and is sold by the crown for a
nominal fee, usually 20-50d. Most writs are issued
in the kings name by the sheriff within his own
shire. Feudal lords within their own jurisdictions
have recently adopted the practice of writs.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE LAW _ 4
THE COURTS
TOWN COURTS
In order for a case to be heard, the parties to a dispute must make an
appointment for adjudication. At the appointed time, the case is then argued,
with or without litigants, before a single alderman. The financial interests of the
participants often lend themselves to a quick execution of justice. The presiding
alderman will pass judgment, and levy and collect fines with dispatch. Appeals
are made to the town court consisting of all the assembled aldermen. Important
or complex cases will usually go directly to the town court. Aldermen may also
issue writs and warrants at a price. In most prominent trade centers, the
Mercantylers Guild has a charter allowing them the right to try minor cases
within their own court involving members of the guild. However, there is
usually a clause allowing that the agreement can be vetoed by 50% of the
towns aldermen; when the agreement is vetoed the case will be heard in the
town's court.
Town law is quite different from rural justice and is sufficiently complex to
support a guild of litigants. As centers of trade, there is a somewhat greater
dependence on written statute and precedent. Financial transactions are much
more common and civic penal code may view economic and civil cases as
dimly as crimes of violence. The importance of a suit is often a matter of how
much, and whose money is involved.

GUILD COURTS
Guild courts are run very similarly to the town courts. The plaintiff
approaches a guild officer and presents his complaint. At that time, the officer
decides if the case warrants a full guild court or if the guild provost can handle
the case alone. From this point on, the hearing is conducted in the same
fashion, as one would be for the town. However, all fines are kept by the guild,
and all decisions may be appealed to the town court. The entire guild court will
hear all cases passed on to the guild by the town, for whatever reason. The guild
court is usually presided over by the guildmaster and his immediate lieutenants.
In the smaller towns, the Mangai would fulfill the position as a guild court
for those guilds that do not have enough members to make a separate court
practical. Of course, this would depend on the local guilds size and its influence
within its community and the local government. If not allowed to run its own
court, then its cases would be heard in the local government courts: municipal,
feudal, or royal.

Author, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2004

THE LITIGANT
Litigants do not have a monopoly in legal
matters, just expertise. They handle legal
transactions on behalf of various clients and are
hired to argue a clients case before a court. This
is a powerful urban guild; some litigants often
holding
prominent
position
within
the
administration their towns. They are also adept at
drawing up wills, deeds, and contracts. Their
usual fee for these documents being 12-36d and
ranging from 12-48d a day for court appearances.

THE NOTARY
Notaries are usually litigants or individuals who
have had a minimal amount of training in legal
matters. However, they are all well versed in the
drafting of legal documents of all kinds. These
individuals are in high demand by anyone
wishing to ensure a document's legality or
needing a witness for economic transactions.
For an individual to become a notary, he must
pass the notarial examination that is given by the
municipal government once a year. The notarial
examination tests an applicant's knowledge and
ability to draft the standardized legal instruments
currently in use and the laws pertaining to them.
Applicants need only pass the examination once
every two years. After passing the examination,
and paying a 100d fee, he is sworn in for one year
and presented his seal of office. Once the notarys
term is up, he must surrender his notary seal back
to the town. If he wishes to remain a notary, he
retakes the notarial examination, and he pays the
100d fee. All notary positions are franchises held
by the town and sold annually to individuals who
have passed the notarial examination. However,
once enfranchised notaries are allowed to work
independently or bond themselves out for the
duration of their terms. Those notaries who bond
themselves out work for a fixed wage, whereas
those that are not bonded are paid for each
transaction witnessed or document drafted. As
usual, payment terms are negotiable; however,
most salaries range from 60-80% of what a
litigant makes.

HrnWorld

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 1
LOCAL TRADING ACTIVITIES
Local trading activities center on the provisioning of towns with victuals,
drink, and raw materials for the local craftsmen and its citizens. These activities
center around three areas. Each area provides a service to the community either
directly or indirectly.

THE SHOP
The shop is the central focus for most craftsmens activities. Each local
guild regulates how many shops/franchises their guild allows to operate within
a specific location. A guild controls this number by only allowing only
enfranchised master craftsmen to own and operate a shop. In addition, the guild
also sets limits on the number of apprentices, journeymen, and masters a shop
can employ. Other restraints put on the owners of shops are price controls,
fixed work hours, usually signaled by a bell in the Hall of the Mangai, and the
limiting of on site commercial activities to retail trade only. Most shops lack the
resources to conduct large-scale export operations and tend to focus on
supplying the needs of the town and its surrounding environs. Owners acquire
materials from mercantylers at the Mercantylers Hall, the Hall of the Mangai, or
in the local market. Most shops are required to close their doors on market days
and to operate out of a stall in a market place if they wished to sell their wares.
Those shops that do produce items desirable for export will have to deal with
mercantyler who control the import/export trade. Remembered, most guild
regulations are developed to protect the consumer and local craftsmen from
outside competitors, and to reduce competition from within its own ranks.
A shop is not just a place of business; but also serves as a home and storage
facility. The front of the first floor is usually the shop and work area, most shops
will have a large window opening onto the street. The window shutters fold out
to form a counter and an awning allowing customers to see finished goods and
to see into the shop and observe the craftsmen at work. Other shops have open
fronts that are covered by large screens when closed, such as the metalsmiths
and potters who required good ventilation while working. Behind the shop is a
hall and attached kitchen for meals and social activities of the owner, his family,
and employees. The upper levels are the residences for the owner, his family,
and employees. Supplies are stored in a cellar or in spare rooms. Sometimes
owners acquire extra funds by renting out spare rooms.
Shops are rated by a number of stars to signify their quality, price range,
and mastery level and a number to designate size. The size rating states how
many guildsmen work within the shop. A shop rated as a five would have the
master and four other employees, at least one of whom may be an apprentice.
In addition to the guildsmen, some shops may employ unguilded help as labors,
clerks, messengers, etc. The star rating identifies the approximate quality of
goods produced in the shop, the price range as a percentage of the base price,
and a mastery level range for each shop.

QUALITY TABLE
Stars Rating

Price

Adjustment

Poor

75%

**

Inferior

85%

***

Average

100%

****

Good

120%

*****

Excellent

140%

CRAFTSMAN QUALITY TABLE


Stars

ML

Generation

51-50

(50 + 1d10)

**

61-70

(60 + 1d10)

***

71-80

(70 + 1d10)

****

81-100

(80 + 1d20)

*****

101-120

(100 + 1d20)

The ML designated for a craftsmans shop is not


the ML of the proprietor, but an average of al the
individuals working within the sop. A freemasters
primary concern when hiring new employees is
to maintain or improve the shops ML. Overall,
the score will stay fairly constant over long
periods of time. When ownership changes due to
death or purchase, the ML should be regenerated.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 2
THE MARKET
The market is a weekly or biweekly event held on specific days and
controlled by the local chapter of the Mangai. In larger towns/cities like
Coranan markets may be held every day to ensure that the population stays
supplied with food and other necessities. On non-market days, the market
places and streets of a town will still be active with victualers, tinkers, peddlers,
and the towns regular merchants. The primary function of the market is the
selling of produce brought in from the outlying lands of the town by the
peasantry and manorial officials. In addition, it gives these individuals a chance
to acquire supplies that they can not obtain in their own villages. In Western
Lythia the Mangai holds the rights to all markets and pays a fee to local
governments or kingdoms for the privilege. To defray the costs, and acquire
profits for its own needs, the Mangai imposes market fees, stallage fees, sells or
rents awnings, and rents permanent structures within the market place. In some
regions, the Mangai is also responsible for collecting the hawking tax on all
goods sold at the market.
Each town has established its own market day(s) and has identified the
times during which the market shall be open. It is customary that the first half of
the market day is open to the towns population so they can acquire their
weekly needs before the Innkeepers and cooks come in to gather goods for their
establishments. In addition, the market is a purely retail establishment, no
wholesale activities are allowed to take place within the market or during the
hours it is open. Most towns also have an ordinance that calls for shops to close
during market days or hours. If these establishments wish to conduct business
they must obtain a stall for the day and conduct their business at the market.
To police the market and ensure taxes are collected, the Mangai assigns a
sergeant and some assistants to check for tax receipts, ensure that the official
weights and measures are being used, break up improper commercial activities,
and look after the peace in general.

PEDDLERS
Peddlers are individuals who travel about with their wares looking for
buyers and profit. Most peddlers are minor operators who carry their goods on
their back or on a single pack animal. Peddlers are not just limited to traveling
from village to village, but also include individuals reselling items within a town
from carts or sacks. The goods they sell range from ribbons and caps, to pots
and pans; mostly items a villager could not obtain locally and townsman has no
time to shop for.
Within the towns, another trade akin to the peddler is the victualer. The
victualer sells hot and cold foods from a cart. The items they cook up
themselves or obtain from an inn or tavern, and vary from meat pies to pastries.
The Mangai has been attempting to control the victualers by incorporating
them with the Innkeepers Guild or getting them to form their own association.
Thus far, they have resisted both movements. Although some towns have tried
to restrict their activities, they realize that the majority of the townsmen would
resist abolishing this activity. The reason being that most townsmen have no
way of preparing their own meals and the fare at inns or taverns are expensive
or bland.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 3
REGIONAL TRADING ACTIVITIES
Regional trade involves the movement of surplus produce and materials
within a region. The items moved are usually bulk goods, dry stuffs, and ores.
This kind of trade rarely involves luxury items, unless it is the redistribution of
such items from a major port. Mercantylers are the main players in this kind of
activity. The funds involved are minimal and the merchants who take part in
these activities are rich, but not excessively so; the main reason being the
limited profits available from trading in bulk trade goods.
Goods moved within a region; travel by pack animal, wagon/cart, or on
water. Where possible, most items are shipped on boats/barges upon navigable
rivers and by ships along coastal areas. Pack animals are the most desirable
means of transportation for overland trade. Most routes are nothing but mere
tracks and not very good on wagons and carts. The mule and horse are the
prominent animals used as pack animals on Hrn. Wagons and carts are used
primarily within a specific area or kingdom to relocate bulk goods and items to
large for pack animals. When possible, goods are usually transferred to
boats/barges to cut down on transportation costs.
Hrn is a good example of a region with established regional trade routes.
These include the Salt Route, the Fur Trail, the Silver Way, and Genins Trail.
Each year major caravans move from the start points of each trail to Tashal, the
junction point of them all. In Tashal goods brought from each area are
redistributed and at the end of the trading session taken back to the start points
and redistributed in those areas. Luxury goods from Lythia find their way to
Tashal along the Genin Trail after being moved from the port of Cherafir to
Thay. Goods destined for Lythia return along the same route. The Fur Road
serves the same purpose, but from the north.
The majority of Hrnic mercantylers will be taking part in this kind of
trading activity. In effect, collecting surplus goods in their area of operation,
transporting it to a collection point for a major caravan or moving it to another
area themselves, obtaining goods needed for their area, then returning and
distributing these goods for a profit.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 4
LONG RANGE TRADING ACTIVITIES
Unlike regional trade, long range trade involves the movement of luxury
goods, rare items, and items that are in high demand in other regions. This kind
of trade requires large amounts of capital and good contacts in far off regions.
For Hrnic mercantylers, all long-range trade is conducted by ship. Because of
this, most form partnerships to buy shares of a ship or to pool their resources to
purchase freight space on board someone elses ship.
Most Hrnic mercantylers sail for Western Lythia ports along the western
coast; principally the ports of Parahal, Eshapel, Karamus, and Chelemby are
most frequented by Hrnic ships. With the exception of the occasional Hrnic
mercantyler sailing to Karejia on the Larun, most Hrnic mercantylers will only
go as far as these ports and their surrounding environ.
Being a major importer, Hrn has little to offer the merchant centers of
Western Lythia. Consequently, most ships sailing from Hrnic ports are near
empty, sometimes carrying only ballast. Therefore, most long-range trade tends
to drain capital from Hrn. To combat this Hrnic mercantylers have been
trying to boost the quality and desirability of Hrnic wool. They have had
moderate success in the area of Northwestern Lythia and are gaining some
headway in Southwestern Lythia. If these efforts are successful, Hrn may
become a major producer and exporter of wool for Western Lythia.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 5
MERCANTYLER SPECIALTIES
AGENTS AND FACTORS
FACTORS
A factor is the employee of a master mercantyler, a company of merchants,
or a long-term partnership. This position was originally developed by rich
Karejian mercantylers not wishing to travel long distances and looking for ways
to employ members of their families in the family business. Factors are
contracted to manage business offices in remote location. Factors are usually
entrusted with receiving goods, selling the goods, purchasing goods, shipping
goods to the home office, excepting bills of exchange and promissory notes, etc.
In addition, they are sent frequent letters of instruction and required to answer
promptly. Even so, the factor is usually given freedom of action so he can
respond quickly to changing economic situations. The factor is usually not liable
for the obligations of his employer. They receive a fixed salary and do not share
in the profits. In the case of gross negligence or dishonesty, he is only
accountable to his employers. If successful, he can look forward to an increase
in salary or promotion as a junior partner. Once made a partner he can then be
jointly liable for all partnership debts.
The salary of a factor can range from 200d to 400d a month. From this
amount, the factor has to pay for his room and board, clothing, and
miscellaneous needs. At no time is he to use any of the companys funds to
provide for his own needs or debts.

AGENTS
Agents are mercantylers appointed by another mercantyler who cannot
personally attend to a particular business transaction. The agent can be a
relative, friend, or an employee who is given power of attorney over the
business to be conducted. The use of agents is a common method used
throughout Western Lythia. Most agents work on commission; however, a few
do work for a fixed salary. The agent is usually entrusted with carrying money
and/or moveable goods to trade with and to carry or send back the proceeds of
the transaction to their employer as instructed. Not all agents traveled with the
goods. Some worked out of a fixed location and received contracts from distant
merchants to handle their business. Such contracts are issued by letters to the
agent and arrived with the goods, both being transferred to the agent upon
arrival. Agents who work in this way usually have a standing agreement with
their contacts to accept all contracts upon arrival and can terminate any
agreement by letter to their contact, usually going out with the previous
consignment. At no time will an agent draw on the funds under his control to
provide for his own needs. A typical commission can be between 1% and 5% of
the total value of the net profits.

AN AGENT
For example, Sion of Peron is the agent of a
Thayan merchant and has been given 50 of wool
to sell in whatever Lythian ports he could and to
purchase spices and silk with the proceeds, his
commission is set at 3%. Upon his return he
handed over 250 of spices and silks to his
employer. From this his commission would 3% of
200 or 6.

SUPERCARGOES/SHIPS SCRIBES
The supercargo or ships scribe is a bonded-master mercantyler specializing
in marine trade. Many of these individuals are young men with no hope of
acquiring a franchise and have a flare for adventure and travel. A supercargo
usually holds an Associate Membership in the Seamens Guild (12d/year). His
duties include the purchase and sale of cargoes, calculation of freight rates,
cargo stowage plans, etc. As a guilded mercantyler, a supercargo generally
negotiates better deals with his associates.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 6
The position of supercargo is a relatively new feature in Hrnic waters. The
trend started with the Karejian League in the Venarian Sea. Trade there is so
brisk and complicated that the league passed an ordinance around 650 TR that
all of their merchant ships will carry a bonded mercantyler to record transaction
and conduct the ships business when in port. On the great Laruns, as many as
three supercargoes may be employed. Over time, the trend has slowly spread
west, coming to Hrn around 720 TR.
A supercargos primary duty is to maintain a ships account log. In this book
he copies all agreements between the owners and merchants or logs in copies
of agreements he files into his chest. As cargo is loaded he records its weight,
the merchants trademarks, the nature of the cargo, and its value. He then issues
a receipt to the merchant in view of possible later claims for damages. If the
merchant or passenger is also carrying money, the supercargo will also record
the amount in his log. At all ports of call, the supercargo repeats these actions.
This is done so that the proper freight rate can be charged for new cargo items.
Similarly, whenever cargo is unloaded the supercargo checks the unloaded
cargo against the owners receipt. Then the supercargo records the freight paid
in his log for the unloaded cargo, even if the cargo may be loaded again at a
later date.
In addition to the above entries, the supercargo keeps a record of the
shareholders in the ship. In this record he records their names, the number and
fractions of shares held, and the names of anyone whom the control of shares
had been transferred in regards to payment of profits. In this log he also records
the expenses and incomes the ship accrues. Along with freight payments,
merchandise sold or bought, and expenses for the ships equipment, the log also
contains the orders to the captain and the names of the ships crew and the
agreements of service arraigned with each.
Being a mercantyler, the supercargo also acts in the ships name when
buying or selling goods. See the Pilots Almanac for information on maritime
trade.

USURERS

INTEREST

The Mercantylers Guild has one important monopoly, which is rigidly


enforced. Only mercantylers can practice usury; the changing and loaning of
money for profit (interest). Some mercantylers (usurers) specialize in this
activity. Like the trade side of the guild, usurers specialize in small local
operations (pawnbrokers) or those that deal in large transactions
(moneylenders). In between are the moneychangers. On Hrn, this is as
complicated as it gets. However, within the Venarian Sea the beginnings of
large banking firms are starting to emerge. These organizations conduct various
operation, o include: make loans, take deposits, issue letters of exchange and
credit, and act as a sort of foreign exchange.

The interest rates for loans are high, and


compounded monthly. For secured loans, a
normal rate of interest is one or two percent per
month. Unsecured loans to finance trade are
another matter. These range from 5% per month
for local trade loans, to 10% per month for
caravan trade, and 20% per month for sea trade.
Such are the comparative rates of land/sea travel
and the profits expected from trade.

PAWNBROKERS
Within most large towns, you can find the shops of usurers who deal solely
in local loans of small amounts. The pawnbroker takes personal items as
security for these loans and charges interest. Most of these loans range from a
few shillings up to a hundred pounds. The usual duration for these loans is a
month and can be extended a month at a time up to six months. If the loan
defaults, even by a day, the goods securing the loan are forfeited and available
for resale by the usurer.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 7
MONEYLENDER

USURER CREDIBILITY TABLE

At least one usurer in each major town operates as a moneylender, as


opposed to a pawnbroker. These individuals usually make large unsecured
loans to mercantylers involved in regional or long distance trade. Sample
contracts of the various loans issued by a moneylender can be found in the
document section below. The basic loans issued are the straight loan for those
conducting commerce by caravan and the sea loan for those conducting trade
on the high seas. Since money is always in short supply, the moneylender also
issues promissory notes instead of money, see below. To insure there are
sufficient funds on hand, some moneylenders allow non-mercantylers to deposit
funds in their money chest in return for a small percentage, 4% to 6%,
compounded annually. A sample deposit contract can be seen in the Commercial
Documents section. Transactions such as these are fairly new to most of
Northwestern Lythia and will only be encountered in large commercial centers.

MONEYCHANGERS
Few usurers are strictly moneychangers, unless they are located in a very
busy port frequented by many foreign ships and merchants, something Hrnic
ports have nothing to worry about as of yet. Instead, many moneychangers are
also moneylenders. The moneychanger is highly involved in buying and selling
foreign coinage. The discounts charged average 10-20%. For example, 100d
Aleathian might be exchanged for 80-90d in Tashal. There is considerable
distortion with Rethemi coins (notoriously debased) and they may be
discounted as much as 50% in other areas. Golothan usurers, on the other hand,
pay high prices (par to 120% in Rethemi pence) for foreign coins, coveting them
as security and to invest with those who are reluctant to accept Rethemi
coinage. Moneychangers also issue promissory notes as stated above and
letters of exchange see the Commercial Documents section.

MARKETS AND FAIRS

5%

7%

10%

20%

50%

10%

15%

25%

50%

--

25%

35%

50%

--

--

To use the table, cross-index the credit rating of


the usurer issuing the note, with the location of
the usurer cashing the note. The credit rating is
based on a usurers quality-rating, see above. A
usurer with five-star quality is (A), four-star (B),
three-star (C), etc. If the note originates from the
Same Kingdom use that line of discounts, etc.
The Same Region defines regions as Hrn,
Ivinia, Trierzon, Other Region implies; for
example, a note that was issued in Ivinia and then
being cashed by a Hrnic usurer.

MARKET SIZE

LOCAL MARKETS
As stated above, the local market is a clearinghouse for local produce and
goods grown and manufactured by local farmers and craftsmen. The heart of
any town is its market(s), an event where money and goods are exchanged
more or less freely. It is illegal to sell anything within five leagues of most towns
except within its market. In practice though, most towns are only able to
enforce this stricture up to a radius equal to its market size as stated above.
Impromptu highway sales within this zone are forbidden by royal laws the
minimum penalty is confiscation. The Mangai who rent space for a penny or
two per day administers the market and its activities. Vendors can sell from
their own carts, tents, or stalls, or rent them from tentmakers or woodcrafters.
Local guildsmen are the only ones permitted to freely sell their goods
within the town. Goods imported to the city are subject to payment of hawking
fees and, if they are covered by a local guild monopoly, they must first be
offered to local guildsmen handling such wares to be marked up and resold.
In addition to daily market activities mentioned above, each town has a
prescribed market day held one to three times a week. On these days, all sales
must take place in prescribed areas and the time for selling and buying starts
and ends with the fourth watch. On these days, peasants bringing foodstuffs into
the town for sell are not charged the hawking fee or only half the fee. During
market hours, no wholesale trading can take place. The sole purpose of the
market is the provisioning of towns with foodstuffs and raw materials.

HrnWorld

CREDIT RATING
NOTE
ORIGIN
Same
Kingdom
Same
Region
Other
Region

Markets are assessed on a scale of [1] through [9].


Market size is an assessment of a markets
volume of trade and activity. A market with a size
of [1] is considered a very minor market, [5] an
average market, and [9] a very major market. Size
does not depend only on the population of the
settlement, although this is a major factor. Some
settlements have small populations but large
hinterlands, and some, like Cherafir, also are
regional trade centers. Almost all manorial
villages are rated at [1], while baronial centers are
generally rated between [2] and [4]. Settlements
located on navigable waterways will have a
higher rating than a comparable settlement on a
road. The same holds true for settlements
situated at major crossroads, at fords and bridges
along caravan routes, the seats of government,
fairs sites, etc. For example, Cherafir is rated a
market size of [6] in the Pilots Almanac. Tashal
situated at the junction of four major trade routes
and the site of an annual fair could be rated as a
[6] or [7] market since it is similar in size to
Cherafir and a regional trade center.
For charts on ports/markets for the regions of
Northwestern Lythia, please refer to the Pilots
Almanac.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 8
WORKSHOPS

BARGAINING CHART

This is the standard shop from which master craftsmen and their staffs
construct and sell the goods related to their guild profession. As stated above,
most laws state a craftsman must perform his duties in view of the public.
Therefore, most shops have a large window, which opens onto the work area of
the shop and serves as a counter and awning when the shutters are open. In
areas where guilds control economic matters, only a freemaster can own and
operate a shop. In order to get a franchise a master craftsman must approach
his guild and comply with its regulations as outlined above. Customers come to
the counter or into the shop and inspect goods for sell or order items custom
built. Prices are based on the listed retail price of an item in the price guide and
adjusted based on the star rating of the shop, see above. If you do not wish to
act out the bargaining, use the seller and buyers rhetoric skills to determine
who wins the bargaining session. See the Barraging Chart.

Whenever players do not wish to act out a


bargaining session, use the following routine to
determine what the outcome would be. When
two characters, or more, are engage in a
bargaining session use their rhetoric skill to
determine success. The GM may adjust the ML of
either character as he sees fit based on the
conditions and circumstances.

PORT ACTIVITIES
Please refer to Pilots Almanac for information on maritime economics.

FAIRS
Unlike the markets above, fairs are normally regional in character and on
the continent there are even some international fairs. Where the markets draw
in produce and materials from the surrounding area; a fair draws in products
and materials from the surrounding region and imports from farther a field. On
Hrn, the Tashal Fair is the only one of any real significance; although there are
numerous smaller fairs throughout the island. On the continent they are more
numerous and diverse than the one at Tashal. Fairs are held annually, although
some may be held biannually, and tend to last from three days up to six weeks.
The organization and conduct of the larger fairs are based on the fairs found in
Azeryan and Karejia. To ensure maximum attendance and income, the rulers of
areas containing a fair will issue safe conducts and grant relief from most duties
enroute to the fair. It is customary that once a fair is open no regularly
scheduled markets may be held within any adjacent settlements. Instead, they
are moved into the precincts of the fair. On Hrn, the Mangai has been given
control of the Tashal Fair by the King of Kaldor. Currently the Thardic Senate is
debating the establishment of an annual fair at Coranan or some other suitable
location.

SELLERS
RHETORIC

BUYERS RHETORIC
CS

MS

MF

CF

CS

Inc

+1d5%

+5d2%

+5d5%

MS

-1d5%

Inc

+1d5%

+5d2%

MF

-5d2%

-1d5%

Inc

+1d5%

CF

-5d5%

-5d2%

-1d5%

Inc

Inc Inconclusive result, the session continues.


+/- #d#% - This represents the result of the
bargaining session and adjusts the value
accordingly.
For example: Sellis wants to but a halter for his
horse, the cost is 40d. He approaches a local
leatherworker who has a rhetoric skill of 45;
Sellis rhetoric skill is 51. The GM has decided
there are no modifiers required so the rolls are
made against both parties rhetoric ML. The
leatherworker rolls a 43 and Sellis rolls a 23. The
result is MS for both parties and therefore
inconclusive so the session continues. The
Leatherworker rolls a 67 next and Sellis rolls a 45.
The leatherworkers result is MF and Sellis result
is CS. Therefore, the result on the above table is
5d5% of the items price. The GM rolls 5d5 and
generates a 17, so the price is reduced by 17% to
33d.

ORGANIZATION
Each fair will have up to two Keepers of the Fair appointed to oversee it.
This appointment is made by the organization that controls the fair, such as the
Mangai, a great lord, the monarchy, etc. The number of keepers depends on the
size and importance of the fair. The keepers are responsible for the overall
operations of the fair. This includes setting up the site, establishing the routine
for the daily activities during the fair, the arrangement of the separate divisions
within the fair, the policing of the fair and any judicial matters arising from fair
activities. To assist them in this matter the keepers have up to ten assistants,
sometimes known as Sheriffs of the Fair, to see after the separate details; in
addition, they act as the eyes and ears of the keepers. The sheriffs are assigned
specific duties in addition to their police function. One may be in charge of
assigning positions to the merchants as they arrive. Another would be assigned
to checking all weights and measures used in the fair and insuring that all items
needing to be weighted use the fairs own scales. Many other duties of a similar
nature can also be devised.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 9
In addition to the keepers and their assistants, the fair has a number of
other officials that secure and maintain the privileges of the fair. These included
notaries, brokers, measurers, criers, and porters to name a few. The notaries
draw up bills of sale and other contracts, affixing the seal of the fair to them,
thus providing the legal authority of the fairs granter on the documents. Brokers
would assist merchants in finding specific goods or arranging deals behind the
scenes. The measurers run the fairs scales and vouch for the weight of all
goods. In addition, they maintained the standards for all means of measuring
within the fairs precincts. The criers are the voice of the fair authorities and
carry messages for them throughout the fairs precincts. Merchants frequenting
the fair who do not have their own servants can avail themselves of the fairs
porters to transports goods from one point to another.
Finally, in order to maintain the peace, the keeper maintains a force of
sergeants or men-at-arms to act as a police force within the precincts of the fair.
These individuals will patrol the grounds looking for law breakers, unruly
customers, or complaints about merchants dealing unfairly. Justice is swift and
final, no appeal is allowed to a higher court. When a breach of the peace or fair
rules are encountered, the offending parties are brought before a keeper, the
keeper being the judicial authority for most offenses. Only cases involving royal
prerogatives or felonies are deferred to the royal courts. Most offenses are dealt
with through fines and/or confiscation and occasionally the pillory.

THE TASHAL FAIR


The traditional starting date for the Tashalan Fair is the 1st of Nolus or the
first day of summer. Before this date, fair officials have already started planning
sometime in Nuzyael. On the 1st of Kelen construction of the stalls and halls
have begun on the East Commons, within 15 days a temporary suburb has
sprung up. The area will be the primary site for the fair, consisting of stalls,
shops, taverns, storage halls, and administrative offices. These are all temporary
structures, meant only for the duration of the fair. Sometime around the 20th of
Kelen, the first caravans begin arriving in Tashal. The fair officials assign space
as requested on a first come first serve basis, although prior arrangements can
be made for an additional fee. Until the prescribed day for unloading, all goods
are placed in bonded warehouses and guarded by the fairs guards.
The fair is divided into four divisions to better control the commercial
dealings of its attendants. On the 1st of Nolus the fair officially begins with the
unloading and displaying of goods as prescribed by the keepers. During this
time the merchants are usually given ten days to register, unpack and display
their wares before any trading begins. This gives everyone a chance to see what
is available and precludes rare items being bought up by unscrupulous
merchants in secret. Although some of this may be happening behind the
scenes, it is a practice punishable by confiscation and/or expulsion from the
fair.
The first division is the Cloth Market; it lasts for 15 days. During this time,
the tables are a rainbow of colored bolts, ranging from ecru to highly prized
scarlet cloths. The cloth available ranges from semi finished goods to the most
exquisite brocades. In addition, one can find: Tashalan woolens, Aleathian
worsteds, linens from Emelrene, silks and cotton stuffs from the eastern seas,
and many other basic and exquisite cloths can be found for sale during this part
of the fair. In addition to the bolts of cloth, merchants and individuals can find
sacks, purses, and clothing. Hempen products such as rope, bow strings, nets
and measuring lines to name a few are also available at this time.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

MERCANTILE OPERATIONS _ 10
At the close of the cloth market merchants are given five days to conclude
and notarize their deals, and arrange for the transfer of goods to their own
storerooms. This is a standard practice at the end of each major division of the
fair. This takes us to the 1st of Larane.
The next division is the Pelters Market; this division also lasts for 15 days
with the five day closing period at its end. In this market the buyer can find
everything from common rabbit and squirrel skins to the expensive furs of
marten and sable. Most of the expensive furs come down the fur trail from the
north, some as far away as Harbaal and its hinterlands. In addition to furs, all
manners of items made of leather and skins are sold. Here you can find shoes,
saddles, harnesses, various qualities of skins and leathers, etc.
The most sought after division follows on the 20th of Larane, it is the Spice
Market. The name itself is quite deceiving though. Although spices are a main
part of the market, the selling of items that need to be weighed is also the focus
of the spice market. Items sold during this 20 day period included salt, sugar,
alum, potash, lacquers, dyes, grain, wine, etc. The goods in this market are
some of the most traveled in the entire fair, ranging from as far a field as
Diramoa and Molnasya.
The final division of the Fair commenced on the 15th of Agrazhar and
lasted for 15 days. The Money Market is a time to settle debts contracted over
the previous year or during the fair itself. It is also a time to contract new loans
for the coming years trading activities and to acquire promissory notes and bills
of exchange. Anything that deals with money and credit is transacted during
this final part of the fair; to include the paying of all fees related to sales and
services provided. Anyone failing to settle their accounts before the end of this
division will have their goods held until payment is arranged in a satisfactory
manner.
The four divisions mentioned above are not the only activities going on
during the fair dealing with commerce. Throughout the period of the fair there
are other markets going on simultaneously. The largest of these is the Stock
Market where various animals are purchased and sold. It is at this market that
lords and peasants replenished their stock or sold excess stock. This market is
usually held on the west bank of the Kald River. Other items being sold
throughout the period of the fair are items for everyday use such as pots and
pans, metalware, weapons and armors, foodstuffs, knickknacks, etc. This part of
the fair that allows the local craftsmen and merchants to maintain their
businesses while the fair is open.
Finally, the fair is not only a commercial enterprise but also a place of
amusement and entertainment. As individuals of every class arrived on foot or
horseback they all have something in common, the desire for a bargain, to sell
something, or just to see the sights. Besides the items that are on display, the
visitor can see dancers, jugglers, acrobats, bears, and monkeys performing
throughout the fair and the city. Musicians, minstrels, and storytellers perform
on stages and in the inns. The inns and taverns are boisterous places thronged
with amateur and professional prostitutes alike. In conclusion, the fair is a
chance for individuals to see and experience sights from far away places.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 1
GENERAL
As stated above, most trade by land moves in caravans whenever a suitable
water route is not available or feasible. A caravan is an organized expedition of
mercantylers journeying from one town to another. The long established routes
are often patrolled by various interested parties, seeking to encourage such
traffic. Within the borders of well-established and secure kingdoms,
organization tends to be more lax, focusing more on speed than security. Way
stations such as Trobridge Inn are built at strategic points to provide guides,
horses, repair services, etc. The taxes and tolls charged at such facilities are a
lucrative source or revenue for their owners.
Goods hauled in caravans are of two basic types, luxury items of great value
and medium to light weight or bulk commodities that abundant at the point of
origin and scarce in other areas. Of these two, only the luxury items offer the
potential for a profit to compensate for the risks involved in long range or
greater transportation. Western Lythia eagerly seeks luxury goods such as silk,
spices, lacquers, gems, etc. from the east. In return, the west sends its gold,
silver, cloth, etc. to the east. Items from the east come by caravan to the ports
of the eastern Venarian Sea and from there are transported by sea to ports
throughout Western Lythia. At the ports mercantylers purchase these goods and
redistribute them throughout their own regions. Caravans moving regionally are
not only redistributing these exotic wares but also moving surplus goods of the
second group mentioned above from one area to another. In this way, areas
that are crop poor can obtain their grain supplies, while areas that grow crops
can acquire raw material in exchange.
In areas where security is assured and/or safe conduct guaranteed by the
local authorities, caravans are not the norm but the exception. In these areas,
transportation consortiums have been developed that provide a carrying service
for merchants between specific towns. These groups charge a fixed rate based
on the items to be carried and the destination. From this fee they are
responsible for paying all the tolls and fees involved in the transportation of the
goods. As of now, Hrn has no such groups, but they can be readily found in the
major Western Lythia kingdoms. Such groups are usually run by organized
groups of teamsters.

ORGANIZATION
THE CARAVAN MASTER
Major caravans of throughout Western Lythia are operated by specialist
members of the Mercantylers Guild known as caravan masters or Hansgrafs. It
is not illegal for any mercantyler to organize a caravan, but the organizational
complexity involved has led to the prevailing custom specialist caravan masters.
Most caravan masters are individuals (often ex-military officers) who have
demonstrated some skill at getting the job done. Several have become dominant
because of the special relationships they have developed with mercantylers,
innkeepers, officials and tribesmen along the route.
Caravan masters organize all aspects of a caravan and its journey. They are
responsible for hiring teamsters and guards, deciding who may join a caravan,
and establishing departure dates, campsites, defense measures, etc. In addition,
they have the power to abandon goods (and their owners) if they deem their
presence hazardous to the caravan. Most caravan masters employ one or two
lieutenants, the most competent of them eventually become caravan masters
themselves.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 2
CARAVAN MASTERS LIEUTENANTS
These individuals, like the caravan master, have had some military training
and have a fair knowledge of the terrain and its inhabitants that they will be
traversing; most have aspirations of becoming a caravan master. Most
lieutenants are armed as medium horse and assist the caravan master in
organizing the details of the caravan before it moves out. Once on the road,
each one is assigned to one of the guard positions or the main body.

SCOUTS
Most caravans traveling in unsettled regions usually employ tribesmen or
adventurers who are familiar with the terrain and inhabitants as scouts. Scouts
may travel up to a day in advance of the caravan checking the route.

CARAVAN GUARDS
In addition to the scouts, larger caravans will deploy a mounted advance
guard of light to medium horse to its front. The strength of the advance guard
can very from five men to half a company in strength. Their main task is to
clears the way of any possible ambushes and blockages and acts as a quick
response force for the caravan if it is attacked. In most cases it will travel no
more than two or three miles in front of the caravan.
Depending on the size of the caravan the main body of guards can be quite
sizeable, sometimes up to two or three companies in strength. These forces may
be mounted or on foot and usually take up flanking position when on the move.
It will consist of light to medium forces to include bowmen. Their duties on the
march are to provide support on the flanks of the caravan, operating in half
company units. When in camp they provide perimeter security for the entire
campsite.
Finally, larger caravans will also deploy a rear guard of light to medium
horse up to half a company in strength. This is the caravan masters reserve and
has the responsibility of keeping the rear of the caravan from being surprised. In
addition, the rear guard has the responsibility of straggler control, keeping those
who fall behind in line and providing protection to breakdowns when feasible.

TEAMSTERS AND PACK ANIMAL DROVERS


These individuals are responsible for the care and wellbeing of their teams
and vehicles. In addition, each man is required to arm himself with a sidearm
and spear to be used in defense if the caravan should it be attacked. Some
caravan masters even stipulate that one out of every four or so men will be
armed with a bow. Each wagon or cart will have a teamster assigned to it and
up to every five pack animals will have a drover assigned.

SPECIALIST
Caravan masters will also hire carpenters to repair vehicles and other
various woodworking tasks; a blacksmith to maintain weapons, repair vehicles,
and shoe animals; a physician to care for any sick and wounded; a scribe to
maintain a journal and record transactions, contracts, and daily activities.
Others specialists can be hired depending on the needs of the caravan.

MERCHANTS/TRAVELERS
Any mercantylers/travelers accepted into a caravan must provide their
own provisions, shelter, utensils, and servants. They have the option of using
their own transportation or renting it from the caravan master. Like the
teamsters and drovers, these individuals must arm themselves with a shield and
spear at a minimum.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 3
OPERATIONS
PLANNING
Planning for a large caravan such as the annual ones on Hrn and the great
caravans to Eastern Lythia starts up to a year in advance, usually just before the
return trip of the current caravan. During this time a caravan master and his
lieutenants busy themselves arranging safe conducts from local officials, laying
on supplies for the following year, and arranging for the billeting of their men.
On the return trip, they make arrangements at each way station to ensure the
route is set for their next trip. Once they are back at their point of origin,
planning is suspended until a few months before the next trip, unless the next
trip is coming sooner. During this time, the lieutenants see to the maintenance
of vehicles and harnesses, the pasturing of animals, and the dismissal of
unnecessary employees. Any animals that are deemed unfit are sold off and
new animals purchased. In addition, the caravan master continues to monitor
the condition of the route. Once planning resumes, the caravan master arranges
for additional animals and large transport vehicles as needed. His lieutenants
begin hiring guards, teamsters, drovers, and all the other necessary individuals.
About a month out for annual caravans, shorter intervals for others, notices are
posted announcing the departure date of the caravan, its master, and where
merchants or interested parties may sign on. The final weeks are used for
planning the route of travel, identifying campsites along the way, and acquiring
supplies. The planning for smaller caravans may not be as extensive, but will
still take up some considerable time.

DAILY OPERATIONS
A day on the trail starts an hour or two before daybreak. The watch has the
wake up call sounded by drum or horn and the caravan members turn out of
their bedrolls to begin the day. The first task of the day is to pack their
belongings and have a light meal of bread and cheese. After everything is
loaded for the days journey everyone takes their place in the order-of-march.
Everyone must be ready by the prescribed time, or be left behind.
An hour before the caravan heads out the scouts are dispatched along the
proposed route. At the prescribed time the march-signal is sounded and the
advance guard moves out on the trail. Behind it comes the main body of the
caravan with its contingent of guards flanking the column. To the rear, the rear
guard follows urging stragglers to keep moving along. While on the march, and
in camp, merchants are usually aligned by nationality or in like groups. Each
group has an elected leader who answers to the caravan master and his
lieutenants for the conduct of their fellow members. A caravan usually travels
no more than eight hours a day. This is to ensure there is enough daylight at the
evening campsite to setup security, establish the camp, and maintain their
animals. About four hours into the day the caravan makes an hour stop to rest
the animals and take in their midday meal.
Upon reaching the prescribed stop for the day, the signal for the halt is
given. At this time campsites for each group are designated, guards posted,
animals put to pasture for the night, and goods are unloaded for the night in a
secure area. No animal is left burdened for the night, only wagons and carts will
stay loaded. Guards are assigned two-hour shifts with a half company up at any
time. The guards themselves provide perimeter security and for the trade
goods, while groups merchants/drovers guard the main camp. It is figured that
any raid at night will be made on the stock or the trade goods. Once all evening
tasks are completed the camp is then allowed to prepare its evening meal and
relax. Usually within an hour or two after sunset, the caravan master signals for
quite and all bed down. In the morning, it all starts again.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 4
AT THE DESTINATION
At the caravans destination, the caravan master notifies the merchants of
the prescribed departure date and where he can be located if a merchants
travel plans change. He and his lieutenants see to the pasturage of the stock and
the procurement of replacement animals and vehicles if needed. The caravans
employees are notified of their reporting date for the return trip and issued half
their pay for the trip. Once all is settled the caravan master and his assistants
begin making arrangements for the next years caravan and preparing for the
return trip.

VARIATIONS ON THE CARAVAN


CARRIER COMPANIES
In some regions, the teamsters have banded together to form carrier
companies. These companies provide carrier service between two points for
merchants and others. These groups usually operate in settled regions only and
along secure route. They run on a set schedule and are well know by all along
their designated route. When carrying goods for merchants they charge for
freight as discussed below. For other carrying services, the charge is 1d per 20
km to be traveled.

MERCHANT ADVENTURERS

MERCHANT ADVENTURERS

When a group of merchants joins to form a traveling association, they


usually have no specific route in mind, the route is to be determined as news of
trading conditions and opportunities arise. Like a caravan, there is a master,
guards, teamsters and drovers; but unlike a caravan they can sign on to travel
indefinitely or to a specific designation. Instead of paying a fee to join the
caravan, a merchant buys into the common fund of the caravan using his own
capital. He is then assigned shares based on his capital investment. As the
caravan travels and sells its wares, the merchant receives a cut of the profits
based on his assigned shares. Whenever a merchant decides to leave the
caravan, the caravan buys out of his shares and pays his initial investment and a
cut of the profit based on his shares. Some young merchants have been know to
travel with such caravans on the continent for years and have seen all of
Northwestern Lythia and all it has to offer.

Example: Zerin, a young mercantyler from


Kaldor, has recently arrived in Parahal. While
considering his options, he hears of a band of
merchant adventurers planning an expedition.
After further inquiries he discovers that the band
has been in operation for the last three years and
follows a circuit as follows Parahal, Engaritane,
Quarelin, Karemus, Eshapel, and back to Parahal.
Zerins current capital on hand, in goods and
money, is 100. Zerin approaches the leader of
the band and buys his way into the company with
his capital investment, the GM determines that
the companys total capital investment are
2,000. A share in this company is worth 50;
therefore, Zerin has 2 shares in the company.
After about a year on the road Zerin decides to
drop out of the company at Karemus. The GM
determines how far the Zerin has traveled with
the company and consults the Voyage Data
Table below; in this case, it has been a long
voyage. Zerins initial investment is increased by
the multiple of 6d10/10, a 43 is generated.
Zerins receives (100x4.3) 430 for a profit of
330.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 5
TRANSPORTATION

TRANSPORTATION TABLE
MODE

LOAD

HORSES

Horses
Donkeys
Mules
Oxen
Camels
Carts
Wagons
Porters

200 lbs.
220 lbs.
250 lbs.
300 lbs.
400 lbs.
2500 lbs.
8000 lbs.
60 lbs.

Horses are used as pack/draft animals, but are more commonly used as
mounts. The load noted is for the average workhorse; superior or inferior
animals may be modified, and GMs may wish to modify for other types of horse.
Each animal requires about 15 pounds of (average) fodder and 80 pounds (8
gallons) of water per day. Higher or lower quality food will change the feeding
requirements accordingly. Animals may founder, go lame etc.; this is reflected
as an event in the encounter tables. If, however, the animal is forced marched,
the chance of foundering etc., is 2% per watch moved. Increase the base chance
by 10% for each consecutive day of inadequate food/water. That is, a horse
without sufficient food/water for three consecutive days has a 30% chance per
watch of foundering. The GM must handle partial availability of food/water at
his discretion. If a horse or other animal is denied food/water for any length of
time they will tend, when food/water becomes available, to gorge themselves,
resulting in bloating, illness, and in extreme cases death or incapacitation. GMs
should generally try to prevent players using animals, particularly horses, as
though they are four legged, maintenance free, sports cars.

DONKEYS

PACK HORSE
Str

19

Spd

14

Int

--

Mob

70

End

15

Eye

12

Aur

01

Dge

40

Dex

--

Hrg

19

Wil

10

Ini

37

Agl

08

Smt

19

FR

01

Hoof: 40/5b

Bite: 35/2t

Armor: B4 E3 P1 F3 S1 T3 (except eyes)

DONKEY

Rarely used as mounts, donkeys are used as pack animals. Their daily
requirements for food, water, foundering, etc., are similar to horses.

Str

20

End

14

Eye

13

MULES

Dex

--

Hrg

20

A crossbred horse/donkey, the mule is an efficient pack animal, but almost


impossible to train as a draft animal. On difficult routes, such as the Silver Way
(Tashal/Azadmere), they are the common mode of transport. Mules require the
same amount of food/water per day as horses. Their chance of foundering
when force-marched is 3% per watch moved.

Agl

10

Smt

19

OXEN
Oxen are sometimes used as pack animals, but more often as draft animals
to pull wagons, carts, and ploughs. They are capable of pulling heavier loads
than any other beast, but because of their sensitive, unshoeable hooves, they
must be driven slowly and with great care. Each animal requires 35 pounds of
food and 100 pounds of water per day. Their chance of foundering when forced
marched is 3% per watch moved and 15% for each consecutive day of
water/food shortage.

CAMELS

Hoof: 40/4b

Spd

14

Int

--

Mob

Aur

01

Dge

50

Wil

10

Ini

37

FR

01

Bite: 35/1t

70

Load: 220lbs

Armor: B4 E3 P1 F3 S1 T3 (except eyes)

MULE
Str

21

Spd

14

Int

--

Mob

70

End

15

Eye

13

Aur

01

Dge

50

Dex

--

Hrg

20

Wil

10

Ini

37

Agl

10

Smt

19

FR

01

Hoof: 40/5b

Bite: 35/2t

Load: 250lbs

Armor: B4 E3 P1 F3 S1 T3 (except eyes)

OX

This is the most common beast of burden on the long distance caravan
roads of Dalkesh and Beshakan. They are often used as mounts in those areas.
Their movement rate is the same as for horses. Each animal requires 10 pounds
of food and 70 pounds of water per day. Their humps contain a fat reserve that
is burned under adverse conditions. They can last for some time with
inadequate food and water depending on load and weather conditions. Camels
are notoriously ill tempered and intractable; they will sometimes refuse to move
for no apparent reason. Their chance of foundering when force-marched is 3%
per watch moved, and 10% for each consecutive day of food/water shortage
after their hump is exhausted.

HrnWorld

Load: 200lbs

Str

24

Spd

12

Int

--

Mob

60

End

18

Eye

10

Aur

01

Dge

35

Dex

--

Hrg

12

Wil

10

Ini

45

Agl

07

Smt

16

FR

02

Hoof: 40/5b

Bite: 35/7t

Load: 300lbs

Armor: B4 E3 P1 F3 S1 T3 (except eyes)

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 6
CAMEL

CARTS
A cart is defined as any two-wheeled vehicle for hauling goods. Carts are
generally used for transporting produce about the farm and from the farm to the
local market. These vehicles usually have no place for someone to ride.
Therefore their movement rate is generally the same as foot rate on
roads/trails, and they can be used on rougher trailed than can wagons. In
addition, carts have no suspension, so fragile items need to be packed carefully
to avoid damage. Carts are generally pulled by a single ox and the load and
speed given assumes this. If a pair of oxen is used, increase load by 50%, but
decrease speed by 10%. Horses may be used instead of oxen; for horses,
decrease load by 20%, but increase speed by 50%. The chance of mechanical
breakdown is 5% per watch moved. The GM may vary this based on terrain and
force-marching.

Str

26

Spd

14

Int

--

Mob

70

End

18

Eye

12

Aur

01

Dge

40

Dex

--

Hrg

19

Wil

10

Ini

45

Agl

08

Smt

19

FR

02

Hoof: 40/5b

Bite: 35/2t

Load: 400lbs

Armor: B4 E3 P1 F3 S1 T3 (except eyes)

WAGONS
A wagon is defined as any four-wheeled vehicle for hauling goods.
Generally, wagons are used to haul items that are too heavy or bulky for pack
animals to handle, such as stones, timber, grain, etc. Wagons have no
suspension and can only be used on the best of roads and are almost useless for
off-road travel. Two oxen generally draw them, and the load speed given
assumes this. If four oxen (never three) are used, or horses are used instead of
oxen, percentage adjustments to load/speed are the same as for carts. The
chance of mechanical breakdown is 8% per watch moved, varied as for carts at
GM discretion.

FEES AND FREIGHT RATES


To join a caravan mercantylers must pay a fee. The fees, given in the
Caravan Fee Table, assume a mercantyler provides their own transportation,
food, etc. Some caravan masters own carts, wagons, and pack animals which
they will lease for double or triple fees, but this includes the fees to join the
caravan. Most caravan masters will allow individuals who are not mercantylers
to join a caravan for double the normal fee, perhaps for free if the traveler
agrees to work his passage with mercenary assistance.
Some teamsters offer freight service of goods between two points. They will
generally join caravans when practical. Freight rates are expensive, largely due
to the poor roads, and assorted high risks involved in the movement of goods
by land or water. Generally, it can be assumed that the freight rate per 20-km
(one hex on a regional map) is 1d/100 lbs. by land transport and 1d/1000 lbs.
by water transport.

CARAVAN FEE TABLE


Caravan

Wagon

Cart

Horse*

Man

Golotha /
Tormau

30d

15d

10d

5d

Coranan /
Aleath

24d

12d

8d

4d

Coranan /
Golotha

24d

12d

8d

4d

Coranan /
Shiran

24d

12d

8d

4d

Coranan /
Tashal

96d

48d

32d

16d

Tashal /
Azadmere

48d

24d

16d

8d

Tashal /
Burzyn

42d

21d

14d

7d

Burzyn /
Thay

48d

24d

16d

8d

Tashal /
Leriel

60d

30d

20d

10d

Leriel /
Geldeheim

36d

18d

18d

9d

* This includes all pack animals.

TOLLS

TOLL TABLE

Tolls may be levied by anyone who thinks they can collect them. Travelers
passing through the smallest village, or the range of any tribe, may be
challenged and ordered to pay a toll. Such unofficial tolls may be avoided if
the travelers are well armed. Throughout civilized Lythia, various authorities
have established official tollhouses on major highways and caravan routes. Toll
stations are usually found at fords, bridges, major crossroads, borders, and
cities. Many of these tolls were originally established for the maintenance of a
road, bridge, or similar structures. Each merchant is responsible for paying the
tolls on his own goods, transportation, and attached attendants. Such tolls can
vary; some standard rates are listed in the sidebar.

HrnWorld

MODE

TOLL

Per Man/Woman Afoot

0.25 d

Per Horse/Mule/Etc.

1.00 d

Per Sheep/Goat/Etc.

0.25 d

Per Camel/Ox/ Etc.

0.50 d

Per Cart*

0.25 d

Per Wagon*

1.00 d

* Draft animals extra, one teamster free.


In addition, some authorities charge tolls on
specific commodities or on each bale of goods
being carried. Sort of a customs fee charged on
incoming goods, whether they stay in the area for
sale or are just passing through.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 7
GENERATING A CARAVAN

AVERAGE CARGO SPACE


Wagon

40 pack loads (8,000-lbs)

GENERAL

Cart

12.5 pack loads (2,500-lbs)

The following outline and tables can be used to generate a caravan. I have
put much of this together using the Gamelords publication: Thieves Guild 10,
Bandit Gangs and Caravans. This is one of the most comprehensive rule sets
that I have ever come across dealing with caravans and bandit organizations.

Pack Animal

1 pack load (200-lbs)

Camel

2 pack loads (400-lbs)

Porter

.25 pack loads (50-lbs)

CARAVAN SIZE

CHARACTER CARAVANS

Number of Spaces

When a character wants to start a caravan they need to consider how much
merchandize and supplies they will be hauling, the distance of the trip to be
under taken and how much hired help they will need. By following these steps a
character can generate their own personal caravan. If the character is to be the
Caravan Master ignore all rolls for that position during the hiring process.
Characters wishing to hire men for a caravan need to post a notice in the Hall of
the Mangai and local taverns/inns. In addition, criers can be hired to spread the
word around town.

CARAVAN SIZE

Mode

Small

Med

Next, the character must choose the mode by which they wish to carry their
goods. Wagons and carts work best on well maintained roads over fairly flat
terrain. However, they are unreliable when used on rural tracks, wilderness
routes that are not maintained, and off-road. Pack animals are excellent for all
the terrain types wagons/carts are not, especially hilly or mountainous terrain.
However, large numbers of animals are needed in order to transport the same
amount of cargo as a couple of wagons. Once you have chosen your mode of
transport, divide the total load to be carried by the load capacity of the chosen
transport to determine the number needed. Keep in mind that additional units
may be needed to carry supplies for men and stock.

PERSONNEL

Hg

Wagon

2-12

8-17

14-34

2065+

Animal

14-58

44-80

65160

103400+

Porter

35-80

64140

109280+

GUARDS NEEDED
Caravan

The size of a characters caravan will be determined by the amount of


merchandize to be carried. Overland trade is measured in pack loads. A pack
load is equal to one-tenth of a tun; Plots Almanac designates a tun as 96 cubic
feet (4x4x6) or 2,000-lbs. Therefore a pack load is equal to 200-lbs or 9.6 cubic
feet (1.5x2x3.2). A character must first determine the total amount of goods to
be carried in either tuns or pounds.

Lg.

Size

Transport
Wagon

Animal

Small

3:1

2:3

Porter
1:3

Medium

3:1

2:3

1:3

Large

5:2

1:2

1:4

Huge

2:1

2:5

HIRING PESONNEL
GM determines the number of applicants
appearing each day, based on the towns market
size.
Market Size
8-9
6-7
4-5
1-3

Roll
1d12-1
1d8-1
1d6-1
1d2-1

For each applicant, roll 1d100 on the following


table to generate his rank and primary skill.

CARAVAN PERSONNEL GENERATOR

The first task is to hire teamsters to drive your vehicles and/or pack
animals. If the character is using wagons or carts, he will need one teamster per
vehicle. If pack animals are being used, then one teamster per three to five
animals will be needed.
Next, the character must hire guards to protect his caravan. More guards
will be needed for unsettled regions than settled ones. Using the tables to the
right, determine the size of your caravan and then use that to determine the
number of guards needed to adequately protect the caravan in unsettled
regions. Settled regions can get by with up to 50% of this number.

Roll
01-10
11-20
21-30
31-35
36-65
66-90
91
92-95
96-00

Position
Medium Foot
Light Foot
Light Horse
Medium Horse
Teamster
Animal Drover
Caravan Master
Specialist
Other

Primary Skill
See Guard Equip
See Guard Equip
See Guard Equip
See Guard Equip
Teamster/3d6+60
Teamster/3d6+45
GM discretion
GM discretion
GM discretion

Use HM3 to obtain monthly wages for each


position.

Additionally, the character may want to hire specialist such as carpenters,


physicians, smiths, etc. Specialist are important for caravans traversing
unsettled terrain, they can repair vehicles and bridges, shoes animals, heal the
injured and perform may other jobs not accessible in the wilderness.
The character can use the adjacent tables to determine number of
applicants and the positions being sought each day.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 8
SUPPLIES AND GEAR

GUARD EQUIPMENT

I suggest using the Pilots Almanac calculation for stowage of rations. This
means one tun for every one hundred mandays. To come up with the total
required, determine the number of personnel and multiply by the number of
days you will stock for. Divide this result by 100 to generate the space needed
to carry them. Consider 80% of this total to be water and the remainder dry
rations.
Using the rational above, you will need one tun for every 20 horses, mules,
or donkeys; for every 16 oxen; and for every 25 camels. 80% of this can also be
considered water and the remainder fodder. If water is available along the route
you can reduce the space needed by 80%. Thus, if you need 20 tuns of rations
for stock and the route has water readily available then you need only provide
space for 4 tuns of fodder.

Light Foot

GAC1 (Leather/Quilt)
50% Spear/3d6+45
50% Bow/3d6+60
Shield/3d6+35
Dagger/3d6+30

Medium Foot

GAC2 (Ring/Bezant)
Spear/3d6+60
Shield/3d6+50
Shortsword/3d6+45
GAC1 (Leather/Quilt)
Spear/3d6+45
Shield/3d6+35
Dagger/3d6+30
Riding/3d6+50
GAC2 (Ring/Bezant)
Lance/3d6+60
Shield/3d6+50
Sword/3d6+45
Riding/3d6+65

Light Horse

Medium Horse

In addition, the caravan needs to provide space for personal gear. For every
20 men assume one pack load of gear or 10 pounds per man. This is in addition
to gear the individuals will normally carry on themselves. This includes cooking
gear, tents, sleeping rolls, extra weapons, etc.

BREAKDOWNS/FOUNDERING

Once you have determined the additional space required you must then lay
on additional transportation to carry it if you do not have enough room. Be sure
enough is laid on to cover the additional supplies for the new transport and its
attendants.

Wagon

Cart

Animal

Man

Paved
Road

1d2

1d2

1d2

1d2

Trail Flat
Terrain

1d2

1d2

1d2

1d2

BREAKDOWNS/FOUNDERING

Trail Hilly
Terrain

1d4

1d4

1d4

1d2

Breakdowns and foundering can be handled per watch per animal which
would be labor intensive and time consuming. Alternatively you can roll one
percentage roll against breakdowns and foundering each watch instead of
rolling for each vehicle and animal. If you obtain a positive result roll the
appropriate die from the table to the right to see how many vehicles or animals
are involved.

Trail Mtn.
Terrain

1d6

1d4

Wild Flat
Terrain

1d4

1d4

1d4

1d2

Wild Hilly
Terrain

1d6

1d6

1d6

1d4

Wild Mtn.
Terrain

1d8

1d6

Breakdowns can be repaired by a carpenter/smith per the repair table to


the right. Depending on success level a repair can take a watch at the least to
repair. If an Ostler is present he may attempt to treat injured animals. Again, it
can take up to a watch to teat the animal; however, it may not carry a load for a
number of days.

VEHICLE REPAIRS
(CARPENTER/SMITH)
Success Roll

Watches Required

CS

1 Watch

MS

1d4 Watches

MF

2d4 Watches

CF

Damaged Beyond Repair

ANIMAL HEALING (OSTLER)


Success Roll
CS

HrnWorld

Watches Required
1 Watch (1 day no load)

MS

1d4 Watches (1d6 days no load)

MF

2d4 Watches (1d10 days no load)

CF

Animal must be put down

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 9
NPC CARAVANS

CARAVAN GENERATION

When a character wants to join a caravan the GM can follow these steps to
generate an acceptable caravan. Using the following, the GM will be able to
populate it with personnel and merchandise. In addition, the GM will be able to
inform a character of how much space there is for his own goods.

Number of Spaces
Mode

Small

Med

Lg.

Hg

Wagon

2d6

3d4
+5

4d6
+10

5d10
+15

CARAVAN SIZE

Animal

4d12
+10

4d10
+40

5d20
+60

3d100
+100

First of all choose the type of transportation to be employed. Once type has
been determined, the size of the caravan is determined with a 1d100: 01-25
Small; 26-60 Medium; 61-90 Large; 91-00 Huge. The GM may also choose a
size instead of generating it randomly. At this point roll the indicated number of
dice to determine the number of vehicles or animals included in the caravan.

Porter

5d10
+30

4d20
+60

9d20
+100

Guards

4d8
+5

Guard Contingent
5d12
+10

4d20
+20

5d20
+50

PERSONNEL
The most important individual in the caravan will be its master. Roll 1d100
to determine his reputation: 01-15 Poor; 16-40 Fair; 41-90 Good; 91-00
Excellent. His reputation will be a key factor in other aspects of the caravans
generation.
Next, the GM generates guards for this caravan. Use the Guards Contingent
table to determine the actual number of guards protecting the caravan. Using
the Guards needed table above and the number of guards on hand; determine
what the adequate percentage of guards is. For example, a small caravan of 10
wagons needs 30 guards and only 24 were generated. This means the caravan
has 80% of its adequate guard contingent; this number will be needed below.
The GM may choose the type of troops representing the guard force or roll on
the troop table for each member of the force.

Number of Special Passengers


Masters Reputation

Guard
%

01-20

21-55

11

56-85

11

16

86-00

11

16

22

Special Passenger Background


1d8

Type

Merchant

Unknown

In addition, the GM determines the number of teamsters to drive the


vehicles and/or pack animals. If the caravan is using wagons or carts, it will
need one teamster per vehicle. If pack animals are being used, then one
teamster per three to five animals will be needed. The GM may also want to
choose specialist such as carpenters, physicians, smiths, etc.

Craftsman

Noble

Merchant

Adventurer

Diplomat

Finally, the GM needs to determine the number of special passengers all


ready with the caravan. Cross index the caravan masters reputation with the
adequacy percentage of the guard force on the table to the right. Roll on the
background table to identify who they are.

Priest/.Priestess

AVAILABLE STOREAGE SPACE


In this step the Gm will determine the amount of stowage space for the
caravan and how much of it is available for additional stowage. Using the
caravan masters reputation and the stowage space used chart generate a
percentage of space used.

Stowage Space Used


Master

Percentage Filled

Poor

[40 + (2d3 x 5)]%

Fair

[45 + (2d4 x 5)]%

Good

[50 + (3d4 x 5)]%

Excellent

[60 + (3d4 x 5)]%

If the figure generated is greater than 100% this indicates that some of the
passengers have provided their own transportation.
Characters wishing to join the caravan must pay the fees outlined above
depending on the mode of transportation and how much they need to transport
themselves and their goods.

BREAKDOWNS/FOUNDERING
Breakdown are handled the same as for a character caravan. However, the
chance that it affects one of the characters assigned assets is 5% on a d100.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

CARAVAN OPERATIONS _ 10
GORLENS CARAVAN

JOINING A SILVER WAY CARAVAN


Alex of Torec wishes to join a medium sized caravan leaving Tashal for
Habe. He has 2 tuns of various items he has acquired from the fair and plans on
trading them for Khuzan and Jarin goods. He has approached Gorlen of Sayn
the caravans Master to arrange passage.
The GM rolls for Gorlens reputation using a d100 and generates a 65 giving
him a good reputation. Since the caravan will be traveling the Silver Way its
mode of transportation will be pack animals. The number of animals used in this
caravan is generated by rolling 4d10 + 40. He rolls 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 6, 6, 7, and 9
for a total of 43 + 40 = 83 animals. This gives the caravan a total of 83 pack
loads or 8.3 tuns for stowage.
Next the GM determines the number of guards needed. The above chart
shows that a medium caravan of pack animals needs 2 guards per 3 animals.
This caravan has 83 animals and therefore should have a total of 55 guards.
However, most caravans do not carry the total number of guards needed, so the
GM roll 5d12+10 to see how many guards are on hand. He rolls 3, 6, 7, 8, and
10 for 34 + 10 for a total of 44 guards on hand. This give a guard force
adequacy percentage of 80%.

Caravan Master: Gorlen of Sayn


Masters Reputation: Good
Caravan Size: Medium
Transportation Mode: Pack Animals
Pack Loads (Stowage): 83
Guards Needed: 55
Guards on Hand: 44
Guard Force Adequacy: 80%
Drovers: 15
Specialists: 1 Ostler
Passengers: 11
Stowage Used: 90% (75 pack loads)
Stowage Available: 10% (8 pack loads)
Alexs Mounts: 13+1
Caravan Fee: 480d

As far as teamsters go, the GM as determined that Gorlen is a penny


pincher and is providing only one drover per five animals for a total of 15
drovers. In addition, he has hired an Ostler to assist in maintaining the stock.
The number of special passengers is now generated using the adequacy
percentage for the guards on hand of 80%. With the masters good reputation
this gives 11 additional passengers. Using a d8 the following types are
generated: 2 merchants, 3 nobles, 2 adventurers, 1 diplomat, 1 priest/priestess,
2 unknowns.
Finally, the GM determines the amount of stowage already in use for
supplies, gear, and merchandise. Referring to the Stowage Space Used table and
the masters reputation of good, he must roll [50 + (3d4 x 5)]. The 3d4 generates
a 2, 3, and 3 for a total of 8 times 5 which results in 40, plus 50 for a total of
90%. This means of the 83 pack load available in the caravan, only 8 pack loads
are available for Alexs goods.
In order for Alex to join this caravan he will have to acquire an additional
13 pack animals to transport all his goods and rations. With this in mind he will
pay 16d for 21 pack animals plus his own mount. The caravan master is also
going to charge him an additional 16d rent for the 8 animals that belong to him.
This means Alex will have to pay an entrance fee of 480d plus whatever it costs
him for the extra 14 animals.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DEALINGS _ 1
GENERAL
Trade is an extremely complex issue. The following is a simplified method
for dealing with matters of wholesale trade, the main providence of the
mercantyler.
The following guidelines provide a basic system for conducting wholesale
operations, with the exception of maritime trade. See the Pilots Almanac for
information on maritime trade. I have developed this land based system to
mirror that of maritime trade in order to provide as much integration as
possible. How to buy/sell loads is discussed in sufficient detail for most players.
Those who wish to make the process more detailed will have to add on to the
basics provided here.

BUYING GOODS
CARGO LOTS
When a mercantyler enters a market, there may be one or more lots
available for purchase. The number of lots available in any market, on a given
day, is determined according to the markets size from the Supply & Demand
Table, under Supply Lots.
Each lot will have a specific number of loads, value, and destination and/or
origin (optional). The GM should generate and give the merchant a list of
available lots for the day. The mercantyler can accept or decline any and/or all
lots as he wishes. Lots that are accepted are entered into the mercantylers
Merchandise Log. Lots that are declined may still be available (GM discretion)
on the following day when another list of lots is generated and offered to the
mercantyler.
To add to game play, the mercantyler can haggle over the value with the
seller (played by the GM), see the Bargaining Chart below.

CARGO IDENTIFICATION

SUPPLY & DEMAND TABLE


Market
Supply
Supply
Demand
Size
Lots
Loads
Loads
0
1d2-1
1d2
1d2-1
1
1d3-1
1d3
1d3-1
2
1d4-1
1d4
1d4-1
3
1d5-1
1d4
1d4-1
4
1d5-1
1d6
1d6-1
5
1d6-1
1d6
1d6-1
6
1d6-1
1d8
1d8-1
7
1d6-1
1d10
1d10-1
8
1d8-1
1d12
1d12-1
9
1d8-1
1d20
1d20-1
For example: Kerin of Siln has arrived in Thay,
market size 4. This means that 1d5-1 lots may be
available. Assuming a roll of 4, three lots are
available.

Although not essential to this system, the composition of any lot (amber,
brandy, silk, wool, etc.) may be assigned by the GM after taking into account
the number of loads, value, destination and/or origin of the lot, and then
examining the economic maps provided in the Lythia module. This will give a
more realistic feel to the routine, but must be done with care because supply,
demand, and price are inevitably intertwined with specific commodities.
With the introduction of the new kingdom modules, a GM or character can
identify items that are either surplus or in demand for key settlements. In this
way, the GM can identify local items that are surplus as items being available. In
addition, when it comes time to sell items the character can check the
appropriate module and see where he can readily sell his goods at that location.

THE STANDARD PACK LOAD


The standard size of a pack load is 200 pounds, the max load for a horse, or
20 gallons. Therefore, a pack load is equivalent to a tenth of a tun, 2000 pounds
or 200 gallons. Any animal or vehicle loaded over its max weight capacity will
suffer an additional 1% chance to founder or breakdown for every 10 pounds
over its max load.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DEALINGS _ 2
LOADS PER LOT

LOADS PER LOT EXAMPLE

A locations market size is used to determine the number of loads per lot
according to the Supply & Demand Table, under Supply Loads. The number
generated assumes that larger markets have larger lots available.

A Thayan mercantyler who has three lots for sale


approaches Kerin of Siln. The mercantylers lots
are being sold in a size 4 market and the number
of loads per lot is therefore determined by rolling
1d6; a 2, 4, and 5 are generated giving the lots 2,
4, and 5 loads respectively.

LOT VALUE
Smaller lots tend to be comprised of high value light weight goods, while
larger lots tend to be cheaper bulky cargoes; therefore the value or buying price
of a lot is determined by its size. The Value per Load of any lot may be declared
by the mercantyler or randomly generated with the Value Table. Roll the dice
indicated for Loads per Lot.

LOT VALUE EXAMPLE


For the lot of 2 loads from above, the GM rolls
16d6 which results in a overall total of 63 giving a
value per load of (63x5) 315d; the total value of
the lot is (2x315) 630d.

LOT DESTINATION OR ORIGIN (OPTIONAL)


Unlike maritime trade detailed in the Pilots Almanac, the mercantyler
determines the destination of lots bought by him. Like maritime trade there are
five general voyage lengths: Local, Short, Medium, Long, and Maxim; however,
the lengths have been adjusted to reflect land and river travel. For NPC
mercantylers, the GM may roll 1d20 on the Voyage Data Table to generate a
voyage length, and then choose a specific market within this range.
Except for voyage lengths, the descriptions of each voyage are just as
applicable for land voyages. Local range is for the redistribution of locally
manufactured goods, produce, and luxury items coming into the area. Short
range is for the redistribution of regional surpluses and luxury items. Medium
voyages focus on moving goods available from their source only or items not
found within the destination region, to include luxury items. Long hauls are for
exotic and valuable loads such as amber and glass. Finally, the Maxim haul is
generally relegated to the most precious of cargoes, moving them to distant
markets that have no access to such items but through this kind of trade.
Since the mercantylers deal in wholesale trade and the redistribution of
goods, not all the lots purchased in a market will have originated from it or the
surrounding region. As on optional rule, the GM can determine the actual origin
of a lot and increase its value by the Price Multiple found on the Voyage Data
Table. This would then depict the international flavor of wholesale trade.

VALUE TABLE
Loads Per Lot
1
2
3
4-5
6-7
8-9
10-13
14-17
18-21
22+

Value Per Load


20d6x5
16d6x5
12d6x5
10d6x5
8d6x5
6d6x5
5d6x5
4d6x5
3d6x5
2d6x5

LAND VOYAGE DATA TABLE


1d20
01-03
04-10
11-17
18-19
20

Voyage
Name
Local
Short
Medium
Long
Maxim

Voyage
Leagues
1-20
21-60
61-120
121-240
241+

Price
Multiple
10d2/10
8d4/10
7d6/10
6d10/10
5d20/10

Profit
Claim
150%
200%
250%
350%
500%

PILOTS ALMANAC VOYAGE DATA


TABLE
1d20
01-03
04-10
11-17
18-19
20

Voyage
Name
Local
Short
Medium
Long
Maxim

Voyage
Leagues
1-100
101-300
301-600
601-1200
1201+

Price
Multiple
10d2/10
8d4/10
7d6/10
6d10/10
5d20/10

Profit
Claim
150%
200%
250%
350%
500%

DETERMINING THE ORIGIN OF ITEMS


Kerin has bought a lot from a mercantyler in
Thay. The GM decides to determine the lots
origin by rolling 1d20 on the Voyage Data Tables.
Because Thay is a port, the GM has the option of
checking either of the above tables. Since Kerin
wishes to travel to Tashal, the GM decides to use
the Pilots Almanac table. The GM rolls a 15
(Medium Haul) and decides that the goods came
from Eshapel. The price multiple for these goods
is 7d6/10; a 25 is rolled, for a multiple of 2.5. The
actual value of the goods being purchased is
(2.5x315d) 787.5d per load.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DEALINGS _ 3
SELLING GOODS
Once the merchandise has been moved to the desired destination, the
mercantyler can approach the local merchants to initiate a deal. The seller must
determine local demand and then decide whether to sell any or all of his lots
and/or loads.

DEMAND
When merchandise is delivered to its intended destination, the GM will
randomly determine the number of loads that the market can absorb and the
price per load. Because each lot is presumed to have a different composition,
each is sold separately with its own rolls for demand and price.

DEMAND LOADS
The number of loads that a market can absorb is determined using the
Supply & Demand Table; roll the die indicated under Demand Loads for the
locations market size. If a low or zero demand is generated, it may be assumed
that the supply of that type of merchandise has been good or some other
mercantyler may have recently sold a similar lot.

DETERMINING DEMAND LOADS


Kerins 2-load lot is delivered to Tashal. Tashals
market size is 6; therefore the GM determines
demand by rolling 1d8-1. He rolls a 2, indicating
an immediate demand for one of the two loads in
the lot.

SELLING PRICE

DETERMINING SELLING PRICE

The selling price per load is based on a price multiple which is itself based
on the distance the merchandise has traveled from its purchase point. Roll the
dice indicated on the Voyage Data Table for voyage length, divide the result by
ten, and then use this factor to multiply against the lots initial value.

Kerins two load lot, transported from Thay to


Tashal (Long Haul), would have a price multiple
of 6d10/10. Assuming a roll of 35, the PM would
be 3.5, and the selling price per load would be
315d (value per load) times 3.5, or 1,102.5d per
load. Hence the one load that can be sold would
provide a revenue of (1x1,102.5d) 1,102.5d. After
considering the profit margin and expenses
incurred during the trip (tolls, hawking fees, etc.)
Kerin decides that this price is fair and sells the
load.

When there are unsold loads in a lot, a mercantyler has two options, take
them to another market, or dump the goods in the current market. The first
option needs little explanation, except that the trip length for alternate markets
may not change unless the distance from them to the original source also
changes. It is possible that the goods may be perishable or not suitable for any
other market and must be dumped. An exception would be during the period of
a fair. During this time the merchant can attempt to sell his loads each day the
fair is open and if it is set up in divisions as above, then only during the proper
division.

DUMPING
It is generally possible to create additional demand for unsold loads by
dropping the price. If goods are to be dumped, drop the price by 10%
(randomize 3d10% if desired) and roll for Demand Loads again. The generated
loads may be sold at the reduced price.
If after dumping, there are still leftover loads, the demand price may be
reduced again by an additional 10% (total of 20%) and another demand roll
made. This may be repeated until the entire lot is sold off or the price is reduced
to the point where it might be cheaper to burn the goods or dump them into a
river than pay any fees for unloading them. Dumping is rarely profitable in small
markets.

HrnWorld

Kerin has arrived at Tashal for the fair. The two


loads of his lot consist of linens from Emelrene.
Since the fair is divided into divisions, see above,
he can only attempt to sell his lot during the
Cloth Market of the fair. If he finds no buyers on
the first day, he may attempt to sell on the
following days until the Cloth Market period
ends.

DUMPING GOODS
Kerin decides to dump his last load, having
arrived in Tashal after the fair. He drops his price
10% from 1,102.5d to 992.25d per load. Demand
Loads are rolled again, generating 4 loads. The
remaining load is sold for 992.25d. The total
proceeds are therefore (1,102.5 + 992.25d)
2,094.75d.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DEALINGS _ 4
DRY MEASURES

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES


The use of certain units to quote a price is not meant to imply that the unit
is in common use (or even used at all). They are given to allow the gamemaster
to calculate and compare prices. The square foot and cubic foot are modern
measures and are unknown on Lythia. Most items priced on area, or volume,
are judged by eye or rule of thumb. The tables to the right give some standard
measurements based on those used in Tashal and its associated fair. Many of
these same measurements are used commonly throughout Western Lythia, but
may vary in actual size by as much as 10% to 50%. The one exception is the
Mangai on Hrn, which is trying its best to establish a universal scale
throughout Hrn.

4 GILLS

2 PINTS

PINT
QUART

8 QUARTS

PECK

4 PECKS

BUSHEL

8 BUSHELS

QUARTER

36 BUSHELS

CHALDRON

5 QUARTERS

LOAD

LIQUID MEASURES
4 GILLS

2 PINTS

PINT
QUART

4 QUARTS

GALLON

50 GALLONS

HOGSHEAD

2 HOGSHEADS

PIPE

2 PIPES

TUN

LINEAR MEASURES
DIGIT

.75 INCHES

PALM

3 INCHES

HAND

5 INCHES

SPAN

9 INCHES

12 INCHES

FOOT

3 FEET

YARD

ELL

45 INCHES

BOLT

32 ELLS

FATHOM

6 FEET

CABLE

100 FATHOMS

LEAGUE

4400 YARDS

MEASUREMENTS OF WEIGHT

HrnWorld

27 GRAINS

DRAM

16 DRAMS

OUNCE

16 OUNCES

POUND

25 POUNDS

QUARTER

4 QUARTERS

HUNDREDWEIGHT

20
HUNDREDWEIGHT

TON

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS _ 1
COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS
COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS AND PAPERS
Commercial contracts have made their way to Hrn by way of the Venarian
Sea and Karejian mercantylers. Before this, Hrnic mercantylers conducted
their business dealings based on ones faith in anothers oath and reputation.
However, as Hrnic mercantylers encountered the mercantylers of mainland
Lythia they have found that ones oath is not good enough. Consequently, many
of the old ways of conducting business within the Hrnic isles and the feudal
kingdoms of Northwestern Lythia are being replaced by the written oath.
However, the mercantylers of the Ivinian kingdoms and their offshoots in
Northwestern Lythia still follow the old ways of doing business. In time, the new
ways will over take the old, the words of a contract replacing those of an oath.
As time moves on, the number and types of contracts expand. Even so, there
are only a few used universally throughout Western Lythia. The advent of these
contracts has enabled the mercantylers to gain access to capital that they did
not have before; and standardized mercantile operations throughout Western
Lythia for the good of all.

THE LARUN CONTRACT

A LARUN (UNILATERAL) CONTRACT

The Larun was a development of the Karejians; and used as a means to


finance their overseas commercial ventures. The Larun derives its name from
the sea going merchant convoys of the Karejian government. The Larun can be
a unilateral or bilateral agreement usually lasting only for the duration of a
round trip sea voyage. The unilateral Larun involves the capital of just one
individual, while the bilateral contract involves the capital of both parties.
The unilateral version is the basic form of a Larun contract. It involves an
investor and a traveling partner. The investor provides the capital, while the
traveling partner uses the capital in sea-going commercial ventures. Upon the
traveling partners return, the investors capital is returned together with a
previously determined share of the profits. The usual breakdown of profits is for
the investor who remained home to receive three fourths of the profits and the
traveling partner receiving one fourth. Any loss is borne by the investor, the
traveling partner loosing the reward for his labor. The traveling partner is to
keep a record of all transactions and expenses during his venture and balance
his account with the investor before the division of the profits. Though this
system may lead to dishonest record keeping, the traveling partner needs to
keep his reputation intact so he may gain further Larun contracts from his
investor or others that the investor recommends the mercantyler too.

I, Ingo of Bedoth, declare that I am carrying 41


[Palithane] of goods belonging to Gwelemo of
Chiri invested in silk and paper to Cherafir, and
from there to Parahal where I shall place the
proceeds in the power of Gwelemo or his
messenger. Gwelemo is not under any obligation
to contribute towards the expenses except in
furnishing the original capital. Ingo on his return
will place the proceeds in the power of Gwelemo
or his messenger, and after deducting the capital,
he is to have one fourth of the profit. Witnesses:
Berniz of Sera, Ramo, Crini, and Pietr of Vinatti.
Done in the Parahal chapel of Halea, on the 7th of
Ilvin 763.

A LARUN (BILATERAL) CONTRACT


Stabile and Ansal Garraton have formed a
partnership in which, as they mutually declared,
Stabile contributed 88 [Melderyn] and Ansal 44
[Melderyn]. Ansal carries this capital, in order to
put it to work, to Eshapel or wherever goes the
ship in which he shall sail namely, the ship of
Balzo Gratz and Girard. On his return, he will
place the proceeds in the power of Stabile or his
messenger for the purpose of division. After
deducting the capital, they shall divide the profits
in half. Witnesses: Sinom of Bucio, Obras of
Pelos, Ribald of Saur, and Genodel of Tasca.
Done in the Cherafir chapter house, on the 29th
of Savor 763.
In addition, Stabile gave his permission to send
the proceeds to Cherafir by whatever ship seems
most convenient to Ansal.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS _ 2
The bilateral Larun is gradually gaining favor as itinerant mercantylers
come into more capital. In this type of Larun the investor provides two thirds of
the capital and the traveling partner invests one third of the total capital, in
addition to his own labor. The profit is usually divided in half; losses are borne
by both investors according to their respective investments.
Both contracts identified the investor, the traveling partner, and how much
capital is involved between them. Next, the length of the contract is mentioned
and any penalties involved when the stated term is exceeded are explained.
Finally, it mentions how the profits will be divided or how any loss will be
handled if the contract is bilateral.

THE COMPAGNIA CONTRACT


Azeryani mercantile families, during the empires expansion throughout
Western Lythia, first used the Compagnia. The term Compagnia comes from
the old Azeryani word for companion. The Compagnia was by far the most
important contract during this time, based on the size of the capital and the
scope of business involved. Of all the contracts, it is the closest to a true
partnership. Family partnerships seem to have existed throughout the early
empire, but appeared to have become obsolescent for a time. However, with the
increased solidarity of the political, military, economic, and social environment
during the expansion years of the fifth century, families began to invest their
undivided estates in trade. Thus the Compagnia was born. Gradually
membership ceased to be composed of family members alone. It soon evolved
to the point that only members of the family who wished to participate and
outsiders who were grafted into the family by intermarriage or clientship were
included. In addition, during this time the period of the contract went from
being unlimited to a fixed period, usually with the provision that it could be
renewed. Throughout, the contract has preserved its character as a group in
which all full members, both investors and managers, are bound together in
joint and unlimited liability. This is probably the main reason why the contract
found little favor in sea trade, where the risks were higher.
The Compagnia that exists today is still nothing more than a written
agreement to form a partnership between two or more mercantylers. These
individuals can live in the same town or reside in different kingdoms, as long as
they agree to and abide by the terms of the contract. At a minimum, the terms
of a Compagnia contract covered the following issues. First, who is party to the
contract and what capital and assets are they bringing into the partnership. The
capital can be anything from money to trade goods; either way the sum of each
member's contribution is listed in the contract. Second, each member agrees to
and identifies where they would have their business. Third, they identify how
they will conduct business and the terms for deciding business matters in future
operations.

A BASIC COMPAGNIA CONTRACT


In the name of the maker of bargains, Halea;
Pesera of Gril; Denyl of Gril; Melia of Gril; Beran
and Narin of Condard; Mariel of Brida; and Antin
of Gril, acknowledge that they have formed and
made a Partnership. This partnership is for the
purpose of maintaining a usurers shop in the
town of Cherafir and engaging in commerce in
Cherafir and throughout other parts of the world,
according to what shall seem proper to the
partners themselves. The partnership is to
continue, Halea willing, for the next two
succeeding years. This partnership they
acknowledge to be of 9,450 [Melderyn], in which
sum they acknowledge that each of them has
deposited as below: said Pesera, 3,500; said
Denyl, 2,000; said Melia, 1,000; said Beran and
Narin, 2,000; said Mariel, 450; and said Antin,
500. This capital they acknowledge to be in the
hands of Pesera in money, credits, notes to be
received in Emelrene, and in a vein of iron in
Tharda. The partners have waived the exception
and legal right by which they could speak against
or oppose the above statements. Pesera is to use
this money in the shop which he maintains, in the
buying and selling of wares, and in exchange both
in Emelrene and throughout other parts of the
world, by sea and by land, personally and through
his factors and messengers, according as Halea
may dispose better for him, up to the time limit
mentioned above, at the risk and fortune of the
partners. He has promised said partners to act in
good faith and efficiently for the increase and
preservation of said partnership. The partners
promise each other to guard, to preserve the
goods, wares, and money that may come into the
hands of any one of them from the partnership,
and not to defraud one another in anything. The
profit, which Halea may grant in the partnership,
shall be allocated to each of them pro rata to his
capital; and if any accidents befall said
partnership or the goods of said partnership it
shall be allocated similarly to each of them pro
rata to his capital. They have promised each
other in good faith to come to the accounting of
the capital and profit of said partnership at the
end of the time limit; and each of them is to
deduct his capital and to divide among them the
profit pro rata to the capital of each one. They
swore to undertake and to observe everything as
above stated and not to do anything or to act
contrary in any way by reason of their being
minors or by another cause. They made the
agreement with the consul of the witnesses
written below, whom for this purpose they call
their relatives, neighbors, and counselors. Done
in Cherafir in the chapel of Halea, in the year 708,
Nuzyael 19.
Witness list omitted.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS _ 3
Fourth, they would identify how long the contract would last, whether it
would be renewable, what the terms would be to settle the final account, and
the terms for sharing out profit or loss. Lastly, they would identify the terms for
using additional capital (personal or deposits) over the common capital of the
Compagnia and how profit or loss would be attributed to it. In addition, the
mercantylers could add any other details as they saw fit to the contract.

THE DEPOSIT CONTRACT


The deposit contract also came about during the economic prosperity of
the fifth century. With Azeryan controlling the Venarian Sea and mercantile
activity flourishing, every one was looking for a way to cash in on the profits
being garnered by the mercantylers. Because of this prosperity, many new
mercantylers were spawned; however, not everyone was inclined to travel from
town to town in order to make a profit. As a result of the increased amount of
trade throughout the region, prosperity was being realized among the common
tradesmen and government officials of the empires towns. These individuals
were looking for ways to increase their fortunes and the activities of local
mercantylers offered them a chance to achieve this goal. At first the deposit
contract was nothing more than a mercantylers friends and family members
giving over some of their surplus capital for an unspecified time. The
mercantyler could use this capital in any way he wished, as long as he returned
the funds when requested. Usually he would return the deposited capital with a
premium he thought was sufficient. Over time, the deposit contract has evolved
into its present form.

A BASIC DEPOSIT CONTRACT


I Obras of Crel, mercantyler of Tashal,
acknowledge that I have received from you,
Rolyd of Gened, 50 [Kaldoran] in deposit. I am
to keep it in my business and employ it in Tashal
for trade as long as it shall be your pleasure. I
promise to give you the profit according to what
seems to me ought to come to you. Moreover, I
promise to return and to restore the previously
mentioned 50 myself or through my messenger
within eight days after you tell me, and make the
request. Similarly I will give you the profit;
otherwise the penalty of the double and the
seizure of my goods as security. Done in the shop
of Shotro of Quiribor in the town of Tashal.
Witnesses: Rufo of Arato and Tarl of Barda,
woodcrafter. In the year 700, the seventh day of
Navek.

The deposit contract involves a depositor and a receiver. The receiver can
be a mercantyler, craftsman, a group (such as the Compagnia) or any other
individual or organization needing cash to carry out some form of commercial
operation. The contract identifies the depositor, who has received the capital,
and the amount of capital involved. Next it goes into the terms for returning the
capital and what the premium will be when returned. Finally, the contract
describes any penalties that could be imposed for failure to pay and who
witnessed the transaction. Premiums usually range from 4% to 12% of the
capital; with 8% being the median figure. Most deposits had to have the capital
and the premium returned within five to ten days of the depositors request. The
usual failure to pay back the stipulated amount is a penalty of double the
amount due to the depositor.

THE COMMISSION CONTRACT


As the volume of trade increased throughout Western Lythia, merchants
were finding that they could not keep up with all their ongoing ventures.
Consequently, mercantylers of the Karejian League began hiring lesser
mercantylers to act as agents in these far-flung ventures. These agents would
work as a mercantylers factor for a number of years or as his agent for a
specific short-term venture. To bind these agents to their will the Karejians
developed commission contracts. The contract comes in two variants, one for
the short-term agent and the other for the commissioning of a factor.

HrnWorld

A BASIC COMMISSION CONTRACT


Burand of Lecar acknowledges that he is carrying
to Thay 9 pounds in weight of silk and 10 pieces
of Emelrenian linen of 43 yards from the goods of
Goshal of Mallo. All of which Goshal himself
values at 32 [Melderyn] and all are at the risk
and fortune of Goshal. Burand himself is carrying
these goods to Thay, and he is not to make any
expenditure from them when going, either for the
vessel or eating. He is to sell as best he can and
to invest the proceeds in wool or wool cloth,
whichever seems better to him; or, if neither
seems better, in silver. He is to send back those
wares as quickly as possible and deposit them,
witnesses being present, under his own name. He
is to have and keep 6 out of the proceeds. Done
in the Cherafir chapter house, on the 16th of
Nolus 761.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS _ 4
The first bonds a mercantyler for a specific short term commercial venture;
usually no more than a year or one round trip sea voyage. The commissioned
agent receives, transports, and sells a specified lot or lots and uses the proceeds
to purchase goods specified by his employer. He then returns the purchased
goods or the proceeds from the sale if no goods were purchased to his
employer. For doing this, he receives a fixed commission or salary for his
services, but he will not share in the profits of the venture. The contract will
identify the employer and the agent, and how long the commission is to last.
Next the contract would designate the merchandise that is invested to the
agent, where he is to sell it, and if so desired what he should purchase with the
proceeds. The majority of these contracts also stipulated that the agent is not to
use any of the invested capital for his support, transportation costs or any other
such expenses. Finally, the contract will identify what the agent's commission
will be for taking on the commission.
The second form of the commission contract bonds a mercantyler as a
factor to another mercantyler, Compagnia, or other mercantile organization.
Thus bonded, the factor is invested with managing and conducting business in a
specified location for a specified term, usually three to four years. A factor
receives a fixed salary and is usually not liable for any of his employers
liabilities. However, he is accountable to his employer for gross negligence and
dishonesty. Such a contract is very broad in the terms it covers; but at the same
time, it is also very restrictive on the actions of the factor. A basic contract
starts out by identifying the factor, his employers, and how long the contract
will remain in effect. Next, the contract designates where the factor will operate;
either a specific shop, a town, or a region. Finally the contract discusses his
salary; any personal restrictions placed on him; and the terms for balancing his
account when the contract ends.

A BASIC CONTRACT FOR A FACTOR


In the year 682, 13 Azura. I, Ugo of Gigon,
entering into a solemn and legal written
stipulation for fee and salary, promise and make
agreement with, Aloras and Gyandy of Salim, to
stay and remain as a factor and agent of your
partnership from the last day of the next Banquet
of Delights up to the end of the four years directly
following that date. I promise to go and to remain
wherever you wish throughout Tharda, Kanday,
and elsewhere. I promise to do business and gain
a profit, advantageously, and lawfully; and to act
in good faith and without fraud to your advantage
and to that of your partnership. In addition, I
promise to preserve and guard your property that
comes into my hands, whether as gold and silver,
notarial instruments, books, letters, or other
things of whatsoever kind. I promise to return to
you a correct and legal accounting of all that I
have managed. In regard to your goods that
come into my hands I promise to return these
goods intact to you whenever and as many times
as you express the wish; and I promise not to do
anything fraudulent, nor to conceal or retain any
money except the salary granted to me by you.
I also promise you that whatever may be donated
in money, gold, silver, or anything else by any
person or locality in any way, so long as I remain
your factor, I shall turn over to your partnership,
keeping back nothing.
I promise that as long as I remain your factor I
shall not gamble with pledge or money. Nor shall
I have carnal relations with any married woman;
nor shall I make any expenditure on them out of
your goods.
I also promise to observe and carry out all that
you order me by word of mouth, messenger, or
letter, acting in good faith and without fraud. I
shall keep everything stated in confidence that
you shall order and not disclose anything without
your permission.
Furthermore, I promise not to make or form any
partnership
without
your
permission.
I
acknowledge that I do not have and did not
invest in your partnership or any other any
amount of money, except the said salary of mine.
I promise to undertake and observe all these
conditions, article by article, under penalty of 100
marks of silver, which I promise to give you, just
as is stated, if I do not observe or if I act contrary
to the conditions. For these conditions, I pledge
my heirs and myself to you and your heirs, and I
pledge as security my goods. I designate myself
to have and to hold them meanwhile in your
name.
I promise to do this for you because you
promised to give me 450 [Shiran] as my fee and
salary for the said four years because of the said
service; wherefore I waive the exception that the
promise and obligation has not been made and
that the salary has not been established. I swear
to observe all articles, and not to violate it nor to
act contrary to it.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS _ 5
BILL OF SALE
Initially, commercial transactions were nothing more than the exchange of goods between two
interested parties. However, as commercial ventures spread over Kethira, and in value, mercantylers
began to deal more on credit than exchange. Consequently, they had to develop ways to keep track
of their transactions so they could balance their accounts. The bill of sale is one of the instruments
that have appeared because of these advancements in accounting techniques. Its primary function in
the world of commerce is to record a sale and act as a receipt for future entries into a mercantylers
account books. The bill of sale is a simple document usually drafted by the mercantyler himself or by
a notary if the sale involves a significant amount of goods. Most of these documents will identify the
seller, the buyer, the date, and where the transaction took place. In addition, they will show what has
been sold and how much was paid for the items. Guild and municipal authorities usually verify these
documents. When thus verified they also act as tax receipts.

DOCUMENTS ORDERING PAYMENT


With money being primarily silver or gold coins, large sums are very hard to transport from one place
to another. Over time mercantylers have been making purchases based on credit and their ability to
pay later. Many forms of personal letters and notarial documents are used for this purpose. The
primary form of these letters being the letter of payment. These documents are usually drafted by the
mercantylers themselves, although, if a mercantyler is not well known a notary may be brought in to
draft a notarial letter of payment. In either case, both of these documents are the same and command
someone at a designated location to pay the individual or his designated representative in the name
of the owing individual. Standard practice is that once the payment is received the order is endorsed
showing who paid, when, where, and how much. Again, these documents are used as receipts when
completed and used to update the mercantylers account books.

A BASIC CONTRACT FOR A FACTOR


(CONTINUED)
Orland, notary undersigned, admonished Ugo,
willing and acknowledging the agreement, that by
reason of the oath and of the guarantee he must
observe this instrument, article by article, in
regard to Aloras and Gyandy mentioned above.
Done in Shiran in the presence of Jaco of Uone,
and Ven of Aelin, and Gorsine of Nashel,
witnesses invited.
I, Orland of Ottav mentioned above, was present,
and having been invited, I wrote and published
these things.

A BILL OF SALE
On Larane 13, 711, in Tashal.
Let it be known that I, Gern of Verin, have sold to
Dornil of Jorsk 26 sacks of wheat at one and a
half bushels per sack. Each bushel is valued at
10d. The whole lot was let go at 16 s.5
[Kaldoran]. Done in the chapter house in Tashal.
Witnesses: Boas of Sernil, steward, and Thom of
Boal, tax auditor.

A BASIC ORDER OF PAYMENT


On Savor 21, 692, in Aleath.
Please pay from my account by the next 15 of
Ilvin to Glavin of Spinsal 134 s.17 d.8 [Kandaian]
that is one hundred thirty-four pounds seventeen
shillings eight pence. The amount is for his share
of the profit from grain of Dyrisa, in which he was
a participant.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS _ 6
USURY CONTRACTS AND DOCUMENTS

A BASIC STRAIGHT LOAN

With the expansion of trade throughout Western Lythia, and the increased
needs for large sums of capital, usurers have developed numerous contracts to
cover their loans and exchange operations. These documents are just as diverse
as the commercial documents listed above. However, there is only a couple that
has gained universal use throughout Western Lythia. As with the commercial
documents, these usurer documents have enabled the stabilization of loan and
exchange operations throughout most of the areas of Western Lythia.

THE STRAIGHT LOAN


The straight loan was developed as a result of increased commercial
activities in the region surrounding the Venarian Sea. The period and location of
its development are unknown, although the mercantylers of Hacherdad claim to
have learned the art from ancient Diramoa. Since straight loans have always
been used to finance caravan traffic, and Hacherdad is the terminus of the
caravan route from Diramoa, many believe their claim. After all, it is an old
saying that Hacherdad is full of nothing but thieves, cutthroats, and usurers.
At first, straight loans were for financing many kinds of trade; however,
recently it has only been used to finance caravan and local commercial
activities. The amount of interest charged depends on whether it is a secured
loan or not, and the loan's purpose. A basic loan contract will identify the
lender, the borrower, and who will pay-off the loan if different from the
borrower. Next, the amount borrowed is entered, although this is not done on
the majority of loan documents. Then the terms for repaying the loan are listed;
this includes when the payment is due, where it is due, and how much is due.
Last of all, the contract lists the penalties for late or non-payment and who
witnessed the contract. In addition, some contracts also list the purpose of the
loan.

THE SEA LOAN


Unlike the straight loan, the sea loan goes only back to the expansion of sea
trade under the Azeryan Empire during the fifth century. Its main difference is
that the loan is only payable when the ship carrying the goods or money safely
completes its voyage. A sea loan may be extended for a one-way or round trip
voyage. Many sea loans include a clause designating the goods bought with it as
security for the loan. Sea loans used for a one-way trip are often termed a sea
exchange; because the payment is in a different currency from that given. The
body of the contract is exactly like a straight loan; however, the money given
and the destination are always entered. In addition, the terms of payment
include the number of days after a voyages completion that payment is due,
this usually being from ten to thirty days. In addition, interest on a sea loan is
usually larger than that of a straight loan.

HrnWorld

In the name of Halea. In the year 708, in the


month of Larane, in Tashal. I, Torm of Ostin,
openly declare to you, Juran of Qweurn, that I
have received 100 [Kaldoran] belonging to you.
With these I am to go and to do business
wherever it seems good to me. I am to return to
Tashal this coming Savor or I am to send a
reliable man. Then, within thirty days after arrival
in Tashal, I am to give and to deliver, personally
or through my messenger, to you or your
messenger, 110 [Kaldoran]. The previously
mentioned goods, however, are to remain at your
risk from hostile people, provided the risk is
proved. If I do not observe all these conditions for
you as written above, then I am to restore to you
all the aforesaid pounds in the double out of all
that I am known to own in this world. Let the
same capital and the penalty of the double bear
interest of three per two every year from that
time forward.

A BASIC SEA LOAN


In the name of Halea. In the year 658, in the
month of Morgat, in Tarkain. I, Pietr of Cornar,
together with my heirs, openly declare to you,
Astian of Zian, and to your heirs that I have
received from Stefa of Zian, your brother, 100
gold crowns of the old weight belonging to you.
With these I am to go and to do business
wherever it seems good to me. I am to carry with
me the goods purchased with the crowns by the
convoy of ships that will come to Livelis from
Tarkain or Parahal in this first coming Savor, or I
am to send the same goods from the aforesaid
territories to Livelis by a reliable man in the
witness of good men. Then, within thirty days
after that convoy of ships from the aforesaid
territories enters the waters of Livelis, I am to
give and to deliver, personally or through my
messenger, to you or your messenger in Livelis,
125 gold crowns of the old weight. The
previously mentioned goods, however, are to
remain at your risk from sea and hostile people,
provided the risk is proved. If I do not observe all
these conditions for you as written above, then I,
together with m heirs, am to restore to you and to
your heirs all the aforesaid crowns in the double
out of my lands and houses and all that I am
known to own in this world. Let the same capital
and the penalty of the double bear interest of six
per five every year from that time forward.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS _ 7
PROMISSORY NOTES
With the expansion of trade throughout Western Lythia, there are not
nearly enough coins in circulation to cover the value of goods traded. In
addition, mercantylers are reluctant to transport bulky, heavy, coinage, not to
mention the risk of robbery. Most trading activity involves bartering, but when
large purchases or sales are involved, nearly all such transactions are made by
way of promissory notes. The promissory note first appeared in the regions
surrounding the Venarian Sea. Its exact origin is unknown; however, its use has
spread throughout Western Lythia. These notes are written by usurers, usually
for the full cash payment, but often a loan is given for all or part of the note at
an agreed interest rate. The notes themselves are either personal notes or
bearer notes. The main difference is that a personal note is redeemable only by
the named individual or his designated representative. However, a bearer note
may be redeemed by anyone.
At a minimum, promissory notes will list the issuer, where his business is
located, and the amount of the note. In addition, the note will designate whether
it is a personal note by listing who may cash it; or it will state that it is
redeemable by the bearer. 90% of all promissory notes are bearer notes. If an
individual signs a personal note over to another, he must endorse the note
stating who is now allowed to redeem the note.

THE EXCHANGE CONTRACT


Though the promissory note holds prominence throughout Western Lythia,
the usurers of Karejia, Dalkesh, and Hacherdad have adopted a new form of
transaction called an exchange contract. The prime function of exchange
operations is to convert one currency into another. So long as an exchange is
carried out in one place and from hand to hand, the transaction could be
completed at one time and there was no need for a contract. However, the very
fact that the specialized changer needed a large stock of money tended to
transform him into a professional moneylender who accepted deposits and
extended loans. Since most promissory notes also involved a loan, the usurers
of the eastern Venarian Sea have combined the functions of a promissory note
with those of a loan contract and exchange operation. For this to occur, a usurer
needs to have correspondents in other towns who would honor exchange
contracts drawn on them and who in turn would draw exchange contracts
against him. To date, only the mercantylers within the eastern Venarian Sea are
organized enough for such transactions, but as they extend their operations
further west, this form of contract is sure to replace the promissory note. Until
then, most mercantylers of Northwestern Lythia will only see the contract on
rare occasions.

HrnWorld

A BASIC PROMISSORY NOTE


(PERSONAL)
I, Pesera of Hendel, have received 25 [Kaldoran]
from Jonis of Wahl and issued him this note.
Upon receipt of this note from said Jonis, or his
designated messenger, I will pay the above
amount within five days of receipt. Done in my
shop, in the town of Tashal, 7th of Halane, in the
year 718. May Halea bless all involved.

A BASIC PROMISSORY NOTE


(BEARER)
I, Kirlin of Pasena, am writing this mote based on
the 100 [Kaldoran] that I have received for it. As
agreed upon with the buyer, this note may be
redeemed by who ever presents it. I promise to
pay the presenter or his messenger the stated
amount within ten days of its receipt. Done in my
shop, in the town of Tashal, 1st of Peonu, in the
year 719.

A BASIC EXCHANGE CONTRACT


Obro of Falz acknowledges that he shall give
Ricer of Cavili 50 [Azeryan] by the next Morgat
7. If he does not pay then, he promises to give
Karejian currency at the rate of 12d [Karejian] for
every 15d [Azeryan] at the next fair of Hebos. If
the coins be deteriorated by alloy or by weight or
be debased, he promises to give a mark of good
silver for every 48 shillings up to the total of the
entire debt. He also promises to accept the word
of the creditor without oath concerning expenses,
losses, and capital of the loan, and he pledges his
goods as security.
Otto of Marin and Rufo of Belard constitute
themselves as debtors and payers, and pledge,
both liable for the whole amount, their goods as
security, waiving exemptions under the
legislation on joint liability and the legislation by
which it is provided that the principle debtor be
sued first.
Witnesses: Gando of Acqui, clothier. Under the
portico of the Livelis market, on Savor 12.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS _ 8
The contract gives usurers the opportunity to forecast and speculate on
fluctuations in the rates of exchange from one place to another and from one
time to another. Furthermore, it takes some time before the exchange contract
reaches the correspondent on whom the contract was drawn and before he in
turn draws on the drawer to recover the money he paid. Thus, long-distance
exchange transactions always involved a credit operation, the giver of local
money being the lender and the giver of foreign money being the borrower. An
exchange contract thus becomes an instrument of credit, which took the place
of hard coins, although it was not payable to the bearer but only to the
designated persons and to their agents. Therefore, a standard contract identifies
the lender, the borrower, how much was given out, and how much is due back
and in what currency. In addition, the contract describes where the contract is
to be completed. Some contracts, however, have a clause covering the
eventuality of the contract not being paid at the designated place, but at an
alternate location and if it would include another type of currency. Finally, the
contract would cover any penalties, witnesses, or co-debtors.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

TASHAL _ 13
[4] MERCANTYLERS HALL

CELLAR

Tashal is the principal town of Kaldor and seat of the


kingdom's government. It sits at the junction of three major
trade routes and has a market size of 4. The Tashal
Mercantylers Hall is a prominent site within the town and
is just off the Mangai Square, its principal market. The hall
serves as the regions local headquarters for all mercantyler
guild activities.

The hall has a large cellar underneath it. Local and


visiting mercantylers use this cellar for secure storage, for a
price. Although guards patrol the area, the Lia-Kavair is still
a threat; therefore, the guild expends a huge sums in bribe
money to ensure that they stay away from the facility.

This magnificent structure, besides its economic


importance, fulfils two symbolic functions for the
community. First, it helps to display the towns importance
as a major center of trade within its region. Second,
through its grandeur and prominence within the town, it
displays the wealth and power of the Mercantylers Guild.
Built primarily of stone, the hall facilitated these
impressions with its lavish decorations and carvings
depicting the areas history and the prominent position of
the guild in that history.

(2) This area is used to store supplies for the halls kitchen.

HrnWorld

(1) This is the main storage area for the hall. It is entered
from the base of the halls tower.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

TASHAL _ 14
GROUND FLOOR
(1) The central feature of the site is the great hall. This is
where the mercantylers can display their goods and
look at anothers wares.
(2) This office is rented by the city for its tax collector. The
same tax collector never sits more than a week in this
position. The city switches its assessors regularly to try
to prevent graft and corruption; only the citys
aldermen know when a particular assessor will be
assigned to the hall and for how long.
(3) Next to the halls tower is the office of the guilds
steward. The current steward is Bryam of Valain,
younger brother of Querene of Valain (45). He takes
his position seriously and has shown that he is adept at
bookkeeping and administration. His appointment
came on the heals of the former stewards beheading in
719. This also opened a vacant franchise within Tashal
that is currently being contested by many of the local
masters. Bryam can find himself making a pretty penny
because of these struggles.
(4) This is the local chapters Chapter House. Guild bylaws permit only registered members of the local guild
on the floor during meetings. The main feature of this
chamber is it's raised dais for the guildmaster and his
officers. In addition, pews bought by the local master
mercantylers line the outer wall. The guild's other
members, journeymen and apprentices, sit upon
benches placed between the pews and the dais. When
matters of law arise, this chamber turns into a court of
law. At that time, any registered member of the guild
could enter the chamber, regardless of his origin.

HrnWorld

(5) These chambers are used by members as private


meeting rooms while conducting business. During the
fair season, they are also used as dormitories for
visiting mercantylers, costing no more than 1d a night.
(6) The Mercantylers Hall Tower is a feature particular to
Tashal. Its building was a result of the guild loosing
some of its privileges at the annual Tashal Fairs to the
Mangai. To assist them in improving their position at
the fairs the guild decided to build a watchtower. The
purpose of the tower was to let them keep a watch for
approaching caravans. As a caravan approach, a
watchman in the tower would signal the caravan with a
mirror. At that time a mercantyler who had been
placed with the caravan for this purpose would answer
the signal. Once contact was made the mercantyler
traveling with the caravan would pass along to the
watchman information on what the caravan was
carrying with it. The guild leadership would then use
this information to assist their members in the
purchase of those goods by passing on misinformation
about what the caravan was carrying. Eventually the
kings officials caught on and punished the whole
board of syndics for their actions. The tower still
stands as a sign of the guild's power and profits.
(7) The hall also has a kitchen attached to the chapter
house for festive occasions. The guild hires an
innkeeper during these occasions to prepare the meals.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

TASHAL _ 15
SECOND FLOOR
(1) The galleries overlook the trading floor and the guilds
Chapter House. Some trading also takes place on the
gallery above the trading floor.
(2) This is the chamber of the guilds guildmaster, Pesera
of Hendel. Although he runs a successful business (44),
he takes his duties as guildmaster very seriously. It was
he who had the last steward tried for numerous
charges against the guilds and the crown. His primary
concerns for now are how to rest control of the annual
fairs from the Mangai and get them back under the
mercantylers control. So far, the guild has expended
large sums towards this end.

HrnWorld

(3) This is the syndic's council chamber. The syndics


meet monthly on the 15th. All masters are allowed to
attend the meeting; however, only members of the
syndic have a vote.
(4) These two rooms are luxury apartments available for
rent at 6d to 12d a night. The rate depends on the
individual looking for a room.
(5) This is the social room for the guilds masters. Each
night a barrel of wine and/or ale is set-up for their
refreshment.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

TASHAL _ 16
THE TOWER LEVELS
The tower has an additional two floors above the
second. These two levels are identical and are usually
vacant, being used as dormitories during the fair months.
Otherwise, they are used for storage.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

THAY _ 11
[4] HALL OF CIRCLES

GROUND FLOOR

Since the chapter's founding in 580, it has seen its


power and prestige within the region grow significantly. An
example of the chapters power is reflected in its right to
nominate replacements for vacant alderman positions.
They have never had a nominee rejected. In addition, the
chapter has regulatory control over all weights and
measures within Thay. A sign of the chapters growing
prestige is its choice as the host for the 721 triennial
Convention of the Mangai.

(1) The halls common room serves as a social club for the
masters of any Thayan guild. It is here that an
individual master may come and meet with others in
an informal environment and share their concerns on
just about any topic.

The chapters prominence within the Hrnic economic


system comes from Thays position at the head of the
Genin Trail and as the terminus of all sea trade coming into
eastern Hrn. The Hall of Circles position on the east side
of Poleryn Square places the hall in the center of Thay and
its economic activities. The hall primarily serves as a social
club for the masters of Thays guilds.
As with most chapters, political intrigue is rampant.
Most disputes revolve around three prominent guilds the
Potters, Mercantylers, and Miners, each of which holds
veto power in the Council of the Mangai. The majority of
the remaining guilds ally themselves with one of the
prominent guilds; often changing sides as events and
circumstances change.

HrnWorld

(2) The pantry is usually well stocked with plenty of tasty


treats. A patron may order a cold snack or a guild
conducting a meeting may have something cold to eat
if things go longer than planed. All at a reasonable
price, usually 1d a person.
(3) The buttery is the pride of the Thay. The steward has
done his best to ensure that the best in ales, ciders, and
wines are kept in stock. Currently the steward is trying
to store up on the finest Lythian wines for the coming
triennial convention.
(4) These four chambers serve as meeting rooms for guilds
that have no halls or meeting places of their own. In
addition, when the council breaks down into
committees they also use these rooms.

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003

THAY _ 12
SECOND FLOOR

THIRD FLOOR

(1) These are the chambers of Gwayn of Uzel. Gwayn is


the chapter's steward and has been in the position
since 709. She is considered a very shrewd
administrator. Those who must work under her
supervision believe she uses supernatural powers to
achieve her overall goals. Since no one knows for sure
about her past history, many believe she may be a
renegade Shek Pvar in hiding.

(1) These are the chambers of Chyniel of Ekair, the current


chairman of the chapter. A gifted clothier whose
brother inherited the family franchise, Rasha of Ekair
(47). Until his appointment, Chyniel had been working
with his brother in an attempt to get a franchise. It is
assumed by some of the lesser guilds that the clothiers
guild made a deal with the Mercantylers and Potters
guilds to win Chyniel his chairman ship in 715. Since
then, he has shown himself to be quite competent in
the position; as a result he has managed to stay in
power thus far. Chyniel is in reality a fair and
incorruptible man who takes his position seriously;
however, there are some that believe a franchise will
be his due for some unknown bargain.

(2) These are the administrative offices of the chapters


various under officials.
(3) The Council of the Mangai meets in this room on the
5th of each month. In addition, the mayors advisory
committee meets here on the 9th of each month.

(2) Private luxury rooms for visiting guildsmen, who can


afford the price, usually based on the individuals
character and ability to pay.
(3) The chapters archives are some the most ordered on
Hrn. However, the chapters archivist has recently
past away and they are in search of a competent
replacement.

HrnWorld

Roy Denton, N. Robin Crossby & Columbia Games Inc., 2003