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BAB 3

METODOLOGI KAJIAN
Dalambabinipengkajiakanmenghuraikanaspek-aspek yang berkaitandenganrekabentukkajian,
populasikajian, sampelkajian, subjekkajian, alatukurankajian. Menurut Gay (1992) di
dalamNurAzhanaBinti Ahmad (2010), metodologikajianmenerangkantentangsemualangkah
yang terlibatdalamsesuatukajian yang
hendakdijalankantermasuklahmenentukanrekabentukkajian, tatacarapersampelan, alatkajian,
pengumpulan data danmenentukankaedahanalisisstatistik yang
digunakandalamsesuatukajianseperti yang dinyatakan.

Pembelajarandanpengajaranberdasarkankonsepkonvensionalpadahariinikelihatan
semakinkurangsesuai di dalam era
globalisasiini.KajianinibertujuanuntukmemperkenalkanaplikasiTeoriKecerdasanPel
bagai.TerdapatsembilanjenisKecerdasanPelbagai di dalamkajianiniiaitu,
kecerdasan verbal, kecerdasan visual, kecerdasanlogikal, kecerdasanmuzikal,
kecerdasankinestetik, kecerdasan interpersonal, kecerdasan intrapersonal,
kecerdasannaturalisdankecerdasaneksistensial. Kajianiniakandilaksanakan di
JabatanRekabentukdanKomunikasi Visual, PoliteknikTuanku Syed Sirajuddin.
Aplikasibagiteoriiniakanditerapkan di dalampengajarandanpembelajaranmodul
Design Dialogue bagipelajarpoliteknik semester tiga yang mengikuti Program
Diploma Seni Digital (DDS) dan Diploma Video Digital (DDV). Seramai 45
pelajarlelakidan 30 pelajarperempuanakandipilihsebagaisampelkajian.
Kaedahkualitatifmelaluitemubualakandijalankandankuantitatifdenganmenggunap
akaisoalselidik, adaptasidaripadaPiawai MIDAS (Multiple Intelligences
Development Assessment Scales) bagimengesankecerdasanpelajarpelajartersebut. Cadangankajianinidiketengahkanuntukmenyahu

3.4 Instruments
i. Questionnaire
The questionnaire was used to gather participants opinion and feedback on using
CLT method in teaching primary second language classroom. It was adopted from
Karavas-Doukas, E. (1996). Using Attitude Scales To Investigate Teachers' Attitudes
To The Communicative Approach. This questionnaire includes 4 Likert-type scales
which are Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly Disagree as follows:

4
3
2
1

Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

The neutral scale was excluded in order to collect precise and clear feedback from
the participants. As supported by Cristine E. D. et. Al (2005), neutral type of
response may indicate lack of opinion or interest about the topic which causes
middle level of confirmation and results in uncertainty. Uncertainty responses are
difficult to describe or explain which may cause a challenge when the researcher
seeks for confirmation whether or not teacher favours CLT in their teaching. The
questionnaire is given inAppendix 1.
i.

Observation
All the interviews and observations were videotaped for further reference.
After the sessions were finished, the observation form was used to check on
teachers application of CLT during the lesson. The observation form was adapted
from two previous types of research which are by Tigist Assefa (2012), EFL
Teachers and Learners Perceptions and Classroom Practices of CLT in EFL
Classes and by Abdullah Coskun. (2011), Investigation of the Application of
Communicative Language Teaching in the English Language Classroom A Case
Study on Teachers Attitudes in Turkey. The observation forms from both types of
research were analysed with careful selection of items in reference with the current
research purposes. Each item represented with three indicators of Never,
Sometimes and Always. According to these items, if the participants show the
application the strategies three times and above in the session, they will be rated as
Always. If they apply the strategy once and twice they will be rated as Sometimes
and if there is no application of the strategies, they will be rated as Never. The
adapted observation form is given in Appendix 2.
ii. Interview
The interview questions were adapted from Karavas-Doukas, E. (1996). Using
Attitude Scales To Investigate Teachers' Attitudes To The Communicative Approach
and Vongxay, H. (2013), The Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching
(CLT) in an English Department in a Lao Higher Educational Institution: A Case
Study. The interview was conducted particularly in English. The interview sessions
were audio-recorded for transcribing purposes afterward with the knowledge and
permission from participants. The interviewees were asked to briefly review the
questions before the interview take place. The interview was conducted using semistructured questions focussing on two aspects of teacher perspectives and
challenges faced in implementing CLT approaches in teaching English.

The interviewer may ask additional questions, further explanations, and


examples in response to the answers given. Given, L. M. (2008), explain that semistructured interview is based on pre-set of question, however, allows researcher to
probe additional questions in referring to the respond given by participants to seek
for further explanation as well as addition information. The interview questions are
given in Appendix 3.
3.5 Data Analysis
Questionnaire analysis:
The data were analysed based on mean, mode and median calculated using
Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.
Observation Analysis:
The participants responses were categorized into three ranges which are;
Frequent Application when all the participants were rated as Always, Average
Application when the participants were rated as Always and Sometimes and Poor
Application is when they were rated as Always, Sometimes and Never. A small
number of participants allows the researcher to focus in detail data collection and
thorough descriptive data analysis from the observation conducted during the
sessions.
Interview Analysis:
The interview will be audio-recorded and transcribed. The data will be coded
into two main themes which are teachers perspectives and challenges faced by the
teachers. The procedure involve are (1) transcribes the audio recording, (2) analyse,
(3) coding, and (4) descriptive explanations, and (5) justification of findings.