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ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE

MACHINE
The castings must be lifted 200 mm
FORCE MULTIPLIER RATIO (MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE)
In the lever system shown in figure 4 above, the load being lifted is about
three times more than the effort being applied. The load divided by the effort
gives a ratio. This ratio is a force multiplier, or how much more load can be
lifted compared to the effort.
The lever in figure therefore has a force-multiplier ratio of 2.88 (a ratio has no
units of value).
.
EFFORT = 260 N
LOAD = 750 N
600 mm

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE
EFFORT = 260 N

LOAD = 750 N
600 mm

Example 1
Find the force-multiplier ratio for the lever in figure above.
Force-multiplier ratio

= 750 N
260 N
=

2.88

load
effort

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE
EFFORT = 260 N

LOAD = 750 N
600 mm

Find the distance-multiplier ratio leverage for the lever in figure 4 above.
Movement-multiplier ratio = distance moved by the effort
distance moved by the load
= 600 mm
200 mm
=3

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE

Example
Find the efficiency of the lever system shown in figure 4.
Efficiency () = Force Ratio 100
Movement Ratio
= 2.88 100
3

= 96

The system shown in figure has an efficiency of nearly 100 per cent. No
system can be 100 per cent efficient; there are always losses. The losses in a
lever system consist of energy lost to friction at the fulcrum of the lever and
the energy lost in strain as the lever bends slightly. In some cases a small
amount of energy will also be lost in the form of sound.

Remember, no machine is 100 per cent efficient. Common


energy losses include heat energy due to friction, strain
energy and sound energy.