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It is a presentation about the gravity dams in civil engineering. It demonstarates how to solve a gravity dam problem.

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u A dam is a hydraulic structure constructed

across a river or a stream to retain the water.

it in a deep storage reservoir.

w.r.t materials: w.r.t structural

behavior:

Earth dam Gravity dam

Concrete dam Arch dam

Steel dam Buttress dam

Timber dam Embankment dam

w.r.t hydraulic w.r.t function:

behavior:

Storage dam

Over flow dam Diversion dam

Non over flow dam Coffer dam

Power generation

dam

c

u Gravity dams are solid concrete structures that

maintain their stability against design loads

from the geometric shape and the mass and

strength of the concrete.

weight resists the forces acting upon it.

£

c

£ollowing are forces acting on a

gravity dam.

1) Water pressure

2) Weight of the dam

3) Uplift pressure

4) Ice pressure

5) Wave pressure

6) Silt pressure

7) Wind pressure

8) Pressure due to earthquake

º

triangularly, with a zero intensity at the water

surface, to a value ³wh´ at any depth h below

the water surface.

£orce due to water pressure,

P = w h² / 2

w = unit weight of the water = 1000 kg/m 3

dam.

è

gravity of its section.

W = W1 + W2 + W3

ÿ

by water as it seeps through the body of the

dam or its foundation.

the dam and it depends upon water head.

£

£

º

u If the resultant force cuts the base within the

body of dam there will be no overturning.

Overturning moments

£.O.S 1.5

è

u A dam may fail in sliding at its base.

u £or safety against sliding

£.O.S = µ × V > 1

H

= 0.65 to 0.75

ÿ

u ´et

H = horizontal force

V = vertical force

R = resultant force cutting the base at an

eccentricity e from the centre of base of width

b

Normal stress distribution under the

base of dam

The normal stress is given as

pn = V / b (1 ± 6e / b)

£or normal stress at heel use -ive sign

The principal stress at the toe of the dam is

given as

È = pn sec² ȕ

and at the heel is

È = pn sec² Į ± p tan² Į

= wh

m = pn tan ß

and shear stress at the heel is

m = - (pn-

(pn-p) tan Į

£!

c

1) Consider unit length of the dam.

weight of the dam,

weight of water acting on inclined faces,

uplift force.

find sum of these vertical forces ( V )

3) £ind out the sum of horizontal forces:

horizontal component of the water pressure

is P = w h² / 2

On both U/S and D/S side

V

4) Calculate

Overturning moments (taken as -ive)

and

Resisting moments (taken as +ive)

and also find their algebraic sum

M = Mr - Mo

C

5) Check safety against overturning

£.O.S = Mr 1.5

Mo

£.O.S = µ × V > 1

H

7) Calculate the shear friction factor.

In large dams, shear strength of joint should

also be considered. £actor of safety in that case

is known as shear friction factor (S.£.£).

S.£.£ = µV + bq

H

b = width of the joint

q = shear strength of the joint (14 kg/cm )

C

force from the toe.

x= M

V

centre.

e = b/2 x

where b = base width of the dam

10) £ind the normal stress at the toe.

pn = V/b (1+ 6e/b)

(compressive stress is taken as positive)

pn = V/b ( 1-

1- 6e/b)

12) £ind out principal stress at

the toe

È = pn sec² ȕ

the heel

È = pn sec² Į ± p tan² Į

14) £ind out shear stress at toe

m = pn tan ȕ

m = - (pn-

(pn-p) tan Į

"

Ëuestion # 01: A masonry dam 10m high is

trapezoidal section with a top width of 1m and

a bottom width of 8.25m. The face exposed to

the water has a batter of 1:10. Test the stability

of the dam. £ind out the principal stresses at

the toe and heel of the dam. Assume unit

weight of masonry as 2240 Kg/m , w for water

= 1000 Kg/m and permissible shear stress of

joint = 14 Kg/cm .

1) consider unit length of the dam i.e.

1m

2) vertical forces:

a) self weight of the dam

= [( ½ × 1× 10) + ( ½×

½× 6.25 × 10 ) +

(1×

(1× 10)] × 2240

= 103600 kg

b) weight of water in column AA¶B

= (½ × 1 × 10) × 1 × 1000

= 5000 kg

c) Uplift pressure = ½ × 8.25 × (10×

(10×1000)

= 41250 kg

V = 103600 + 5000 41250

= 67350 kg

H = wh²/2 = 1000 × 100 / 2

= 50,000 kg

V

4) Moment calculation about toe

a) Due to self weight of the dam

= {( ½ ×1×10×

10×2240) (1+6.25+1/3)} +

{( 1×

1×10×

10×2240) (6.25+0.5)} +

{( ½×

½×6.25×

6.25×10×

10×2240) (2/3×

(2/3×6.25)}

= 527800 kg-

kg-m (+ ive)

b) Due to column of water in AA¶B

= ½ (10×

(10×1×1000) (8.25 1/3)

= 39583 kg-

kg-m (+ ive) ]

= 41250×

41250×2/3×

2/3×8.25

= 226875 kg-

kg-m (-(- ive)

= 50,000 ' 10/3

= 166,700 kg-

kg-m (-

(- ive)

M = 527800+ 39583+ 226875 + 166,700

= 567383 339575

= 227808 kg-

kg-m

C

5) £actor of safety against overturning

= Mr = 567383

Mo 339575

= 1.67 > 1.5 «..(O.K)

6) £actor of safety against sliding

£.O.S = µ × V = 0.75×

0.75×67350

H 50,000

= 1.01 > 1 ««.(O.K)

7) Shear friction factor

S.£.£ = µV + bq

H

= 0.75×

0.75×67350+8.25×

67350+8.25×14×

14×10^4

50,000

= 24.11

C

8) The resultant acts at a distance x from toe

x = M = 227808

V 67350

= 3.38

e = b/2 x = 8.25/2 3.38 = 0.74

º

Compressive

Compressive stress at the toe

pn = V/b (1+ 6e/b)

= 67350 / 8.25 {1 + (6×

(6×0.74)/8.25}

= 12560 kg/m²

pn = V/b (1-

(1- 6e/b)

= 67350 / 8.25 {1 - (6×

(6×0.74)/8.25}

= 3770 kg/m²

ºprinciple

º principle stress at the toe

= pn sec² ȕ

:. sec ȕ = 1 / (10 / 11.792)

= 1.179

= 12560 ' (1.179)^2

= 17460 kg/m²

13) principle stress at the heel

= pn sec² Į ± p tan² Į

:.tan Į = 1 / 10 = 0.1

:. Sec Į = 1/( 10/10.05)

= 3770×

3770×1.01-

1.01- (1000

(1000××10) ×0.1^2

= 3707.7 kg/m²

14) shear stress at the toe

m = pn tan ȕ

:. tan ȕ = 6.25 / 10 = 0.625

= 12560 × 0.625

= 7850 kg/m²

m = - (pn-

(pn-p) tan Į

= - (3770 - 1000

1000××10) × 0.1

= 623 kg/m²

Ëuestion # 02 : A gravity dam has the following

dimensions:

Height of dam = 100 m

£ree board = 1 m

Slope of upstream face = 0.15 : 1

Taking Į = 0.1

Determine

(i) hydrodynamic earthquake pressure and

(ii) its moment at joint situated 50 m below

maximum water surface.

SO´UTION:

If ø is the angle that upstream slope makes

with the vertical, we have

ø = tan-¹ (0.15/1) = 8.5º

Hence ș = 90º - ø = 81.5º

Cm = 0.735 × ș / 90º

= 0.735 × ( 81.5º / 90º )

= 0.666

Cm = maximum value of pressure coefficient

for a given slope

Here h = 100 m and y = 50 m

Cv = Cm/2 [y/h(2-

[y/h(2-y/h) + {y/h(2-

{y/h(2-h/y) }½]

}½]

= 0.666/2 [0.5(2-

[0.5(2-0.5)+ {0.5(2-

{0.5(2-0.5)}½]

= 0.538

Cv = pressure coefficient

below the maximum water level is given as

pev = Cv × Į × w × h

= 0.538 × 0.1 × 1000 × 100

= 5380 kg/cm²

:. Į = acceleration coefficient

Pey = 0.726 × pev × y

=0.726 × 5380 × 50

=1.95 × 10^5 kg

= 0.299 × 5380 × (50)²

(50)²

= 4.02 × 10^6 kg-

kg-m

The End

Ëuestion # 03 : Considering earthquake forces,

in addition to the hydrostatic pressure and

uplift pressure, determine the base width of the

elementary profile of gravity dam so that

resultant passes through the outer third points.

SO´UTION:

´et

b= base width of the elementary dam ABC

The various forces acting on the dam are shown

in figure.

1. £orce due to self-

self-weight of dam

=W=½bhwȡ

2. £orce due to vertical acceleration of

earthquake

=

3. £orce due to uplift = = 1/2 b h w

= ½ b h w [(1-

[(1-Į)ȡ

Į)ȡ--1]

Where w = unit weight of water,

ȡ = specific weight of concrete and

Į = coefficient of earthquake acceleration.

1. £orce due to water pressure P = ½ w h²

2. £orce due to hydrodynamic pressure of

water at base:

Cm= 0.735

Pe = Cm Į w h = 0.735 Įwh

Pe = 0.725 pe.h

Me = 0.299 pe.h² = 0.299 * 0.735 Į w h

= 0.2205 Į w h .

3. INERTIA £ORCE ( horizontal) = ĮW = ½ Į b h w

p

The resultant of all forces has to pass through the outer

third point M2. Moment of all these forces at this

point must be zero.

b²[ ( 1 - Į )p-

)p-1 ] - bh²wĮp/6 - wh²/6 [ 1 +Į (1.323) ] =

0

b = h( )

it is required expression.

Putting Į= 0 when no earthquake acts, the value of b

reduces to

b=

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