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Mock Exam (II) May '06

Food Hygiene & Nutrition

Instructions to candidates:

a} Time allowed: Three hours (plus an extra ten minutes' reading time at the start - do not write anything during this time)

b} Answer any FIVE questions

c) All questions carry equal marks Marks for each question are shown in [ )

1. Consumer demand for healthy eating options continues to increase as concerns are raised about the food we eat.

a) Discuss action that food preparation staff can take to ensure that EACH of the following dishes complies with the requirements of a healthy menu:

i spaghetti bolognaise

ii fried fish

iii meat pie

iv beefburgers

v cheese flan [10)

b) Describe the main types of chemical compound that influence taste, and indicate on which parts of the

tongue EACH compound may be experienced. [10)

5. Catering managers will need to agree upon a number of objectives when planning and designing a kitchen.

a} Examine factors that will be influential in kitchen planning and design. [14)

b) Specify what aspects should be considered when choosing cutting boards. [6)

3. Storing food correctly will help to ensure that food remains in a prime condition up to its 'Use By' date.

a} Identify FOUR different causes of food spoilage, and describe how EACH cause may be prevented from

happening. [8)

b} Examine FOUR methods of preserving meat, and, for EACH method, give ONE example of a type of meat

suitable for preserving by that particular method. [12)

4. National restaurant chains maintain a standard menu throughout their establishments by a successful implementation of a company-wide portion control policy.

a) Explain how you would introduce a policy of portion control into your establishment. [10)

b) Standard recipes are a written formula for producing a dish to a specified quality and quantity. Discuss the

advantages of using a standard recipe in a catering establishment. [10)

5. With a declining lunch hour, and more food being eaten whilst on the move, vending machines may now be found in all sectors of the hospitality industry.

a) Examine factors that need to be agreed upon before installing a vending machine. [10)

b) Discuss the advantages of installing a vending machine for the service of cold non-alcoholic drinks. [10)

6. A cook-freeze system will allow a caterer to store prepared menu items for a longer period of time. Examine factors that will ensure that customers are served safe and hygienic food using such a system:

a) Preparation and cooking

b) Portioning and packing

c) Labelling

d) Freezing

e) Regeneration [20)

7. Employers have a legal responsibility for the safety of their staff in the workplace.

a) Discuss how risk assessment may be carried out in the kitchen. [5)

b) Specify rules that should be observed when handling knives. [5)

c) Explain the action to follow upon discovering a fire. [5)

d) Discuss the principal methods of extinguishing a fire. [5)

8. Food must be handled and stored correctly to prevent it from becoming contaminated. Describe how you would deal with the following foods in the kitchen to reduce the risk of an outbreak of food poisoning:

a} Cooked rice

b} Eggs

c) Pork sausages

d) Raw chicken [20]


Instructions to candidates:

a) Time allowed: Two and a half hours

b) Answer any SEVEN questions

c) All questions carry equal marks. Marks for each question are shown in [ )


The planning of menus, obtaining supplies and supervising the meal preparation using specialist staff are a significant part of the duties of a catering manager in a hospital.

a) Differentiate between the role of a dietician and that of a nutritioniSt.. [10]

b) Examine guidelines that need to be considered when compiling a menu for institutional or industrial

catering in order to provide a nutritionally balanced diet. [10]

Spoilage of food starts from the moment it is slaughtered or harvested but the speed of deterioration can be controlled. Examine FIVE methods by which food may be preserved and explain what happens to the food during the preservation process. Describe ONE advantage for EACH method examined and identify

ONE food that may be preserved by that method. (20)

The purchase of kitchen equipment is made only after careful consideration of alternative possibilities whether reviewing the item itself or the material from which it is made.

a) Evaluate factors that should be taken into consideration before purchasing or hiring a large item of

kitchen equipment (e.g. an oven). (14)

b) Compare and contrast the health and hygiene issues relating to the use of chopping boards made

from wood, polyethylene and rubber materials. (6)

4. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system that critically examines each stage of the preparation and service of a dish to assess risks and decide action to prevent contamination. Construct a HACCP flow diagram for frozen poultry, from delivery to service, and indicate the Critical

Control Points that need to be given particular attention to minimise any health risks. (10)

5. Caterers who have responsibility for purchasing food need to be able to recognise quality points in food.

Discuss quality points that you should look for in EACH of the following commodities and explain correct storage procedures:

a) cereals

b) tats

c) fish

d) milk

~ 0~1 ~m

v( A centralised production system is used to prepare food in large-scale kitchens such as those found in hospitals and institutional catering operations.

a) Discuss advantages to the caterer in adopting such a system. (10)

b) Outline factors that will influence the profitability of a centralised production system. (5)

c) Explain what action food handlers in a centralised production system can take to prevent food from

being stored for too long a period. (5)

7. Before being allowed to handle chemicals for cleaning, employees must have been trained in their correct storage and use.

a) Compile a set of rules for using chemicals that would be suitable to display on a staff notice board. (10)

b) Explain how you would treat a member of staff who had fainted from fumes given off by a cleaning fluid. (5)

c) Outline the minimum contents that a first aid box situated in a kitchen should contain. (5)

th. For persons whose intake of protein in their diet is minimal it is important that they have plenty of

carbohydrate available.

a) Explain why carbohydrate intake is essential when protein is not available.

b) Outline tile function of carbohydrate in the body.

c) Identify the main types of carbohydrate and establish TWO sources for EACH type.

d) Describe the effects of cooking on starch.

[3] [3] [9] [5] ,


Tile practice of Assured Safe Catering should be implemented in all food premises to prevent the possibility of food becoming contaminated.

a) Briefly describe what the system of assured safe catering entails

b) Compare and contrast the causes of chemical food poisoning with the causes of bacterial food poisoning.

c) Rodents are a dangerous source of food contamination. Explain how rats and mice carry harmful bacteria onto food and the measures that can be taken to control infestation.

[5] [10] [5]

9 A wide variety of cultures, each with their own ways of cooking, represent the nations of the world. Discuss the cultural influences that the following cookery styles have had on our eating experiences:

a) Indian

b) Mexican

c) South-East Asian

d) Moroccan [ 2 0 1

V'10. Cook-freeze is a specialised system that allows caterers to take advantage of retaining food for a longer period of time. Examine factors that will ensure that customers are served safe and hygienic food using this system:

a) preparation and cooking

b) portioning and packing

c) labelling

d) freezing

e) regeneration [20]

£/"11. Outbreaks of food poisoning continue to remain at an unacceptably high level and pathogenic bacteria are the most common cause.

a) Describe the ideal conditions that will allow bacteria to develop on food. [10]

b) Discuss how outbreaks of food poisoning can be prevented. [10]


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Food. Hygiene and Nutrition Examination -September 2005


Answer all questions in this section. This section carries a total of 40 marks.

A 1. A waiter has cut his finger. What should he do? ., Cover it with a flesh-coloured washproof plaster ~over it with a blue waterproof plaster ./

c) Cover it wifFi" a bandage

d) Cover it with a green fabric plaster (2 marks)

A2. Define malnutrition. (2 marks)

Condition caused by not eating enough food or not eating a balanced diet.

A3. What are rnacronutrients? (2 marks)

Nutrients needed in a large amounts by the human body.

A4. Which nutrient helps build and repair body tissue? (2 marks) Proteins.

A5. State two benefits of good food hygiene. (2 marks)

1. Satisfied customers.

2. compliance with food safety legislation.

3. less food wastage and increased shelf live of food.

4. good working environment,

A6. State two functions of calcium in the body. (2 marks)

1. building bones and teeth.

2. clotting of the blood.

3. the working of the muscles.

A7. What is coeliac disease? (2 marks)

People with coeliac react to the protein gluten found in food, require a gluten free


AS. Name two signs that would indicate a presence of flies in the kitchen. (2 marks) Maggots and, dead body

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A9. State two ways of eliminating flies from the kitchen. (2 marks)

1. Use of screens on windows.

2. Use of self-closing doors.

3. Use of anti-fly spray. l

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A 10. Where in the alimentary canal are most nutrients absorbed? (2 marks)

in the small intestine (the second part of small intestine namely Jejunum)

A 11. Identify four of the growth requirements which will lead to micro-organisms multiplying in large numbers. (4 marks)

1. temperature

2. time

3. moisture

4. high risk food.

A 12. Outline the main function of carbohydrate in the body. (4 marks) Provides with energy and get converted into body fat.

A 13. Explain why carbohydrate intake is essential in the body when protein is not available. (4 marks)

Because carbohydrates supply the body with energy when protein is not available.

A 14. Describe binary fission. You may use a diagram to illustrate your answer. (4 marks) Equal division of a single-celled organism into two organisms.

A 15. Give four examples of individuals who require high levels of protein in their

diet. (4 marks) .

1. infants

2. children

3. pregnant and nursing women

4. elderly people


Answer any 3 questions in this section. Each question carries a total of 20 marks


You have been asked by your manager to give a training session to new staff on the contamination of food in order to show how food handlers can contaminate food. Draw up a training plan which covers the three main ways that contamination can occur by food handlers and how they can be controlled, giving examples in each case. (20 marks)

Our human body is an important source of micro-organisms. These microorganisms lodge in every part of our body.

1. Our hand: naturally carry bacteria on their surface and may acquire pathogens and spoilage organisms from raw foods, after visits to the toilets or from other parts of your body. we can reduce the number of organisms on our hands by:

a. keep our hands Visibly clean - wash our hands often.

b. ensure our nails are kept short and clean.

c. Jewellery is not permitted.

d. wash our hands thoroughly and regularly using a bactericidal soap and hot water.

2. Our hair: is constantly falling out and may contaminate food directly. It also can carry staphylococcus aureus which can cause food poisoning. Dandruff can also contaminate food. so we must wear an appropriate head covering.

3. Our ears, nose and mouth: are frequently contaminated by staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria. These bacteria can be transmitted to food by coughing, sneezing, spitting. So we should not wear ear rings, nose rings and other facia! jewellery. Hand to mouth contact should be avoided.


Protein is one of the main essential macronutrients needed by the human body.

a) Explain why the body requires protein and in what amounts for different types of individuals. (4 marks)

Protein is an essential part of all living matter. It's needed for the growth of the body and for the repair of body tissues.

For an adult, it's recommended to obtain 45 - 55 g protein per day.

b) State which foods provide both complete and incomplete protein. Give specific protein names with a brief explanation of each. (11 marks) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

c) State how cooking affects protein. (5 marks)

When protein is heated it coagulates and shrinks. Too much cooking can spoil the appearance of the food. On being heated, the different proteins in foods set or coagulate at different temperatures.


a) Describe the five main stages of a hazard analysis system. (8 marks)

1. List hazards.

2. Identify controls

3. A recording system

4. Implement

5. Monitor

b) Produce a hazard analysis chart for the preparation of a high-risk food in a kitchen. Explain the actions needed at each stage of the process. (12 marks)

1. Purchasing

2. Receiving

3. Storing

4. preparing

5. cooking

6. portioning

7. packaging

8. serving

9. cleaning


Explain the main health problems related to the western diets of today. Give reasons as to how these diets could be changed to prevent these health problems. (20 marks)

Western diet includes a high level of processed foods which contain high fats, sugar and salt and high level of cholesterol and low fibre. This type of diet also maximises the use of deep fat frying and roasting.

First of all, This type of diet increases the blood cholesterol concentration and blood pressure which increase the chance of getting CHD. Obesity and overweight are also caused by the high fat diet. The excessive amount of fat that people eat has been linked to the chances of getting cancer. Low intakes of NSP(fibre) can result in an increased risk of bowel disorders, like bowel cancer and constipation.

From recipes and ingredients:

1) Check recipes and reduce fat, sugar and salt levels wherever possible.

2) Replace lard, suet, butter and pastry margarines with unsaturated margarines and

white fats, together with oils such as sunflower, olive or nut oils.

3) Use a variety of both white and oily fish.

4) Purchase lean cuts of meat and remove skin from poultry before cooking.

5) Use reduced fat dairy products

6) Minimise the use of sweeteners such as sugar, honey, syrup.

7) Use the minimum amount of salt.

From cooking methods

1) Minimise the use of deep fat frying and ensure that clean oil is used at the correct temperature to reduce absorption.

2) Where possible bake, grill, poach, roast or steam.

F rom food presentation

1) Offer alternatives together, such as butter, unsaturated and reduced fat spreads.

2) Serve salads 'undressed' where possible and offer a range of dressings including reduced fat varieties.

3) Bread and rolls should be on offer, and sandwich selections should reflect this variety.

4) Offer a wide variety of interesting fresh fruit, vegetables and salads.


You are having a new kitchen designed and built to replace the existing one which is over thirty years old. The owner has asked you to contribute to the planning stage by suggesting some key hygiene issues that you feel need to be addressed in order to ensure the kitchen meets all the current legislation. Make recommendations in relation to the following;

a) The layout and location of working areas. (7 marks)

1. Accessibility: The site should be readily accessible for the delivery of raw materials and for the distribution of the final product. Care should be taken to ensure that staff will be able to reach the building easily using public transport.

2. Flooding: The proximity of rivers and the height of water table should also be considered, as it is not acceptable to prepare food in an environment contaminated by flood water.

3. Provision and availability of services: all mains services should be available e.g. electricity, gas and telephone.

b) The structure of walls, floors, doors and windows. (7 marks)

1. Walls: internal wall surfaces should have a smooth, impervious finish and be free from cracks and crevices where pests, food and debris may

lodge. They should be constructed of durable materials, with the provision of additional protection against impact where necessary. Walls should be light in color and finished with an impervious and non flaking material.

2. Floors: must be finished so that they are resistant to the effects of grease and cleaning agents. They must be non-slip, which is particularly important in food operations where steam is produced and water spillage are common. Floors must be easy to clean.

3. Doors: must be self-closing and fire resistant.

4. Windows: must be with screen to prevent pest entering the kitchen, also , must be adequate for ventilation.

c) The key hygiene points when purchasing the new equipment. (6 marks)

1. Ease of cleaning

2. Ease of disinfection

3. The surrounding area of the equipment must be able to be cleaned.

4. Resistance to stains

5. Storage

I. The individual infl uences:

~ r-~ 1. Tastes and habits ~

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Factors affect what we eat

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IV. Geographical influences

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2. Indigenous food I..L bc.o I

V. Historical influences

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2. Invasions 0 \:n'~~o-v I--..cVQ. ~CI{ 2? ~J J J0''' ~ ~oc/

3, Establishment of trade routes VI. Physiological influences

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VII. Political influences

Food, hygiene and nutrition

Oxford House College


DlIM 111 - Food, hygiene and nutrition ~

1. Tax 011 food I,k. c; ~04o.; '20,

2. Policies on food C"I i._,_ \'''''' \v~"'-'

3. Export and import restrictions _~ bn'h.'>"" bQ_. ...... JVIII. Cultural variety



1. The races and nations of the world represent a great vaJ)ety of cull~ures each .x!. cJ

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2. Why is cultural awareness important in catering? ~ '\ ')\0"",,,

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a. There has been a rapid spread of tourism, creating a demand for a

broader culinary experience.

b. Many people frOI11 overseas have opened restaurants using their own

foods and styles of cooking.

c. The development of air-cargo means perishable foods from distant places readily available.

d. The media, particularly television, has stimulated an interest in worldwide cooking.

IX. Religious influences 1. Christian

a. Shrove Tuesday: the day before the start of Lent, when pancakes are on many menus, traditionally to use up ingredients prior to Lent.

b. Good Friday: hot cross buns are often eaten as a reminder of Christ's crucifixion.

0\1'\ cl\vrP9\.a--k b~hc,J;or

e>w,O ~I~~~

c. Ea):~ Sunday: simnel cakes are made with marzipan and chocolate, ~~ \1'~

and Easter eggs are eaten as a symbol of new life and the Resurrection.

d. Christmas: celebrated with feasting with roast turkey today often replacing the traditional roast beef and boar's head, followed by Christmas pudding and mince pies.

2. Muslim

a. Alcohol and pork are traditionally forbidden in their diet.

b. Only halal meat is permitted.

c. During Ramadan, Muslims fast which means no food should be taken from dawn to sunset.

Yi Lee (yi1023CQ),

Food, hygiene and nutrition

Oxford House College


DHl'v1 111 Food, hygiene and nutrit ion 3. Hindu

a. Hindus do not eat beef.

b. Holi is the festival which celebrates the end of winter and the arrival of


c. Raksha Bandha celebrates the ties between brothers ad sisters at the

end of July or in August.

d. Janam Ashtami celebrates the birth of Krishna in August.

e. Dussehra is the festival of good over evil.

f. Diwali is the festival oflight.

g. Sarnosas, banana fudge and vegetable dishes of all kinds are eaten to celebrate.

4. Sikh

Baisakhi day

5. Buddhist

Strict Buddhists are vegetarians.

G. Judaism

a. Shellfish, pork and birds of prey are forbidden.

b. Kosher meat

c. Milk and meat must neither be used together in cooking nor served at the same meal.

d. During the Jewish Sabbath, Chollah is eaten

e. Matzo is eaten to memorize the exodus of the Jews from Egypt.

X. Eclectic cuisine

1. What is eclectic cuisine?

This is the mix of modem national styles and flavourings from different -illuv,t - +\r.o..\

~dl""\ wt'r~ T~cJ-..

countries which has developed over recent years.

2. Examples of these styles:

a. French Thai

b. Indian with French presentation

c. American Japanese

d. Australian/Pacific Rim

Yi Lee (yiI023@unl.ac_uk)

Food, hygiene and nutrition

Oxford House College

OHM III - Food. hygiene and nutrition XI. National cooking styles

1. British: Puddings ... etc.

2. French: Snail, Fondue, etc.

3. Italian: Pastas, Risottos, Pizzas, Cheese, etc.

4. German and Austrian: Meat and sausages, Viennese pasty cooks and bakers,

; l'



5. Eastern European: Russian Caviar served with blini, coulibiac, chicken Kiev, Goulash, Rum babas, etc.

6. Swiss: Cheese

7. Spanish and Portuguese: Paella, fish. Portuguese food is spicier and richer than Spanish because of more use of butter and cream.

8. Scandinavian: Herring, butter, bacon and blue cheese, rye is used for crispbreads (low-caloric). Smorgasbord, Smorrebrod, Swedish meat ball.

9. Mediterranean and Middle Eastern: Olives, aubergines, lemons, squid, octopus, yogurt and lamb. From the Middle East, wheat, rice, beans, chick peas, lentils, figs, dates and citrus fruits.

10. American: its cooking is greatly influenced by the many immigrants from all over the world. America has developed an immense fast food industry which has been franchised worldwide.

11. Mexican: well-balance diet and spicy

12. Caribbean: Spicy, fruits, sea food

13. Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi: Curry, tandoori cooking, Vindaloo.

Bangladesh favours seafood. Pakistan uses yo gmt extensively, and kebabs are


14. Chinese:

15. Japanese cookery: Raw fish

16. South East Asian: influenced by both Chinese and Indian cooking.

17. African: Couscous, coffee (Ethiopia), Cassava, etc.

Yi Lee (yiI023(

Food, hygiene and nutrition

Oxford House College




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I. Food and nutrients

1. Food provide the body with material:

a. for heat and energy
--- .______.J
b. for growth and repair
c. for regulating the body s 2. The materials are known as nutrients. They are:

a. proteins; b. vitamins; c. fats;

_- --

3. The main function of nutrients

c. carbohydrates; f. water. '-

d. minerals;


Energy Growth and repair Regulation of body processes
Carbohydrates Proteins Vitamins
Fats Minerals Minerals
Proteins Water \Vater 4. Digestion

a. What are enzymes? Enzymes are proteins which speed up the break down


b. Where does digestion take place? (1). in the mouth.

(2). in the stomach

(3). in the small intestine

5. Absorption

Absorption occurs in:

a. the stomach

b. the small intestine

c. the large intestine 6. Proteins

a. Why do people need proteins? Proteins are needed for the growth of the body and for the repair of body tissues.

b. There are two kinds of protein:

(1). Animal protein

c. What is protein?

Protein is composed of different amino acids

(2). Vegetable protein

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DHM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition 7. Fats

a. The groups of fats: (1). Animal fats

b. Fats can be divided into:

(2). Vegetable fats

(1). Solid fat

(2). Oils

c. Fats are obtained from the following foods

(1). Animal origin: dripping, butter.jmet, 1ard.l cheese, cream, bacon, meat fat, oily fish;

(2). Vegetable origin: margarine, cooking fat, nuts, soya-beans

d. Oils are obtained from the following foods: (1). Animal origin: halibut and cod-liver oil; (2). Vegetable origin: from seeds or nuts.

-----. "'- ___

e. Composition of fats

Fats are composed of glycerol to which are attached three fatty acids. Fats differ because of the fatty acids from which they are derived.

f. Percentage of saturated fat in diet (see Figure)

g. Effects of cooking on fat

Cooking has little effect on fat except to make it more digestible 8. Carbohydrates

a. Main types of carbohydrates

(1). Sugar (saccharide) (2). Starch (polysaccharide) (3). Cellulose

b. The function of carbohydrates

It's to provide the body with most of its energy.

c. Sugar

(1). Kinds of sugar: Glucose / Fructose / Sucrose / Lactose / Maltose

d. Starch

(1). Starch is present in the diet through the following foods:

A. Whole grains: rice, barley, tapioca;

B. Powdered grains: flour, cornflour, ground rice, arrowroot;

C. Vegetables: potatoes, parsnips, peas, beans;

D. Unripe fruit: bananas, apples, cooking pears;

E. Cereals: cornflakes, shredded wheat, etc;

F. Cooked starch: cakes, biscuits;

G. Pastas: macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli, etc. (2). Cooking effects on starch

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

- --- ---------- --- -

DHM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Uncooked starch is not digestible. Foods containing starch have cells

.. ----'

with starch granules, covered with a cellulose wall which breaks down

when heated or made moist.

c. Cellulose

Cellulose is the coarser structure of vegetables and cereals which is not digested but is used as roughage in the intestine.

9. Vitamins

a. What arc vitamins? Vitamins are chemical substances which are vital for life, and if the diet is deficientj_llanY vitamin, ill-health results. As they are chemical substances they C311 be produced synthetically.

b. General function of vitamins

Vitamins assist the regulation of the body processes:

(1) to help ffie growth of children (2) to protect against disease.

c. Vitami@

(1). Function: assists in children's growth I helps the b~to resjst.->


infection I enables people to see better in the dark


(2). Sources of vitamin A: halibut-liver oil I milk I cod-liver oil I herrings I kidney I carrots I liver I spinach I butter I watercress I margarine I tomatoes

-- --

! cheese I apricots! eggs

d. Vitami@

(1). Function: controls the use the body makes of calcium. It's necessary for healthy bones and teeth. Vitamin A & D are fat soluble

(2). Sources of vitamin D: fish-liver oils! oily fish! egg yolk! margarine I dairy produce

e. Vitami@

(1). Two main substances of Vitamin B: Thiamin (Bl) I Riboflavin (B2)! Others include folic acid and pyridoxine (B6).

(2). Funtion: keep the nervous system in good condition I enable the body to obtain energy from the carbohydrates! encourage the growth of the body (3). Sources of vitamin B:

Thiamine (B 1 )

Riboflavin (B2)

Nicoting acid

Meat extract

Brewers' yeast

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College


Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DHM 111-1

-ood Hygiene and Nutrition
Oatmeal Meat extract Liver
Peas Cheese Kidney
Wholemeal bread Egg Beef f Vitamir@Ascorbic acid)

(1). Function: is necessary for the gro\-vth of children I assists in the healing of ~~ts and uniting of broken bones / prevents gums and mouth infection. (2). Vitamin C is water soluble and can be lost during cooking or soaking in water. It's also lost by bad storage and by cutting vegetable into small


(3). Sources of vitamin C: blackcurrants I potatoes / Brussels sprouts and other greens / strawberries / lemons / oranges / grapefruit / tomatoes / bananas I fruit juices

10. Mineral elements

a. ~i~

~ction: building bones and teeth / clotting of the blood / the working


of the muscles

(2). Sources of calcium: Milk and milk products I bones of tinned oily fish I wholemeal bread and white bread / vegetables / drinking water

b. Phosphorus


(1). Function: building the bones and teeth I the control of the structure of the br~ells

(2). Sources of phosphorus: liver / bread I cheese I eggs / kidney / fish

c. ~

(1). Function: building the haemoglobin in blood and is therefore necessary

--'- __

for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide round the body.

(2). Sources of iron: lean meat / wholemeal flour / offal/green vegetables I egg yolk I fish

d. Sodium

(1). Function: is_required in all body flui~d is found in salt. Excess salt is continually lost from the body in yrine.

(2). Sources of sodium: foods cooked with salt or have salt added or contain salt. Excess sodium can cause hypertension in middle age.

e .. ~

DHM J 11 - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

(1). Function: is required for the functioning of the thyroid gland which

regulates basal metabolism

(2). Source of iodine: sea foods / iodised salt I drinking water obtained near the sea I vegetables grown near the sea

11. Water

a. Why do people need water?

Water is required for: re ulation of body telnPl;;)ftlrttn~-b.¥..e


perspiration I all body fluids I metabolism I digestion I e~n I

-- ~,,___ ~ ..

absorption I secretion


b. Sources of water: drinks of all kinds / foods: fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs I

combustion or oxidation: when fats, carbohydrates and protein are used for energy a certain amount of water (metabolic water) is produced within the body.

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

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DHM III Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Food Hygiene and Nutrition Week.S


Food hygiene


Understanding food l1ygiens(What is food hygiene?)

1. Protecting food from risk of contamination, including harmful bacteria, poisons and foreign bodies.

2. Preventing any bacteria present multiplying to an extent which would result in the illness of consumers or the early spoilage of the food.

3. Destroying any harmful bacteria in the food by throu~h cooking or


4. Discarding unfit or contaminated food.

II. The cost of poor food hygiene

1. Food poisoning outbreaks.

2. Food contamination and customer complaints.

3. Pest infestations.

4. Waste food due to spoilage.

5. The closure of food premises by local authority action.

6. Fines and costs of legal action taken because of contraventions in hygiene legislation, or because of the sale of unfit or unsatisfactory food.

7. Civil action taken by food poisoning sufferers.

8. Loss of production and food which has to be destroyed. ~'~'

9. Decontamination cleaning and replacement of damaged equipment.

The benefits of good food hygiene


1. Satisfied customers, a good reputation and increased business.

2. Compliance with food safety legislation.

3. Less food wastage and increased shelf-life of food.

4. Good working condition, higher staff morale and lower staff turnover, which promote increased productivity.

IV. Bacteria

1. What are bacteria?

Bacteria are microscopic organism, which are found everywhere, including on and in man, on food, in water, soil and air.

2. Harmless bacteria: for breaking down decaying matter, and for food manufacture.

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DHM III Food Hygiene and Nutrition

3. Harmful bacteria: cause food spoilage and illness .. - Bacterial food

poisoning. Food poisoning bacteria produce toxins either in the food or inside the body.

4. Requirements for bacterial growth (6) 0'1 ~l.""""J L ( j'L-,.,J''/\

... ~ ....... " f cv....,qlf\v·'

a. r Wannth: l

1) The best temperature for the growth of most food

poisoning bacteria is around 37°C.



3) Bacterial spores

b .. ' Fooel an~

1) High protein foods are preferred by bacteria.

2) Water or milk is added to the dried food, bacteria will


here bacteria grow

start growing quickly.


1) Binary fission

2) High-risk foods are not left in the danger zone for longer than is absolutely necessary.

5. High-risk foods

High-risk foods are ready-to-eat foods such as:

a. cooked meat and cooked poultry

b. cooked meat products including pates, spreads, gravy, stews, meat pies and stock

c. milk, cream, custards and dairy produce

d. eggs and products made from raw eggs, e.g. mayonnaise,

mousses, hollandaise sauce . c.'"o~'1o.lll \Milqv, 11l~ \wCA. t "",,'ltl . \flfvcJ """'10'\.

e. shellfish and other seafoods including oysters, prawns and crabs

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

f. cooked rice

V. Food poisoning and foodbome diseases

1. Food poisoning: an illness occurs within one to 36 hours of eating contaminated or poisonous food.

a. The symptoms of food poisoning:

1) abdominal pain

2) diarrhoea

DlIM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

3) vomiting

.• pk.H~ I ck.

4) ~nausea - ,U \\ ... ~ 0t S: e""i""~

5) fever

h. The causes of food poisoning

1) bacteria or their toxins

2) moulds

3) chemicals

4) metals

5) poisonous plants

6) poisonous fish or shellfish

2. Foodbome diseases: other illnesses except food poisoning, which can be transmitted via food, include typhoid, paratyphoid, tuberculosis, dysentery, hepatitis A and brucellosis.

a. Three types of bacteria causing foodbome diseases: 1) Campylobacter


2) Listeria

3) E. coli 0157 The prevention of food poisoning 1. The food poisoning hazards:

a. the contamination of high-risk food

b. the multiplication of bacteria within the food

c. the survival of bacteria within the food 2. Protect food from contamination by:

a. purchasing food from reputable suppliers

b. effective instruction, supervision and training of food handlers

c. a high standard of personal hygiene and good hygiene practices and the provision of adequate, suitable facilities for securing personal hygiene

d. well-designed and constructed food premises and food rooms

e. effective pest control

f. the separation of raw and high-risk food at all stages of delivery, storage, preparation, serving and distribution.

g. effective storage and disposal of waste and unfit food

h. well-designed and proper use of suitable equipment

Yi Lee (yiI0230'

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

- ------ - --

DHM III Food Hygiene and Nutrition

1. effective cleaning and disinfection.

3. Prevent bacteria within food from multiplying by:

a. storing food out ofthe danger zone

b. ensuring that during preparation, food is within the danger

zone for as short a time as possible.

c. cooling food as rapidly as possible

d. not allowing dried foods to absorb moisture

e. using suitable preservatives such as salt, sugar or vinegar 4. Destroy those bacteria within food by:

a. thorough cooking

b. heat processing such as pasteurisation, sterilisation or canning

Yi Lee (yiI023r(i'

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College





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Food hygiene (II) ~ Food spoilage and preservation

DHM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Food Hygiene and Nutrition WeekA

1. Food spoilage

1. What is food spoilage?

Food has been damaged or injured such that it is unfit for human

2. The signs of spoilage:
a. off odours
b. discolouration
c. slime/stickiness
d. mould growth
e. changes in texture
f. unusual taste
g. the production of gas
h. blown cans or packs 3. In order to prevent or reduce the actions of micro-organisms and increase the shelf-life of our food, we should:

a. minimise the contact between our food and micro-


•. eliminate micro-organisms from our food.

c. manipulate conditions to prevent or reduce microbial

growth. 4. When food spoilage takes place, two distinct processes are

4 .. ,


a. Autolysis - Self-destruction

b. Microbial spoilage

II. F~ation

l' ~-"'~)"~l

1. What is food preservation?

Food preservation is the treatment of food to prevent or delay spoilage and destroy or inhibit the growth of pathogenic organisms, which would render the food unfit.

2. Preservation methods

a. Heat treatment

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DHM III - rood Hygiene and Nutrition


.... "

1) Sterilisation: The total destruction of microorganisms by heat.

2) Pasteurisation: The destruction of pathogens and most of the spoilage organisms present. (using lower temperatures than those used in the sterilisation of a food product, and is a short term means of food preservation.

b. The use of low temperatures

1) Freezing:

• Plate freezing

• Immersion freezing

• Blasting freezing

• Fluidised bed freezing 2) Chilling

• The cook-chill catering system

• The sous-vide catering system

c. The removal of moisture (Drying)

1) Tunnel drying

2) Spray drying

3) Roller drying

4) Freeze drying

d. The use of chemical preservatives

1) Curing

2) Preserving with sugar

3) Addition of acid

e. Preserving food using ionising radiation

1) gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60 or caesium 137

2) beams of electrons from radioactive substances produced by linear accelerators

3. Short-term preservation methods

a. Conventional methods of cooking using heat

b. Use of microwaves

c. Chilling

Yi Lee (yiI023I(/

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DHM I J I - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

d. Controlled atmosphere storage

e. Exclusion of oxygen

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Vi Lee (yiI023({

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DHM J J J - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Food Hygiene and Nutrition Wcek.S

Nutritional problems in today 's society


The major causes of death in the U.K 1. Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke

2. Cancer

3. Obesity and overweight

II. Coronary heart disease (CHO) and stroke

1. Facts about Coronary Heart Disease and Stoke

a. CHD is the leading cause of death in the UK.

b. CHD kills a lot of young people.

c. Men in Scotland and Northern Ireland have the worst rates of CHD in the world.

d. Death rates from CHD have fallen over the last 25 years but much larger decreases have been reported in the USA and Australia.

e. A man with a manual job has three times the chance of dying prematurely from CHD than a man with a professional job like doctor or lawyer.

f. Cigarette smoking is estimated to be responsible for 20% of CHD deaths.

2. What is Coronary Heart Disease?

• CHD is the heart disease which is the result of partial or complete blockage of the coronary arteries which take blood to the heart muscle.

• The arteries are narrowed by fatty deposits called atheroma which develop on the artery wall.

• High levels of cholesterol in the blood appear to encourage the development of atheroma.

• Two fOlIDS of CHD:

a. Angina

b. Heart Attack 3. Risk factors for CHD

a. Cigarette smoking

b. High blood cholesterol concentration

OHM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

c. High blood pressure

d. Insufficient exercise

4. The role of diet in CHD

a. The diets high in fat ~ J_+-l.'\roC>o~u' ~-t -\ I...i,\. It.vJ. 0\ ~t0'Ote

b. The diets high in salt

c. High intakes of alcohol

d. Obesity Healthy diets T D..~ oJ A.( se'tse .



1. What is cancer?

Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues. (~~r)

2. What do we know about diet and cancer? a. The amount of fat


b. Diets low in fruit, vegetables and whole grain cereals ~ho ,,,,c,r('oX t~e. r;s"'-

c. High intakes of salted, pickled or smoked foods

d. Drinking alcohol e. srv\.OW"'~

Obesity and overweight

1. How is overweight and obesity defined?

Body Mass Index (BMI)

BMI = Weight! Height"

(weight is measured in kilograms and height in metres)


• BMI classification system
20 or less Underweight
20-25 Acceptable weight
25-30 Overweight
30-40 Obese
More than 40 Very obese 2. Why are some people overweight?

People eat more food energys'Calories) than they need.

3. What can be done?

The only way to lose weight is to eat less food energy than when weight was increasing and to take more exercise, to use up some of the excess food energy.

V. Role of Non-Starch Polysaccharide (NSP) in the diet

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DllM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

• Low intakes of NSP can result in an increased risk of bowel

disorders, like bowel cancer, gallstone, as well as constipation, etc.

• The substances that make up NSP can be divided into watersoluble and insoluble components.

a. Water soluble: found in fruits and vegetables, help to lower blood cholesterol and possible reduce risk ofCHD.

b. Insoluble: help keep the intestines healthy by making food residues move through the intestine at a reasonable speed, and thus reducing the problem of constipation.

VI. What can caterers do?

1. Recipes and ingredients

a. Check recipes and reduce fat, sugar and salt levels.

b. Replace lard, suet, butter and pastry margarines with unsaturated margarines and white fats, together with oils such as rapeseed, sunflower, safflower, olive or nut oils.

c. Use a variety of both white and oily fish.

d. Purchase lean cuts of meat and remove skin from poultry before cooking.

e. Use reduced fat dairy products such as semi or skimmed milk. low fat, yogurt, and low fat cheese.

f Minimise the use of sweeteners such as sugar, honey, syrup. g. Use the minimum amount of salt.

2. Cooking methods

a. Minimise the use of deep fat frying and ensure that clean oil is used at the correlo~tJlemperature to reduce absorption.

b. Where possible bake, grill, poach, roast or steam. 3. Food presentation

a. Offer alternatives together, such as butter, unsaturated and reduced fat spreads.I.,"'~"l (lCo\~e . l.,l$t. ""'"-~-'''''''C''~f-:' 0''',.:.. ~r)

b. Serve salads 'undressed' where possible and offer a range of dressings including reduced fat varieties.

c. Bread and rolls should be on offer, and sandwich selections should reflect this variety,

d. Offer a wide variety of interesting fresh fruit, vegetables and

salads. ~~ 10; ~ ~~c>b 0...

Yi Lee (yiI023(ii)unl.acuk)

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

OHM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

4. Menu compilation

Offering lower fat/higher fibre/lower sugar or lower salt item in each

. I

section of your menu.

Yi Lee (yiI023({

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College




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DHI\1 II I - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Food Hygiene and Nutrition Week.6

Meeting needs of groups within the population


-------- -It.

Children ~ .. ~ C-

1. What is Children's food?


a. High requirements for all nutrients

b. High needs for food energy 2. Common nutritional problems in children a. Overweight and obesity {'vee., eoJ I-~.C"'''' 1"'6""~ ,f""/ 1<= ........ "'~

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3. The role of the caterer (When planning school meals, caterers should


a. What provision is made for school meals? Where is food eaten? Who eats with whom?

b. Are a range of meals provided that meet nutritional guidelines and take account of health, religious and ethnic preferences?

c. How are food items priced? Do pricing policies encourage the .

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" tuckshop and vending machines? "1,"'C if t--.d Q

e. If appropriate continue to use beefburgers, fish fingers, chips cl--p r-,)s, .0 (coL- r-~ F~' and other children's favourites in moderation. Check that the i.'_"0>} )'''''''~ tu'" scL.coi.-

brand you are using is not too high in fat or salt and try not to =~~ c~

add extra fat during cooking. Serve with lower fat items.

f. What suggestions do children have about school meals or N> J cI I- ~ ~ ~ \-> )".",cJ ~

snacks for this age group. tk/", f~Ltro..cL,

II. ,~~ofuen

III. Older people I.q 1..030 I 1.", t; ~(J..,,_.,../; ~'rlJvo~i~ ." /t.., !Ar&


1. Low intake of nutrients causes the nutritional problems of older people I.,c,ov"'''il'~

2. The role of the caterer: ~ fie<>-"

'.u.-. cvo,-~ nrC.,)' C, \

a. Presentation and temperature of food when served.

'fQ. .. d~iC.... ..

b. Reaction of customers to the food: would you wish to eat it?

c. Are needs for special diets being met?

c""",~<Ytl.c-~ "'"~!\.... w~"t \ood( .. ".cJc...v.....o.~ \..,<l-k)

Yi Lee (yiI0230'unLacuk)

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

OHM I II Food Hygiene and Nutrition

d. You can tryout new foods/menus: the idea that older people

will only cat meat and two not necessarily apply.

_ .. _... . )y..~~_\" c>-v-J ~v"o\":>

e. Can infirm older people eat it?

f Take note of comments/suggestions made by the customers.

1 V. Vegetarians

The important factors when designing meals or menus for vegetarians:

a. Provide as wide a range of foods as possible.

b. Try to ensure that vegetarian meals are not too high in fat.

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c. Ensure a good mix of protein sources. ''''iv' <

d. When providing vegetarian meals for children, ensure that increased protein and energy needs are met.

V. Ethnic minority groups

When providing meals for people from ethnic minority groups:

a. Find out as much as you can about the foods/meals that are acceptable.

b. Ensure the meals and menus conform to the dietary laws.

c. When asked about the type or source of certain ingredients give accurate information.

VI. Hospital patients

--The role of caterers:

a. Ensure there is adequate choice on the menus to cover needs of the majority of patients. j", ()r.;,~<:L lJ th"",,101- worlz._.

b. Be aware of the needs of children, the elderly or other at risk groups in your hospital population.

c. Be aware of the nutritional guidelines for hospital patients and any hospital food policy.

d. Revise menus regularlY/~ f··,,-;I;J.c.HC'~ ('I i/tot",ert

e. Ensure basic therapeutic diets can be supplied.

VII. Diabetics and coeliacs ()"L,'l, ~ lsz..)

1. Diabetics:

a. Most diabetics will need to eat diet high in NSP, low in sugar and fat.

b. If an insulin dependent diabetic requires food immediately,

some type of food must be provided. :"7.\.c..C'IIIra.-Mr 51A"boK ."""'~ 1-1.. ~

f1v..;.,. \,. roc,; f~lI\ 100 Lo'W

c. Always ask for advice if you need it.

r~ ""'.oU.....-t V"""r .... ot

Yi Lee (viI023'

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

" ''(\- +--~ racY> <MIA ~ kCV\-

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DHI'"l I II - Food Hygiene and Nutrn ion

d. When preparing meals for diabetics in a hospital situation

from specially designed recipes, it is extremely important you

. (.41 ",,020' k ~",\-,':v v 1'\-u.,...,J"""d VI?C-y,L.

follow the reCIpe accurately. Ie> ,-c-~l~'~" I~ .

C'''''-'k\ k'\;<~ 0 \ H , k1V) 0 J 1""-< "".1

2. Coeliac disease c..t ""I, t:.-"'--o.-.. t ' 1"""", r

a. Avoid wheat, rye, barley and oats.

b. Check any manufactured foods with the manufacturer.

c. Use gluten free prepared foods. ~

d. Increase the NSP content of the diet by using fruit and vegetables.

Yi Lee (yiI02Ju',uk)

Food Hygiene! and Nutrition

Oxford I louse College



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DHM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Food Hygiene and Nutrition Week.7

it I

Personal hygiene and food hygiene in the kitchen

Personal hygicnc

I. Our body's microbiology

1. Bacteria on the skin

2. Bacteria in the mouth

3. Micro-organisms in the body

II. The food handler (_A", ..a..o:k., ~J_;~ 6c.,~. *4> tC'cd .


In order to maintain high standards of personal hygiene, food handlers must wash regularly and change and launder their clothes frequently.

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L Keep your hands visibly clean. \MM\_, ~ ~ '"'yk-- v;..:I--·'I -\-Dil.d.

b''"I'''a ~'- ~:\r-~c..64L r-I""~'.

2. Ensure your nails are kept short and clean. ,{,4:) v'~;.I~l"~~~ ...... '('J- I"<"~"- "''''c. '<~"')

3. Jewellery, with the exception of a plain wedding band, is not permitted as

it may fall off into food.

4. Wash your hands thoroughly and regularly using a bacterial soap and !:!Qt

water.e c--, -v;JI-t. So...cJ· l0"'r MCo< <.\~ckV(.

Hair -~t" l-.oo.h (lcov:/wo.o..<I', !,c-_Jc,.ovv. bo .... '~ c.-o-b "'f""-r ",_;", i- H.- W;~, o.v

Hair and food poisoning - Staphylococcus aureus r",J ?u- 0", l~.

Ears, nose and mouth

Staphylococcus aureus contaminated


General illness

All food handlers have a legal responsibility to report to their superiors if they may be suffering from any illness which might cause contamination of

~ ,,_,o{; ...... (il.<c. c.. c<h

foodstuffs and lead to food mediated illness. ~ .

Handlers report to their superiors if:




Parasiti~~ing illnesSe5 caused by Cryptosporidium

4,.....~.: .... 1.... ,"'\ ....... yt.- " JA ... ,,,.',,,

Giardia and duo.r~M.

~ Ov-(.. Io~· 0"\ ~~ ot~"'" (JV\Q

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

Yi Lee (yi1023(

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

",....,.....JI.\ 1/;("11<<;' OHM III - Food Hygiene ann Nutrition I

• Escherichia coli infections ;""tuth .. c..(. (' .. "'o..


Handlers should also notify their superiors if:

• They have a skin infection or an infected wound

• They suspect that as the result of an earlier illness, they may be the carrier of a disease which could be transmitted through food.

Protective clothing for food handlers

l.ifc4,.,,'r. O"v"+~ c(041,..,,,,, .,...,.:,v.f ~., CP-11- e- ~--kW'ld'rl ... )

1. Overalls ..... VIl,rcv"V' .

v-r",""~ "",I-i \.-~

2. Aprons r'-<>1'cc.4 ~l--M r-r- ~";"'b C<AA~~';

3. Hats and head coverings ........... .1- ,.J,;o ~ ~ v-A-k IA_.,...''''

4. Gloves ,,'Afflc.. c!tJ-rofo..b{g_ t~

5. Footwear (ee..",- ,"0"""'-, fC\.e..~ "",",~J) t"M-.rl~1O of co"""toAoJc>to.. +lh:cI...-lc°r.rctecA ~

General appearance

High standards of personal hygiene - customer satisfaction We,.. +"1. ~ """""k..!I.. Cv< .. V(,AJ'(-~f L..rr'l ~


c....__~ IvI;' c..~ - 0o:~ ~~ h~!l..c-q

Food hygiene in the kitchen

I. Design, construction and layout of premises

1. What constitute food premises?

Food premises are defined as anywhere food is prepared, stored and sold.

2. Choosing the site of a new food business Co--. \icb...r caJ.h:,.;.", J~ 0"""':

a. Provision and availability of services All ....0-:'1)' ~W dV> __ ,I" 10 ... ~l~lt. .

b. Accessibility-j= ck»v~ , """'" ~ " to'" ck~~"'hV\4 r~cA. -t tr~~. ref

c. Floodingr~~-;~ c~ r-;"'V i <Y-I4t. ~t..:'f'~ "1 wo-h" *o..~<.z....

d. Unacceptable contamination

e. Pollution caused by operation

3. The buildingr~t rOt· W~.I' fyoof. tort. rroo~.

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6. Floors and drainage rl"t.v~ cAG\Vld-r"r"'o/Jl(; fQ£...l,~\A~.

7. Ventilation 10 'rt!~<A_ ~r"'~rt.1 CA.,) ~"d,.:t,... 8, Fitting out a food business

9, Work flow and utilisation of space





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OHM II I - Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Food Hygiene and Nutrition Week.8

Pest recognition and control & Cleaning and disinfection


Pest control in the kitchen

1. What is a food pest?

A food pest is an animal, which lives in or on man's food and is destructive, noxious or troublcsomc.r c>- 1 poll ~~ food

Food pests are a source of food poisoning organisms and major hazard for food business.

2. The common pests found in the food industry include:

a. Rodents: rats and mice

b. Insects: flies, wasps, moths, cockroaches, psocids, silverfish, stored product insects and ants

c. Birds: mainly feral pigeons, sparrows and starlings




d. Occasional problems from feral cats.

Reasons for control 1;(/1/(1 Co..fJ

I. to prevent the spread of disease;

2. to prevent the contamination and wastage of food:

3. to prevent damage; H..~ \.vt; to!,;..., , \:V" 'v-c.i\;\i ~

4. to prevent loss of customs and profit;

S. to avoid losing staff who will not wish to work in infested ,remises; 6. to comply with the law and to avoid being fined or closed.

General pest control

\v..{ - c-l""\dOClv}, 1~

1. Design new buildings to prevent access to pests.

2. Maintain and proof old buildings thoroughly. rJav..:ol <>\ ,",<;.c..~,>

3. Inspect all buildings both inside and out on a regular basis for any

. f' ~ . f ( " ,...,7.- par )i f\..r"

signs 0 mtestation 0 any sort.

4. Train all staffto look for and report possible signs of infestation.

S. Observetheprinciplesofgoodhousekeeplng:"'Clq. e- \~VL "'"", ~ ,..evf.""\V t"L .. \--,-. ov

a. premises and refuse areas are kept in a clean and tidy Y

diti ~~c w...dc.""'r \'v"W1"~

con itton;

b. food on display or awaiting preparation is always kept

d -k. C" re.v~ r H'''-\. '" lc.V-S

covere ; \ I

u .. ~<.c.,... ""l/-( c, ~()"\

c. you 'clean as you go' and clear away sJlillage promptly; r J

"O'Y ru"<)"

d. food is not left outside;

Vi Lee (hospitali!

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

OHM 111 - Food Hvgrcne and Nutrition

e. food is stored off the floor and clear of walls to facilitate

regular inspection;

f. food is stored in pest-proof containers and lids are always replaced;

g. all deliveries of raw materials, packaging and laundry are checked to ensure their freedom teftn infestation;

h. drains are kept clean and in good condition; r.l-h

",~J -I.:. cI. ~~ and other cover in the immediate vicinity of the \

~(I . + ~ f'lo...-.M G\ ..... ,..\I~ t~~,t"""J*"vl.)

~~J'c-t.-" food premises are removed;

J. regular inspections are made and sightings of pests or pest

damage are reported to management immediately. f- f1..<.. -..__~::;t..",~ Cleaning jmd disinfection

What is cleaning? v .... .AQW~ ..I0"'''~


1. the removal of the visible dirt ~' '"


2. the removal of residual dirt using energy ~~lio;..{ I \.,e4, ~c."V; co..l

3. rinsing to remove residual dirt and any chemicals Lot(/,~,J

II. The reasons for cleaning



1. to remove matter on which bacteria would grow, thus reducing the risk of food contamination, food poisoning and spoilage;

2. to allow disinfection of specific equipment and surfaces;

3. to remove materials which would encourage pest infestations; ( \

/ (""";(h I.coV....,. t·- o~"_;c4. 9t.,J ~.)

4. to reduce the risk of .!2r£ign matter contamination;

5. to remove dirt and g~ and ensure a pleasant and safe on., t.j.O\:~

working environment;

6. to promote a favourable image t. custerners;

7. to comply with the law. Energy in cleaning

1. Physical energy

2. Heat energy or Thermal energy

3. Chemical energy

Selecting a detergent e.,fI.d; lie.

~; ~~ i-cvvr. _),.Ao'e ~'

1. readily soluble in water at the required temperature

2. non-corrosive to surfaces, non-irritant to skin and non-toxic

d I ~ dOV\..o\'f rAv.-"d ~ ~"'~ ~

3. 0 our ess


Vi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DHM III - Food Hygiene and Nutrition ' "'" ~ 1 CL.Vi "l?

5, economical for the use to which they arc being put

6, stable during storage 1(>~ch-W~ e,..vO'rcv~e-)"\ct- tJ-C4.~

7, active against a wide range of different types of dirt as this

minimise the need for wide range .f .etergents within an ."erfl.ti.n,

V, Disinfection r ............ ~ -} ~~.,... ....,e4.oCL- ~ uf n:...-vw''''y \:, ..... ck.

I. Types of disinfection

a. Heat disinfection ft. ...... rr\J~ 01 ~t·

I. S- di . f .,-~ ~ ,L-\.olf ~,)o'-t.- vv~ '- ~\rlor l-

... team IS1l1 ectron ....... "'" - . ,4 VI.. _ ~ r~Q.""" k.. "'\"":f""'"""

- ""'tCKt>-o ... ~.. , ...... w,,--~ ~...JA=-~:-i'

,----- c. Chemical disinfection j' se.£.f -- .IV~i" ,~vo.

-- 2. The inactivation of disinfectants 1tC>"<>'o"u.- ~~ Q~4 ~ o-v-t0~ C/~ ~ouA

a. Number of bacteria

.f f

b. Accessibility of the bacteria.T= 1":·\.\I~· d;J'-~ ~ ~ \:o~ "'" flq_ ",CJl

c. Temperature L;{l"- k-.r. ~~ 0t«'

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-4-". \ovv -:> ""'~

,'1 \_~l'

e. Volume

o t

f pH

g. Time (Contact time) ..... 1.1 o4l,,-\,. I-k~ \-1"'-e- +", ",J.

• • - \l ~...... 041.,-\ I tt;,.. ... vl-vc-kol ~ l cI~ r / I~t~k

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3 CI' f disinf I . ttl; "I"'l.",<ole

. 10lce 0 isrnrectant lc,..,

i .... 11"\ .. v- ~ r.....d VV~~ vv~ ;j.....wv_·VI~ roo-!

~ a. Chlorine release agents (.

b .• uaternary ammonium compounds

-.., " It... oJ.,.; • :-tOt ~ +- .

c. I ••• U::"'""rlv- Or io~(2.. S'w,~ G\c{.;I,A. Q.~l. Svtrfc;;..c.:

l~'~ 4 loo..ct. o",,-~ .. wrf .... ce..

d. Amphote.!"L~ ~mpounds .

e. Biguinides ""~ - cLt.Lo .... ·~ .>o..i.o\.; -\:_;-z._e..

4. What to disinfect

a. food contact surfaces ~rr ''\ ~~

b. hand contact surfaces -k~, lc.,.....:v<l-l, Y'l.....t....

c. cleaning materials and equipment.

Vi Lee (

frood Hygiene and NUlrilio~

Oxford House Colleg;:)

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Before we start, dn ynu know something about how laws arc made in the U.K'! Find out:

DIIM III - Food I Iygicnc and Nutrition

food Hygiene and Nutrition Week.P

Food and the law

1. the difference between a Bill and Act

2. the difference between an Act and Regulations

3. how the EU affects the law making process in the UX

1. The rood safety Act 1990

1. The main requirements of the Food Safety Act 1990:

a. The Food Safety Act 1990 provides the framework to protect ("'Q.f_~ ~J\

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customers and requires that food should ~

injurious to health or be contaminated in such a way that it is

unfit for human consumption.

b. It stops food being labelled, advertised or displayed in a manner which ~ describes....or misleads the customer.

c. It also details enforcement powers and penalties which can be imposed if the provisions of the Act are not complied with. It is ~ offence not to comply with this Act.

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2. The four main offences connected with food safety and consumer


a. render food injuries to health J-o" r.:a·)~:r, lo-d~Lcvv.e

b. sell food which does not comply with food safety requirements

c. sell f ••• which is not of the nature, quality or substance demanded by the consumer

d. falsely describe, advertise or label the product

a. Improvement notices

b. Prohibition order

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3. the enforcement of the Food Safety Act 1990

c. Emergency prohibition order

4. Penalties and defences under the Food Safety Act 1 '"~

a. A penalty of two years imprisonment

b. A fine to a maximum of £20,000

Yi Lee (hospitalitv@oxfordhollsegroupcom)

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

DHl\1 III - Food Hygiene and Nuhtion

II. Regulations made under the Food Safety Act 1990

1. General Food


GFlI Regulations aim to assist employers to assess possible food safety hazards within their business and to apply appropriate controls.

2. Temperatur~ Control Regulations I <j'5 1-0- k,~ f\., .. ~ "If k,.,c oI00.JA~ J.e-r"

Temperature Control RcglllatlOns~hat No person shall keep raw materials, ingredients, intermediate products, and finished

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products likely to support the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms,

or the formation of toxins at temperatures which would result in a risk to health.



Food labels are required to carry certain information by law. Most food labels must give:

a. name of the food

b. list of ingredients

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c. Use-By or Best Before information ""- .V\,~ ,--- I'

d. Any special storage conditions or conditions of use

e. Name and address

f. Place sf erigin

g. Instructions fer use ~ to' c,oO'It.,?

h. Weight

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The impact ef EU legislatien _.'" ~evc.t.r. ~,(;\.~ ~L,l '-r dovvwv...~ tp.

Other legislation (HSA W A, COSHH)

I. The Health and Safety at Work Act (HSA W A) 1974

----- -

It sets out to create an awareness of the need for high standards of

health and safety at work and requires employers to prepare and implement safety policy.

2. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COS~ 1994

The COSHH Regulations cover the cleaning chemicals and disinfectants used in catering. The manufacturers of these chemicals are required to provide information about the hazards associated with the chemical they sell, but the evaluation of a chemical's safety as it is used in your business must be undertaken by YOLl, in your premises. Finally, if you change a cleaning agent or a disinfectant, the COSHH assessment for the replacement product, appropriate safety information

- ---....__.

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College

OHM III - Food Hygiene and Nutnuon

and necessary safety equipment must be in place before you start to u se

the chemical.

Yi Lee (

Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College


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Managing food hygiene


DHM III Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Food Hygiene and Nutrition Week.l 0

1. Why manage hygiene?

1. You have a legal responsibility to maintain adequate standards of food hygiene and to ensure that the food you prepare and sell is fit for

consumption. ;<=>- """'~"',--.;~ 4\- .. \1.'\.\ ~ .~,\ ~o-c::ol r..vVt VI(\ .)roi..eP' IL ~cv.v\ rv>r~'t~ ~ \--" ~ v..aJif- ~ "t)r 0 t CW~. 2. You have a moral responsibility to the well being of your customers.

n. An introduction to HACCP

1. What is HACCP? ~} ~ ~ __ oCQ..v~.~ ~~ f.--/ L~ ~

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The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point - an approach to managing

and controlling hazards in the production of food.

2. Critical control points ~ 0~c.-ctro'~

A critical control point is defined as a point or procedure in a food production system where control can be exercised and the hazard eliminated or the probability of it occurring minimised.

3. How to establish a HACCP system?

In order to establish a HACCP system for a particular product, we

must complete a detailed analysis of the hazards at each stage of food

production. Such stages as: ~ukov --\ 'boeO S' Ci\A.

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e. the production personnel

4. Once the CCPs have been identified, appropriate control systems must be put in place.

III. Assured safe catering CASC)

1. What is ASC?

It is another approach to managing food hygiene and safety enables you to prevent problems occurring by identifying hazards associated with each step in your operation.

2. Setting up an ASC system / J.loW~ cJ.

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a. Step 1. Planning - t~'1-- ~ """ <>IF"'t"} ~e,

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b. Step 2. The assured safe catering team 1e> ~ ~!/)')

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f. Step 6. Check the system)

g. Step 7. A full review


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OHM III - Food Hvprene and Nutrition

c. Step 3. Draw a flow chart

d. Step 4. Hazard analysis I) list hazards

2) identify controls

3) critical control points

4) a recording system

5) implement

6) monitor

e. Step 5. Repeat stage 4 for each stage in your operation.

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Food Hygiene and Nutrition

Oxford House College


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Food Hygiene and Nutrition - June paper 2005


Answer all questions in this section, This section carries a total of 40 marks,

A 1. How is salmonella most likely to be passed on by food handlers? a) By failing to wear the correct uniform

!U By failing to wash hands after visiting the toilet

c) By smoking in a food preparation area

d) By coughing and sneezing over food (2 marks)

A2. Spores increase the risk of food poisoning because; a) Bacteria can multiply easier inside a spore

!U Bacteria are kept warm in the spore

c) Spores will contaminate work surfaces

d) Spores can survive high temperatures (2 marks)

A3. Cross-contamination is one way that food can become infected by food poisoning bacteria. How does cross-contamination occur?

a) Food is inadequately cooked and reheated

b) Food is stored or held at the wrong temperature

c) Food is eaten after its use-by date

!!1 Raw and cooked foods are prepared on the same surface (2 marks)

A4. Why can too much Vitamin D be dangerous? (2 marks)

Vitamin D is considered as a fat-soluble vitamin, it can be stored in the body and too much of it might be toxic.

A5. What are the functions of fat in the body? (2 marks) provides heat and energy.

A6. Name a heat preservation process intended to eliminate the risk of bacterial spores occurring in food and briefly describe three steps taken in the process. (2 marks) Sterilisation - cooking/Sterilisation (raise temperature to 115 - 125°C)/Cooling A7. Give four reasons why people have different requirements for energy. (2 marks) Age - Medical conditions - Pregnant women - Vegetarianism

AB. Name two common bacteria which are regarded as food borne. (2 marks)

t isteria, E. Coli 0 151

A9. Who should receive training and maintain the laws for Food Hygiene? (2 marks) Caterers and catering staff

A 10. List two food sources of saturated fat. (2 marks) Lard from pig and Suet from beef kidney.

A 11. What is the food value of pulses? (4 marks)

Pulses are good sources of protein and carbohydrate and therefore help to provide the body with energy. Except for Soya beans, they are completely deficient in fat.

A 12. Name the common food poisoning bacteria associated with infected wounds

and list three desirable features of first aid dressings used by food handlers. (4 marks) Staphylococcus aureas - water resistant/promotes faster healing/colored/does not contaminate food.

A 13. Give four examples of individuals who require higher levels of protein in their diet. (4 marks)

Children - Older people - Hospital patients Vegetarians A14. a) What are the symptoms of a deficiency of Vitamin C ?

Bleeding of the gums, loss of hair, failure of wounds to heal, and even death

b) What is the name of the disease associated with a deficiency of Vitamin C ? (4 marks)


A 15. Describe four decisions you would make immediately after being told that a customer has food poisoning symptoms. (4 marks)

1 Send the customer to hospital or for medical treatment.

2. Find out who is responsible.

3. Find out how food poisoning is caused.

4. Write down the records which show date and reasons for food poisoning and the types of checks.


Answer any 3 questions in this section. Each question carries a total of 20 marks


The practice of Assured Safe Catering should be implemented in all food premises to prevent the possibility of food becoming contaminated

a) Describe the system of Assured Safe Catering. (6 marks)

The Assured Safe Catering (ASQ system is an approach to managing food hygiene and safety enables you to prevent problems occurring by identifying hazards associated with each step in an operation. ASC emphasise the importance of safety precautions in the preparation, handling and temperature control of food. There are seven basic steps in setting up an ASC system:

1) Step 1. Planning - planning is essential as an ASC system should be introduced gradually to allow for changes to be made in the workplace.

2) Step 2. The Assured Safe Catering team - The implementation of ASC should be undertaken by a team of people working towards a common goal.

3) Step 3. Draw a flow chart - Draw a work flow chart we can easily trace the series of process steps used to produce food in the operation, which helps us find out hazards more easily.

4) Step 4. Hazard Analysis - A hazard is anything which could cause harm to the consumer, so we must find out the reasons for causing the hazards.

5) Step 5. Repeat stage 4 for each stage in the operation

6) Step 6. Check the system - Once the full ASC system is operating we will need to review the situation to ensure that it is all operating as we intended.

7) Step 7. A full review - Once the system has been operating for a while we should review procedures again and iron out any problems.

b) Compare and contrast the causes of chemical food poisoning with the cause of bacterial food poisoning. (6 marks)

Food poisoning can be defined as an illness characterised by stomach pains and diarrhoea and sometimes vomiting, developing within one to 3. hours after eating the affected food.

Food poisoning may be caused by chemicals and pathogenic bacteri a.

Food poisoning from chemicals often results from poisonous chemicals being stored in unlabelled food containers, contamination of food by significant amounts .f chemical (insecticides or cleaning agents) or excessive amounts of chemical additives.

Food poisoning caused by bacteria can be divided int. three groups:

1) Foodborne infections: the illness is caused by the presence of the multiplying organisms in the intestines e.g. Salmonella.

2) Foodborne intoxications: The illness is caused by a toxin produced by the microorganism rather than by the presence of the organism itself.

3) Foodborne diseases: The organisms do not grow in the food but simply use it as a vehicle to transfer them from host to host

c) Rodents are a dangerous source of food contamination. Explain how rats and mice carry harmful bacteria onto food and the measures that can

be taken to control infestation. (8 marks)

Rodents contaminate food by leaving droppings (their hair and fur), urine. Their dead bodies may also contaminate food. Rodents can physically damage kitchen equipments by gnawing to grind their teeth.

The measures can be taken to control rodent infestation are:

1) The use of baits: Baits contain an attractive food combined with a rodenticide.

Baits are usually placed into boxes so they are less hazardous to personnel.

2) The use of traps: The advantage of using traps is that they prevent animals dying in inaccessible places and causing offensive odours or additional problems with blow flies.


a) State the main purpose of digestion and how this process can be made easier. (5 marks)

The main purpose of digestion is the breakdown of the complex nutrient molecules in food into molecules small enough to be absorbed through the lining of the intestine.

It's good to chew: Chewing can physically break down large food into smaller pieces, increasing the surface area of your food and making it easier for the digestive juices to do their work.

Enzymes - the keys of life: Digestive enzymes play an important role in the process of digestion. Digestive enzymes produced in large amounts at different stages along the digestive tract help further break down food.

b) Draw a diagram of the human digestive system or a table listing the organs to show the type of digestion which occurs in each organ with the help of enzymes. (15 marks)

1) The mouth: Digestion starts in the mouth where the act of chewing food starts to physically break it down. Salivary glands in the mouth produce saliva. Saliva is rich in a digestive enzyme called ptyalin which can break down carbohydrate. Food then passes dowrfthe throat, along the oesophagus and into the stomach.

2) The stomach: In the stomach, about 2 litres acidic digestive juices are produced each day by cells in the stomach wall. they help to further digest food, especially protein, and to kill off bacteria and other undesirable micro-organisms.

3) The small intestine: The first part of the small intestine, the duodenum, is the hotspot of digestion, because it is here that digestive juices from the liver and pancreas help digest food. After the duodenum comes the middle section of the small intestine, the jejunum, and it is here that most nutrients are absorbed into the body. The last part of the small intestine, called the ileum, is connected to the large intestine or colon and passes food to the large intestine.

4) The large intestine: The large intestine prepares what is left (mainly undigested fibres, unabsorbed food, bacteria and dead cells) for elimination.


Despite regular training of food production and food service staff, the number of outbreaks of food poisoning remains at a very high level.

a) Identify three causes of food poisoning and in each case discuss how such outbreaks may be prevented. (6 marks)

1) Chemical food poisoning: Chemical food poisoning can be prevented by: using correctly maintained and suitable kitchen utensils: Obtaining foodstuffs from reliable sources; Care

in the use of rat poison, etc. vleo\l":"'1> c:._~ ~ CG-f ... ~ct~ v)ed

2) Bacterial food poisoning: To prevent food poisoning everyone concerned with food must: Prevent bacteria from multiplying; Prevent bacteria from spreading from place to place.

3) Metallic food poisoning: To prevent this food poisoning we must reduce the contact between food or drink and certain metals such as copper, zinc.

b) Discuss actions a caterer can take to stop vermin and insects from contaminating food. (6 marks)

1) Design new buildings to prevent access to pests.

2) Maintain and proof old buildings thoroughly.

3) Inspect all buildings both inside and out on a regular basis for any signs of infestation of any sort.

4) Train all staff to look for and report possible signs of infestation.

5) Observe the principles of good housekeeping:

a. keep the premises clean and tidy

b. clear spillages away immediately

c. rotate stock

d. clean under and behind equipment regularly

e. do not keep unwanted equipment or furniture

f. maintain the area around the building to prevent the overgrowth of vegetation g. check all incoming items for signs of infestation

c) Explain how food poisoning bacteria may spread throughout a food production unit. (8 marks)

The commonest food poisoning bacteria are: the salmonella, staphylococcus

aureus, clostridium perfringens. 1"L- 3r-~

1) Salmonella can be carried by insects and vermin in a food production unit; Salmonella are also from food itself especially raw meat. Cross-contamination: if the raw meat is cut on a board and the board is not properly cleaned before another food is cut on the same board. Salmonella also are found in human body, therefore the food can be infected by kitchen staff in a food production unit who carry salmonella and pass them on to the food or others.

2) Staphylococcus aureus: are present on human hands and other parts of the skin and in the nose and throat.

3) Clostridium perfringens: these bacteria again are distributed from the intestines of kitchen staff and are also found in the soil.


Increasingly the world is adopting a western diet, which includes a high level of processed foods.

a) Explain the main health problems related to this style of diet. (10 marks)

Western diet includes a high level of processed foods which contain high fats, sugar and salt and high level of cholesterol and low fibre. This type of diet also maximises the use of deep fat frying and roasting.

First of all, This type of diet increases the blood cholesterol concentration and blood pressure which increase the chance of getting CHD. Qbesi_!y and overweight are also caused by the high fat diet. The excessive amount of fat that people eat has been linked to the chances of getting cancer. Low intakes of NSP(fib~) can result in an increased risk of ~I disorders, like bowel cancer and constipation. . "" ..... !-,,",etA. • ,...,.('11qcdA. ... .,;kv

b) Explain how we could change this style of diet to prevent the serious health problems it causes. (10 marks)

From recipes and ingredients:

1) Check recipes and reduce fat, sugar and salt levels wherever possible.

2) Replace lard, suet, butter and pastry margarines with unsaturated margarines and

white fats, together with oils such as sunflower, olive or nut oils.

3) Use a variety of both white and oily fish.

4) Purchase lean cuts of meat and remove skin from poultry before cooking.

5) Use reduced fat dairy products ~1.q'_"'_eJ ,.IIt·tlv

6) Minimise the use of sweeteners such as sugar, honey, syrup.

7) Use the minimum amount of salt.

From cooking methods

1) Minimise the use of deep fat frying and ensure that clean oil is used

at the correct temperature to reduce absorption.

2) Where possible bake, grill, poach, roast or steam.

F rom food presentation

1) Offer alternatives together. such as butter, unsaturated and reduced fat spreads.

2) Serve salads 'undressed' where possible and offer a range of dressings including reduced fat varieties.

3) Bread and rolls should be on offer, and sandwich selections should reflect this variety.

4) Offer a wide variety of interesting fresh fruib; vegetables and salads.

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a) Complete the following chart (10 marks)

Element Food source Essential for Deficiency disorder Iron Haemoglobin

Iodine Goitre and growth retardation

Fluorine Strengthening teeth Tooth decay ~('- I ~'V) ~>\

Calcium Rickets and d-~.r, r~cJ;. i ~~~\"'; ~~W] - ~ osteoporosis

Vitamin A Fish liver oil, carrots Night vision Vitamin C Healthy skin and :5c.-,",r"~ helps absorb iron Wholemeal bread Beri beri

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b) Salt is an essential dietary requirement i~S. (~I~ cc~ ~_otLcOV"l -"/~~("_l)

State the functions, food sources and problems related to the deficiency and over consumption of salt. (10 marks)

1) Salt is essential for stabilising body fluids and preventing muscular cramp.

2) Salt is rich in seafood, bread, cereal products, and meat produsts

3) A deficiency in salt will result wrinkles, sunken eyes (because of tissue dehydration), f!satulence.,j~~h~~., r~sea, vomiting, confusion, low blood pressure, irritability, and a difficulty in br~atl~ing.

4) Eating too much salt is a significant risk factor in developing high blood pressure, a condition often described as a 'silent killer' as those living with it are much more likely to develop heart disease or suffer a stroke.