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Assignment on Surge Impedance Loading (SIL)

Characteristic Impedance: V= + conductance are zero and the


Characteristic impedance is also characteristic impedance reduces to
known as natural impedance, and it / / the real number. So,
refers to the equivalent resistance of a I= +
transmission line if it were infinitely Here, Surge Impedance, Zc=
long. In this case inductive and capacitive
Zc=
If the transmission is uniform and var are same. So that,
infinite, the wave in the +z direction
will continue indefinitely and never The first term in the equations
return in the -z direction. If the increases in magnitude and advances
uniform transmission line is truncated in phase as distance x from the
and connected instead to a lumped receiving end increase. The first term
resistive load =Zo (characteristic is called incident voltage.
resistance) , the entire +z wave is The second term diminished in
dissipated in the load, which has the magnitude and is retarded in phase Surge Impedance Loading: Surge
same effect as if an infinite line of from the receiving end toward the impedance loading of a line is the
characteristic impedance Zo were sending end. It is called the reflected power delivered by a line to a purely
attached at the same point. Such line voltage. resistive load equal to its surge
is called Flat line or Infinite Line. At any pint along the line the voltage impedance.
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This matched impedance condition is is the sum of the component incident SIL=
a unique situation in which all the and reflected voltages at that point.
power of the +z wave is delivered to If a line is terminated by Zc , the The value of the SIL to a system
the load just as if it were an infinite receiving end voltage is equal to operator is realizing that when a line is
transmission line, with no reflected ,thus eliminate the reflected loaded above its SIL it acts like a
waves generated in the -z direction. wave part of the equation. shunt reactor - absorbing Mvar from
Characteristic impedance is of prime the system - and when a line is loaded
importance for good transmission. Surge Impedance: In power system below its SIL it acts like a shunt
Maximum power transfer occurs when work, characteristic impedance is capacitor - supplying Mvar to the
the source has the same impedance as sometimes called surge impedance. If system
the load. a transient voltage (a “surge” at high
frequency or by lightning ) is applied
Mathematical Explanation: to the end of a transmission line, the Relation with Frequency: Because of
The rms value of V and I and their line will draw a current proportional the series inductance and parallel
phase angles at any specified point to the surge voltage magnitude
along the line in terms of the distance divided by the line's surge impedance capacitance, the characteristic
x from the receiving end to the (I=E/Z). The term surge impedance is impedance reduces with increasing
specified point is usually reserved for the special case of frequency. At very high frequencies,
a lossless line. If a line is lossless, its the characteristic impedance
series resistance and shunt asymptotes to a fixed value which is
resistive. coaxial cables have an (2) Spacing between the are generally accepted in the
impedance of 50 or 75 Ohms at high wires. industry for estimating the
frequencies. Typically, twisted-pair (3) Insulation used to separate maximum loading limits on
the wires. transmission lines loadability
telephone cables have an impedance
The characteristic impedance of a line is limited by :
of 100 Ohms above 1 MHz is not affected by the length of (i) Thermal limitation
the line .SIL is dependent only (ii) Voltage regulation
Graphic Illustration SIL: This on the kV the line is energized (iii) Stability limitation
particular line has a SIL of 450 MW. at and the line's surge From the curve, 300 miles
Therefore is the line is loaded to 450 impedance. The line length is transmission line has a
MW (with no Mvar) flow, the Mvar not a factor in the SIL or Loadability of 1 SIL. Line of
produced by the line will exactly surge impedance calculations. that length can operate
balance the Mvar used by the line. Therefore the SIL is not a without supplying any
measure of a transmission reactive power from either
line's power transfer end.
capability as it does not take
into account the line's length References:
nor does it consider the
strength of the local power A. http://www.o-t-s.com/sil.htm
system. B. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Char
3. Re-reflections of a reflected acteristic_impedance
wave may also occur at the C. http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/
source end of a transmission vol_2/chpt_14/4.html
line, if the source's internal D. Elements of power system
analysis – William D Stevenson
impedance (Thevenin
equivalent impedance) is not
exactly equal to the line's
Prepared by,
characteristic impedance. This
Mahmudul Hassan.
type of reflection may be
EEE,BUET
Some Aspects of SIL: particularly troublesome as it
makes it appear that the
1. The characteristic impedance source has transmitted another
is applicable for two-wire pulse.
parallel transmission line, Co- 4. Loadability Curve:
The Loadability curve having
axial transmission and
extrapolated for longer lines,
microstrip transmission line(a
simple parallel plate
approximation).
For Coaxial line,

For microstrip line,

b and a are the outer and inner


radius of the coaxial line and
T and W are the dielectric
thickness and conductor width
of the microstrip line.
2. The characteristic impedance
of a transmission line is
determined by the following:
(1) Size of the wire use.