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Surge Impedance Loading ( SIL )

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Characteristic impedance is also characteristic impedance reduces to

known as natural impedance, and it / / the real number. So,

refers to the equivalent resistance of a I= +

transmission line if it were infinitely Here, Surge Impedance, Zc=

long. In this case inductive and capacitive

Zc=

If the transmission is uniform and var are same. So that,

infinite, the wave in the +z direction

will continue indefinitely and never The first term in the equations

return in the -z direction. If the increases in magnitude and advances

uniform transmission line is truncated in phase as distance x from the

and connected instead to a lumped receiving end increase. The first term

resistive load =Zo (characteristic is called incident voltage.

resistance) , the entire +z wave is The second term diminished in

dissipated in the load, which has the magnitude and is retarded in phase Surge Impedance Loading: Surge

same effect as if an infinite line of from the receiving end toward the impedance loading of a line is the

characteristic impedance Zo were sending end. It is called the reflected power delivered by a line to a purely

attached at the same point. Such line voltage. resistive load equal to its surge

is called Flat line or Infinite Line. At any pint along the line the voltage impedance.

| |

This matched impedance condition is is the sum of the component incident SIL=

a unique situation in which all the and reflected voltages at that point.

power of the +z wave is delivered to If a line is terminated by Zc , the The value of the SIL to a system

the load just as if it were an infinite receiving end voltage is equal to operator is realizing that when a line is

transmission line, with no reflected ,thus eliminate the reflected loaded above its SIL it acts like a

waves generated in the -z direction. wave part of the equation. shunt reactor - absorbing Mvar from

Characteristic impedance is of prime the system - and when a line is loaded

importance for good transmission. Surge Impedance: In power system below its SIL it acts like a shunt

Maximum power transfer occurs when work, characteristic impedance is capacitor - supplying Mvar to the

the source has the same impedance as sometimes called surge impedance. If system

the load. a transient voltage (a “surge” at high

frequency or by lightning ) is applied

Mathematical Explanation: to the end of a transmission line, the Relation with Frequency: Because of

The rms value of V and I and their line will draw a current proportional the series inductance and parallel

phase angles at any specified point to the surge voltage magnitude

along the line in terms of the distance divided by the line's surge impedance capacitance, the characteristic

x from the receiving end to the (I=E/Z). The term surge impedance is impedance reduces with increasing

specified point is usually reserved for the special case of frequency. At very high frequencies,

a lossless line. If a line is lossless, its the characteristic impedance

series resistance and shunt asymptotes to a fixed value which is

resistive. coaxial cables have an (2) Spacing between the are generally accepted in the

impedance of 50 or 75 Ohms at high wires. industry for estimating the

frequencies. Typically, twisted-pair (3) Insulation used to separate maximum loading limits on

the wires. transmission lines loadability

telephone cables have an impedance

The characteristic impedance of a line is limited by :

of 100 Ohms above 1 MHz is not affected by the length of (i) Thermal limitation

the line .SIL is dependent only (ii) Voltage regulation

Graphic Illustration SIL: This on the kV the line is energized (iii) Stability limitation

particular line has a SIL of 450 MW. at and the line's surge From the curve, 300 miles

Therefore is the line is loaded to 450 impedance. The line length is transmission line has a

MW (with no Mvar) flow, the Mvar not a factor in the SIL or Loadability of 1 SIL. Line of

produced by the line will exactly surge impedance calculations. that length can operate

balance the Mvar used by the line. Therefore the SIL is not a without supplying any

measure of a transmission reactive power from either

line's power transfer end.

capability as it does not take

into account the line's length References:

nor does it consider the

strength of the local power A. http://www.o-t-s.com/sil.htm

system. B. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Char

3. Re-reflections of a reflected acteristic_impedance

wave may also occur at the C. http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/

source end of a transmission vol_2/chpt_14/4.html

line, if the source's internal D. Elements of power system

analysis – William D Stevenson

impedance (Thevenin

equivalent impedance) is not

exactly equal to the line's

Prepared by,

characteristic impedance. This

Mahmudul Hassan.

type of reflection may be

EEE,BUET

Some Aspects of SIL: particularly troublesome as it

makes it appear that the

1. The characteristic impedance source has transmitted another

is applicable for two-wire pulse.

parallel transmission line, Co- 4. Loadability Curve:

The Loadability curve having

axial transmission and

extrapolated for longer lines,

microstrip transmission line(a

simple parallel plate

approximation).

For Coaxial line,

radius of the coaxial line and

T and W are the dielectric

thickness and conductor width

of the microstrip line.

2. The characteristic impedance

of a transmission line is

determined by the following:

(1) Size of the wire use.

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