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c c 
the scientific discipline of nursing
the moral directions of Nursing
 !"method by which nurses approach their patients
deals with the emphatic aspect of nursing

!"# $ %is the principal form relating factual and descriptive
knowing aimed at the expansion of abstract and theoretical explanations.
¢ ‘mpirical knowing is the first primary model of knowing (Kenney, 1996)
¢ mt is information source or base of knowing.
¢ mt emphasizes i  i is important to nursing knowledge.
¢ |s part of empirics,
 
and    
knowledge are the keys to
nursing practice (Scultz and Meleis, 1988)
¢ mt focuses on  ii for effective and accurate nursing
practice.
¢ mt is where most theory and research development is concentrated and
some conceptual forms have better capacity to explain nursing phenomena
and others.
‘ ‘
¢ Davis, a nursing student answer a question posed by a clinical instructor
based on what he learned from the school.
¢ ‘lmer, a nurse researcher, uses scientific method to produce desired study
results.
¢ Nurse Michael practices nursing interventions based from accepted clinical
practices

  $ %is related to understanding what is of


significance to particular patients such as feelings, attitudes, points of view
(Carper, 1978). mt is also the manifestation of the creative and expressive styles of
the nurse (Kenney, 1996)
¢ |esthetic knowing focuses on !&the ability for sharing or vividly
understanding another͛s feelings. This is the !&'od aesthetic
knowing.
¢ mt also includes the nurse͛s ability in changing ways and manner of
rendering nursing care based on the client͛s individual needs and
perceptions.
¢ mt is done by knowing the distinctive individual instead as a typical,
stereotype whole (Carper, 1978; Kenny, 1996)
‘ ‘
¢ Nurse Moses places himself in the ͞patient͛s shoes͟ when communicating,
giving judgment and providing care.
¢ Nurse |ce shows compassion, mercy and understanding towards patients,
co-workers and supervisors.
¢ Nurse Miguel uses layman terms in explaining the needs of the patient with
Right-side heart failure.

 !"# $ %requires knowledge of different philosophical


positions regarding what is good and right in making moral decisions, particularly
in the theoretical and clinical components of nursing.
¢ The code of moral or code of ethics that leads the conduct of nurses is the
main basis for ‘thical Knowing.
¢ mt is deeply rooted in the concepts of human dignity, service and respect
for life.
¢ ?essening suffering, upholding and preserving health is one of the key
elements why nursing is a core service in society. 
¢ mt includes all deliberate nursing actions involving and under the
jurisdiction of ethnics and professionalism (Kenney, 1996)
‘ ‘
¢ Nurse Carl presents himself as a patient advocate and defends his client͛s
right to choose care.
¢ Sir Kevin, a clinical instructor, reprimands a student who cheated on a quiz
and explain the consequences.
¢ Nurse Renato explains the concepts behing organ donation to a terminally-
ill patient.

  encompasses knowledge of the self in relation to
other and to self. mt involves the entirely of the Nurse-Patient Relationship.
¢ mt is the most difficult to master and to teach.
¢ mt is the key to comprehending health in terms of personal well-being.
¢ mt involves therapeutic use of self.
¢ mt takes a lot of time to fully know the nature of oneself in relation to the
world around.
¢ mt stresses that human beings are not in a fixed state but are constantly
engaged in a dynamic state of changes. (Kenney, 1996)
‘ ‘
¢ Ruben, a nursing student, strives to promote a meaningful personal
relationship with his elderly patient.
¢ Ruel, a nurse student, undergoes Psychological Counseling and Self-
|wareness sessions before his Psychiatric Nursing rotation.