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## GSM RF Fundamentals for

ALUMS

STUDENT GUIDE
Volume 1

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Basic RF Engineering

Module Objectives

## z Explain different propagation effects for Radio waves.

z Identify the Components of an Antenna system and explain the Antenna
z Electrical and mechanical specifications of different types of antennae
z Describe types of cables and its parameters
z Describe the process of Radio Network Planning.
z Identify the steps for network design.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Course Outline
1. Basic RF Engineering
- Path Loss prediction
- Antennae & Cable

2. GSM/GPRS Overview

4. Network Dimensioning

5. Network Characteristics

## 6. RF Optimization and Case Studies

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Propagation effects

## z Reflection, Refraction, Scattering

 in the atmosphere
 at a boundary to another material
z Diffraction
 at small obstacles
 over round earth
z Attenuation
 Rain attenuation
 Gas absorption

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Propagation effects
Reflection

## z Reflection is the returning, or "bouncing" of a wave off a surface which

resists that kind of wave

## z Pr = Rh/v ⋅ P0 Rh horizontal reflection factor

z Rh/v = f(ϕ, ε, σ, ∆h) Rv vertical reflection factor
ϕ angle of incidence
ε permittivity
σ conductivity
∆h surface roughness

Pr

ϕ
∆h
P0
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Propagation effects
Refraction

substance.

## Considered through an effective

k = 4/3 earth radius factor k

k=∞
k=1 k = 2/3

k = 2/ 3
k= 1
k = 4/ 3
k= ∞
true earth Radio path plotted as a straight line by

## Ray paths with different k over trueearth

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Propagation effects
Diffraction

## z Occurs at objects which sizes are in the order of the wavelength λ

z Radio waves are ‘bent’ or ‘curved’ around objects
 Bending angle increases if object thickness is smaller compared to λ
 Influence of the object causes an attenuation: diffraction loss

diffracted
zone

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Propagation effects

## z Caused by delay spread of original signal

 Multi path propagation
 Time-dependent variations in heterogeneity of environment
 This fading is characterised by phase summation and cancellation of signal
components, which travel on multiple paths. The variation is in the order
of the considered wavelength.
 Their statistical behaviour is described by the Rayleigh distribution (for
non-LOS signals) and the Rice distribution (for LOS signals), respectively.
 In GSM, it is already considered by the sensitivity values, which take the
error correction capability into account.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Propagation effects

 Mid-term field strength variations caused by objects in the size of 10...100m
(cars, trees, buildings). These variations are lognormal distributed.
 Long-term variations caused by large objects like large buildings, forests,
hills, earth curvature (> 100m). Like the mid-term field strength variations,
these variations are lognormal distributed.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Propagation effects

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70
10.6

13.2

15.9

18.5

21.1

23.7

26.3

29.0

31.6

34.2

36.8

39.4

42.1

44.7

47.3

49.9
0.1

2.8

5.4

8.0

Distance [m]

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Propagation effects

## Lognormal fading (typical 20 dB

loss by entering a village)

a tunnel)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
Free Space Loss

## z The simplest form of wave propagation is the free-space propagation

z The according path loss can be calculated with the following formula
z Path Loss in Free Space Propagation
 L free space loss
 d distance between transmitter and receiver antenna
 f operating frequency

d f
L freespace = 32.4 + 20 ⋅ log + 20 ⋅ log
km MHz
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
Fresnel Ellipsoid

z The free space loss formula can only be applied if the direct line-of-sight (LOS)
between transmitter and receiver is not obstructed
z This is the case, if a specific region around the LOS is cleared from any
obstacles
z The region is called Fresnel ellipsoid

Transmitter

LOS

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
Fresnel Ellipsoid

## z The Fresnel ellipsoid is the set of

d1 ⋅ d2 ⋅ λ
all points around the LOS where the
total length of the connecting lines

## r= to the transmitter and the receiver

is longer than the LOS length by

d1 + d2
exactly half a wavelength
z It can be shown that this region is
carrying the main power flow from

Fresnel zone
LOS

LOS + λ/2

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
Knife Edge Diffraction

## z Knife-edge effect or edge diffraction is a redirection by diffraction of a

portion of the incident radiation that strikes a well-defined obstacle such as
a mountain range or the edge of a building.

path of
diffracted wave
h0
BTS line of
sight
MS
1st Fresnel
zone
h0 = height of obstacle over line
d1 d2
of sight
d1, d2 = distance of obstacle from
replaced obstacle (knife
edge)
BTS and MS
h0

d1 d2

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
Knife Edge Diffraction Function

## Knife-edge diffraction function

35
30 v: clearance parameter, v=-h0/r
25 Note: h0 = 0 ⇒ v =0 ⇒ L = 6 dB
20
F(v) [dB]

15

10

-5
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Clearance of Fresnel ellipsoid (v)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
"Final Solution" for Wave Propagation Calculations?

## z Exact field solution requires too much computer resources!

 Too much details required for input
 Exact calculation too time-consuming
 Field strength prediction rather than calculation
z Requirements for field strength prediction models
 Reasonable amount of input data
 Fast (it is very important to see the impact of changes in the network layout
immediately)
 Accurate (results influence the hardware cost directly)
 Tradeoff required (accurate results within a suitable time)
 Parameter tuning according to real measurements should be possible

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
CCIR Recommendation

## z The CCIR Recommendations provide various

propagation curves
 Based on Okumura (1968)
 Example (CCIR Report 567-3):
Median field strength in urban area
Frequency = 900 MHz
hMS = 1.5 m
Dashed line: free space
z How to use this experience in field strength
prediction models?
 Model which fits the curves in certain
ranges → Hata's model
was modified later by the European
Cooperation in Science and
Technology (COST): COST 231
Hata/Okumura

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction

## Free-space propagation (Fresnel zone not obstructed) → L ~ d2

Fresnel zone heavily obstructed near the mobile station → L ~ d3.7

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
Terrain Modeling

z Topography
 Effective antenna height
 Knife edge diffraction
y single obstacles
y multiple obstacles
z Surface shape/Morpho-structure
 Correction factors for Hata-
Okumura formula

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Path Loss Prediction
Effect of Morphostructure on Propagation Loss

## Open area Urban area Open area

Field strength

open area

urban area

Distance

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
The Antenna System

Lightning
Tx
z Antennae rod Antennas

Rx

Mechanical
antenna

## z Feeder cables clamp support

structure
Jumper
z Connectors cable Jumper

z Clamps Feeder
cable
Earthing kit
installation
z Lightning protection clamps

z Wall glands
z Planning Earthing
kit

Feeder
Plugs cable
7/ 16“ Wall
gland
Sockets
7/ 16“ Grounding
Jumper cables

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
Antenna Theory

## z 50Ω is the impedance of the cable

z 377Ω is the impedance of the air
z Antennae adapt the different impedances
z They convert guided waves, into free-space waves (Hertzian waves)
and/or vice versa

Z =50Ω Z =377Ω

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
Antenna Data

The antenna parameters which are of interest for the radio network engineering
are the following:
z Antenna directivity, efficiency, gain
z Polarization, near field and far field
 Specification due to certain wave polarization (linear/elliptic, cross-
polarization)
z Half power beam width (HPBW)
 Related to polarization of electrical field
 Vertical and Horizontal HPBW
z Antenna pattern, side lobes, null directions
 Yields the spatial radiation characteristics of the antenna
z Front-to-back ratio
 Important for interference considerations
z Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
z Bandwidth

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
Antenna Pattern and HPBW

What is HPBW?
z Half Power Beam Width. The angle across the main lobe of an antenna
pattern between the two directions at which the antenna's sensitivity is half its
maximum value at the center of the lobe.

horizontal 0 dB
vertical 0 dB

-3 dB -3 dB

-10 dB -10 dB

HPBW
sidelobe
main beam

null direction

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
EIRP

Effective isotropic
EIRP = Pt+Gain
Isotropic radiated Power Pt = 56 dBm

V1
Gain = 11dBi
V2 = V1

Pt = 45 dBm power

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
Linear Antennae

z For the link between base station and mobile station, mostly linear
antennae are used:

 Monopole antennae
y MS antennae, car roof antennae

 Dipole antennae
y Used for array antennae at base stations for increasing the directivity of RX and TX
antennae

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
Panel Antenna with Dipole Array

## z Many dipoles are arranged in a grid layout

z Nearly arbitrary antenna patterns may be designed
 Feeding of the dipoles with weighted and phase-shifted signals
 Coupling of all dipole elements

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
Dipole Arrangement

Dipole arrangement

Weighted
and Typical flat panel
phase antenna
shifted
signals

Dipole
element

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae and Cables
Omni Antenna

## z Antenna with vertical HPBW for omni sites

 Large area coverage
 Continuous coverage around the site
 Simple antenna mounting
 Ideal for homogeneous terrain

z Drawbacks
 No mechanical tilt possible
 Clearance of antenna required

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
X 65°T6 900MHz 2.5m

## z Rural road coverage with

mechanical up-tilt
z Antenna
 RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
872-960 MHz
 APX906516-T6 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 17.1
 Polarization: +/-45°
 HBW: 65°
 VBW: 6.5°
 Electrical down-tilt: 6°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 2475 x
306 x 120
 Weight in kg: 16.6

Horizontal
Pattern
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
X 65°T6 900MHz 1.9m

## z Dense urban area

z Antenna
 RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
872-960 MHz
 APX906515-T6 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 16.5
 Polarization: +/-45°
 HBW: 65°
 VBW: 9°
 Electrical down-tilt: 6°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1890 x
306 x 120
 Weight in kg: 16.6

Vertical Pattern

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
X 90° T2 900MHz 2.5m

## z Rural area with mechanical up-tilt

z Antenna
 RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
872-960 MHz
 APX909014-T6 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 15.9
 Polarization: +/-45°
 HPBW: 90°
 VBW: 7°
 Electrical down-tilt: 6°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 2475 x
306 x 120
 Weight in kg: 15.5

Vertical Pattern

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
V 65° T0 900MHz 2.0m

z Highway
z Antenna
 RFS CELLite® Panel Vertical
Polarized Antenna 872-960 MHz
 AP906516-T0 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 17.5
 Polarization: Vertical
 HBW: 65°
 VBW: 8.5°
 Electrical down-tilt: 0°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1977 x
265 x 130
 Weight in kg: 10.9

Vertical Pattern

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
V 90° T0 900MHz 2.0m

z Rural Area
z Antenna
 RFS CELLite® Panel Vertical
Polarized Antenna 872-960 MHz
 AP909014-T0 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 16.0
 Polarization: Vertical
 HBW: 65°
 VBW: 8.5°
 Electrical down-tilt: 0°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1977 x
265 x 130
 Weight in kg: 9.5

Vertical Pattern

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
X 65° T6 1800MHz 1.3m

## z Dense urban area

z Antenna
 RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
1710-1880 MHz
 APX186515-T6 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 17.5
 Polarization: +/-45°
 HBW: 65°
 VBW: 7°
 Electrical down-tilt: 6°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x
198 x 50
 Weight in kg: 5.6

Vertical Pattern

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
X 65° T2 1800MHz 1.3m

## z Dense urban area

z Antenna
 RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
1710-1880 MHz
 APX186515-T2 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 17.5
 Polarization: +/-45°
 HBW: 65°
 VBW: 7°
 Electrical down-tilt: 2°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x
198 x 50
 Weight in kg: 5.6

Vertical Pattern

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
X 65° T2 1800MHz 1.9m

z Highway
z Antenna
 RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
1710-1880 MHz
 APX186516-T2 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 18.3
 Polarization: +/-45°
 HBW: 65°
 VBW: 4.5°
 Electrical down-tilt: 2°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1855 x
198 x 50
 Weight in kg: 8.6

Vertical Pattern

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
V 65° T2 1800MHz 1.3m

z Highway
z Antenna
 RFS CELLite® Panel Vertical
Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz
 AP186516-T2 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 17.0
 Polarization: Vertical
 HBW: 65°
 VBW: 7.5°
 Electrical down-tilt: 2°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x
198 x 50
 Weight in kg: 4.7

Horizontal
Pattern
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Antennae Parameters
V 90° T2 1800MHz 1.9m

z Highway
z Antenna
 RFS CELLite® Panel Vertical
Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz
 AP189016-T2 Series
z Electrical specification
 Gain in dBi: 17.0
 Polarization: Vertical
 HBW: 90°
 VBW: 5.5°
 Electrical down-tilt: 2°
z Mechanical specification
 Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1855 x
198 x 50
 Weight in kg: 6.0

Vertical Pattern

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cable Parameters

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cable Parameters
7/8" CELLFLEX® Low-Loss Coaxial Cable

## z Feeder Cable z Mechanical specification

 7/8" CELLFLEX® Low-Loss Foam-  Cable weight kg\m: 0.53
Dielectric Coaxial Cable  Minimum bending radius
 LCF78-50J Standard y Single bend in mm: 120
 LCF78-50JFN Flame Retardant y Repeated bends in mm: 250
y Installation temperature >-25°C  Bending moment in Nm: 13.0
z Electrical specification 900MHz  Recommended clamp spacing:
 Attenuation: 3.87dB/100m 0.8m
 Average power in kW: 2.45
z Electrical specification 1800MHz
 Attenuation: 5.73dB/100m
 Average power in kW: 1.79

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cable Parameters
1-1/4" CELLFLEX® Coaxial Cable

## z Feeder Cable z Mechanical specification

 1-1/4" CELLFLEX® Low-Loss  Cable weight kg\m: 0.86
Foam-Dielectric Coaxial Cable  Minimum bending radius
 LCF114-50J Standard y Single bend in mm: 200
 LCF114-50JFN Flame Retardant y Repeated bends in mm: 380
y Installation temperature >-25°C  Bending moment in Nm: 38.0
z Electrical specification 900MHz  Recommended clamp spacing:
 Attenuation: 3.06dB/100m 1.0m
 Average power in kW: 3.56
z Electrical specification 1800MHz
 Attenuation: 4.61dB/100m
 Average power in kW: 2.36

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cable Parameters
1-5/8" CELLFLEX® Coaxial Cable

## z Feeder Cable z Mechanical specification

 1-5/8" CELLFLEX® Low-Loss  Cable weight kg\m: 1.26
Foam-Dielectric Coaxial Cable  Minimum bending radius
 LCF158-50J Standard y Single bend in mm: 200
 LCF158-50JFN Flame Retardant y Repeated bends in mm: 508
y Installation temperature >-25°C  Bending moment in Nm: 46.0
z Electrical specification 900MHz  Recommended clamp spacing:
 Attenuation: 2.34dB/100m 1.2m
 Average power in kW: 4.97
z Electrical specification 1800MHz
 Attenuation: 3.57dB/100m
 Average power in kW: 3.26

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cable Parameters
1/2" CELLFLEX® Jumper Cable

## z CELLFLEX® LCF12-50J Jumpers z Electrical specification 900MHz

 Feeder Cable  Attenuation: 0.068db/m
y LCF12-50J CELLFLEX® Low-Loss  Total losses with connectors are
Foam-Dielectric Coaxial Cable 0.108dB, 0.176dB and 0.244dB
 Connectors z Electrical specification 1800MHz
y 7/16” DIN male/female
 Attenuation: 0.099dB/m
y N male/female
 Total losses with connectors are
y Right angle
0.139dB, 0.238dB and 0.337dB
 Molded version available in 1m,
2m, 3m
z Mechanical specification
y Repeated bends in mm: 125

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Definition of RN Requirements

z The Request for Quotation (RfQ) from the customer prescribes the
requirements mainly
z Coverage
 Definition of coverage probability
y Percentage of measurements above level threshold
 Definition of covered area
z Traffic
 Definition of Erlang per square kilometer
 Definition of number of TRX in a cell
 Mixture of circuit switched and packed switched traffic
z QoS
 Call success rate
 RxQual, voice quality, throughput rates, ping time

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Preliminary Network Design

## z The preliminary design lays the z Coverage Plots

foundation to create the Bill of  Expected receiving level
Quantity (BoQ) z Definition of roll out phases
 List of needed network  Areas to be covered
elements
 Number of sites to be installed
z Geo data procurement
 Date, when the roll out takes
 Digital Elevation Model place.
DEM/Topographic map
z Network architecture design
 Clutter map
 Planning of BSC and MSC
z Definition of standard locations and their links
equipment configurations
dependent on z Frequency spectrum from
 clutter type
 traffic density

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Project Setup and Management

z This phase includes all tasks to be performed before the on site part of
the RNP process takes place.
z This ramp up phase includes:
 Geo data procurement if required
 Setting up ‘general rules’ of the project
 Define and agree on reporting scheme to be used
y Coordination of information exchange between the different teams
which are involved in the project
 Each department/team has to prepare its part of the project
 Definition of required manpower and budget
 Selection of project database

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview

z Area surveys
 As well check of correctness of geo data
z Frequency spectrum partitioning design
z RNP tool calibration
 For the different morpho classes:
y Performing of drive measurements
y Calibration of correction factor and standard deviation by comparison of
measurements to predicted received power values of the tool
z Definition of search areas (SAM – Search Area Map)
 A team searches for site locations in the defined areas
 The search team should be able to speak the national language
z Selection of number of sectors/TRX per site together with project
management and customer
z Get ‘real’ design acceptance from customer based on coverage
prediction and predefined design level thresholds

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Site Acquisition Procedure

## z Delivery of site candidates

 Several site candidates shall be the result out of the site location
search
z Find alternative sites
 If no site candidate or no satisfactory candidate can be found in
the search area
 Definition of new SAM (Search Area Map)
z Check and correct SAR (Site Acquisition Report)
 Location information
 Land usage
 Object (roof top, pylon, grassland) information
 Site plan

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Site Acquisition Procedure [cont.]

## Site candidate acceptance and ranking

z If the reported site is accepted as candidate, then it is ranked
according to its quality in terms of
y High visibility on covered area
y No obstacles in the near field of the antennas
y No interference from other systems/antennas
 Installation costs
y Installation possibilities
y Power supply
y Wind and heat
 Maintenance costs
y Accessibility
y Rental rates for object
y Durability of object
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Technical Site Survey

## z Agree on an equipment installation  BTS/Node B location

solution satisfying the needs of
 Power and feeder cable mount
 Transmission equipment
 Transmission planner installation
 Site engineer  Final Line Of Site (LOS)
 Site owner confirmation for microwave
z The Technical Site Survey Report link planning
(TSSR) defines y E.g. red balloon of around
 Antenna type, position, half a meter diameter
bearing/orientation and tilt marks target location
 Mast/pole or wall mounting z If the site is not acceptable or the
position of antennas owner disagrees with all suggested
 EMC rules are taken into account solutions
y Radio network engineer (RNE)  The site will be rejected
and transmission planner  Site acquisition team has to
check electro magnetic organize a new date with the
compatibility (EMC) with next site from the ranking list
other installed devices

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Basic Parameter Definition

## z After installation of equipment z Cell design CAE data to be

the basic parameter settings are defined for all cells are for
used for example:
 Commissioning  CI/LAC/BSCI
y Functional test of BTS and  Frequencies
VSWR check  Neighborhood/cell handover
 Call tests relationship
z RNEs define cell design data  Transmit power
z Operations field service  Cell type (macro, micro,
generates the basic software umbrella, …)
using the cell design CAE data

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Turn On Cycle

## z The network is launched step by step during the TOC

z A single step takes typically two or three weeks
 Not to mix up with rollout phases, which take months or even years
z For each step the RNE has to define ‘TOC Parameter’
 Cells to go on air
 Determination of frequency plan
 Cell design CAE parameter
z Each step is finished with the ‘Turn On Cycle Activation’
 Upload PRC/ACIE files into OMC-R
 Unlock sites

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Site Verification and Drive Test

## z RNE performs drive measurement to compare the real coverage with

the predicted coverage of the cells.
z If coverage holes or areas of high interference are detected
 Adjust the antenna tilt and orientation
z Verification of cell design CAE data
z To fulfill heavy acceptance test requirements, it is absolutely essential
to perform such a drive measurement.
z Basic site and area optimization reduces the probability to have
unforeseen mysterious network behavior afterwards.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
HW / SW Problem Detection

## z Problems can be detected due to drive tests or equipment monitoring

 Defective equipment
y will trigger replacement by operation field service
 Software bugs
 Incorrect parameter settings
y are corrected by using the OMC or in the next TOC
 Faulty antenna installation
y Wrong coverage footprints of the site will trigger antenna re-
alignments
z If the problem is serious
 Lock BTS
 Detailed error detection
 Get rid of the fault
 Eventually adjusting antenna tilt and orientation

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Basic Network Optimization

## z Network wide drive measurements

 It is highly recommended to perform network wide drive tests
before doing the commercial opening of the network
 Key performance indicators (KPI) are determined
 The results out of the drive tests are used for basic optimization of
the network
z Basic optimization
 All optimization tasks are still site related
 Alignment of antenna system
 Adding new sites in case of too large coverage holes
 Parameter optimization
y No traffic yet -> not all parameters can be optimized
z Basic optimization during commercial service
 If only a small number of new sites are going on air the basic
optimization will be included in the site verification procedure

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Network Acceptance

## z Acceptance drive test

z Calculation of KPI according to acceptance requirements in contract
z Presentation of KPI to the customer
z Comparison of key performance indicators with the acceptance targets
in the contract
z The customer accepts
 the whole network
 only parts of it step by step
z Now the network is ready for commercial launch

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
RNP Process Overview
Further Optimization

## z Network is in commercial operation

z Network optimization can be performed
z Significant traffic allows to use OMC based statistics by using
optimization tools such as NPO
z End of optimization depends on contract and mutual agreement
between Network provider and customer

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Module Summary

## z Explain different propagation effects for Radio waves

z Identify the Components of an Antenna system and explain the Antenna
z Electrical and mechanical specifications of different types of antennae
z Describe types of cables and its parameters
z Describe the process of Radio Network Planning
z Identify the steps for network design

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
This slide is intentionally left blank.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
End of Module
Basic RF Engineering

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

GSM/GPRS Overview

Module Objectives

## z Describe the history of GSM and other Communication Systems

z List the GSM and other Cellular Network features
z Describe the GSM architecture
z Identify the GSM interfaces and protocols
z List the radio interfaces in a GSM network
z Describe the Physical Channels
z Describe the Logical Channels
z Explain the steps for speech processing
z Describe GPRS architecture

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Course Outline
1. Basic RF Engineering 4. Network Dimensioning

## 2. GSM/GPRS Overview 5. Network Characteristics

- History of GSM and other
communication systems
6. RF Optimization and Case Studies
- GSM and other cellular network
features
- GSM Architecture
- GSM Interfaces and Protocols
- GSM Identities
- Speech Processing
- GPRS Overview

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
History of GSM and other Communication Systems

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
History of GSM and other Communication Systems
History of Cellular Networks

## z Mobile network "Prehistory":

 1946: St Louis (Missouri)
 1970 - 80: NATEL (Switzerland)

## z 1st Generation: Analog cellular networks

 1979: Chicago: AMPS
 1981: Sweden: NMT
 1985: UK: TACS

## z 2nd Generation: Digital networks

 1992: Europe: GSM
 1995: US: IS95 (CDMA)

## z 3rd Generation: Universal Standards

 2001: JapanIMT-2000: UMTS

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
History of GSM and other Communication Systems
GSM key dates

(WARC): 900 MHz band reserved
z 1982 Stockholm - Creation of the "Groupe Spécial Mobile" within
CEPT (Post & Telecom European Conference)
z 1986 Creation of a GSM "Standing Committee”
CNET Paris: Comparative trials of 8 prototypes
z 1987 "Broad Avenue": Choice of main techniques:
Medium Band - Digital Transmission < 16 kbit/s - 8 x Time-
division multiplexing, subsequent development to 16 x - Slow
frequency hopping
z 1988-89 GSM taken over by ETSI
First publication of the (Draft) "recommendations"
z 1990 Beginning of studies for adaptation to 1800 MHz (at UK's request)
z 1990-91 "Phase 1" recommendations fixed (GSM, then DCS)
First GSM prototypes in service (Télécom'91 Geneva)
z 1992 First commercial GSM networks placed in service
z 1995 "Phase 2" recommendations issued (upward compatibility)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
History of GSM and other Communication Systems
International agreements

##  signed in 1987 between European

operators
3
 1991: acceptation of non-European 3 3
signatories (UAE, Hong Kong, 2
New Zealand, Australia) 3 4 3
4
 Scope: 5 2
4
-System deployment schedule 3
3 4 22
-Routing and numbering plan 4
compatibility 3 3
-Joint introduction of new services 3
-Harmonization of tariff setting principles 2
-Definition of billing procedures
European GSM-MoU signatories (operators) in 1999

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
History of GSM and other Communication Systems
Contribution of GSM standard

## z Considerable potential market

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM and other Cellular Network features

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM and other Cellular Network Features
Overview of current standards

## Standard CT2 GSM DCS DECT IS95

System type cordless cellular cellular cordless satellite

Frequency
band (MHz) 864 – 868 890 - 915 (↑) 1710 -1785 (↑) 1880 –1900 1610 -1626.5 (↑)

## Commercial Pointel Orange Bouygues Digital Globalstar

names Bi-bop SFR Telecom domestic
cordless
telephones
Company
mobiles

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM and other Cellular Network Features
GSM Success Factors

z Global roaming

## z Open standard environment

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM and other Cellular Network Features
Limits of GSM systems

public
PABX

residential

office PABX

## Small Cells Medium Cells Large Cells

GSM
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM and other Cellular Network Features
GSM 900 MHz and 1800MHz

## z Channel spacing 200kHz

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM and other Cellular Network Features
GSM 900 MHz and 1800MHz [cont.]

## GSM 900 GSM 1800

z Frequency band 890 - 960 MHz 1710 - 1880 MHz
z Number of channels 124 (125) 372 (375)
z Channel spacing 200 kHz 200 kHz
z Multiplex technologies TDMA/FDMA TDMA/FDMA
z Mobile power 0.8 / 2 W 0.25 / 1 W

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Overview

Operators

OSS

GSM External
Networks

MS
BSS NSS
Users

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Overview [cont.]

Users:
z The Mobile Station (MS) is used by the subscriber for calling another
subscriber either in the fixed network or in the mobile network.
z The Base Station System (BSS) is the part of the GSM network used for
access.
External Networks:
z The Network Sub-System (NSS) is used for all the call and mobility
functions. The actual name used in the standards is Switching and
Management Sub-System (SMSS). It is interfaced with other network
such as Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or Public Data
Network (PDN).
Operators:
z The Operation Sub System (OSS) is composed of all the resources used
by the operator to manage the network (BSS+NSS).

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Types of Mobile Stations

Um
"plug-in" SIM
MT0
SIM card

S
TE1
MT1

R
TE2 TA
ISDN
MT = Mobile Termination
TE = Terminal Equipment
MT2 TE1 = ISDN
TE2 (including
TE2 = V or X type
TAF)

## ISDN concepts GSM concepts

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Base Station System

NSS PSTN/
BSC with
TRAU ISDN
BTS

CBC

Other
BTS BSCs

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Base Station System

The main entities of the Base Station System (with the corresponding
functions) are:
z BTS: Base Transceiver Station
 Physical Channel Management

## z BSC: Base Station Controller

 Logical Channel Management
 Management of interfaces with NSS and OSS
 BTS monitoring

## z CBC: Cell Broadcast Center (optional)

 Generation, storage of Cell Broadcast Short Messages

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Network and Switching System

MSC

NSS
?
PSTN/
ISDN
BSS

VLR

AuC
HLR

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Network and Switching System [cont.]

MSC

PSTN/
ISDN
BSS

EIR

SMS-C VLR

AuC
HLR
GCR
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Network and Switching System [cont.]
Concept of Intelligent Network:
z The introduction of new services and access to the GSM service are based on
the concept of Intelligent Network (IN). This is because of the independence
between:
 Conventional call processing handled by the exchange,
 Mobile radio functions handled by a dedicated server.
z Dialog between these two is managed by an IN interface.

z Separation between applications:
 switching functions handled by the SSP,
 radio control functions handled by GSM servers (Radio Control Processor - RCP).
z Functions can be developed independently.

## The MSC handles all mobile radio network access functions.

The RCP handles all mobile radio functions:
z It incorporates the VLR function (Visitor Location Register).

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
MSC (Mobile Switching Centre)

## z Exchange where calls are established, maintained and released

z Database for all subscribers and their associated features.
z Communicates with the BSCs on the A interface and with PSTN on fixed
line.
z MSC is weighted on the number of subscribers it can support. For
example, an MSC of 1 lakh subscribers means one MSC is enough till
subscriber base increases up to 1 lakh, beyond which another MSC is
required.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Multiple MSCs

z When there is more capacity, there are more than one MSCs.
z All MSCs have to communicate with one another and to the outside
world.
z Very complicated to connect each MSC to each other and each MSC to
PSTN
z So there is a concept of GMSC (Gateway MSC)

## BSC MSC PSTN

GMSC

BSC MSC

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
HLR – Home Location Register

## z MSC has all subscriber database stored in HLR

z HLR has all permanent subscriber database
z HLR has a database which describes the subscriber’s profile i.e. basic
features and supplementary services
z MSC communicates with the HLR to get data for subscribers on call
z HLR contains the addresses of the VLR in which subscriber is presently
located

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
VLR – Visiting Location Register

## z A subscription when activated is registered in VLR

z VLR has all the subscriber numbers which are active.
z VLR has a temporary database of all active subscribers (on/off, location
information)

HLR

MSC
VLR

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
VLR [cont.]

HLR

## z MSC communicates with HLR for subscribers coming from different

MSCs. If the subscriber is found valid, then it registers the subscriber in
the VLR

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
AUC – Authentication Centre

## z Authentication is a process by which a SIM is verified

z Secret data and the verification process algorithm are stored in AUC
z AUC is the element which carries out the verification of the SIM
z AUC is associated with the HLR

## MS MSC HLR AUC

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
EIR (Equipment Identity Register)

## z EIR is the Mobile Equipment Database which has a series of IMEIs

z MSC asks the Mobile to send its IMEI
z MSC then checks the validity of IMEI with the EIR
z All IMEIs are stored in EIR with relevant classifications

MS MSC EIR

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Billing Centre (BC)

## z BC Generates the billing statement for each subscriber

z BC may be directly connected to the MSC or through a mediation
device
z MSC sends CDRs (Call Detail Records) to the BC
z According to the template of pulse rates and units set, BC creates a
bill according to the destination called and the call duration

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
GPRS Network Architecture

## Circuit Switching MSC/VLR

Packet Switching

PSTN/
ISDN
BSS with
PCU
GSM+GPRS
HLR
SGSN

GGSN
GPRS Internet
GPRS Backbone
Mobile

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Architecture
Operation and Maintenance

Operation TMN
System
(OS)

## Data Communications Network

(DCN) Configuration
Mediation Fault
Device MD Performance
(MD) Security
Accounting

## Data Communications Network

(DCN)
BSS
SGSN
MSC/VLR HLR GGSN
Network
Elements
(NE):
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and Protocols

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and protocols
GSM Interfaces

BSS NSS
Air Abis Ater’ A
Interface Interface Interface Interface

BSC
BTS
HLR/
TC AC/
MSC/VLR EIR

Ater
Interface

NMS O&M
Interface

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and protocols
GSM Interfaces [cont.]

## z Abis interface PROPRIETARY

 13 kb/s traffic channels
 one TRXSIG signaling channel / TRX
 16, 32 or 64 kb/s signaling rates

z A interface OPEN
 64 kb/s traffic channels
 64 kb/s channels for X.25 NMS connection

## z Air interface OPEN

 13 kb/s traffic channels
 8 channels / TRX
 some channels reserved for signaling blocking

## z Ater interface PROPRIETARY

 16 kb/s traffic channels
 64 kb/s CCS#7 signaling
 64 kb/s channels for X.25 NMS connection

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and protocols
GSM Interfaces and Protocols

GSM Circuit-switching:
MS

## Um (Radio) MS - BTS LAPDm

BTS BTS (GSM specific)
BSC BSC
Abis BTS - BSC LAPD
(ISDN type)

## A BSC - MSC (SS7 basic) + BSSAP

MSC MSC (BSSAP = BSSMAP + DTAP)

E
B MSC-VLR
C (SM-G)MSC-HLR
B C F I D HLR-VLR
E (SM-G)MSC-MSC (SS7 basic) +
G D F MSC-EIR MAP
H
G VLR-VLR
H HLR-AuC
VLR VLR HLR AuC EIR GCR I MSC-GCR

## PSTN / PSTN MSC-PSTN (SS7 basic) + TUP or ISUP

ISDN ISDN MSC-ISDN

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and protocols
(Um) Air Interface

z This is the interface between the mobile station and the Base station.
z The Air interface uses the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
technique to transmit and receive traffic and signaling information
between the BTS and MS.
z The TDMA technique is used to divide each carrier into eight time slots.
These time slots are then assigned to specific users, allowing up to
eight conversations to be handled simultaneously by the same carrier.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and protocols
Abis Interface

## z The A-bis interface is responsible for transmitting traffic and signaling

information between the BSC and the BTS.
z The transmission protocol used for sending signaling information on the
A-bis interface is Link Access Protocol on the D Channel (LAPD)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and protocols
A Interface

## z A interface between the BSC and the MSC

z The A interface provides two distinct types of information, signaling
and traffic, between the MSC and the BSC.
z The speech is transcoded in the TRC and the SS7 (Signaling system)
signaling is transparently connected through the TRC or on a separate

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and protocols
GPRS Interfaces and Protocols

## GSM Packet-switching (GPRS):

MS

BSS
Um (Radio) MS - BTS LAPDm
BSS (GSM specific)
with
PCU with
PCU

## Gb BSS - SGSN BSSGP

SGSN MSC
SGSN

Gn Gs
Gn SGSN-SGSN IP
SGSN-GGSN IP
Gr Gf Gr SGSN-HLR SS7
GGSN Gn Gc GGSN-HLR IP/SS7
Gf SGSN-EIR SS7
Gc Gs SGSN-MSC/VLR SS7
HLR EIR
Gi GGSN-Data Network IP
Data
Network

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Interfaces and protocols
Position of Transcoding Unit (TRAU) [cont.]

MSC/VL
BTS TRAU BSC R
Abis interface A interface

## BTS Site BSC Site MSC Site

MSC/VL
BTS BSC TRAU R

BTS Site
BSC Site MSC Site

MSC/VL
BTS BSC TRAU
R

BTS Site
BSC Site MSC Site
2 Mb link, each channel = 16 Kbps
2 Mb link, each channel = 64 Kbps
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Identities

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Identifications Concepts within a GSM Network
Subscriber Identifications

IMSI MS - ISDN

( International Mobile Subscriber Identity ) ( Mobile Station - Integrated Service Digital Network
n° )
Nature International IdentityE.212 compliant Directory Number ISDN type, E.164/E.213 compliant

## MCC MNC MSIN CC SN

H1 H2 x x x ........ x x x NDC M1 M2 xx xx xx xx
Format
MobileMobile Subscriber Identity Number
Mobile National including H1 H2 identifying the HLR Country National Subscriber Number
Meaning Country Code Code Destination ( national identity )
Code Code* including M1 M2 identifying the HLR
NMSI ( national identity )

3 2 max 10 1 to 3 2 to 4 total up to 15
N° of digits
* instead of identifying a geographical area, the NDC identifies an OPERATOR

## 234 ? 44 802 Cellnet GSM

Examples 44 385 Vodafone GSM
U.K.
44 956 Mercury DCS
44 973 Hutchinson DCS
208 01 69 xx xx xx xx LYON 33 607/8 61 MC DU to 69 MC DU LYON
France Orange 94 xx xx xx xx MASSENA 01 MC DU to 09 MC DU MASSENA
10 33 609 11 xxxx to 3x xxxx LA FOURCHE
Cegetel

Characteristics Stored in SIM module and AuC Allocated to an IMSI (by MMC) in the HLR

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Identifications Concepts within a GSM Network
Subscriber Identification

## z International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)

 IMSI is the primary identity of the subscriber within the mobile network
 IMSI is permanently assigned to that subscriber.

## z Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

 TMSI is assigned to the subscriber by the GSM network.
 TMSI is assigned after the initiation of IMSI.
 TMSI can be used for sending backward and forward across the network to
identify the subscriber.
 TMSI is automatically changed at regular intervals to protect the subscriber’s
identity.
 TMSI is a local number and is always transmitted with the Location Area
Identification (LAI) to avoid ambiguities.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Identifications Concepts within a GSM Network
Subscriber Identification Module (SIM)

z GSM PLMN routes calls and perform billing based on the identity of the
subscriber rather than the mobile equipment being used.
z The identity of a subscriber is a removable SIM.
z A ”smart card” is one possible implementation of a SIM module.

Summary
z IMSI is transmitted at initialization of the mobile equipment.
z TMSI is updated periodically by the PLMN.
z MSISDN is made up of a country code, a national code and a subscriber
number.
z LAI identifies the current location of the subscriber.
z Subscriber Authentication Key is used to authenticate the SIM

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Identifications Concepts within a GSM Network
Mobile Equipment Identification

IMEI / IMEISV
( International Mobile Equipment Identity )
( International Mobile Equipment Identity and Software Version number) (Phase 2+)

...

...

## IMEI TAC FAC SNR SP

(SPare)
:
Type Approval Code Serial NumbeR
Final Assembly Code Software Version Number
IMEISV: TAC FAC SNR SVN

##  Stored in the Equipment (Terminal)

 Used to replace the IMSI or TMSI if they cannot be used
(example: emergency calls with no SIM card) or at the network's request
(maintenance)
 Can be used to update the EIR database (if there is one)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Identifications Concepts within a GSM Network
Equipment Identity Number

## z International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI)

 IMEI is used to identify the mobile equipment.
 IMEI number is permanently stored in the mobile equipment.
 IMEI is sent by the MS to the MSC upon request by the MSC.
 IMEI can be used to identify mobile stations that are reported stolen or
operating incorrectly.

## z Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

A listing of the allowed IMEI is maintained by the PLMN’s in the EIR to validate
the mobile equipment.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Identifications Concepts within a GSM Network
Geographic Identification

## For GSM: MCC MNC LAC CI

LAI

CGI
z LAI: Location Area Identification
 MCC = Mobile Country Code
 MNC = Mobile Network Code
 LAC = Location Area Code
Use of LAI:
 Paging
 Location Area Updating
 Security
z CGI Cell Global Identifier
 CI = Cell Identity

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Identifications Concepts within a GSM Network
Geographic Identification [cont.]

RAI

## z RAI: Routing Area Identity

 MCC = Mobile Country Code
 MNC = Mobile Network Code
 LAC = Location Area Code
 RAC = Routing Area Code
Use of RAI:
 Paging
 Routing Area Updating

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Introduction

##  Inter-PLMN COMPATIBILITY==> Complete Specification

(to the nearest bit)
 Very elaborate SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY optimization
techniques:
Reduction of INTERFERENCE to manage a large number of
Mobiles per km²

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Introduction
GMSK Modulation

θ(t)
z GMSK = Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying:
π/2
convolution of an MSK ramp (π/2 - width: 1 bit),
by a Gaussian function: GMSK
0-1 or 1-0 bit transition => smooth transition of ± π/2:
z PROPERTIES: MSK t
 Gradual transitions avoid the need -Tb -Tb/2 0 Tb/2 Tb
to filter signal harmonics which are very weak
dB
 Spectrum efficiency ~ 1 bit/Hertz
0
(270.8 kbits/200 kHz)
-10
 Modulation spectrum: -20
200
==> To prevent catastrophic interference, kHz
-30
it is essential to avoid using

-70

## -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 kHz

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Introduction
8-PSK Modulation

## z A new modulation Scheme : 8-PSK

z 200 kHz Channel spacing:
unchanged
z Symbol rate unchanged
- 270.8k symbol/s
BUT
- 3 bits/symbol

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Introduction
Traffic and Signalling

z Traffic:
Information interchanged from user-to-user, after setting up the call,
In GSM, Traffic can be an interchange of SPEECH or DATA.

z Signaling:
Information interchanged (in some cases, without the user's
knowledge) between the Mobile Equipment and Network
Machines.
 Out of Call: required for managing mobiles, eg.: location update
 During a Call: required for various reasons, eg.: handover,

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Introduction
MS status (Circuit and Packet Switching Mode)

## Circuit Switching Mode (GSM)

c c ess "Connected"
MS or kA
w
reachable Net of n
n d
E
s a ctio
n
tra
"Idle"
MS not h -on
tc
reachable Swi h-off
w i tc
S

"Power Off"

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Introduction
MS status (Circuit and Packet Switching Mode) [cont.]

## Packet Switching Mode (GPRS)

m
e "Idle"
Ti

At ne
f
MS not to

ta tw
u

ch o
reachable O

m rk
or

en
De
MS t
en

tt
ta
reachable m

o
ch
ch

m
t a

en
De

t
Out of Time
Packet Tx or Rx

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Introduction

## Typical Mobile - Network Transaction (GSM) :

Access
"Idle" state "Connected" state
procedure
Mobile Network Access Out of call TRAFFIC phase
pre-synchronization signaling phase (Optional)

## Channels Common Common Dedicated Dedicated

to be Broadcast Access Signaling Traffic
used Channels Channels Channels Channels
Frequency Freque (Paging) Same dedicated Traffic
Main
search ncy channel used for:
Monitor - Authentication
& Timing Request - Signaling:
Synchro ing
Types of Dedicated .Location Updating
Inter- System Channel . Short Messages
change Parameter Assignment . (Traffic Channel
Analysis Assignment)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Physical Channels: Time Multiple Access

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Physical Channels: Time Multiple Access
Frequencies

axis

200 kHz
Band
(BTS ->MS)

## 935 925 1805

900 bands 1800 bands
(2 x 25 MHz: 124 carriers) (2 x 75 MHz: 374 carriers)
915 915 1785 MHz

ARFCN
Band
MS -> BTS

## 890 880 1710

possible extension of GSM bands
(2 x 35 MHz: 174 carriers)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Physical Channels: Time Multiple Access
GSM Bandwidth & Main Parameters Summary

## GSM 900 and GSM 1800 are twins

GSM 900 GSM 1800
• Frequency band 890 - 960 MHz 1710 - 1880 MHz
• Number of channels 124 (125) 372 (375)
• Channel spacing 200 kHz 200 kHz
• Multiplex
technologies TDMA/FDMA TDMA/FDMA
• Mobile power 0.8 / 2 W 0.25 / 1 W

## There are no major differences between

GSM 900 and GSM 1800

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Physical Channels: Time Multiple Access
TDMA Frame

Frequency
axis
22
Band
Cell
Frequency spacing (BTS ->MS)
7 "beacon”
frequency 45 MHz in 900
95 MHz in 1800

## 1 BTS (eg. 3 carriers)

ARFCN

22
17 Band
MS -> BTS
7

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Physical Channels: Time Multiple Access
TDMA Frame [cont.]

Frequency
Time slot (or burst window) axis
TDMA frame = 4.615 ms
22
17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Band
(BTS ->MS)
7 1 "CHANNEL" (in 1 direction)

## 1 BTS (eg. 3 carriers) Time shift between

22
17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Band
MS -> BTS
7 Same "CHANNEL" (if bidirectional)

time axis

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Physical Channels: Time Multiple Access
Normal Burst

## TDMA frame = 4.615 ms

22

17
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7 CHANNEL

## Time Slot (TS) or Burst Period (BP)

577 µs

Burst
time axis

Training sequence
”Data” (114 symb)
guard time

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Physical Channels: Time Multiple Access
Normal Burst [cont.]

z Training Sequences:
8 different bit patterns, chosen so that:
 They are easily recognizable (very accurate auto-correlation function)
 They are easily distinguishable from one another (little correlation
between each pattern)
z Stealing Flags:
GMSK: 1 bit / symbol
Training sequence 8-PSK: 3 bits / symbol

26 symb

## 57 symb + 57 symb Signaling during call

S=1

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Analogy of Physical & Logical channels

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Mapping with the Physical Channels
TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

BTS MS
FCCH TCH
Frequency Correction Traffic sample decoding
1 SCH FACCH
In call signaling receipt
Timing synchronization
BCCH
System information
SDCCH
Out of call signaling receipt
PCH SACCH
Subscriber paging
2 AGCH
Power Control
Response to access request
FCCH
SDCCH
Out of call signaling -> MSi SCH
3 SACCH Mobile presynchronization
Power Control -> MSi BCCH

TCH PCH
4 Traffic samples -> MSj Subscriber paging
FACCH AGCH
In call signaling -> MSj Response to access request

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Mapping with the Physical Channels [cont.]

## Use of Logical Channels

during transactions between Network and MS
PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH + SACCH TCH / FACCH + SACCH

1 2 3 4 5
SACCH FACCH

## 1 If Terminating Call (TC), the MS must be paged P= Paging

2 The MS accesses the PLMN network RA = Random Access
3 The Network allocates (or grants)
a dedicated channel to the MS for signaling AG = Access Grant
4 Signaling interchange (SDCCH and SACCH).
If necessary, the Network allocates a Traffic channel to the MS
5 Traffic interchange (speech or data) on the TCH, with associated signaling in a
SACCH (background tasks) and an FACCH if required

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Time Division Multiplexing on a Physical Channel

## 1 TDMA frame = 120/26 ms (4.615 ms)

TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

## "TRAFFIC" type Multiframe:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 232425 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 232425

## "SIGNALING" type Multiframe:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 0 1

## Multiframe: 51 frames (= 235 ms approx.)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Time Division Multiplexing on a Physical Channel [cont.]

## 1 TDMA frame = 120/26 ms (4.615 ms)

TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

## 52 Frame - Multiframe on PDCH:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 51 0

Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Block 8 Block 9 Block 10 Block 11

## Multiframe : 52 frames (= 240 ms)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Time Division Multiplexing on a Physical Channel [cont.]

## GPRS (Packet Switching) (2)

TFI: Temporary Flow Identifier:
created when data has to be transmitted and until all data have been transmitted
BSN: Block Sequence Number

## Data Flow to User A Data Flow to User B Data Flow to User C

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 51 0

Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Block 8 Block 9 Block 10 Block 11

TFI =28 TFI =28 TFI =28 TFI =28 TFI =28 TFI = 2 TFI = 2 TFI = 2 TFI = 2 TFI = TFI = TFI =
19 19 19
BSN =21 BSN =22 BSN =23 BSN =24 BSN =25 BSN =12 BSN =13 BSN =14 BSN =15
BSN =75 BSN =76 BSN =77

Data Data Data

## Multiframe : 52 frames (= 240 ms)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Channel Mapping
TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
"Beacon" frequency
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Other 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
frequencies
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

BTS
FCCH + SCH + BCCH + PCH + AGCH downlink direction
TS 0: :

## other TSs: TCH (+ SACCH / FACCH) in each direction

Examples: Number of Frequencies Number of TCH Channels ERLANGS (formula B, blocking 2%)
3 22 15
4 30 22
5 38 29

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Channel Mapping [cont.]

”Beacon” TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
frequency
Other 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
frequency

TS 0 of beacon
frequency: (FCCH + SCH + BCCH) + (PCH + AGCH + RACH) + (4 SDCCH/4 + 4 SACCH/4)
BTS
other TSs: TCH + SACCH (+ FACCH))

## Structure of the Multiframe in "Time Slot" 0 (Config. n° 1: combined BCCH):

F S B C F S C C F S D0 D1 F S D2 D3 F S A0 A1 -

F S B C F S C C F S D0 D1 F S D2 D3 F S A2 A3 -

D3 R R A2 A3 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R D0 D1 R R D2

D3 R R A0 A1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R D0 D1 R R D2

F = FCCH S = SCH B = BCCH C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH) R = RACH Dn/An = SDCCH / SACCH/4

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels

## return propagation time

BTS
TS i
Tx TS i
BTS Rx

Rx
MS1
Pre-synchronized Tx
Access Burst
forward propagation time

TS i
Tx TS i
BTS Rx

Rx - TA
MS1
(after TA) Tx

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Subscriber Paging

BSC

z The Network knows the LOCATION AREA (LA) in which the mobile is
travelling.
An LA can cover more than one cell.
z The PCH channel is used to signal a Call to a mobile.
The same "Paging" message is transmitted to all cells in the area (shaded
areas above).
z Only a mobile in "IDLE" state (pre-synchronized) can respond to paging.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels

## z An access request is always initiated by the MS

(when an MS is called, the "paging" procedure is used).
z The RACH channel is used to transmit the "CHANNEL REQUEST" message.
z The channel is called "random" since the mobile chooses the call TSs
randomly.
This means that there is a risk of collision.

MS5 MS5

## Collisions are resolved by retransmission after pseudo-random delays.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels

 Broadcast information of the serving cell (System Information).
 Transmitted on timeslot zero of BCCH carrier.
 Read only by idle mobile at least once every 30 secs.

## z SCH (Synchronization Channels)

 Carries information for frame synchronization.
 Contains frame number and BSIC (Base Station Identity Code).

## z FCCH (Frequency Correction Channels)

 Enable MS to synchronize to the frequency.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
CCCH (Common Control Channel)

## z RACH(Random Access Channel)

 Used by the MS when making its first access to the Network.
 The reason for access could be initiation of a call or a page response.

## z AGCH (Access Grant Channel)

 Used for acknowledgement of the access attempt sent on RACH.
 Used by the network to assign a signaling channel upon successful decoding of
access bursts.

## z PCH (Paging Channel)

 The network will page the MS ,if there is a incoming call or a short Message.
 It contains the MS identity number, the IMSI or TMSI.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel)

## z SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel)

 Used for call setup, authentication, ciphering location update and SMS.

## z SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel)

 Used to transfer signal while MS have ongoing conversation on traffic or while SDCCH is
being used.
 On the forward link, the SACCH is used to send slow but regularly changing control
information to each mobile on that ARFCN, such as power control instructions and
 The reverse SACCH carries information about the received signal strength and quality
of the TCH, as well as BCH measurement results from neighboring cells.

## z FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel)

 Associate with TCH only.
 It is used to send fast message like hand over message.
 Work by stealing traffic bursts.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Logical Channels Summary

## Family Abbreviation Name Type Role/Info carried Burstformat

FCCH Frequency Correction CHannel MP -- > MS Frequency for synthesizer alignment Frequency
SCH Synchronization CHannel MP -- > MS Timing sync - Frame N° Sync

## BCCH Broadcast Common CHannel MP -- > MS Broadcast system information Normal

RACH Random Access CHannel PP < -- MS Network access (Channel request) Access
CCCH
PCH Paging CHannel PP -- > MS Subscriber paging (paging) Normal
Common
Control AGCH Access Grant CHannel PP -- > MS SDCCH channel assignment (Imm.Ass) Normal

Channels
CBCH Cell Broadcast Control CHannel MP -- > MS Broadcast short messages (SMS/CB) Normal
Dedicated SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Ctrl CH. PP < ---- > Out of call signaling Normal
Signaling
(out of call) SACCH Slow Associated Control CH. PP < ---- > Measurements - P Contr. - Timing adv. Normal

TCH/F Traffic/ Full Rate CHannel PP < ---- > 13 kbit/s traffic Normal
Dedicated
Traffic + TCH/H Traffic/ Half Rate CHannel PP < ---- > 5.6 kbit/s traffic (phase 2) Normal
Signaling
(during call) SACCH Slow Associated Control CH. PP < ---- > Measurements - P Contr. - Timing adv. Normal

FACCH Fast Associated Control CH. PP < ---- > In call signaling (cycle stealing) Normal

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Multiple CCCH

## z Need and transported information

Why a such feature:
Due to the increasing signaling load of cells with high CS and PS traffic
throughput, the Common Control CHannel (CCCH) the channel has reached its
throughput limit: a second CCCH is needed
Base Station
Cell with high CS and PS traffic

CCCH
Air
CCCH

z As seen in previous table, CCCH carries important logical channels for call
establishment and MS localization:

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Multiple CCCH [cont.]

z 51 TS multi-frame structure

## A 51-multiframe describes the TS0 organization. A cell configured with

the BCC mode conveys 9 CCCHs.

TS0 Frame 21

TS0 Frame 41

TS0 Frame 51
TS0 Frame 31
TS0 Frame 11
TS0 Frame 1

FCCH

FCCH

FCCH
FCCH

FCCH

SCH

SCH

SCH
SCH

SCH

## BCCH for CCCH 2 CCCH 4 CCCH 6 CCCH 8

CELL INFORMATION

51-multi-frame

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Multiple CCCH [cont.]
TS0

FCCH
z TS0 content; SCH
BCCH
Example of implementation CCCH 1 AGCH
CCCH 2 AGCH
CCCH 3 AGCH
CCCH 4 AGCH
CCCH 5 PCH
CCCH
CCCH 6 PCH
CCCH 7 PCH
CCCH 8 PCH
CCCH 9 PCH
RACH

BCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH
51-multiframe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Logical Channels
Multiple CCCH [cont.]

## To increase the signaling bandwidth on the Air interface, 3GPP defines

up to 4 time slots to carry the CCCH information (TS0, TS2, TS4 and
TS6). The GSM solution supports multiple CCCH on TS0 and TS2 in G2
BSCs and MX BSCs.
Duplication
of the
System Information The cell paging capacity
SI messages reaches up to 60 paging
messages per second.

## SI With multiple CCCH,

the System Information message
TS0 and TS2.

## TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Speech Processing

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Speech Processing

Speech
Digitization Channel Burst
and Encoding Interleaving Formatting Encryption Modulation Transmission
Encoding

POWER CONTROL

FR Speech frames:
260 bits / 20 ms:13 kbit/s 22.8 kbit/s 270.8 kbit/s (modulated)
(per channel)
...

...
Channel De- Burst
Speech
Decoding interleaving Deformatting Decryption Demodulation Reception
Decoding

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Speech Processing

## Bit Rate on Um interface

z GSM circuit-switched
 Full Rate (FR) / Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) speech: 13 Kbps / 12.2 Kbps
 Half rate (HR) speech: 5.6 Kbps
 Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR): variable speech coding rate from 4.75 to 12.2
z GSM packet-switched (GPRS): 4 Coding Schemes (CSs)

Rate Code
Rate
GPRS CS1
CS2
9.05 kb/s
13.4 kb/s
0.5
0.66
CS3 15.6 kb/s 0.75 GMSK
GMSK (1 bit per symb) CS4 21.4 kb/s 1.0

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Speech Processing

## z EGPRS : 9 Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCSs)

Rate Code
Rate
EGPRS MCS1 8.8 kb/s 0.53 GMSK
MCS2 11.2 kb/s 0.66
MCS3 14.8 kb/s 0.80
MCS4 17.6 kb/s 1.00
GMSK (1 bit per symb)

Rate Code
MCS5 22.4 kb/s 0.37
MCS6 29.6 kb/s 0.49 8-PSK
MCS7 44.8 kb/s 0.76
MCS8 54.4 kb/s 0.92
MCS9 59.2 kb/s 1.00
8-PSK (3 bits per symb)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Speech Processing

## Speech coding: Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR)

z Voice quality benefits:
 It provides the best voice quality according to radio conditions
 It increases in the same time the offered capacity due to the provision of
half-rate channels
 2 extensive sets of “codec modes”:
y 6 possible rates in HR channels: 4.75, 5.15, 5.9, 6.7, 7.4, 7.95 Kbps
y 8 possible rates in FR channels: 4.75, 5.15, 5.9, 6.7, 7.4, 7.95, 10.2,12.2 Kbps

conditions conditions conditions

## Speech coding = speech information Channel coding = speech protection

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Speech Processing
Discontinuous Transmission

## Principles (Mandatory in the mobile and on the BTS uplink path):

 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX): reduced rate transmission (~ 500 bit/s)
during silences
 Voice Activity Detection (VAD): Measurement of signal strength for detecting
moments of silence (neither speech nor tone) - adaptive-threshold FILTER
 Comfort Noise Generation:
In receive mode, reconstitution of background noise based on the
characteristics received in Silence Descriptor (SID) frames, to avoid giving the
receiving user the impression that the line has been cut off

## TRAU --> BTS Speech

TRAU
Silence
MS S S S S S S S S S S
SID Frame
480 ms

...

… MS <--> BTS BTS
...
RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GPRS Overview

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GPRS
Basics

## End User (compared to 9.6 data & HSCSD):

z Service differentiation opportunities
z Always connected
New Applications
z Pay per bit transferred
& Uses Feasible
z Higher speeds
z Faster session set up

Operator:
z Service differentiation opportunities
z Catch Corporate business (including speech)
z Get more use out of network investment
z Path to 3rd Generation

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GPRS
Network Architecture

## Circuit Switching MSC/VLR

Packet Switching

PSTN/
ISDN
BSS with
PCU
GSM+GPRS
HLR
SGSN

GGSN
GPRS Internet
GPRS Backbone
Mobile

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GPRS
Strengths and Weakness

Strengths Weakness
z IP Connectivity z Limited Resources
z Packet Data z Low practical speed
z Always “ON” Ability z Sub optimal Modulation
z Compatibility
z Transit Delays
z No Store & Forward

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GPRS
GPRS H/W and S/W upgrade from GSM

MSC/VLR and HLR
BTS

BTS MSC
BSC ISDN/PSTN
Network
SMSC
Um EIR
HLR/AuC
Internet
or
Corporat
e LAN

## HW and SW Upgrade in GPRS New Services

Core
GPRS capable BSC Network (APNs. WAP)
MS

GPRS Core
Network Elements

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GPRS
Territory Method

Circuit
Switched
TRX 1 CCCH TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
Territory

TRX 2 TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS Packet
Switched
Territory
Circu Dedicated
i t Sw GPRS
it
not a ched cap Capacity
by in f a
trod fected city Territory border moves
ucin
g GP dynamically based on
RS
Circuit Switched traffic

## z Circuit Switched traffic has priority

z In each cell Circuit Switched & Packet Switched
territories are defined
z Territories consist of consecutive timeslots

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GPRS
Coding Schemes and Multiple TS

## Channel Coding Scheme CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4

Single TS Data Rate 9.05 kbit/s 13.4 kbit/s 15.6 kbit/s 21.4 kbit/s More Data
Less Error
8 TS Data Rate 72.0 kbit/s 107.2 kbit/s 124.8 kbit/s 171.2kbit/s
Correction
GPRS release 1

## z CS1 & CS2: implemented in BTS without HW change

z CS3 & CS4: future release (with added HW in the BTS’s)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GPRS
GPRS Specific Parameters

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Module Summary

## z Describe the history of GSM and other Communication Systems

z List the GSM and other Cellular Network features
z Describe the GSM architecture
z Identify the GSM interfaces and protocols
z List the radio interfaces in a GSM network
z Describe the Physical Channels
z Describe the Logical Channels
z Explain the steps for speech processing
z Describe GPRS architecture

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
This slide is intentionally left blank.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
End of Module
GSM/GPRS Overview

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Module Objectives

## z Explain GSM Call flow scenario

z Explain Mobile Origination and Mobile Terminating calls
z Explain the types of Handovers in GSM network
z Describe Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) coding and its benefits
z Describe the benefits of Power control in GSM
z Explain the techniques involved in Frequency Planning

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Course Outline
1. Basic RF Engineering 4. Network Dimensioning

## 3. GSM Advanced Concepts 6. RF Optimization and Case Studies

- GSM Call flow
- GSM Handover
- AMR
- Power Control
- Frequency Planning

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Call flow

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Call flow
Call Processing
Typical Sequence in Call Origination
GSM
Network
...

… PSTN or ISDN
... MOBILE

## CHANNEL REQUEST SET-UP of an

IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT RR CONNECTION (MO)

## CM SERVICE REQUEST SERVICE INDICATION

AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSEAUTHENTICATION

## CIPHERING MODE CMD

TRANSITION to CIPHERING MODE
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE

CALL PROCEEDING

## ASSIGNMENT CMD TRAFFIC CHANNEL

ASSIGNMENT COM ASSIGNMENT

CALL CONFIRMATION
CONNECT
CONNECT ACK CALL ACCEPTED

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures

... Um A bis A

...
MS BTS BSC MSC
RRCHANNEL REQUEST
RACH BTSM
CHANNEL REQUIRED

ASSIGNMENT of an
SDCCH Channel
BTSMCHANNEL ACTIV.
SDCCH N°
ACTIVATION of
Channel indicated
CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK
BTSM
RR IMM. ASSIGN. CMD
RRIMMEDIATE ASSIGN.
AGCH SDCCH N°
CONNECTION to the
SDCCH Channel T3101
MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST
SDCCH ESTABLISH INDIC.
SABM
SCCP CONNECT REQUEST
MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST
MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST
MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST T9105
SDCCH SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM
UA

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Security Functions

z Authentication

 Checks that the Mobile Station is the required station and not an intruder

z Ciphering

##  All Information (Signaling, Speech and Data) is sent in ciphered mode, to

avoid monitoring and intruders (who could analyze signaling data)

## z Temporary Identification (TMSI)

 Used instead of IMSI for safety reason: “tracing” an MS is not so easy on the
air interface
 Allocated at least when the MS is registered in a new VLR
(but can be allocated at each transaction)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Security Functions [cont.]

...

Random number selection

## SIM card ... Radio Channel

RAND (128 bits)
AuC
Identification key (128 bits)
Ki RAND Ki

A3 A3
A3 A3

## Signed ref. (32 bits) SRES SRES

=?

OK
A8 A8
A8
A8 Cipher command BTS
Kc: Cipher key Kc
for the call (64 bits)

A5 A5
Speech - Data - Signaling A5 Ciphered data A5 Speech - Data - Signaling

Ciphering/Deciphering Ciphering/Deciphering

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Security Functions [cont.]

## SIM card IMSI

RAND RAND Ki
IMSI TMSI A4
Ki A5 (ciphered)
A3 SRES SRES A4
A8 Kc =?
RAND IMSI
Ki

Kc Kc Triplets
Triplet
A5 Generation

A2

Ki
A3 Ki
Speech A8 IMSI
Ciphering Data Ciphering
Sign°
Function RAND RAND
Function SRES SRES
(ciphered) Kc Kc
IMSI IMSI IMSI
Speech TMSI Ki
A5 Kc Data
A3
Sign°
A8

## MS BTS MSC / VLR HLR AuC

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Mobile Originating Call (MO)
GSM
Network
...

… PSTN or ISDN
... MOBILE

CHANNEL REQUEST
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
CM SERVICE REQUEST VEA: Very Early Assignment:
or SET UP if VEA
Immediate assignment of a TCH:
AUTHENTICATION
No authentication or ciphering
(Signaling carried on FACCH)
CIPHERING
omitted if VEA
SET UP

## ASSIGNMENT CMD EA: Early Assignment:

ASSIGNMENT COM TCH allocated BEFORE call confirmation

ASSIGNMENT CMD 1/2 OACSU:
ASSIGNMENT COM TCH allocated after called party ringing
CONNECT CALL ACCEPTED
CONNECT ACK
ASSIGNMENT CMD OACSU complete
ASSIGNMENT COM TCH allocated after called party answer

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Mobile Originating Call (MO) [cont.]

...

… Um A bis A
... PSTN or ISDN
MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR
RRCHANNEL REQUEST
RACH
RRIMMEDIATE ASSIGN.SDCCH N°
AGCH
SABM
SDCCH MM CM Serv. Req. ESTABLISH INDIC. SCCP CONNECT REQUEST
UA MM CM Serv. Req.
MM CM Serv. Req.
SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM
AUTHENTICATION

CIPHERING
Ciphered
SDCCH CC SET - UP
DATA INDICATIONCC Set - Up SCCP DATACC Set - Up
ISUP IAM
DATA REQUEST SCCP DATA
CC CALL PROCEEDING
CC Call Proceeding. CCCall Proceeding.
CIC selection
BTSMPHYS. CTX REQ. SCCP DATA
BSSMAPAssignment Request
TCH allocation
BTSMPHYS. CTX CONF.
BTSMCHANNEL ACTIV.TCH
BTSMCHANNEL ACTIV. ACK

## RRASSIGNMENT CMD TCH DATA REQUEST

RRAssignment Cmd T3107
RELEASE REQ *Local End *: if no answer from the MS

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Mobile Originating Call (MO) [cont.]

...

… Um A bis A
... PSTN or ISDN

## MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR

SABM ESTABLISH INDIC.
FACCH
UA

ASSIGNMENT COMPL.
DATA INDICATION SCCP DATA
Assign. compl.
Assign. compl.
RF CHANNEL REL.
RF CHANNEL REL. ACK

## SCCP DATAAlerting ACM Called P. ringing

ANM Off-hooking
DATA REQUESTConnect SCCP DATAConnect
CONNECT

## CONNECT ACK DATA IND. Connect SCCP DATA

Ack
Connect
Ack

CONVERSATION PHASE

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Mobile Terminating Call (MT)

8
9 1 Called party
number: MSISDN
5 PLMN 2 Detection of a
mobile number, call

...

VMSC VLR
directed to the PLMN
concerned
... 4
3 HLR interrogation:
transmission of the
mobile MSISDN
4 VLR interrogation:
IMSI used
5 Temporary routing
7 number allocation by
HLR VLR: MSRN (roaming
number)
3 6 MSRN forwarded
6 to the GMSC
7 Call rerouted to
the visited MSC
GMSC paging information and
2 the VLR replies
9 Subscriber paging
with TMSI
PSTN Signalling
1
Traffic

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Mobile Terminating Call (MT) [cont.]

GSM
Network
PSTN or ISDN
...

MOBILE
...
PAGING REQUEST
SET-UP of an
CHANNEL REQUEST
RR CONNECTION (MT)
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT

## PAGING RESULT SERVICE INDICATION

AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE

## CIPHERING MODE CMD

CIPHERING MODE COMPLETETRANSITION to CIPHERING mode

SET UP
CALL CONFIRMED START OF CALL

## ASSIGNMENT CMD TRAFFIC CHANNEL

ASSIGNMENT COM ASSIGNMENT

CALL CONFIRMATION
CONNECT CALL ACCEPTED
CONNECT ACK

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Example of an International Call

VMSC VLR
International SCCP
...

… Visited PLMN Incoming Gateways
...
COUNTRY 3
Outgoing
Home PLMN

rro g ation
Incoming inte HLR
Outgoing
GMSC

PSTN
COUNTRY 1
COUNTRY 2

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Location Updating

z General
 This procedure is always initiated by the Mobile Station and involves providing the VLR (and HLR if
required) with its current position.
 The visited VLR stores the Location Area (LA).
 The LA n° (LAI) received is updated dynamically in the SIM non-volatile memory.

## z Normal Location Update

 When the mobile is switched on without having stored the LAI (e.g.: initial use of SIM).
 When the mobile is switched on in an LA different from the LA stored in the SIM.
 When the pre-synchronized mobile moves from one LA to another (same or different VLR).

## z Periodic Location Update

 When the SIM internal counter overflows (based on BCCH broadcasted value)
 (This counter is automatically incremented by the mobile when it is switched on)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Location Updating [cont.]

GSM
Network

...

… MOBILE
...
CHANNEL REQUEST Set-up of an
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
RR Connection (MO)
LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST old TMSI or IMSI
Service Indication
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE Authentication (*)

## CIPHERING MODE CMD Transition to

CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
Ciphering Mode (*)

## LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT newTMSI

Allocation of a new
TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE
Temporary Identification

CHANNEL RELEASE
RR Connection release
(*) option

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Level 3 GSM Procedures
Location Updating [cont.]

... Um A bis A

...
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR HLR
RACH RRCHANNEL REQUEST
BTSM
CHANNEL REQUIRED

BTSMCHANNEL ACTIV.

## BTSM CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK

RR
RRIMMEDIATE ASSIGN. IMM. ASSIGN. CMD
AGCH
SABM MMLoc. Upd. Req.
SDCCH ESTABLISH INDIC.
SCCP CONNECT REQUEST
MA UPDATE LOCATION
UA MMLoc. Upd. Req. MMLoc. Upd. Req.
MMLoc. Upd. Req. P AREA MAPUPDATE LOCATION
SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM
MAPUPDATE LOCATION ACC

## INSERT SUBSCR. DATA

MAP

TMSI Alloc.
LOCATION UPDATING MAPLOC. AREA UPD. ACC.
SCCP DATA MAP INSERT SUB. DATA ACK
MM ACCEPT DATA REQUEST
MMLoc. Upd. Acc.
TMSI MMLoc. Upd. Acc.
MMTMSI REALLOC COMPLETE
DATA INDICATION SCCP DATA
MMTMSI Realloc. compl.
MMTMSI Realloc. compl.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Handover

Cell 1 Cell 2

## Handover is a GSM feature by which the control/communication of a Mobile is

transferred from one cell to another if certain criteria’s are met. It is a network
initiated process.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Criteria for Handover

z Interference Level
z Power Budget

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Handover Decision

BTS BTS
BTS BTS
BTS BTS

## Mobile has measurements of six neighbors

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Handover Decision [cont.]

## z BSS performs averaging function on these measurements every

SACCH frame (480ms)

## z Handover Decision algorithm is activated after a set number of

SACCH frame periods by comparison against thresholds

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Types of Handovers

z INTRA-CELL Handovers
z INTER-CELL Handovers
z INTRA-BSC Handovers
z INTER-BSC Handovers
z INTER-MSC Handovers

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Intra-Cell Handover

C1

C0

## z Handover between timeslots of same frequency

z Handover between different frequencies of the same cell (to reduce
interference)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Inter-Cell Handover

BTS
Cell 1 Cell 2

## z MSC is told about Handover (HO)

z BTS -> BSC -> MSC

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Intra-BSC Handover

BTS

MSC BSC

BTS

This HO takes place if the cell to which handover is to be done belongs to the
same BSC

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Inter-BSC Handover

BSC BTS

MSC

BSC BTS

## The MSC is completely involved in this Handover

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Inter-MSC Handover

GMSC/
PSTN/
Backbone

## MSC BSC BTS

In this case the handover takes place through the interconnecting element
which can be GMSC or PSTN or private Backbone between the MSCs

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Different causes of Handover

## Emergency HO Better cell HO

PBGT
Level Quality

Traffic causes
Distance Interference

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Change of Cell during the Call (“Handover”)

z 3 Phases:
 Identification of requirement, Selection of a new cell, Execution
z Mobile Station:
 Continuous Quality and Received Power Control
 Continuous adjacent cell Power monitoring
 Transmission of measurement reports to the BTS (every 0.5s)
z Network:
 The BTS measures the Quality and the received Power from the mobile
 The BSC runs the Power Control and Handover central algorithm
 The BSC controls the handover operation
z Handover Types:
 Intra-BSC / Inter-BSC, Intra-MSC / Inter-MSC / Inter-PLMN / Inter-Network (2G
<-> 3G)
 Internal (within the same BTS) if there is uplink or downlink interference
 Synchronized / non-synchronized

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Change of Cell during the Call (“Handover”) [cont.]

BTS 1

## BTS 2 MSC / VLR

BSC PSTN

MSC / VLR
BSC

(Intra-BSC)
BSC
MSC / VLR

BSC

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Change of Cell during the Call (“Handover”) [cont.]

A
...

… Um A bis PSTN or ISDN
...
MS BTS 1 BTS 2 BSC MSC
SACCH MEASUREMENT
RR REPORT
MEASUREMENT REPORT
SACCH MEASUREMENT
RR REPORT
MEASUREMENT REPORT

## Internal Handover decision

BTSMCHANNEL ACTIV.

## CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK

BTSM
DATA REQUESTRRHandover Cmd
RRHANDOVER COMMAND (RELEASE REQUEST)
(old FACCH Local End
) T8
(new)FACCH
RRHANDOVER ACCESS
(access burst) HANDOVER DETECTION
RRPHYSICAL INFO
FACCH Changeover to new channel
SABM
ESTABLISH INDIC.
UA

HANDOVER COMPLETE
RR
DATA INDICATION
SCCP DATA
RRHandover. compl.
BTSM
RF CHANNEL RELEASE BSSMAPH.O. Performed
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACKRelease of old channel
BTSM

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Change of Cell during the Call (“Handover”) [cont.]

## BTS 1 MSC / VLR

BSC 1 PSTN
BTS 2

MSC / VLR
BSC 2

(Inter-BSC)
BSC
MSC / VLR

BSC

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Change of Cell during the Call (“Handover”) [cont.]

MSC / VLR1
BSC PSTN

MSC / VLR2
BSC 1
BTS 1

BTS 2
(Inter-MSC)
BSC 2 MSC /
VLR

BSC

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
GSM Handover
Change of Cell during the Call (“Handover”) [cont.]

MSC / VLR1
BSC PSTN

MSC / VLR2
BSC

(Inter-MSC
BSC 1 subsequent)
BTS 1 MSC / VLR3

BTS 2

BSC 2

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Introduction
Hard/Soft Blocking

Hard
Hardblocking
blocking
The
Thewhole
resourceisisininuse
use--no
nomore
morecalls
callscan
canbe
beestablished
established
due to lack of free radio timeslots.
due to lack of free radio timeslots.

Soft
Softblocking
blocking
The
Thecapacity
capacityof
ofindividual
individualcells
cellsisislimited
limitedby
bythe
thelevel
levelof
ofthe
theinterference
interference
rather
ratherthan
thanthe
thenumber
numberofofTRXs
TRXsavailable
available

## Is dominating with tight reuse patterns = Narrowband deployments

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Introduction
Spectral Efficiency & Performance

## z Standard Measure: Erl/km²/MHz

z Nokia Measure: Effective Frequency Load (∝ Erl/MHz)
z Spectral Efficiency is equivalent to performance
z Assuming no lack of radio resources or HW blocking

## Performance is a Key Performance Two alternative solutions

between
capacity AND Operating
quality Point Targeted quality level
Quality Enhancement
is measured in terms of
increased quality Dropped calls due
for the same load to coverage gaps

Increased Traffic
Increasedperformance
(spectral
(spectral efficiency)delivers
efficiency) delivers
improved quality and/or Capacity Increase is measured
higher
highercapacity
capacityforforthe
thesame
same at the same quality level
quality criteria
quality criteria

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Introduction

## z EFL is a measure of the average frequency utilization in the area ⇒ Represents

how loaded each frequency can be across the system
z EFL is proportional to spectral efficiency
z EFL is directly proportional to the carried traffic ⇒ x % higher EFL = x % more
carried traffic

## Busy hour area

level average
Erlangs/cell

ErlBH 1
EFL = ×
Tot# freq Ave# (TCH )
TRX
Total number of
frequencies used Average number
to carry the of timeslots/TRX
traffic

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Introduction
z EFL is a measure of the average frequency utilization in the area ⇒ Represents
how loaded each frequency can be across the system
z Assume 1.2 Mhz (6 x 200 kHz carriers) of hopping frequencies in addition to the
BCCH carrier
z Assume in each cell 5 simultaneous voice users on the average
z In this case the Effective frequency load is ~ 5 Erlangs / 48 timeslots = 10.4%
z Thus, in each hopping frequencies we can have 8 (timeslots per carrier) x 10.4%
= 0.83 Erlangs or 6 X 0.83 = 4.98 Erlangs in hopping layer
e
r im
rie T
car
r
pe
ts
lo
es
tim
5

## 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz

Frequency
200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz

## 6 frequencies @ 200 kHz each

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Introduction
z Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) codec consists of a family of codecs (source and
channel codecs with different trade-off bit-rates) operating in the GSM FR
and HR channels modes

z The AMR system exploits the channel performance and robustness added by
the coding rates by adapting the speech and channel coding rates according
to the quality of the radio channel
 AMR adapts its error protection level (select its optimum channel mode and codec
mode) to the local radio channel and traffic load conditions to deliver the best
possible combination of speech quality and system capacity

## z Codec mode adaptation for AMR is based on received channel quality

estimation in both MS and BTS, followed by a decision on the most
appropriate speech and channel codec mode to apply at a given time
 The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC via layer 3
signaling

## z MS shall support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to 4

speech codec modes is used during a call

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Introduction

z GSM FR/EFR channel gross bit-rate is 22.8 kbit/s in GSM FR/EFR: 13 kbit/s
speech coding and 9.8 kbit/channel coding (HR channel gross bit rate 11.4
kbit/s)
z For AMR case, different codecs use different bit rate to encode speech (source
coding). The rest of the gross bit-rate is used for channel protection

25
Channel coding
Channel bit-rate (kbit/s)

20 Speech coding
Robustness
15

10

5
Speech Qual
0
FR FR FR FR 7.4 FR 6.7 FR 5.9 FR FR HR HR 7.4 HR 6.7 HR 5.9 HR HR
12.2 10.2 7.95 5.15 4.75 7.95 5.15 4.75

## AMR codec mode

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Benefits

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Benefits
Capacity and Coverage Gain

z Link level results show very high improvement in the terms of TCH
FER when robust AMR modes are used
z As high as 6 dB improvement at 1% FER in C/I can be achieved ⇒
Therefore, high capacity gain can be expected when robust AMR
modes are utilized
z In addition, increased robustness to channel errors can be utilized in
the cell coverage, i.e. lower C/I can be allowed at the cell edge
z However, in the mixed traffic case the cell coverage has to be
planned according to EFR mobiles
z With respect to signaling channels, the retransmissions schemes
used by SACCH and FACCH channels maintain the probability of
signalling success even for very degraded conditions

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Benefits
Capacity Increase with AMR
z Due to robust AMR codec modes, very low TCH FER compared to EFR
z In 850 MHz case all mobiles are AMR capable, but this comparison illustrates
the capacity gain AMR provides when it is introduced in a typical network
10
AMR MS penetration: 0%
9 AMR MS penetration: 25%
8 AMR MS penetration: 50%
TCH FER > 5.4 % (%)
Relative Frequency

## 7 AMR MS penetration: 75%

AMR MS penetration: 100%
6 ~150%
gain
5 relative to
EFR
4
3
2
Capacity gain 1
based on the 2%
outage of the 0
bad TCH FER 5 7.5 10 12.5 15
samples

## ONE-LAYER (RF-hopping 2/2, no BCCH included)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Benefits
Improved BCCH Plan

z Since the average C/I found in a cell area can be measurably less than
that used in a non-AMR network and still provide comparable quality to
EFR, the existing clean BCCH layer can be tightened, potentially
releasing frequencies to be used on the non-BCCH layer
 This offers improved speech quality and extra capacity for TCH, especially in
the narrow band deployment (frequency band less than 5 MHz)
z However, if EFR roaming mobiles are to be taken care of, the BCCH will
have to be planned accordingly
z How to plan networks to ensure the quality for the old EFR mobiles?
 One method is to use more aggressive power adjustment for AMR mobiles in
order to decrease the average interference level in the network
 Due to better error correction capability against the channel errors lower C/I
target can be set for AMR mobiles hence lower PC thresholds can be used
 Therefore, the overall interference decreases in the network (smaller
average transmission power) and thus the quality of the existing EFR
connections increase

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Benefits
Half-Rate Utilization in AMR Codec

## z Half-rate is an efficient way to increase capacity in the case of limited

number of TRXs per cell
z AMR HR codec obtains remarkable better speech quality than previous
GSM EFR HR codec
z AMR FR obtains better quality than AMR HR only when higher FR modes
than 7.4 are used (due to higher number of speech coding bits)
 AMR FR 7.4 kbit/s mode and AMR HR 7.4 kbit/s mode have the same speech
quality when the C/I is high (error free case)
 AMR HR channels can be then used in high C/I conditions without noticeably
speech quality loss
z In theory for ideal frequency hopping about 11-12 dB C/I is required for
AMR HR to obtain the evaluated good speech quality limit (in real
networks, depending on the BTS configuration and on FH mode used, it
might be necessary 1-4 dB higher)
 Based on this, all connections having at least 12 dB C/I could be handed over
to HR channel remaining the good speech quality

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Benefits
Benefits For End User
MOS vs. CIR
4.5
Speech Quality Gains 4

3.5

2.5
MOS
FR 12.2 MOS
2 FR 7.4 MOS
FR 5.9 MOS
1.5 FR 4.75 MOS
HR 7.4 MOS
1
HR 5.9 MOS
0.5 HR 4.75 MOS

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
C/I (dB)

## z A user in good radio conditions perceives the same quality as EFR.

quality while with EFR it would not received satisfactory speech
quality.

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Benefits
Benefits For Operator
100%
fs475iFH
fs515iFH

Coverage Gains
fs590iFH
fs670iFH
Capacity /
fs740iFH 10%
fs795iFH

TC H FER
fs102iFH
fs122iFH

1%

0%
10 8 6 4 2 0
C/I [dB]

## z Approx. 5.5 dB link level gain in hopping layer

z This turns into approx. 140% capacity gain for AMR-FR
z Coverage enhancement (>4dB)
z Tighter BCCH reuse schemes.
z Saving of resources by deploying AMR-HR

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
AMR Benefits
Benefits For AMR- Summary

## z Speech quality enhancement: AMR maintains good speech quality in the

situation where the connection faces low C/I or low signal level
z Capacity and coverage gain: Link level simulation results illustrated
improvement in terms of TCH FER (up to 5.5dB at 1% FER in C/I)
z Signaling channel performance: due to retransmissions schemes used by
these channels the probability of signaling success maintain very high
z Improved BCCH plan: tighter frequency reuse or better quality with
same frequency reuse, potentially releasing frequencies to be used on
the non-BCCH layer.
z Half Rate utilization increases the hardware capacity of the cell since
two half-rate connections can be allocated to fill only one timeslot.
 When compare AMR HR to previous GSM HR codec, it is noticed that AMR HR
obtains remarkable better speech quality

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Power Control

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Power Control
Reasons and Strategy

REASONS
z Decrease power consumption of the Mobile

STRATEGY
z Handled by the BSC
z HO has always higher priority than POC
z Controlled by interval
z Increase and decrease act independently (can be fixed or variable step
size)
z BTS and MS apply Power Control independently
z BCCH TRX doesn't use Power Control
z DL/UL Power Control can be disabled
z Initial POC level used by MS in new cell after HO, is determined by BSC
(default is max permitted level, MsTXPwrMaxCell)
z Optionally POC/HOC processes can optimize the initial RF power in case of
intra BSC HO

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Power Control
Overview

POWER
POWER CONTROL
CONTROL

THRESHOLD

POWER
POWER CONTROL
CONTROL

## For Handover and for Power Control

POC
INTERVAL

Parameter Value
powerControlInterval 0 … 30 sec
powerIncrStepSize 2, 4, 6 dB
powerRedStepSize 2, 4 dB
powerControlEnabled Y/N

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Power Control
Safety Region

LowerLEV UpperLEV

UpperQUAL

LowerQUAL

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Planning

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Structures
Cell Structures and Quality

## z Frequency re-use in cellular radio networks

 allow efficient usage of the frequency spectrum
 but causes interference
z Interdependence of
 Cell size
 Cluster size
 Re-use distance
 Interference level
 Network Quality

interferer
region

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Structures
Cell Re-use Cluster (Omni Sites)

2 3

7 1 4 2 3

6 5 7 1 4
R 6 5
D

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Structures
Cell Re-use Cluster (Omni Sites) [cont.]

1 2 3
D
4 5 6

7 8 9

10 11 12

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Structures
Cell Re-use Cluster (Sector Site)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Structures
4x3 Cell Re-use Cluster (Sector Site) [cont.]

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Structures
Irregular (Real) Cell Shapes

5 1
2 3
4

5
6

Coverage
Hole 7 Island
Network Border

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
GSM Frequency Spectrum

z GSM 900
 DL: 935-960 MHz UL: 890-915 MHz
 200 kHz channel spacing -> 124 channels
 ARFCN 1 - 124
z E-GSM
 DL: 925-935 MHz UL: 880-890 MHz
 200 kHz channel spacing -> Additional 50 channels
 ARFCN 0, 975 - 1023
 200 kHz channel spacing ->124 channels
z GSM 850
 DL: 869-894 MHz UL: 824-849 MHz
 ARFCN: 128 - 251
z GSM 1800
 DL: 1805-1880 MHz UL: 1710-1785 MHz
 200 kHz channel spacing -> 374 channels
 ARFCN 512 - 885

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
Impact of limited Frequency Spectrum

## z Bandwidth is an expensive resource

z Best usage necessary
z Efficient planning necessary to contain good QoS when the traffic in
the network is increasing
 smaller reuse
 Multiple reuse pattern (MRP) usage
 implementation of concentric cells / microcells/dual band
 implementation of Frequency Hopping
y Baseband
y Synthesized

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
What is frequency reuse?

## z As the GSM spectrum is limited, frequencies have to be reused to

provide enough capacity

## z The more often a frequency is reused within a certain amount of cells,

the smaller the frequency reuse

z Aim:
Minimizing the frequency reuse for providing more capacity

z Reuse Cluster:
Area including cells which do not reuse the same frequency (or
frequency group)

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
RCS and ARCS

## z Reuse Cluster Size - RCS

 If all cells within the reuse cluster have the same amount of TRXs, the reuse
per TRX layer can be calculated:

B
RCS =
# TRX / cell

## z Average Reuse Cluster Size - ARCS

 If the cells are different equipped, the average number of TRXs has
to be used for calculating the average reuse cluster size:

B
ARCS =
# TRX / cell

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
RCS and ARCS [cont.]

z The ARCS is giving the average reuse of the network when using the
whole bandwidth and all TRXs per cell

For Example: If we want to have the reuse of all non hopping TCH TRXs,
we have to use the dedicated bandwidth and the average number of
non hopping TCH TRXs per cell to get the ARCS of this layer type.

z Each cell has only one BCCH. Therefore the BCCH reuse is an RCS and
not an ARCS!

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
Reuse Cluster Size

z Sectorized sites
z 4 sites per reuse cluster
z 3 cells per site

## z Reuse Cluster Size:

4X3 =12

1 2 4 5

3 6

1 2 4 5 7 8 10 11

3 6 9 12

7 8 10 11

9 12

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
Reuse Cluster Size [cont.]

z Sectorized sites
z 3 sites per reuse cluster
z 3 cells per site

## z Reuse Cluster Size

3X3 = 9

1 2 4 5

3 6

7 8 1 2 4 5
9 3 6

7 8

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
Reuse Distance

re-
us
ed
ist
cell A an
ce

D = f ⋅ R ⋅ 3 ⋅ RCS

 1 omnidirectional cells
f = 2
three - sectorized cells
 3
interferer
region
cell B

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
Frequency Reuse Distance

D = distance between cell sites with the same frequencies Examples (omni):
R = service radius of a cell RCS = 7:D/R = 4.6
B = number of frequencies in total bandwidth RCS = 9:D/R = 5.2
RCS = reuse cluster size, i.e. one cell uses B/RCS frequencies RCS =12: D/R = 6.0
In hexagonal cell geometry: D/R = f · 3 RCS
omni cells: f=1; sector cells: f= 2/3

Frec Frec, A
Frec, B

C/I σ
site A site B

0 R distance D

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Frequency Reuse
Frequency Reuse: Example

BCCH RCS
z No sectorization
z 7 cells per cluster
 BCCH RCS = 7
z TCH Reuse: Depending on BW
and Number of installed TRXs interferer
per cell region

z Example:
 B= 26
 4TRXs per cell TCH RCS

26 − 7BCCH −1Guard
TCH RCS = =6
3

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Planning

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Planning
Cell Planning - Frequency Planning

 Island coverage → Disturbs the reuse pattern
 Big overlap areas → Bigger reuse necessary

## z Good cell planning

 Sharp cell borders → Good containment of frequency
 Small overlap areas → Tighter reuse possible

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Planning
Influencing Factors on Frequency Reuse Distance

z Topography
 Hilly terrain, increases usage of natural obstacles to define sharp cell
borders, increases tighter frequency reuse possible
 Flat terrain, achievable reuse much more dependent on the accurate cell
design
z Morphology
 Water low attenuation, high reuse distance
 City high attenuation, low reuse distance

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Planning
Conclusion

## z In cellular mobile networks, the frequency reuse pattern has a direct

influence on the interference and hence the network quality
z Regular hexagonal patterns allow the deduction of engineering
formulas
z In real networks, cell sizes and shapes are irregular due to
 Variation in traffic density
 Topography
 Land usage

## Engineering formulas allow the assessment of the network quality and

worst-case considerations, but the real situation must be proved!

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Cell Planning

## z Big city in the south of Africa:

 BCCH reuse 26
y Irregular cell design
y Mixed morphology
y Lots of water
y Flat terrain plus some high sites

## z Big city in eastern Europe

 BCCH reuse 12
y Regular cell design
y Flat area
y Only urban environment

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Interference Probability

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Interference Probability
Interference Theory

z C/I restrictions
 9dB for co-channel interference
 -9 dB for adjacent channel interference

Prec, A
Prec, B

C/ I
σ

0 R dista nce D

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Interference Probability
Interference Theory [cont.]

## z Interference probability ARCS Pint[%]

6.5..9.0 10
 C/Imed is the calculated carrier to interference 7.0..9.5 7.5
ratio at a certain location (pixel) 8.5..11.0 5.0
12.0..16.0 2.5

## Interferer probability [%]

Probability density function [%]
100%
5,0%
3.6 Interference Probability
4,0% 80%

3,0% 60%

2,0% 40%

## 1,0% Margin 20%

0,0%
C/Ithr C/Imed 0%
C/I [dB] → -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
C/I - C/Ithr[dB]

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Interference Probability
CPDF - Cumulative Probability Density Function

## Pint = P ( C/I < C/I thr)

P int
CPDF - Cumulative Probability Density Function
1
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
R D Distance from serving
cell

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Interference Probability
Interference Probability dependent on Average Reuse

## # of frequencies in used bandwidth

ARCS =
average # of carriers per cell
Pint [%]

Examples:
12 Pint[%] ARCS
10 6.5...9
9 7.5 7...9.5
5 8.5...11
6 2.5 12...16

0
5 10 15 20 25 ARCS

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Manual frequency planning

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Manual Frequency Planning
Frequency planning

z No fixed method

z Free frequency assignment possible, but very time consuming for larger
networks

## z For easy and fast frequency planning: use group assignment

z Example:
18 channels, 2TRX per cell Õ ARCS 9

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Manual Frequency Planning
Frequency planning [cont.]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

A1
B1
A2
B2
A3
B3
A4
B4
A5

## z GSM restrictions are automatically fulfilled, if on one site only groups

A* or only B* are used

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Manual Frequency Planning
Subdivide frequency band?

## z Any subdivision of the frequency band is reducing the spectrum

efficiency
z Separations should be avoided if possible
z As the BCCH has to be very clean, it is nevertheless recommended to
use a separated band and select a bigger reuse

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Manual Frequency Planning
Hint for creating a future proofed frequency plan

## z If a frequency plan is implemented, using all available frequencies in

the most efficient way, it is very difficult to implement new sites in
the future!
z New sites would make a complete re-planning of the surrounding
area or the whole frequency plan necessary
z To avoid re-planning every time when introducing new sites, it is
recommended to keep some frequencies free
z These Joker frequencies can be used for new sites (especially BCCH
TRXs) unless it is impossible to implement new sites without
changing a big part of the frequency plan

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
Module Summary

## z Explain GSM Call flow scenario

z Explain Mobile Origination and Mobile Terminating calls
z Explain the types of Handovers in GSM network
z Describe Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) coding and its benefits
z Describe the benefits of Power control in GSM
z Explain the techniques involved in Frequency Planning

RF Fundamentals for Cellular Networks
This slide is intentionally left blank.