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University of Reading

FIFTH EUROPEAN OPT~CS SUMMER SCHOOL

Applications

of Modern .Optics·

8-12 July 1985

FIFTH

EUROPEAN

OPTICS

SUMMER

SCHOOL

-Applications

of Modern

Optics"

8-

12th

July

1985

University

of Reading

Speakers:

University

of Reading: Dr .. G. W. Green Professor H. H. Hopkins Professor B. R. Jennings Dr. J. Macdonald Dr. M. H. Tinker

Visiting: Dr. S. G. Brown Professor B. Culshaw Professor F. Lanzi Professor J. C. Vienot Dr. M.G.F. Wilson Dr. J. K. Wright University of London University of Strathclyde DFVLR. Wessling. W. Germany University of Besancon. France University of London JK Lasers. Rugby.

co
Lecture Duration numbers ( hours)

NTENTS

Title

Lecturer

Foundation lectures 1 2 3 4 5 6.7 8 1.5 1 1.5 1.5 2 1 Fourier analysis and !interference HHH HHH BRJ theory of lasers and Image devices Image formatlon HHH MHT GWG JM

Coherence Polarisation Diffraction Principles Detectors

Geometrical

Applications 9 10 11.12 13 14.15 16 17 18 19 20

Lectures 1.5 1 2 2 2 2 1 2.5 1.5 1 Industrial applications of lasers of lasers JKW SGB HHH sensors optics BC MGFW JCV optical elements JM FL BRJ BRJ

Medical applications Fibre optics Fibre-optic Integrated Holography Holographic

Optical data processing Optical modulation Display devices

1.1

FOURIER

ANALYSIS

H.H. HOPKINS
Lecture 1

1.

Real and Complex Forms of Fourier Fourier's

Series to some simple conin a finite inter-

theorem states that, subject

ditions,

any function

f(x) may be represented,

val from x = xl to x = x2, by a series of the form

where p = (X2 - Xl) is the length of the interval, efficients are given by an b
n

and the co-

2x~ ) -J f(x).cos (2TIn x


PXI
Sln

dx

0.2)

At a point of discontinuity mean value

of f(x), the serles

(1.1) takes the

!{f(x - 0) + f(x + OJ} where f(x - 0) and f(x + 0) are the values left and right of the value of x. a function thus gives its 'local average'

(1. 3)

of f(x) just to the representation of value. and this

A Fourier

The sine and cosine Fourier series

in (1.1) may be combined,

is then written
f(x)

L a cos {('2TIn) --- x n=l n p


00

(L4)

where a
a

o n

!a 20

o
(1. 5) ~ arctan (- ::)

(1.4) represents

f(x) inside Xl

<

<

X2 as a constant If we replace

plus a set of simple harmonic

terms.

o x in (1.4)

term

!a

1.2

by x ± mp, with m changed. periodic

±l, ±2, .. ~ the values of the cosines of the form of f(x) in this interval. and 'wave-number',

are un-

The Fourier repetition

series thus gives, outside Xl to x2, a

The 'wavelength', are


l-

of the term n in (1.4)

E-

C5

xn
of a discrete

(1. 6)

so that the Fourier equally

spectrum

consists

set of terms

spaced in wave-number,

that lS in spatial frequency.

The complex amplitude

of the term n is
a

a exp{i¢ } n n

(1. 7)

This is the complex number whos e modulus and whose argument x T 0. is the initial phase, For a function given by
T n n

lS the real amplitude, that is the phase at in a finite interval

of time, represented

t2 - tl, \ole should have A.C. terms of period and temporal

frequency

1
T

(1. 8)

and n

0, having v

0, lS the zero-frequency, great advantages Using

or D.C. term. in employing for-

In optics there are usually the complex form of Fourier mulae cos 6 !{exp(i6)
+ exp(-i6)}

series.

the standard

Sln 6

ii{exp(i6)

- exp(-i6)}

for the COSlnes exponentials We thus wr i te

and Slnes In (1.1), means that the resulting ~2;n7x] with n

are of the form exp

0, ±l, ±2, ..•.

f (x)

(1. 9)

where

the coefficients

are now usually

MUltiplying

both sides of (1.9) by

£ . r2TI~\} exp (l\-p-JX

complex numbers.

from xl to x2, gives

an

d'

lntegratlng

1.3

The integral

on the right 1S zero for n

m, S1nce p

This leaves only the term n


F n

m, and thus

(1.10)
in (1.9). It should be

gives the values of the coefficients noted that the positive then has a negative An important one not involving by (1.10), sign.

sign may be used in (1.9), and (1.10)

case is when f(x) is a real function, i


=

that 1S n 1S,

1=1.

The value of F

for negative

where

denotes

the complex conjugate.


F

Thus, for a real function,


(1.11)

-n

F* n

and, also, F

o F

real.
a .

We may thus wr i te
F

0'

!a n exp{ -i<jJ} n

n~ 1

(l.12)

so that F +n = ~a n exp{+i~ }, by (1.11). 't'n ±n in (1.9) to give f(x) exactly as 1n (1.4) above.

We now combine

the terms

(1.13)

Using the complex

form of series,

we

thus get: (constant term)

=a

=F

(complex amplitude

of term n)

a exp{i<jJ}
n n

2F* n

(n ~ 1) (1.14)

giving jugates

the important

quantities F.
n

directly

from the complex

con-

of the coefficients
n

With the positive in (1.14).

sign used in

(1.9) it is F

itself which

appears

1.4

The advantages are: a. b. c. The evaluation

of us~ng the complex form of the Fourier

series

of the coefficients theory.

is simpler. x,

f(x) may be a complex function of the (reaU variable as in diffraction Fourier


n

For a real function of x, the complex amplitudes components

of the

are given directly by 2F*, with


n

= +1, +2, ....


and negative theory to beams diffracted form of the Fourier

d.

The positive ~n diffraction

spatial frequencies beam.

correspond

to the left

or right of the direct, undiffracted, e. The standard directly


.c 0.1•

transform corresponds in the complex form

to the set of coefficients

ser~es. Integrals and Transforms f(x) ~n a finite interval repetition To represent of this segment f(x) over the to of

2.

Fourier

A Fourier p

series represents

(X2 - Xl), and gives a periodic from Xl

f(x) to the left and right of p. infinite interval take a limiting the Fourier

-00

to x2

+00,

it is necessary

form of the Fourier for f(x).

series, which goes over to at disspectrum.

integral

The set ot coefficients

crete wave-numbers Suppose, positive separation written


F then,

then goes over to a continuous


that Xl is negat1ve

and large. between


wr

Since p i.t e 00

(X2 - X2) is now large, the of the Fourier (1.10) ser~es


r.s

the spatial frequencies

is small, and we

= (~).

The coefficient

now

00S f(x)exp{i(2nno0)x}dx
Xl We, therefore, introduce

x2

(1.15)

and

-+

0 as p

-+

00

the 'spectral

densi ty'
F

n 00

F(n00)

S2f(x)exp{i(2nno0)x}dX Xl
-+
00

(1.16)

which does rema~n finite as p series (1.9) becomes

Using

(1.16),

the Fourier

1.5

f (x)

L
n=-oo

F(noa exp{-i(2TInoa)x}da

(1.17)

If, now, xl ~ -00 and X2 ~ +00, we have p ~ 00 and this limit


(1.17)

oa ~

0;

and, 1n

goes over to the Fourier f(x)

integral
(1.18)

+00 j'F(a)exp{-i2TIax}da _00

whilst

(1.16) becomes

F (a)

+00 Sf (xj exp i +i Zno x j dx _00 of f(x).

(1.19)

which
(1.16)

is the Fourier components a needed

transform

It will be seen from of amplitudes the infinite of the frerange. of spatial

that F(a) gives

the distribution f(x) over

Fourier quencies

of the continuous to represent

spectrum

If f(x) is real, we have


F (-a)

j[f(Xlexp{-i2,"XldX

~ {Jrf (xleXP{+i2n"xldx]*

that 1S
F (-a) F"~ (a) (1. 20)

as for the coefficients senting a real function.


F (a)

in the complex

Fourier

ser1es repre-

As in that case, we may write !a.(a)exp{-i<jJ(a)}


a >,. 0 (1.21)

when

F(-a)
The Fourier integral
(1.18)

!a.(a)exp{+i<jJ ) } (o may now be written


0

0.22)

f(x) or, replacing


f Cx)

+00 SF(a)exp{-i2TIax}da
o

+ fF(a)exp{+i2TIax}da -00 integral + F(-a)exp{-i2TIax}}da

a by -a in the second

= f{F(a)exp{-i2TIax}
o

1.6

and, using

(1.21) and (1.22), we find f(x)

Sa
o

(cr)cos {2TIcrx ¢(cr)}dcr + of a continuum

(1.23) of simple fre-

representing harmonic quency cr ~s

f(x) as the superposition

terms, where the complex amplitude

for the spatial

~a(cr)exp{i¢(cr)} corresponding exactly to the result

F*(cr)

cr > 0

(1.24)

(1.14) for a Fourier

series.

If we use a positive

sign in (1.18), there will be a negative

sign in (1.19), and (1.24) then has F(cr) itself.

3.

The Delta Function

and its use in Fourier Transform periodic

Theory
-00

A function which is perfectly


+00,

over the range a Fourier

to in-00

and of period p requires

a Fourier

series and a discrete over of a The

spectrum, whereas to

a non-periodic spectrum

function demands enables

tegral and a continuous


+00.

for its representation the spectrum by a Fourier a-functions.

The use of the 8-function function

periodic

also to be described

transform,

which is just a series of equally-spaced 8-function or a step-function, A a-function function within

also brings other simple functions, the scope of Fourier

such as a constant analysis. form of a

has to be defined a parameter. a (x) Lim


a-"=

as the limiting He take the form (x, a)

involving

<p

where ¢(x, a) has to satisfy

the conditions.

Lim ¢(x, a)

o
00

I- 0 x o
x

(1. 25)

and, for a 8-function

of unit
+00

'strength',

Lim
a-"=

S ¢ (x , a) dx

(1.26)

-00

where the limit has, ~n principle,

to be taken after the inte-

1.7

gration has been effected. An easy way to visualise illuminated infinitesimal intensity passing slit of uniform width, a a-function intensity is to consider an (since

p(x).

If the slit is of

the intensity

is zero for x
00 at x

t-

0, but

= flux/unit area) p (x) =


the slit is
+00
p

= o.

The total flux

through

(x)dx of illuwhen

-00

and this is equal to unity for a slit of unit 'strength' mination. For this case, if a the slit is of width 1 we have

= intensity of illumination

a'

¢ (x , a)

o
which satisfies

Ixl Ixl
+1.

<

~a
1 2a Also 1

(1. 27)

>-

(1.25) in the limit a ~

00

f
¢(x, a) may be used:

+00 ¢ (x , a)dx

= f~aa

dx

-00

-Za
0.26). Other forms of are
T;

wh i.ch =1 when a ~ 00, and so satisfies examples


O(x)

~~ .., a~

sin (nax)
(n x)

(1
\..L

..

') Q\ ~U/

and

a
Note that

(x)

Lim a exp{-na2x2}
a~

(1.29)

(1.28) ~s only zero for x This, fortunately, representations,

0 if its 'local average' that which

value is used. occurs in Fourier

is precisely

as noted by (1.2) above. is the transform (1.19) gives

A useful result employing of the function


F (0)

the a-function

f(x)

1.

The defining

formula

+00

-00

exp{ i2nox}dx

~ Lim J;exp{i2nox}dx a~ -Z

(1.30)

which evaluates

to give

1.8

F (a)

Li.rr a+=

. sin ('ITaa)
('ITa)

a (a)

(1. 31)

The interpretation the zero-frequency

of this result

lS

that a constant has only

term, that is F(a)

= 0 for a

0, and
cr

F(a) =
It

00

for

= 0 giving an infinite spectral density at

O.

lS

also easy to show that f(x )

o
wh i ch is often referred a-function. and, for X Using periodic Fourier
o

Xl Xo

< <

Xo

<

x2

(1.32)

xl or xo> X2
I

to as the 'sifting

property

of the

For X

= xl, the integral

(1.32) gives !f(Xl + 0);

X2, it g i ve.s !f(X2 - 0). transform of a perfectly

(1.30) we may find the Fourier function.

Let this be of period p, and let it have a

series

(1. 33)

whose Fourier

transform

will be

Combining

the two exponential


0

factors, by

(1.30) and (1.31) with

replaced

(a - ~),

and using the integral then gives


(1. 34)

of

This
0

lS

It may be noted that F (a) n(p , w i th 'strengths' F n n zero for all other spatial frequencies, but gives infinite spectral densities at the points a

'1)

a series of equally

spaced a-functions,

at the points
lS

a.
n

4.

Functions A function

of Two Variables f(x, y) of the tHO variables ex, y) can be repby the lines

resented the form

at points inside the rectangle X2, Y

bounded

= Yl, and y = Y2, by a double Fourier series of

1.9
+00 f (x , y)

m=-oo where p

(1.35)

= (x2 - Xl), and q = (Y2 - Yl), with coefficients,

found

as In (1.1) above, given by

We now have a two-dimensional frequencies

discrete

spectrum, with spatial

n(il _
Each component of (1.35) is equivalent azimuth.
\j!

(1. 37)

to a one-dimensional

quency in a certain axes making an angle

Thus, let (~,

y) be
Then

fre-

coordinate

wi th the axes (x, y). x Y x cos Y cos Y Sln

\j!

\j!

\j!

+ x Sln

\j!

so that, using the notation x+ m


Y)

of (1.37), Sln n sin cos \j!)y

(0

(0

cos

\j!

\j!)x

(0

\j!

Choosing $ to

be such that
T

tan gives
T

\j!

(1.38)

sln

\j!

cos

1);

and the above expression

becomes

simply

(0

x+

y) n

0X,

whe r a

(1.39)
T

All terms in the Fourier

serles

(1.35) for which of the form

given value thus give components

n m

n has a

1.10

F with a given by (1.39). equivalent

mn

exp{ iox:} f(x, y) is thus functions

The 2-dimensional This

to the superposition azimuths 1jJ.

of a set of I-dimensional
lS

i(x)

an extremely important result for optics. Note that, using (1.39) for /(02 + T2) in the m n above formulae for sin 1jJ and cos lP, a spatial frequency component
1jJ corresponds

in different

a in the azimuth

to the frequency

pair (a cos 1jJ,

T sin 1jJ). To represent Xl and Yl to the spectral


+

f(x, y) over the whole


+

ex, y)-plane, +00.


=

vie

allow of the and In

-00, and x2 and Y2 to

spatial frequencies

are then wri tten 00 series

(i)

The spacings and OT = F mn

(t).

densi ty is F (moo , nOT ) = F

the limi t, the Fourier f(x, y) where

/pq mn (1. 33) becomes

OOOT.

fIF(O,
-00 +00 Sff(X, -00

T)exp{-i2n(ox

+ Ty)}dodT

(1. 40)

F(o, T)

y)exp{+

i2n(ox + Ty)}dxdy

(1.41)

lS

the double Fourier For a perfectly

transform. function f(x, y), with periods p and

periodic

in the x- and y-directions, F(o, T)

we find from (1.35) +00


L: F

m=-oo n=-oo where

mn

o(o_m

p'

T-E:. )'
q

(1.42)

for the Fourier

transform,

lS

the significance

to be attached

to the o-function

of two

variables. For a 2-dimensional


f (x , y)

function which depends transform G(O)O(T) is

only on x, say

g(x), the double Fourier F(o, T)

(1. 43)

1.11

where

<5 (r)

is the transform g(x)h(y). Theorem

of a factor h (y)

f(x, y) 5.

The Convolution If a function

f(x') is defined
+00

by the integral (1.44)

f(x')

J:gCX)h(X'

- x)dx

it ~s said to be the convolution Fourier transform

of g(x) with hex).

The

of f(x') is given by

or, interchanging FCo)

the order of integration,


+00

g(x)exp{i27rox}dx hex' - x)exp{i27ro(x' x=-oo x'=-w factor in the first integral gives H(o): similarly having

+00

- x)}dx' been caninte-

the new exponential celled second integral,

in the second. Hence

Using

(x' - x) as the variable

for the

it merely

the first

gral gives G(o).

F (0)

G(o)H(o)
F(o) is merely

(1.45)

so that, with product the convolution Further,

f(x') defined theorem.

as in (1.44),

the is

of the Fourier

transforms

of g(x) and hex).

This

if
+00

F (0)

j'G(O)H(OI
-00

- o)do

(1. 46)

defines

Feo),

then
f ex)

g (x) hex)

(1. 47)

It follows the product

from

(1.47) and (1.46) that the Fourier

transform of

of

of g(x) and hex) is given by the convolution

their transforms.

2.1

THE INTERFERENCE

OF LIGHT BEAMS:

COHERENCE AND INCOHERENCE

H.H. HOPKINS Lecture ,2.

1.

Coherence

and Incoherence at a point P and the resultant When the

If two beams of light superpose intensity resultant

is found to be equal to the sum of the separate intenintensity is greater or less than the sum of the two that is when there is some interference, coherent. The deis, therefore, a measure of the

sities at P, the two beams are said to be incoherent. separate intensities,

the two beams are either fully or partially gree to which two beams interfere degree of coherence between them.

Light beams corning from different light source, a tungsten filament interference. sources. These are consequently

points of an ordinary lamp, do not show spatially incoherent mode do interfere: two light beams even this

or a mercury

By contrast, light beams from two separate points of in a single transverse Again, coherent source.

a laser operating 1S a spatially

from the same element of any light source will not show interference at a point P if the two paths, followed by the beams from the given source element, have too great a difference optical path length. the coherence a wave-train of the source. This difference length of.the radiatiDn~andthetimerequired of this length to be emitted is the coherence Ordinary, so-called lengths varying
IUIU.

in for time

in path length specifies

thermal or incoherent, from the order of'l~ up

sources have coherence to (in rare cases) 200 have a coherence

A laser, on the other hand, may

length of 1 km or more when operated contin~

uously 1n a single mode. It 1S important beams to interfere difference to note that the terms 'coherent' and 'incoWe consider any two instantaneously; but, if their phaseinterference over any time,

herent' do not have any absolute meaning.

changes in a random manner with time, there will be and destructive

equally often constructive

period of time which is much longer than the coherence

2.2
T Now no detector responds instantaneousof the radiation. coh ly: it must absorb energy, and this together with other phythat a detector measures only an average inl.Je can thus characterise any detector by an integrat-

sical factors means tensity.

int time, T. When T. t »T lnt ln changes in the phase difference beams, and the time-averaged superposed
two beams

h there will be many random co between two superposed incoherent as constructive intensities interference, of the two is then equal to the

giving as often destructive

intensity measured time-averaged

simple sum of the separate beams.

It is only in this sense that we say that the that is that they

show, or do not show, interference: or incoherent.

are coherent

We shall first consider, relationships coherence between

by means of simple examples,

the

the width of the energy spectrum purposes, beams of different

and the and then frequency

time of a source, or of a beam of radiation, and that beams from different

show that, for practical are incoherent, incoherent

parts of a spatially

source do not interfere.

For the former it lS assumed

has T. »1/6v, where 6v = difference ln frelnt quency; and, for the second case, that T. »T h' where t.n t co T h = coherence time of the radiation. co that the detector Typical values coherence time, T co of the coherence h length, L

= L co hlc, are:
L

coh'

and of the

Source Tungsten lamp Hg lamp (7\

coh

coh

.z, 1]1

0.3 x 10-14 sec. 10-10 sec.

Low-pressure Cadmium Laser Laser

= 546.1

nm)

30 rum 200 rum 300 rum 1 km

lamp (7\ = 643.8 nm)

0.7 x 10-9 sec. 10-9 sec. 0.3 x 10-5 sec.

:2.3
Typical values of the integrating time, T. , of detectors ~nt are:

Detecto,r Human eye Photographic Photocells Photomultiplier and circuit plate

T.

~nt

:::;:: sec. 0.05 exposure time

0.1 - 0.001 sec. (circuit bandwidth)-1

It is seen that, in most circumstances, T. t »T ~n 2. co h is well satisfied. Time and Energy Spectrum

the condition

Coherence Consider

a source wh i.ch emits a "ave for a time T; is a cos(2TIV t)


o

the

wave disturbance

Set)

o
as shown in Figure.1. 1. (transform) The function

It I It I

< >

!T !T

(2..1)

Set) has Fourier

spectrum

s (v)

cos(2TIV t)exp(-i2TIvt)dt
o

or
s (v) a sin{TIT(v - v )} o a sin{TIT(v - v )} o 2 TI V + V ) ( (2 .2) o

2TI(v - v )
o

Now Set) is a real function, complex amplitude

and hence its physical

spectrum has

2s(v) with v ~

o.

Ao = 400 nrn to 700 nm, so that v lies be tween O. 75 x 1015 o 0 and 0.43 x 1015 Hz. The second term in (3.2) is thus negligible, and the energy spectrum of the wave-train (3.1) is

cn,

For visible

light waves,

E (v)

('2..3)

with v ~ O. mum E(v)


o

The form of E(v). shown in Figure 2.2, has a maXland falls to zero at v is thus
(2.4)

= (aT)2 at v = v 0'

= v0

(liT).

The half-width

of the energy spectrum ts» ~


1
T

and is narrower used in principal principal coherence and


~V2 ~

the longer the cohe re nce time.

The sign ~ is case, a single two to use

(2.4) because this relation, exact for the present


spectrum comprises spectral
V2,

holds in all cases whe re the energy maXlmum. maXlma l/T2' For a doublet In E(v), at VI and

line, having

it is necessary

times, TI and T2 for each component, when ~VI z llTI

The light emitted by any element sequence of wave+ t ra i n , each having at random times. averaged trains. spectrum, questions niques", 3.

of a source consists a coherence

of a where

time, and emitted

It may be shown that (Z. 4) still holds, times of the individual

ts» is the h aLf+w i dth of the overall energy spectrum and T is an


value of the coherence Moreover, wavethrough energy the if the light from the source passes longer wave-trains

a monochromator, relationship

Hhich gives a light beam with a narrower [For details see Chapter

the device creates


~v ~ liT.

and preserves

of this, and of other Tech-

of coherence,

6 of "Advanced Optical

edited by A.C.S. van Heel, North-Holland]. Intensity

The Time-Averaged

If the ,Ilave dis.t urhance at any point as


S (t )

a cos{2nvt lS let)

e}

(2.5)

the instantaneous time-averaged,

intensity

{S(t)}2, and the measured,

intensity

lS thus
T

~:ria2cos2{2TIvt
2

+ e}dt

writing

cos2{2nvt

+ e}

! + !cos{4rrvt + 2e}, the integral because during the integrating

of the

second term is negligible

v for a light wave wi.II give a time, T.

very large number of oscillations

2..5

We thus find
I
(:2 .6)

for the measured square amplitude.

intensity,

where A

a/1:2 ~s the root-mean-

If any two wave-s

pr oduce disturbances
instantaneous

SI (r) and S2 (t ) at a is

point P, the resultant {SI(t) + S2(t)}2,

intensity

and the time-average

value of this is

(1..7)

where <>T denotes

the average over a time T.


=

If SI(t) acts

alone, that is S2(t)

0, (:1..7)

gives

where II is the intensity meaning

of the first beam.

With a similar

for 12, (3.7) becomes


I (2.8)

and the resultant intensities

measured

intensity

I is the sum of the separate term!. The value of

together with an 'interference on the spectral involved.

this term depends source coherence, path-differences

composition

of the light, the

the sp.atialextent· of the source and the optical The effects of these different using the concepts of de-

factors, we shall see, may be described grees of temporal and spatial coherence. 4. Two Beams of Different Consider then two beams, Frequency VI,

of frequency

v2 and having amplitudes resultant is

and phases aI, a2 and ¢1, ¢2'

The instantaneous

and the time-averaged

intensity

(Z .8)

2.6
T

II + 12 + 2~Jr~ala2COS{2TIVlt

+ ¢~cos{2TIV2t + ¢2}dt

- "2
Noting that II the product of the cosines In terms of the sum and difference angles, gives
T

II + 12

=I-

2v'r1-I;tTI{COS[2TI(V2 - Vl)t + ¢2 - ¢1]

"2

In which the second term lS negligible The remaining

because

of the very large

terms give

I
('2

.9)

for the measured

intensity.

Figure:2 .2.
(3.9)

For (v2 - vI)

0 it has the value unity, and

gives
I (2.10)

and there is perfect creases

coherence.

The degree of coherence Thus, for QV


»

to zero when QV

= IV2 - vll = liT.


is zero, and

de= 1

the final term in (2.9)

E2.11)

so that there lS complete terference to be observed quency may thus be written

incoherence. between

The condition

for infre-

two waves of different

QV

<

('2.12)

where T

integrating

time of the detector.

For T

10-6 sec,

for example using a photomultiplier and circuit of bandwidth = 106 Hz, the permissible frequency (2.12) is 106 Hz. Even for a coherence length L co h

1 metre,

that is

:2.7

h = 0.33 x 10-S sec., the half-width of the energy spectrum co is ~v = 3 x lOS Hz. Thus,even with a relatively fast detector and a long coherence is only frequencies interference. length, such as that given by a laser, separated by less than ~v!300 which will therefore, that under practical as incoherent. frequencies it show con-

We conclude,

di tions we may regard different

5.

Two Beams From Different Let the wave disturbances

Elements

of a Source Sl and

at the two source elements,

S2 in Figure 2..3, be
(2 .13)

(2.14) where 8l(t) and 82(t) are the source phases, which will change constant only over periods of the time T h' Suppose these disturbances co paths to a point P, and letO',~, 0',2 at P. If tl, t2 are the.times produced at P of

randomly with time, remaining order of the coherence be their amplitudes will be travel along two different

on arrival

flight from Sl to P and S2 to P, the disturbances

S!(t)

s; (t)
Now tl <= PI! c, where Plis P. ¢l Thus~21Tvtl = ..... 21TVPl!C the optical path length from Sl to -(21T!A)Pl =-kpl=¢l, defined where phase-

(phase at P) - (phase at Sl) is an 'instrumental' If ¢2 is similarly to combine at Pare

difference. disturbances

for the path two, the

S (t )

aicos{21Tvt + ¢l + 8l(t - tl)} a;cos{21Tvt + ¢2 + 82(t - t2)} intensity

S; (t )

so that, by (2.8) above, the resultant

1S

I'

Ii + Ii + 2~ia;cos{21Tvt

+ ¢l + 8l(t - tl)}

COS{21TVt + ¢2 + 82(t - t2)}>T

2..8
where Ii

(ai/IZ)2,

12

(a /12)2 are the separate time of the detector. as the

intensities, twice plus

and T ~s the integrating the product the cosine

Expressing

of the cos~nes

'cosine of the difference

of the sum' leaves

I'

Ii + I; + 2IriI210s{(<P2

- <PI)

+ S2(t - t2) - SI(t - tl)})T (2,15)

the time-average

of the sum-term

being

zero. incoherent un-

If 81, 82 are different source, the source phases

elements

of a spatially

SI(t) and S2(t) will be completely of the cosine


i.n

correlated, change

so that the argument with time. during

(2.15) w i.Ll,

randomly

such random

changes

h there wi.I I be very many co the integrating time of the detector, as often negative as positive, the

If T »T

so that, the cosines being time-average ~s zero.

In this case

II

(2.16)

and there is no interference elements of a spatially

between

light beams

from different

incoherent

source. of a spatially incoherent of a are

If 81, source,

82 are the same element

as at 8 in Figure coherent source

1.4, or different
(i.e. a laser),

elements

spatially identical:

the source phases say. (2.15)

that is S2(t)

SI(t)

Set),

then gives

It

Ii + 12

+2/IIII.~OS{(<P2

-<PI)

+ S(t - tz) - S(t -tI)})T

(2.17)
and interference source phase the phase zero; is possible. However, even in this case, the

at times

at time t.

~ t + This completely uncorrelated with co In this case also the time-average ~s that I'

we then have

again

I~ + I;, and there

is no ~n-

terference.

This condition

is that

If PI' P2 are the optical This condition

path

lengths, to

tl

P2/C•

is thus equivalent

2.9
L
(2. • 18)

coh

so that no interference ceeds the coheren6e in Figure

is observed

if the path-difference Physically, S


m

exas seen

length of tha radiation.

2.4,

this condition

is that a wave-train

leaving

the source gives rise to (S')1 and (S')2 at P which never overlap m m there.
If Ipl - P21 «

Leoh' we shall have

I (t

- t2) - (t; - tl)

«Tcoh

and we may thus write 8(t - t2)


I'

= 8(t - tl)'

(2.17) then gives


(:2.19)

and there is perfect 6.

coherence. Source of (X; Y) In place

The Intensity Produced by a Spatially Incoherent Finite Size and Finite Spectral Width Let E(X, Y; v) be the energy distribution

at the point

of the source, expressed The energy spectrum The point

as a function

of frequency,

v.
1

of v it is often convenient

to use the wave+numbe r a

I = vic.
of ampli-

of the source is then written component

E(X, Y; a).

(X, Y) of the source then gives a disturbance of wave-number of unit amplitude

tude /E(X, Y; a) for the Fourier Let a wave-disturbance at (X, Y) produce The component elemen.tsof

a.

and zero initial phase

complex amplitude

U(X, Y; a) at a point P. at (X, Y) of the source then Since different a from the who l.e source do not .interfere,t.he

a of the disturbance incoherent

gives /E(X, Y; a)U(X, Y; 0) at the point P. a spatially

total intensi ty at P due to light of wave-number source S is given by

I'(a) Integrating

=JJE(X,
S

Y; o)IU(X, Y; 0)12dXdY range then gives

(2.20)

over the wave-number


00

I' =SI'(O)dO

(2.21)

o
for the total intensity We thus consider produced at P. of given wave-number

a Fourier

component

and a typical point in the source.

This light is perfectly

coherent, but is incoherent add such intensities finally integrate wave-numbers present

with light from all other points wi th other wave+numb ers . intensity points of the source, over the range of

of and

the source and also incoherent

We then

from the different in the source. coherent source,

this resultant

For a spatially placed by

(1.20) has merely to be re-

.;"",

I' (0)

Pl/E(X,

Y; 0)U(X,

Y;

0)dXdY12

('2.22)
are then

slnce light beams from the different perfectly coherent.

source elements

The procedure different justified turbances

of (2.20) regards Fourier as mutually incoherent incoherent »T

components, source.

even of

the same frequency,

when they corne from This is

points of a spatially since, given that T. component elements


i.n t

do not show interference.

h' the total wave disco Howe ve r , beams deriving or coherent source, are

from a Fourier from different here assumed differences elaborate

from a single element of the source, of a spatially coherent To justify irrespective of the path rather more The effects

to be perfectly involved.

this requires

considerations

than those given above. length emerge, as in (2~21).

of the finite coherence

in fact, on integrating

over the range of wave-numbers,

2.ti

-T

E(vJ

Llv =

Vr

F/gure .2.. 1 The enepgy spect:rum

of

a wave - t-rain

sin {TrT (v2 - VI)}

fT}' T{v2. -V,)J

Figure

2·2

The Punctiion

sin [TrT(v2_ -

~)y{ ltT(1.Jz- 1-}J]

Fi9ure

2. •..3 Light:

ueams from two .seoorot:e source elements

pz
Fi9ure
.2

-4

or

Light;

beams
I

source

the -scsrne. element: when P« - P2 > L coh

from

2,13

THE THEORY OF PARTIAL COHERENCE H.H. HOPKINS

1.

The Degree of Temporal

Coherence
o Let E (a) o

In Figure

light from the same point P at P. at P


o

travels along be the

two different paths to superpose number a

energy spectrum of the disturbance

as a function of wavea will give interare mutually time of components

= (l/A).

Each Fourier

component Fourier

ference at P, but the different incoherent the detector ~n the practical is » T

case where the integrating

the coherence time of the radiation. coh' If Plea), P2(a) are the optical path lengths from Po to P along the two paths, and pea)

= Plea) - P2(a)

is the path difference,

the component a, will give at P an intensity


I (a)
p

Il(a) + I2(a) + 2/Il(a)I2(a)cos{2~ap(a)}


(2. '2.3)

whe re II (a),

I2(a) are the separate

intensities

arriving

at P, at P

and k

(2~/A) has been written

2~a.

The total intensity

due to all wave-numbers


I

a is thus I"T""T""
2~-'-1-'-2

II + 12+

SJ
CO

=I-l I'-2--:(--'a) ("'-a-c-") } 1112 cos f Znop Io ) do


(2,24-)

where 11,2

= JrIl)2(a)da
o

are the total separate

intensities

at P. sign of

Now, if a varies over a large range, the oscillating cos{2TIap(a)} will cause the integral unless pea) is correspondingly many components term averages turbances many give destructive small. a give constructive interference,
p

in

(2.~)

to be negligible, is when at P and as

This situation

interference

so that the interference The two total disIn other cases,


o

to zero, and I

II + 12'

arriving at P are then incoherent. the interference term may average at P.

for example when pea) is small or the energy spectrum E (a) is very narrow, to a non-zero covalue, and this allows us to define a degree of temporal herence between the two disturbances

To simplify

the analysis,

we shall consider

the special

case of p.

when the intensity

transmittances, Tl(a)

Tl(a) and T2(a), along

the two

paths and the optical path difference

pea) are all independent


Tl, T2(a)

a.

That is, we shall write

T2 and pea) indices

This requires contained 113 2


=

that the absorptions

and refractive

of the

media in the two paths be constant in E 0 (a).


00

for the range of wave-numbers Tl; 2E 0 (a) and

We then have 11.2(0) ~ (.:2.21.\:) becomes


00

TIJ 2SEo (a)do , so that


o

II + 12 +

2/III2SE(a)cos(2nap)da
o

(:2..25 )

where
E (a)

(2.2b)

lS

the normalised

energy spectrum s
= (0 -

at P .
o

Since E(a) will be


wave+numbe

zero outs ide a range on ei ther side of the mean


vie shall use the variable
0 ), 0

ra,
o

which wi l.I take both that E(a)cos{2nap)


0

positive

and negative

values.

Noting

E(s)cos{2n(a real part,

+ s ) p} = Re{E(s)exp[i2n(a o (2.25.) may be wri tten

+ s)p]}, "There Re{}

(2,'rJ)
P

where

K(p) the Fourier transform

lEeS
+00

)exp{i2nps }ds

(2.2'3)

-0 lS

of the normalised

energy spectrum
(:2.29)

E (s )

(2.2<)')

is simply

(2,2(0,)

with s

(a -

a ) used as the variable. o

The quantity which

K(p), we shall see, specifies arriving p.

the degree

to when

the two total disturbances

at P interfere,

they have a path-difference

Since the times of flight

from P o to P differ by pic the disturbance leaving P 0 at time t interferes wi.t h that leaving P at time t + (pic). For these
o

two reasons,

K(p) is designated

the (complex)

degree of temporal

coherence between treatments t a comparison


+

the two disturbances

at P.

Indeed, many it to be essentially

of this problem err in considering of the t~tal disturbances

at Po at times t and
pea)

(p/c), and overlook

the fact that the path-difference for different Fourier

in (2.2+) can depend on a, so that the difference times of flight is different Moreover, such treatments the total disturbances into account do not consider

in the two components. between

the coherence

as they arrive o.

at P, and thus do not take T1(0),

the possibility

of a the transmittances

T2(0) varying with the wave-number


If we write

K(p)

W(p)exp{il/J(p)}, (:2.2.7)

gives P + l/J(p)} (2::$0)

II + I2 + 2W(P)lrlI2cos{2TfO

which shows the resultant interference

at P to be the same as that for the waves,


o

of monochromatic

with intensities
I

II and so

12 and of the mean "lave-number 0 , but with a ference' H(p). that p varies, I
p

degree of inter-

If P in Figure

2·5

is moved laterally, and mi.n una

wi ll pass through maxima Defining

II + 12 ± 2H(p) 11112' these fringes by C

the contrast,
+I

or v i s i b i l i. ty of gives
(2.3\ )

= (Imax - Im~n )/(1 max .


C

.), m~n

where

= 2/1112/ (II + 12) is the contrast obtained w i.t h two


coherent .waves. interfere. line with the Thus H(p) , which is such that
.two

perfectly turbances

o ·_;;;:W(p) L,measuresthedegree.to,whichthe . .:;;


A useful case to consider is a spectral
gaussian profile, E (0)
o E (s )

total di s-

= exp l r-n - 0 0)2/(l1,O)2J,vhich i.ve Co g s


(2.'32 )

and then,by

(2,2S),

K(p) and l/J(p) O. = 2.G

exp{-TI(60p)2}

W(p)

(2,31

The forms of E(s) and K(p) are shown in Figure

E(s) drops to 0.04 when s

=0-0

±60:

thus 60 is

the half-width W(p) decreases terference

of the energy spectrum, co h~

and the coherence

length Thus in-

will be given by L

1//:'0,

The degree of temporal coherence IPI - P21


to 0.04 .when p

(1//:'0).

of decreasing

contrast

is obtained when p increases:

the contrast is sensibly

zero for path differences For p::;:0.10(1/60)

(1//:'0) = Lcoh'
always occurs when Ipl «

= LcohllO,
coherence. customary Ipl «

we This to Lcoh

have W(p) ~ 0.97, and thez~ is almos~ perfect

Lh, and it has become co . speak of quasi-monochromatic light in this case. some ways, an unfortunate rise to the path-difference 2. term because p. has rather more to do with the instrumental

This is, In

the condition

arrangement

giving

The Degree of Spatial Coherence In the same way that the mutually incoherent Fourier comof

ponents

of different

frequency

give rise to a reduced degree of incoherent Fourier components inelements of a spatially

temporal coherence, the same frequency coherent

the mutually from different

source give a reduced

coherence between

any two points

wh i ch the source illuminates. In Figure 2.7 , dS is an element at (X, Y) of spatially coherent source S, having a distribution over its surface.
VI

In-

of intensity yo(X, Y) VI. V2 are

Let the element dS give complex amplitudes the amplitudes

and V2 at points PI and P2:

mutually

coherent, but incoherent of the source. produced

with light reaching PI and P2 If fl' f2 are the complex


P2+ P, there-

from other elements

ampli.tudes transmittances sultant complex amplitude giving an intensity tensities dI to get dI


p

;of .the<pathsPI-+

at P by dA is (flUI + f2V2), The different elewe add the partial in-

IflUI + f2U212dS.

ments of the source being incoherent,


p

or, expanding

the squared modulus,

The total intensities

produced

at PI and P2 are

2.17

(2.34-)

so that

where
(2

_'u, )

will be seen to specify the (complex) degree of spatial coherence between ledge of explicit the total disturbances at P2 and Pl' Knowing II, I2 and the complex transmittances reference fl' f2, it requires only a know-

r21 to obtain the resultant intensity at PI without


to the source itself. transmittances of the paths the com-

If Tl, T2 are the intensity plex transmittances Thus Ifll2Il produced are fl

PI ~ P, P2 ~ P, and PI, P2 are the optical path lengths,

~exp(-ikpl)

and f2

!T2eip(-ikp2)'

= II and If212I2 = I2 are the separate intensities


Also /III2fyf2 - P2)}, so that (2.'35·) may be written

at P by the light from PI and P2'

IrlI21T1T2exp{ik(Pl

and shows how the two separate bined depending turh.ancesatJ>2.and If we wr i t e f21 PI-

intensities

at P have to be comf21 between the diB-

on the degree oicoherence

V21exp(iS21),

(2.:31'0) takes the form

Ip

Ii + I2 + 2V21lriI;COS{(~'TT)(Pl - P2) + S21}


(2,'j8 )

and, if P is moved laterally var1es,

so that the path-difference

(PI - P2)

there will be fringes of contrast

c
so that V21 measures terfere,

V 2/i1I2 21I, + I'


1 2

(2.39

the degree to which

the two disturbances f21 is designated

1nthe

that is the degree of coherence.

(complex) degree of spatial coherence, because

it

lS

the co-

herence b e twe en points P2, PI which are spatially separated. ): If P2 coincides with PI, 12 = II and U*U IUl12 In (2.'3(,; I2 The the formulae (2,.3"" ) then show that (2.36 ) gives r21 = l. value of r21 decreases as the points P2 and PI are separated.

We shall obtain a formula for the degree of spatial coherence r21 between any two points P2 and PI when directly with the (mutually incoherent)
0.

illucom-

minated by a source with intensity Yo(X, Y). tensity associated ponents of given wave-number Let Pl. P2 in Figure direction
y o

This is the InFourier

2. g be specified by their polar disS


o

tances RI, R2 from the mid-point cosines


0

of the source, and their The intensity

(LI, MI, NI), U2

(L2, M2, N2)'

(X, Y) at P

gives a wave of real amplitude


=

UI

Iy o eX,
o

Y)exp(-ikRI),
0

Iy o (X,

Iy o (X,
(2.30

Y);

and so

Y)exp(-ikR2),

where ) now gives

(P PI), R2 = (P P 2) .

The general formula

This integral is identical with the integral giving the complex amplitude source. at P2 produced by a spherical wave converging equal to the intensity
y

to PI,

and having amplitude

(X, Y) of the

This is the van Cittert-Zernike

theorem.

The coordinates

of PI, P2 are (LIR1, MlRl, NIRI),


o

(L2R2, N2R2, N2R2) , so that if P

has coordinates

(X, Y, 0),

X) 2 + (MIRl X)2 + (N2R2 Exp and i ng the brackets gives In Rt, and noting that Li + Hi + Nt 1,

or, with the same type of approximation

as in diffraction

theory,

2 .13

and similarly

Hence

and

(2.4-0)

now becomes

(2.'t1

where

With the same approximation,

(2.34-.)

pve

12 so that (2.40) may be written exp{ik(RI

"R2

ffyS

(X, Y)dXdY
0

- R2)}SIy(x,
S

Y)exp{ix}dXdY

(2,,+3.)

"lith X gi.ve by (2.4-2.), and where n


(2. '74-.)

r(X, .y). yo(X,y)/JJyo


S

(X, Y)dXdY

is the normalised

intensity

in the source. of along is

To study the effect of source size on the visibility fringes in a 2-beam interferometer, points PI, P2 in the source space whose geometrical the two paths are at a point P in the fringe plane. mula V21
(2.~3)

we must find the object images The for-

is then used to find r21, whence Ive shall consider 2.8,

the visibility source of

= Ir211.

the t"IO special

cases illustrated

in the lower diagram of Figure radius o.

and a circular

When PI lS on the aXlS and P2 is at (~, n) in the same plane, at distance RI


=

D from the centre of the source, we find from

(2~4Z') that X
(2.43')

k(~X + nY)/D,

the second term being negligible.

then gives

(~D)

3}

dXdY
)

(2.£6

In which y(X, Y).

the integral

is seen to be the Fourier

transform

of

For acircula~

find y(X, Y)

source y (X,Y) = 1 of radius 0, we o (l/noZ) when X2 + y2 = 02, and (2.45) gives


(2 .'-t~ )

where JI(x)

lS

the Bessel x 2nop


AD

function

of the first kind, and


(2.47 )

The form of 2JI(X)/X x

is shown in Figure therefore,

2.9 .

When P2 and PI
lS

lie in the same plane,

the coherence

zero for

3.83;

that is, when

0.61
(o/D) we get either zero or a very small contrast.
>,. 0.88;

(2)+~

For x ~ 1, we

find V21 = 2Jl (x)/x

that is, wh en
0.16;', (2 . y.':)

(o/D) w.eget.good betweenP2 spatial versely coherence.

k(j:f1 - R2) is simply the phase ·.difference


diverging from S.
o

and PI for a spherical wave coherence V2I 2Jl(x)/x

'l,Je of trans-

then regard this as a partially


=

coherent wave with a degree betVleen points separated

by a distance

p, with x given by (2.47). case is when P2 is on the ray S PI from


o

The second special the centre S L2 X


=

of the source and passing Ml; and the first - (1/R2)}'

through Pl'

We then have

L1, M2

term of (2.. 4-'2.)

rs zero, so that of Figure

!k(X2 + y2){(1/RI)

The points P2 and PI for this gives


(2.50.)

case are shown lying on the axis in the lmver diagram 2;8 Using this value of X, (2.~5)

2,1.1

where x ~s here given by


(2,51 )

Noting that (sin x/x)

0 when x

n, and that (sin x/x) ~ 0.88

when x ~ 0.86, we find, for the case when P2 and PI lie on the same ray from the centre of the source,

1(~J- (~JJ
t
11 \ 11 \

as the condition

for zero, or very small, coherence, 0.55:\. 02

and (2.53 )

as the condition

for good coherence.

If we take :\. 550 nm, D = of source giving coherence>


If this source

100 mm and

0.05 mm for the

case when PI, P2 are in the same plane 0.88 is 0

(with Rl

D), the radius

= 0.16:\.D/p= 0.176 rom.

radius is used in (2~53 ), ~"e find that R2 has


=

merely
b e twaen

to be such that (1/R2) (R2)

(l/Rl) ± 0.55:\./02: that is R2 The very great difference

must lie between

50.6 mm and 4.5 metres.

- (R2)' and p in these calculations emphasises max m~n the great importance in 2-beam interferometers of arranging that on the same interplane. This condition
o

the points P2 and PI should lie as nearly as possible ray from So' is satisfied the same ray from S , after following the two separate

if the two parts of

ferome.terpaths, .. iIltersect .. .. point P in .thefringe at the A useful source ~s tolerance criterion

for the above case of a circular

0.4:\.2 n2 (2. 5Lf ) which ensures that V21 ~ 0.80. More details are to be found in

Chapter 6 of 'Advanced Optical Techniques', A.C.S. van Heel, North-Holland. 3. The Total Coherence The treatment Factor

edited by

of the degree of spatial

coherence

~n

2. '2:2.

Section

2.2~ applies

to each Fourier

component

of a source time »T

for

the normal

case when the detector (2.43)

has integrating

We then need to integrate Thus, writing

over 0 to obtain

h co the total intensity.

the expression
(0)

(2..:.7) has the form ?

Ii (0) + I~(o) + 2/Ii(0)I;(0)Re[V21(0)exp[iS21(0~


exp { i21T0[(Rl - R2)]

+ PI (0) - P2 (0) }}

or, integrating

over 0,
I

(2.5',)

In (2, S~ ,) Ii (0)1' (0) ------2---V21 1'1'


12

(0)exp{iS21 (0)}exp{i21Top(0)}da (2. '5.7 )

where

~s the total optical {[Soptl + [Pl" number u.

.:r.1}-

path difference

from S , that is
o

{[SoP2] + [P2 •..p] },for

light of wave-

For a narrow (2,%),


(2.57') ,

spectral

width,

the variation

of

V21 (0)exp{iS21 (o) } wi t.h 0 may be ignored, (2.47) and (2.50.), (2.S'1).

as may be seen from We then find, for

V 21 (0 )exp{ iS21 (0 )}
o 0

I~ (0)1;(0) _ ---exp{ i21Top(0) }do o 1'1'


oo

12

or, if the transmittances dependent of


0,

and optical

path lengths

are also ~n-

(2.59 )

2.23.
as rn (2.27), (2.. :2.S) above, with

pea)

p.

Writing gives

K(jJ) = Vl(jJ)exp{ix(jJ)}as before, I I' + I' + 2W(p)V21(a

(2.59)

used in (2.Sb)

pI2

)/II'I'cos{2TIa P + X(p) + S21(a )} 2 0 0


(2.6<))

This shows the overall factor W(p)V21(a

effect

of (a) the finite spectral

Hid th of

the source and (b) _the f i.n.i size of the source. t.e

The visibility

) thus applies to, say, a 2-beam interferometer o using a low-pressure Hg lamp as source: p 1S the optical pathdifference and V21(a
o

for light from the mid-point ) is the degree of spatial


a• o

of the source to P, o coherence between P2 and PI


S

for the mean wave-number

potib I E (0-)
o

Fi9ure

2,5

The degree

of t;emporal coherence

-Lll,.-

~o

S=tr-ff. o

.··Fiyure ... ·.:2ilO

',The .•• ene,....gy ..spect;r:urn.·.'·ol1d. ·cbede9ree OF temporal coherence

Fi9LJre

2.7·

The degree

of spatial coherence

2..'25

f2

~(L2~M2,N2)

Yo«y)--?>
x

Figure

a.s

Calculation of tihe

degree

of spatia}

coherence

/-0

0-8 2I,('C)

x
..O-.b 0-4

j \
\\
\

1-0

0-8
Sin )(

x
·i()-6

\
\
\

o
-0-2

\
~

0-2

V
~

/ +-,

o
-0-2

8
X

10

\
4

if

(\
8

\
10

»:

Figure . 2,9

The curves of

2J, (x) x

and

sin.x
.Jr

3.
Lecture 3 OF UGHT

POLARISATION

B. R.
I. Wave Nature Light which. coupled propagate each media. controlled other at may any a of Ught be considered in time. as an

JENNINGS

an

electromagnetic electric field

wave field (E) The

phenomenon Is quadrature

in

instant similarly in to field

oscillating magnetic

with

oscillating with the

(H). oscillating

coupled

fields to

linearly and

space

field

vectors

perpendicular In non-conducting amplitudes vector obeys

the

direb.OOrtuot? t5e are in

wave

propagation. their

these

vectors

phase of the

and

relative Each

are the

by the

physical wave

parameters

medium.

three-dimensional

equation

curl

(curl

E)

V2

E=
equation. those for Of E the and various

(1)

with these plane

H replacing
equations. waves

E for
it is

the usual

magnetic to

solutions

of

consider

H which

represent

namely

cos(k·r

cut)

( 2)

H has this is

similar

form. as

In cos

some 9

texts cost the

the 9).

function The part

(wt

k· r ) form

is used.
is used

but for

insignificant

exponential is the

mathematical equations frequency propagation

convenience.

when

real

alone t
X A I

considered. time.

In these the angular The

Eo
and

is r

the the or

electric position wave

vector vector k

amplitude. (r

w
+

1
the

z ~).

vector

vector

is important

and

has

form

( 3)

where

is

the which

phase relate medium

velocity these are:

of

the

wave. to

For

Isotropic

media.

useful and the

expressions properties

parameters

fundamental

constants

of the

3. 2

c/n

.c

.and

(4)

with

c the

speed

of light

in vacuo.

and

€o

the

absolute

permittivities of

of

the

medium

and media. of of

vacuum The the the

respectively parameter Fig. 1. of

whilst
€r

JJ. and
the the

JJ.o are

permeabilltes or E.

these

same
constant

is

relative

permittivity of

dielectric Hand omit of k,

medium. fixed and

shows

inter-relation to

Because from The the

behaviour discussion. not

H relative and describe

E.
the

we

shall

hereafter in terms

H E.

figures

phenomena

presence

of H should

be forgotten

however.

II.

POLARISED UGHT Figure 1 Implies same and k an electric It vector represents which linearly Is maintained (formerly with to with called time. consider the the plane) The the E

vector polarised vectors

in

the light

plane. has a

sinusoidally of

varying

amplitude instructive

E and of in

define

a plane

vibration. various may

It is

combination oscillating

two such waves


planes Then

under which

conditions. X and

Consider Y axes

waves travel

orthogonal z direction.

define

as they

in a common

and ( 5) Eoy cos with 6 a phase difference. The (kz -

wt +6)

resultant

electric

field

is

then

achieved

by vector

addition. with n an integer. the fields are in phase and one

If 6 has

or ± (201T)

( 6)

This

is

again

linearly

polarised

beam.

but

of

amplitude

(E

ox

E 2) ~ oy

3,2(a)

x
Fi gure
1

z
Relationship between electric and magnetic field vectors and

the wave vector

Figure

/'

,
/'

z
Linearly polarised light at azimuth

e.

3.3

inclined two

at

an

azimuth factors.

of

(Flg,2) that and

with two

a=

tan-1(Eo,/EOY)' polarised in the beams. same

This

illustrates are in

important

namely polarised

linearly

which direction

phase. similar an be

orthogonally angular

propagating to form

with at can

frequency.

combine azimuth. mutually Eo)(.and case

a single any

linearly linearly

polarised polarised linearly

beam beam

inclined resolved

polarisation into two

Conversely. perpendicular. Eoy' the two

In-phase.

polarised

components

of amplitudes now the

Consider propagate (a) ( b) in the

where

linearly

polarised

beams

(Eqn. 5)

same

z-directlon. (Eox

but have

equal

amplitudes phase

EOY

Eo> and (or (2n+ 1) 7T 12) .

a constant

difference

of -TT 12

then and so that the vector

Ex Ey

= l'
= {'

Eo cos (kz Eo sin


(kz

wt)

wt)

}
has the form

(7)

resultant

of the

disturbance

E This varies field resultant with vector an

=
is

Eo{

l'

cos (kz

wt)

+ {'

sin

(kz

wt)}
(Eo>. whilst

(8) the wave

has a constant and not

time

independent

amplitude plane.

time

restricted

to a single frequency source. + (2n+


1)

In fact" in a

the

electric sense

rotates observer

at who If

constant views the

angular into the 5

w
The

clockwise

towards polarised and

beam the sign

is right-circularly between the {'

( Fig. 3) . components

phase negative.

n 12

l'

becomes

E we have lett-ctrcular we (9)

Eo{

l'

cos (kz

wt) -

f'
of

sin

(kz

wt)}

(9)

light. note that the addition the vector by displacements of

Finally. Eqns. (8) and

produces

a disturbance

characterised

2Eo

l'

cos (kz

wt)

(10)

which indicates
«()

that polarised beam of equal amplitude combine to form a in phase linearly

A left and a right circularly and propagating beam, in or beam the

same

direction,

polarised
(Il) A

linearly

polarised

can

be

split

into

two

circularly

polarised

beams of opposite handedness, The beams of most general case of and

and of equal amplitude and phase. combination produce of two linearly polarised light.

the

variable vector with

amplitudes traces

phase

elliptically around as an

polarised

The resultant
(z)

out a path which amplitude which

rotates projects

the propagation ellipse onto


a

direction

a varying

plane normal to the wave vector (Fig. Consider


i. e.

4) .

the

instantaneous

amplitudes

of the

generating

linear

waves,

Ex and Ey

= =

Eox cos (kz EOY cos (kz

- wt> - wt + 6)

( 11)

The second component can be expressed as E/EOY from 11 (a), :: cos (kz - wt) cos 6 sin (kz - wt) sin 0

we can substitute Into 11 (b) ,

Exl Eox
{1 -

=
x

cos (kz - wt)

and so that

(E IE

ox

)2}~ =

sin ( kz - wt),

or

which is an ellipse with inclination

given by

tan (28)

2Eox EOY cos 0 Eo/ EOy2

3,4(a)

Figure

z
RLght circularly
polarised 1 ight

Figure

Elliptically

polarised

light

3. 5

It Is more

easily

recognised

with

{)

(2n

+ 1) 71/2.

when

a .... O.

and

(12)

Once
(I)

again. when Eox

Eoy

Eo'

this

becomes
0

E2+E2=E2 y x which (II) is a circle If {) ... 71. as explained

above.

then

which (iii)

is a line. The various variable states that can be generated amplitudes light can from the ellipse are equation with

phase

{) (and

relative

EOy/Eox> be

shown in

In Fig. 5. of two

(Iv)

Just

as

circularly

polarised linearly from

considered so

terms

orthogonally light beam Natural can

polarised be generated

polarised a combination

beams. of

elliptically and a right

polarised circular

a left

of different exhibits phases to the has

amplitudes. no long-time preferred of place the and It polarisation multitudinous time. Is all vary state. sources with time to vary states The which in a as at of of

Light

amplitudes. contribute manner

and

orientations light at any

natural no

that

long-time

correlation. of different

sometimes states

referred which Mixed

'un polarised' . such a rapid

In fact. rate

it consists

polarisation

as to render including singly

them

indiscernible polarised

discretely. light' which it.

polarisation natural light

can

occur.

'partially polarised to terms has its the

may consist

with a strong. might be

component that a the of

within

The the

reader

tempted in It

think of

foregoing generating

description waves one is

of a

various

polarisation artificial natural components

states

pair

somewhat that

approach. materials either

reality. ability crystals

however. to or break as

when a

learns into its from

certain

have as

beam

generating them.

natural

devices

made

3. 6

III.

PROPAGATION Many crystals As properties with

IN CRYSTALS are structurally Is an anisotropic. electrtic for Their (and atomic array differs with

direction. optical the from such

light vary

oscillating direction can

magnetic) structures. and within

phenomenon. This reflects charges For the

with

anisotropic

ease their

which

the

E vector in the of

displace

atomic

electronic the

regular

positions the

various light

directions then state states

crystal. both In may

materials.

speed and beam the with

depends of of the

upon light.

propagation more from double emerge optical It than the

direction one light

polarisation different common In

addition. emerge this is

potartlsatlon that

material. or a

The

most

phenomenon which to

Illustratess polarised

refraction from rotation

birefringence subjected azimuth

orthogonally

beams is as

crystal the crystal.

un polarised polarised are

light. beam

Another is rotated when This

In which the

of a linearly effects pass

passes

through from

Further lasers

encountered the the crystal.

intense is the

optical realm

beams of

high optics.

power

through we limit

non-linear

In this

chapter.

discussion

to linear

phenomena . .QQuble RefractiQn In basic dielectric theory. local dipoles of moment p are induced in

a material

by a field

E according

to the

polarisability

a.

where

aE

or

Na

(13)

with Here.

P the

polarisation

density

and

N the

number and

of

dipoles

per

unit

volume.

can

have various susceptibility

values X

with

direction where

is thus

a tensor.

Often.

the

is used

=
This is also a tensor which relates that liquids. The further equation

NaE directlfy to

(14)

a,

especially

for

gases

and

g.7

€r indicates that €r and

(1

+ X>
similarly tensor properties. In general. therefore.

€ are

(15)

For non-absorbing define so-called

crystals.

the

tensor

is symmetric as

and

the

trace

components

principal

axes of the crystal

=
that

o o
o
the
X33

In

passing.

one of the

notes material.

off-diagonal

terms

relate

to

the

absorption

properties

Remembering then the

that

v2

c2 2""'

and

that

at optical

frequencies

n2

Er•

wave equation

(Eqn , 1)

becomes

=
Also. 'VE = ikE leads

~-

=
at

and

=-

iw E.

then

expanding

out

and

equating

components

to the

equations

( 16)

collecting which equate

all

terms with

on zero.

the

left Hence.

in

each the

case.

one

obtains of the

three

equations must

equate with

determinant

coefficients

zero.

namely

3.7(a)

Figure 5

/ tJ 0
phase

Jr:{
~

Il

-S

\
0 = n/2, it would

Various polarisation

states derived from the general ised ell ipse with

>E fon variable oy ox be a circle.

o.

If E

oy

= Eox ,and

Figure 6

OA

k surface

for a biaxial crystal.

~.8

This

forms the

3-dlmensional xy plane where

surface ~

in

'k' The

space

(Fig. 6). then

To

Interpret

it.

consider

= O.

determinant

becomes

{[~~r-~2+ky21 } [{ [~~r-}[ [~W r ~2}_ [ ky2


ct. { A

'\ 2ky2

}[
when either (or both) A or

1
O.

which

is satisfied

Bare

then

,\2 + ky2
~2

=
+

(n Wlc)2 3

(1

and
(n

ky2 (n wlc)2 1

wlc)

=
is

(18)

Eqn. the

17 other

is

a CIRCLE whilst planes xz and

18 yz.

an

ELLIPSE. two the

Similar wave crystal. Ex

equations are

appear

for

Hence. traverses the

normals

generally

encountered

in any plane propagation Eqns.

as light along 18,

Consider
'\ ;k

x axis, are

then

=
of

0, kx'

\(=

kz)

0 and

O. with

From

17 and

there

2 values in Hence

so the

two waves relates to

travel

different in Eqn.

phase 16(c).

velocities. ~ relates to The

Further, Ez.

Eqn.

16( i».

'\

Ey whilst ARE the

THESE has

TWO WAVEFRONTS been divided and

ORTHOGONALLY material Two

POLARISED. or

incident

wave

is birefringent. other the points wave

doubly from

refracting. Fig. 6. The two Firstly, there Is one direction at the

emerge vectors

along

which

equate.

polarised

beams

travel

same which optic

velocity no

and

thus is

do

not

separate.

This if

is n1

the

OPTIC n2

AXIS. a

along second

birefringence behind two

observed. plane

Secondly. figure. axes the is are

n3• Is then the

axis exists Generally.

the of

of the

The

material and

biaxial. is

the

principal form Index

equal index

material obey ne'

UNIAXIAL. law. The

The

identical

indices

ordinary the

no and index

Snell's The

unique

refractive as the

extraordinary

birefringence

is defined

difference

(19)

so that

if na > no'

the crystal of a negative

is a positive crystal. follow

uniaxial

material.

whilst

na < "0

is

the characteristic Some


(j)

useful Fig. 6. in

generalisations if the two

from indices

this. equate. wavefront and a Is circular that Snell's profile which law. is

From

refractive

observed be

appropriate in an

plane.

The

would The

encountered has

isotropic profile. ns >

materials

it obeys

e wave (II) For

an elliptical materials the


0

positive

no implies

that.

as v

w/k

c/n.

ke >

ko

but va < va and


(iii)

ray travels surface of

faster. k. Profiles Note that of k are given relate in Fig. 7 to the

Flg.6 for

is each

a wave-vector of three

crystal

classes.

velocities

inverse (Iv)

of k. of the wave velocity double three profiles leads in to the often reproduced when to the

Consideration figures the of ray is

velocities oriented These are in

for

refraction orthogonal

uniaxial

crystals. relative

crystal axis. the

the

directions

optics Finally. monoclinic hexagonal data are

shown

In Fig. 8. predicts to be the class. We trigonal. Isotropic. expect. triclinic. and typical

crystal

structure crystals and cubic

and to given be

orthrhombic uniaxial;

biaxial; to be

tetragonal Some

structures

below.

3.9(a)

OA

OA

OA

OA

Figure 7

bro.YLttL
Wave vector (k) profiles in

the XZ plane

Figure

~.-

OA

I
,;, •• ~"-CiJc-c·.o
C

OA

Wave velocity

profiles

for uniaxial

crystals.

;j.

10

Table

I:

Principal

Refractive

Indices

of Chosen

Crystals

-_ ..'_-------------------_. ------------------_-------------..,_-----------""'_

.._------

Biaxial

Gypsum Feldspar Mica Topaz

1.520 1.522 1.552 1. 619 1.309 1.544 2.616 1.584 1.658 1.669

1.523 1.526 1.582 1.620

1.530 1.530 1.588 1.627 1.310 1.553 2.903 1.336 1.486 1.638

Uniaxial ( positive)

Ice Quartz Rutile

( negative)

Sodium Nitrate Calcite Tourmaline

Poiarising The waves beams.

Prisms association a means both or of of discrete isolating linear linearly beams lost polarisation polarised are retained a single with light differently from an refracting unpolarised as as in in a

affords

Either.

polarised one is

after

separation beam

double-image

prisms.

to leave

polarised

polarlser.
For perpendicular through rays the example. to crystal the consider Incidence circular a uniaxial (as and air the In crystal. Fig. with acr . law 1). the Both holds and for optic waves each. the axis travel For

plane profiles into


0e

with

Snell's n ==

travelling angle

out of the crystal


of Incidence.
00

(with

common

internal

and

related

refracted

angles.

then

s.

11

sin

= ----

= --~parallel and A perpendicular suitable one used are to the

(20)

The

and

rays They

are are with

polarised th us a

optic can

axis be

respectively. chosen reflection linearly and so

separated.

incidence ray suffers

angle total to

that. the

negative escapes.

crystal. This is

internal produce shape the

whilst polarised

other

In glass cut to

prisms a

light and the

(Fi,s. 9) . contain 'external' a

Nicol layer medium

prisms of

different to optimise

optical

axis of

Canada achieve

balsam

refractive catctte

index

and

polarisation.

Negative

Is used. Flg.11 also shows a variety the of double-Imaging axes the as shown. beams could (c) prisms. They or with are components designed to for been

cut

in

positive

quartz

with

optic

achieve anyone used.

maximum

deviation state.

between

two material

non-deviation well have

polarisation

Negative

equally

IV..

MATRIX We recall

REPRESENTATION the generalised expression requires for the a plane wave in terms phases Eo with of of the the

orthogonal components.

components.

Definition to

amplitudes vector

and

It is convenient

use a complex

amplitude

(21)

Each

term

can

embrace

phase

if we use exponential

notation.

as

and

E oy

II
E oy

el<l>y

(22)

Jones

(1941)

suggested

the

notation

for

the

complex

amplitude

( 23)

3. 11 (a)

Nicol

prism

above: below:

Polarising Double-image

prisms prisms

in {negative) iw, (positive)

.calcity quartz.

Ili/
Rochon p r ism Senarmont prism

\~ollaston

pri sm

Polarising

Prisms

3.12

which phase

is the data

so-called are on a not

Jones

vector. but beam by to

In many the are of

cases,

exact

amplitude of In to

and polarising cases.

required,

relative

influence

components simpler as when

transmitted are vector obtained

importance. the beam

such

expressions the Jones

normalising unit

unit

lrr adtance.

reduces

elements.

Hence.

from

Eqn.23.

beam.

linearly

polarised

in the

horizontal

(x)

direction.

In normalised

notation,

it becomes

By similar

reasoning

(Fig. 10) .

is a horizontally

polarised

beam

Is a vertically

polarised

beam

[~1

is linearly

polarised

at 45°

azimuth

!-: 1
[ 1

is right

- "/2

circularly phase)

polarised

light

(the

component

is left

circularly

polarised

light

!_~j
The resulting by light calculated beams addition of equal

lis elliptically polarised light with n ~ 2, the components being out of phase. of unequal amplitude and right rotating.

obtained of the

by

mixing

two For

or

more

polarised two

beams

can

be

vectors.

example.

circularly Then

polarised

amplitude

but opposing

handedness

combine.

j.13

and

horizontally. The major In the

linearly use beam.

polarised Is in

light

of twice the the

the

amplitude of

is predicted. Imposed for optical common

estimating II lists

Influence Jones

elements elements.

Table

matrices

Then

If light

of form

[:]

passes

through

element

[:

:] to become

[~:]

( 24)

For polarised

example. beam is

the as case

Influence follows. horizontal.

of

quarter-wave incident

plate is

<0>

on

a to

linearly the fast

If the then

azimuth

parallel

axis of Q.

in this

[0' 01] [0'] -_ [0']


If the incident beam has 45° polarisation and a left

and

the

beam

is unaffected.

azimuth circularly polarised beam

results.

Successive system.

matrices

can the

be introduced incident light

to account is polarised.

for

a complete

optical

provided

that

j,13(a)

Figure 10

r
It]

[~J
)C

x.

1..(

>c

Jones vectors

for various polarisation

states

3. 14

Table

II.

Jones Matrix representation of various optical (zero azimuth is taken as the vertical)

components

Linear

polariser

horizontal

Linear

polarlser

vertical

Linear

polarlser

at ± 450

),,/4

plate

fast

axis

horizontal

),,/4

plate

fast

axis vertical

),,/4

plate-

fast

axis

at

± 450

),,/2

plate

fast

axis

either

0 or

90°

Olroular

potarlser

- right

circular

polarrser

- left

V.

Optical Certain

Rotation materials rotate the the light such plane as terpentlne. of polarisation the material. the sugars of an and crysallised quartz have

the light

ability beam the

to as

incident. rotation is the said

linearly per to

polarised unit length optically right with

traverses power if it

The material to

defines active.

specific

rotatory

and

be

It is dextrorotatory Levorotation that the

rotates to was

increasingly the

clockwise left.

propagation. recognised

occurs

anti-clockwise with helical

Fresnel (or

phenomenon

associated

symmetry

:3. 15

chirality> sufficient interaction which this,

in the to

structure the

whilst effect. with give induce E.

Tinoco To the a

has

demonstrated the

that

helicity

alone

is the

generate

generate

polarisation must induce

rotation, a small in Ex' phase

of the

St

vector Hy to must

helical

structure H resultant.

AHx
with

couples the

with

rotated

Exactly with

Hy vector rotated

a AEy component

which.

constitutes

an equally A right and

resultant Is

description left

afforded polarised Let with kR

In terms light and

of

different can

speeds

of from

propagation the

of

circularly beam.

which nL

be derived relevant

incident. for

linearly these If the

polarised

nR

be the and kL

refractive

indices

two components. incident beam

nR w/c. in the

= nL wlc
(x)

the wave vectors. then

is polarised

horizontal

direction.

(25)

After

a distance

L,

these

two circular

components

become

.!2

[_: le
f [- :

lkR

~[]e
1

lV

( 26)

~G

i(kR ""kl) lI2

j.HkR-

~.>tl2

[ ]e-I IkR -kLl1l2]


1

( 27)

3. 15(a)

Optical

Activity

Figure

11.

(a)

Dextra-rotation

(b)

Fresnel

prism

3, 16.
For etrnoncttv.

let
Ji (kR J6 ( kR
kL) R.

1/f

kL) il. ::: cP becomes

(28)

then

the wave

amplitude

representing

a linear

beam

rotated

through

CPo

From rril.

Its definition.

(eqn.28)

Hence. and

the

rotary

power is dependent. affords a

cP
l

::: (nR

nL) TIl)..

( 30)

is wavelonqth Equation 30

means

of An.

isolating

the

Rand

L components. and left

by

analogy quartz beams linearly prism

with are

the

linear

birefringence as in Fig. 11.

Two prisms dqference the the the prism present sense in

of right refractive

handed for like


th .... I,r.O"

juxtaposed in

The at In

indices rather

results polarising and can

their

divergence prism. to

interface. case. of it

the

Wollaston be used

is

the of

FresneJ circularly

determine

rotation

polarised

light.

VI.

OTHER POLARISING MECHANISMS There are other common methods for obtaining polarised light.

(I)

Light When

Scattering un polarised the light is scattered has by a collection angular of molecules or and to the

small variable

particles.

scattered

intensity The

strong

dependence at angle

polarisation

characteristics.

intensity

scattered

1. 17
forward Rayleigh direction equation. relates namely to the incident Intensity 10 according to the original -

(31)

demonstrating Intensity linearly in the for

the the

Inverse shorter

square

law

and This

the

greatly Is

enhanced composed and and is is

scattered of two

wavelengths. one The of

intensity varies as

polarised plane of to the

components, incidence. the light state

which is

cos2e of

polarised polarised that. at

other plane,

independent (fIg. 12b). an effect

perpendicular

incidence was can linearly be seen

Tyndall that

noted bears

900.

polarised:

his

name.

The

polarisation

in fig. 12 (c) .

ctn

Qlchroic

e.ol~!lQn
has axes. also
€r

Birefringence with the crystal


€r

Its origins

in

an

anisotropic relates with

refractive directly direction. It energy extinction is

index to

associated relative imaginary imaginary in a light 'X,

Refractive has can n). variable thus

index values be

the The the

permittivity part of n

which

and of thus
€r

hence (and relates

anisotropic. accounts and for the

component beam with and

hence to

which

loss

optical

absorption

coefficient

( 32)

with

nj

the

imaginary

part

of

the the

refractive absorption for is light termed so

index. efficiency polarised

With varies

certain with

highly different

absorbing. axial

anisotropic

materials. the

directions Such

through selective and crystal in

crystal

parallel Some they in act

to

those

directions. such as

absorption are

'dichroism', that

materials as weak plane. High

tourmaline The that

herapathlte selectively an

anlsotroplc light

polartsera. allowing

absorbs

polarised to be

one

polarised

orthogonal

direction

transmitted.

j.17(a)

Figure
(a)

12

(b)

Polar

intensity

diagram

Polarisation

at

900

(c)

Polarisation

by light scattering

j.18

light the

loss principle

is

encountered for sheet

and

the

polarisation

Is

not

very

efficient.

This

is

polaroid.

cun

Pglarisation When light the of

by RmJ.fLQ!!.Q.n is reflected of the differs can and refracted at the interface between vector to it. two in An whose

dielectrics, the plane

behaviour incidence

component from be that

polarised

with

its electric

pctartseo
into two

perpendicular such

incident. properties The shown At a

unpoiarlsed are

wave

resolved

components.

embraced

in the

Fresnel

equations. R for these of Bs' an two components are

Intensity

rettoctton
which of Is for

coefficients the specific

In fig. 13, specific in

case

atr-to-ptass
of the an the

interface. component

angle the

incidence of incidence off. Only The So

designated Is

.Q.Q.D..\it

polarised polarised polarises

plane

reflected. plate at

Only such

perpendicularly inclination incident thus light

component an incident (typically

reflects beam. 15%).

glass

a very condition

small for

proportion 96 is when

of the
(i

is obtained r the angle

+ r)

:: 900 with

of refraction.

( 33) and Be Is the The is, light Brewster angle. For alr-to-glass the parallel interface it is approximately is not linearly

560.
polarised. It not An

transmitted rich of

through in the

however, A

relatively series

polarised forms a

component.

as this polariser. and

is

reflected. ever at

such

interfaces

'pile-at-plates' to each and device other

increasing the

number

of plates, gives beam.

mounted high It

parallel

inclined linear the

Brewster of

angle,

transmittance is a useful

increasing for determining

polarisation azimuth

a transmitted

of an unknown

linearly

polarised

beam.

3.18(a)

Figure

13

~I
I

jo

&1
60
90

&8

/ ( (/£J.fEG-S)

Reflectance incidence.

for Data

componentsj)olarised for air-glass

1. and

II

to

the

plane

of

interface.

rJ

00

')v

4.1
DIFFRACTION THEORY

H.H. HOPKINS Lecture 4

1.

The Huygens-Fre-snel InTegral This is the basic formula for the calculation amplitude, of the effects such that is amplias More

produced by a monochromatic as P is known.

light wave.

In Figure 4.1, A is a U , at each point


o

surface over wh i ch the complex


o

We deal with a pure frequency

component, over A. from P .


o

a monochromatic tude produced

wave, and look for a formula for the complex at a point P by the wave disturbance that each point P spherical
o

Huygens postulated than a century Young's disturbance of A.

on A could be regarded Huygens' principle

the source of a secondary principle

wave diverging introduced

later Fresnel,

combining

with at P

of interference,

the idea that the points

at P was the resultant

of the mutual interference at the different

of all of the secondary waves originating

This led to what we now call the Huygens-Fresnel nature.

integral.

We shall obtain this formula by rather simple physical of a heuristic

considerations

Thus, let EPF in Figure 4.1 be a wavefront wave from the element dA of A at P •
o

of the secondary with at will be of

Since we are concerned


P

a diverging the form

spherical wave,

the complex amplitude

dU 1n accordance suppose with

~xp{ -ikR} (P P).


o

(4.1)
It is reasonable That is, a dU to
0

(2.22), where R

that a is proportional

to the complex amplitude,

U , at P
o

and to the size, dA, of the area element. using a elements iu dA/A, and integrating
o

=
p

KU dA
o

where K 1S a constant, whose value may be shown to be i/A.


=

Thus, at P,

the contributions

from all

of A, gives, for the resultant

complex amplitude

ifJu
AA

exp{-ikR}dA
0

(4.2)

4.2

This is the Huygens-Fresnel The formula gral solution


integral. inte-

(4.2) may also be derived from Kirchhoff's


t

of the wave+equa

i.on in the approximation , PoN of the normal

wh en to dA, on

A.

It is then found that the amplitude of the secondary in the direction In different

wave EPF is a maximum and it depends on can be cos

e.

cases, the dependence for

or ~(l + cos

e),

which

e=

150 take the values if we consider to take the waves, wh i.ch

of 0.97 and 0.98 respectively. cases where

(4.2) therefore applies for R » However, also necessary Fortunately,

and for smaller angles of diffraction.

is much larger, it becomes complications.

into account introduces

the vector nature of electromagnetic (4.2) gives results

rather formidable

scalar formula

in good agreement with what

is found in practice. 2. Fresnel Diffraction: In applying The Point of Stationary Phase problems different approximaand P r.n

(4.2) to practical cases.

tions are made in different has coordinates the plane A at Z sensitive arriving

The first of these we con=0

sider is that of Figure 4.2, wh ere A is the plane Z


(1;,

n) ln the plane

= D.

Now the integral


o

(4.2) sums the effects at P of secondary wave s from points P


=

o.

The resultant

at P is very much more the secondary waves In consequence a much {-kR}

to the phase-differences is needed for R function

between

there than to their amplitudes.


=

greater accuracy

(P P) in the argument
o

of the exponential

than in the factor l/R which relates from Po' R (PoP) has a mlnl1;,

to the re.al amplitudeoLthes.e.condary·wave Now, as Po explores


o

the (X, Y)-plane, are X

mum value at P , whose coordinates PoP is perpendicular the secondary ary phase. P
o

= n;

that is

to the (X, Y)-plane.

The phases at P of for those from through of

disturbances
o

are thus stationary

the neighbourhood is as suggested

of P , which

is known as the point of station-

The form of cos(kR) along the abscissca

in Figure 4.2, and the integral of cos(kR) by the neighbourhood the value of R changes inlittle

along X clearly has its value determined P.


o

For points removed from P

creasingly or nothing

rapidly, and the curve of cos(kR) then oscillates to the integral of cos(kR), the real part of

very rapidly between ±l, so that these regions contribute

4.3 The same ~s true for sin(kR). we expandR For the present

exp {-ikR}. R

case, therefore,
=

= (PoP) about its value

(P p) = D, where D = (EO).
o

The coordinates

of P

e 1;, n ,

are (X, Y, 0) and P is the point


(P P), o

D).

Thus, with R

(4.3) It is customary to find the value of R by expanding theorem. the square to trans-

root of (4.3) using the binomial then, with R + D

It is better

fer D2 to the left hand side, and to wr i.t e R2 - D2 = (R - D) (R + D);

=
D

2D + (R - D)
(I; - X)2 +

2D{1 + (R - D)/2D}, y)2

(4.3) g~ves (4.4)


an

R-

2D

en -

11 +
I..

r,

(R - D)_]-l 2D

If (R - D) reaches

1001.. we shall have 100 osci llations


o
~n

cos (kR), and in sin(kR) , to the right or left of P The value of the integral IR is thus dominated DI ~s not large, that ~s the region of p-0 Hence

Figure

4.2.

by the region where

For

IR - DI

lOa;', with ;. = 500 nm and for D even as small as 10 mm, the final factor and then (4.5) value. of Rto use ~n the phase factor

the value of (R ~ D)/2D ~s only 0.005. in (4.4) may be ignored, -R

g~ves the necessary


exp{

-ikR} of (4.2). lfthe factor l/R ~n (4.2) is written


=

as the reciprocal

of

D + (R - D)

nt i

+ (R - D)/D},

the same argument l/R


=

as above allows

the (less precise) factor of (4.2).

approximation The integral

liD for this amplitude

(4.2) now gives

up

lI)

/i1exp{-ikD}S'r f.(27T)(1; - X)2 + D iuoexp -~ -X2D

en

- Y) 2]dXdY
(4.6)

with k Fresnel

= 27T/A and dA = dXdY.


diffraction,

This is the basic formula

for

wh i ch is the case when

the plane containing

P is not at or near the focus of the wave at the plane A. The important role played ~n this case by the point of

4.4 This may be observed

stationary practically

phase should be noted. by obscuring

all of the screen A except for a small


lS lS

region around

Po ,

when it point P

found that the light intensity unchanged. in (4.6) has a


~, Y

at

the corresponding stationary

It will also be seen

that the phase -(2IT/A){(~ _X)2 + (n - y)2}/2D value with respect


O-f Fresnel

to both X and Y Hhen X diffraction,

= n,

As an example u(z)

consider a plane Have


wh i ch has

= a expf-ikz} falling on an opaque screen A,


We then have U

a perXl, the

fectly clear rectangular the limits of integration substitutions


u

aperture bounded by the lines X


a

u(a) to Y2'

a, and

are Xl to X2 and YI

With

= (2 ~ JTD

(4.7)

and

J ~D (~

X)

ds

-~X

JTD

the integration

Hith respect

to X in (4.6) becomes

",,)1
~L/J

Hhere

denotes

the

.comp

Lex conjugate, 2

and

F (u )

C(u) + is(u)

IT } S S = Jexp i--2- ds = SU cos (IT 2) ds --2o 00\

r{

Y., IT S 2) + iJsin(--2- ds

(4.8)
lS

the complex

form of the Fresnel

integrals

C(u) and S(u).

With the notation

the integral

over Y leads to JAD/2{F*(v

- VI) - F*(v - V2)},

and

(4.6) then gives

4.5
Up exp{-ikD}4{Fi~(u - UI) '-F*(u - U2)}{F'~(v - VI) - F*(v - V2)} (4.9) for the complex amplitude tance D from the screen A. If the aperture X2 at A is very large, and we put Xl
-00

at the point

(s, n) ~n the plane at dis-

= Y2

+00, noting that


C (±oo) ±!

s (z=)
+1

=±!

F(±oo) F (-u)

-72
-F(u)

e~-4

.1T

F* (±oo)

±«_i2:..4
1

(4.10)

(4.9) gives U according

a exp{-ikD}:

that is the wave propagates For a finite aperture, shadow that either it ~s (u - UI),

to geometrical

optics.

only near the edges of the geometrical Fresnel diffraction

(4.9) then gives fringes around the s h adow edge. the form of these fringes, consider the case of X
<

To illustrate

an opaque screen covering limits of integration that is UI formula

the whole of the half-plane ag in Figure 4.3. 0, X2

0, The

with its edge lying along the Y-axis are then Xl

+00 and YI

-00

,
The

0, U2

+00 and vI

, = -00 v2 = +00.

(4.9) now takes the form exp(+ii' a exp{--ikD}tF"~(u)

U P

- F*(- )}

that ~s,with

the notation exp

of (4.8), .. and using

(4.10),

Up

a exp{-ikD}

12

(+i:) {

[CCu) + !J-i~

(u) +

fl]
(4.11)

gives the complex amplitude

at the point distant 4.2.

s=

(/AD/2)u

from the edge of the shadow at 0 in Figure values of u, the final bracket 12exp -ii ' g~v~ng Up turbance according given by the argument

For larger

in (4.11) tends to the value that is the wave disThe phase at P is of Up' and it shadow distribution optics.

a exp{-ikD}:

to geometrical

of the complex amplitude

will be seen that near to the edge of the geometrical when u ~s small, there will be a more complicated of phase.

There is no longer a simple smooth surface of· constant

4.6 phase, that is a wavefront, and the rays of geometrical optics

are no longer a valid concept. The intensity for the half-plane, is given by the squared modulus of U .
P

Thus,

(4.11) gives for the intensity

where I

a2 lS the intensity

of the plane wave.

The form of

A useful rule lS to note that the I II is shown In Figure 4.3. p first fringe has its maximum when u = 1.2, that lS for

I;

= 0.8SI5J5.
For D

With A

= 550 nm, this glves

I;

o.oun,
O.

with D In

mm.

= 100

mm, the first fringe is at a distance I; shadow at I;

= 0.2

mm

from the edge of the geometrical 3. Fraunhofer Diffraction

This is the case when D lS large compared with the dimensions of the aperture at E. It is found that terms In X2 and y2 no for R
=

longer appear in the expression point of stationary contributes to the resultant

(PoP); so there is no at E coat P. In Figure 4.4,

phase, and the whole of the aperture disturbance


=

we specify the point P by the length R sines (L, 1'1, of its polar radius EP. N)

(EP) and direction

are given by L = Sln 8X' H wh e r e 8 ' 8y are the angles shown In Figure 4.4. X ordinates
(I;

The direction COSlnes /{l - (L2 + 1'12)}, = Sln 8y and N P thus has colS the point and, if P

LR, n = HR, D = NR) ;


o

(X, y,O), the square .of (P P) gives

R2

(LR - X)2 + (HR - y)2 + (NR)2

-2R(LX + MY) + (X2 + y2)


Writing R2 - R2
=

(4.13)

(R - R)(R + R)

(R - R){2R + (R - R)}

= (R - 'R) iR{l
R-

+ (R -

R) 12R}, the relation (4.13) may be wr i tten


(4.14)

4.7

Now R -

= (Po P) - (EP) 1S the difference


o

in path to P between is

the secondary waves from P very many wavelengths, large phase differences For points where U therefore,
we

and E.

If this path-difference resultant,

the secondary

waves arrive at P with very

and will give a negligible IR - RI «

D.
P

is at all significantly

different

from zero, in

shall have

2R, and the final factor

(4.14) may be omitted. may write

(4.14) gives the value of R to be used (4.2). By the same argument, factor in (4.2). is ",ritten If we

in {-ikR} in the general formula the complex amplitude


U

(l/R) = (l/R) for the amplitude (4.2) gives

at (X, Y) of the aperture

= f(X, Y),

D(L,H)

exp {

;ikRl

Iff (x,Y)

exp

{2" [(f) X+ (¥)~-(~~

x:; Y}XdY

(4.15) for the resultant complex amplitude at P. For R large, that is

\1..

(~\)(X2

y2)

max

(4.16)

the term 1n (X2 + y2) may be ignored,

and then (4.17)

where
R(a,T)

=JJf(X,
_00

Y)exp{i2'IT(aX + TY)}dXdY function

(4.18)

is the Fourier is defined

transform

of the aperture

f(X, Y), which

to be zero outside the initial

the reg10n of A itself. (4.17) shows that any aperture distribution of diffracted by pair frequency integral ampli tude determined

Omitting function

factors,

f(X, Y) produces transform

an angular

light, which along the Fourier


a = L/A,

(L, M) has complex

of f(X, Y) for the spatial Thus, the Fourier

T = H/>'"

This may also be seen as a direct conseanalysis. rep-

quence of Fourier resentation

of f(X, Y) is, as in (1.46),

4.8
+00

f(X, Y)

J1F(a,
-00

,)exp{-i2rr(aX + ,Y)}dad,

(4.19) a exp(i¢)

whilst, by (2.20), a plane wave with complex amplitude at X

= Y = Z = 0 has complex amplitude


U

a exp(i¢)exp{-ik(LX

+ MY)}

(4.20) of (4.19) and

at points eui valent wave along where

(X, Y) in the plane Z to an angular spectrum

= 0.

Comparison

(4.20) shows that any disturbance,

f(X, Y), at the screen is of plane wave s , where the plane a exp(i¢)
=

(L, M) has at E a complex amplitude

F(a,,),

a are spatial frequencies


=

L A.

,=

A.

(4.21)

of f(X, Y). exp{-ikZ} falls on a screen of complex leaving the screen at Z light has L or negative values of positive

If a plane wave U transmittance is just

f(X, Y), the disturbance F(O, 0). to positive

r rx, Y).

The direct, or undiffracted,

= M = 0,

and is of complex amplitude values of (a, ,) correspond (L, M): ILl

or negative

that is, to waves diffracted

to the left and right, or

above and below the direct beam. fracted light is equal to (1/A.) The· above fo rmu.l becomes a focus;of'theplanewaves We, therefore,

The maximum values of L, Mare is detail of size ;;.A.. that is at the directions (L, M).

= IMI = 1, so the maximum spatial frequency producing dif, which

exact as·R-+oo,

diffraetecialongthe

expect to find the same type of result if the aperR

ture plane A is replaced by a sphere of radius or near the plane Z sphere of radius

= D, and P is at

= D = R. o
o

We now have the case of the lower has coordinates (X, Y, Z) on a and P, with coordinates

diagram of Figure 4.4, where P


R

and centre 0;

(~, n, C) having origin at 0, is taken to be on the sphere OP,


of radius R and centre C. We now have

(~ - X)2
which uSlng the equations

(n - y)2

(R

C - Z)2

of the spheres EP

and OP, namely

4.9
X2 + y2 + Z2 - 2R Z
a

0, easily re-

duces to

Factorising gives
RR

R2 - R2 and using the fact that IR - R I «


a a

R , this
a

This, used ln (4.6) with U written


a

f(X, Y), with the amplitude the constant factor

factor

(l/R) ~
a

(l/R ), and omitting


a

(i/AR )exp{-ikR

}, gives

Up " U(~,

n) ~ exp i -i£(~,

n)} JInx, Y)exp[i~"

[~x;0nY

i~]}dXdY
(4.22)

where we write (4.23) and we also make the approximation at P


a

that the element

of area dA This We implies a very wave s ,


a

on the sphere is written

dA

dXdY/cos
a

8 ~ dXdY.

last, like the approximation shall show that the quantity practical cases.

(l/R)~

(l/R ), merely

small error in the real amp Li tudes of the secondary IZ;;Z/R «


o

I (~X

nY)/R

, in all

Thus, the surface r2 p2

equations (EP )2
a

above glve X2 + y2 + Z2 2R Z
a

(OP)2

~2 + n2 + 1;;2 2RI;; Now (~X + nY) will attain values

so that I;;Z/R
a
zrp,

so that

(4.24)
If

(~X + nY) /R

reaches ~ say 10m,

the resultant and, for A

amplitude

at P

will be negligible.

Thus, at points of interest,


=

the second 550 nrn and R

factor in (4.24) will be ~ 100A/4R;

4.10

even as small as 10 the term sZ/R


a

mID,

the ratio (4.24) is only 0.0014. from (4.22), leaving

Hence

may be omitted exp{-iE(~,

u(~, n)

n)}JJf(X, Y)exp ~2TI


-00

+ JJdXdY [. (~XARO n~17

(4.25) with f(X, Y) defined to be zero outside the reg~on of the aperture

A.
There are two special cases of (4.25) which are important. If R

00,

the sphere OP becomes

the (~, n)-plane,

and then

U(~, n)

exp{-iE(~,

n)}F(Ai ' o

A;O)

(4.26) and, from

where F(a, T) ~s the Fourier (4.23),

transform of f(X, Y);

(4.27)

The intensity

at points ~n the (~, n)-plane is g~ven by


I(~, n)

lu(~, n) 12
by

(4.28)

that is, w i rh high accuracy, Fourier objects. transform of f(X, Y). the theory of image formation

the squared modulus of the This result is of importance ~n and of coherent

both of incoherent

The second s.pec.i.a.l r case of .. (4.25) P lies on a sphere of radius R

18

when C i.s.uar > so. that E We then have

(EO) and centre O.

= (Oe) = (OE) = -(EO) =

-R' 0'

and, by (4.23), E(~, n)

= O.

In this case (4.29) and we have an exact Fourier plex amplitude


(OP) •

transform
(EP a

relation betwe en the com-

over the sphere

) and that over the sphere

This result is of importance It serves to explain,

both in the theory of colaser

herent cavity.

image formation and in the theory of the confocal

for example, why this type of

cavity can support a large number of different modes.

.4.11

~A

Figure 4-. 1 The nuyqens - rr-esnet

int:egT'al

y
p

----7 R=/)
x

FiguT'e 4-- 2

Fresnel

diF-Ffloct:ion : tihe point: of stationary phase

4.12

~5=
Figure 4-·3 Fresnel diFfraction at:

0-85

AD

edge

a .straiqnt:

<,

'-

<,
<;

'-

'-

:s

'-

...,

..,
1

Figure 4-4

Fr-aunboper-

diFfraction {orrnutae

r
i

Lec:tture 5 LASERS 1. 1. Introduction Lasers several lamps or have been described from These as Ideal light sources. by Laser light differs In PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

Important by hot bright highly a

respects bodies.

light

generated are

conventional in that the

discharge a laser is is

differences also

quantitative in that

extremely collimated. have

intense coherent host of one In and

but

qualitative

iight

well

extremely

monochromatic. In above which

These lasers

distinctions have at been the and of the be

spawned to of

modern or order more to

applications of the

designed expense

enhance the No that others. short have of

features. areas to Is to

usually of

revolutionize possibly

many do

science variety

technology. applications scientific appreciated. 1.2. In

account developed. action

could

justice here

the

Our so that

purpose more

establish may

basis

laser

specific

applications

Review of non-laser order first to to fully

Ught sources .the special features and of laser of light it is

appreciate the sources

necessary light theory

establish

characteristics may The be

limitations

conventional

sources. of Black below.

Thermal Body

adequately

modelled of this

by

Planck's are

Radiation.

Important

results

theory

discussed

Electromagnetic temperature by

radiation

In

thermal

equilibrium density
U

with with

cavity

at

T has a distribution

of radiation

frequency

v given

Planck's

Law.

and

the

radiant

emittance

into

all directions

from

unit

area

of the

surface

W(v.T)

ov

c
4

s.
In terms of the wavelength spectrum

W().,T>

d).=

ehV/k.
spectrum peaks at

lI).T

-1

d)'

The

km
with

2.9 x 106 T

nm

with

an

Integrated

total

emittance

over

all

W Tot al with Black and are body neither and source of if sources are limited nor system to

a -r4
X

Stephen's

Law

a = 5.68
In terms

10-8

Watts

m-2

K-4•
temperature radiations the light can at the are then never cost by

of

brightness The

by the

directional a size the of lens

monochromatic. is an used image to

individual or focus

incoherent the finite

collimate surface only

leads

whose can

brightness be bought be loss

exceed of

that

object. the the gas light. area

Monochromaticity Similarly, of the source lamps spectral coherence a finite

losing

most

coherence with have lines and area

can

only

improved of light.

drastically

reducing

a consequent better may be

Conventional thermal from the sources same are light

discharge individual on and

monochromaticity isolated since is but the they

than suffer

since

limitations incoherent intenstty.

directionality of the

individual for

emitters adequate 1. 3 The

source

required

Emission discrete with


.&

and Absorption energy levels

of radiation

by atoms
give rise to three distinct

of electrons

in atoms

interactions

radiation.

Nn

E",

(a)

Soontaneous Here an

emission in to an a upper level undergoes The

atom decay

E,...,

random

lower

level.

probability/sec between the

of

decay

Anm

where

Anm

is

the

Einstein

'A'

coefficient

two levels.

(b)

Absorption An atom to reach The in the the lower level Is driven by resonant radiation of density
Uv

upper

level. of an the Nm absorption. two


Uv

probability/sec

=
hVn m

Uv

8mn where

Is

the

Einstein

'S' coefficient Total (c) absorbed

between power

levels. 8mn

Stimulated An atom

emission in the upper the level Is driven Since Is coherent hvnm. are reciprocal only processes when and also that by It resonant Is with radiation. by the
.=

of

density

uv'

to

reach the

lower

level.

driven the

incoming

radiation

stimulated power that will

emission

driving

radiatlon.

Totai radiated It Is the apparent

=
(b)

No

Uv

Bnm (c)

and

incident

radiation

have

a net

amplification

This

Inequality

Is

at

the

basis

of

laser

action.

or

light

amplification

by

stimulated It body Is

emission easy to

of radiation. show that then if atoms are in thermal on equilibrium populations with black

radiation

in a cavity

the

Boltzman

condition

together

with

Planck's

law.

leads

to the

equality

Bnm

8mn

and

81Thv3 nm

The

prerequisite

for

laser

laction

Is then

that

Nn

> Nm.

Population

inversion

S.4 For visible that light at hv 2eV and even at T

3000K

kT

Is

only gives

~O. 2SeV. Nm:» Nn Laser and can input

It and

follows

laboratory of

temperatures the Incident departure condition or

thermal radiation from

equilibrium will

absorption/attenuation requires be a very as

dominate. equilibrium with

action only of

considerable

thermal

attained to

a transient
the

continuously

a continuous

energy from

achieve

appropriate Is to

excitation. dominate over

Further. the

if

coherent

radiatlon from

stimulated

emission then

incoherent

radiation

spontaneous

emission

Both

these of

conditions the

become Is

progressively increased. common

more These in the

difficult are infra two red

10 achieve of the

as

the why

frequency lasers are of

radiation are

reasons UV

high

power rare. laser

more The

whereas

lasers are for a the

comparatively to of has each different a much

techniques and will be

for

achieving

population in more

inversion detail

specific variety laser than on 1. 4 An amplifiers

type

discussed we must

later try to

lasers. lower

Meanwhiie and

understand and spatial lamp

why

bandwidth from

greater

temporal gas

coherence operating

a single spontaneous

spectral

line

a conventional

discharge

emission. : geometrical (or ions arrangement or molecules) acts as a set of

A simple laser system inverted for population of

atoms

resonant
/,

radiation.

/! -;1
~ "'-,
_._--_._----------------------_:[

~ }o>-+t-:~---~
k" r/

2~{. br..-~s y>"'.J't-C--ar-,ce.

Suppose bounded travelling

such

sample mirrors. axis will

is

contained Any travelling

in

narrow of

tube

within

cavity

by two along

plane the

wave

appropriate by stimulated

frequency emission.

be

amplified

coherently

$5
The will wave be will be successively between mirror profile. of from Is reflected the mirrors. and is within An this the cavity and a standing wave wave be

established If the one beam

output wave will

travelling be

may

extracted across the

partial The the the

spatially

coherent from will

profile laser

frequently In

a Gaussian practice of the

resulting losses

diffraction

limitations and the

aperture.

some

occur of the

at reflection beam within

imperfect medium with

containment and the cavity.

diffraction

profile

amplifier

The will

geometrical a parallel light It

arrangement. beam with as

the

requirement spatial

of

multiple across source

reflections. the at beam Infinity size is

produce

excellent

coherence a point

profile. and

This

behaves can be

If It originated down to

from a

accordingly only and

focussed laser

point This

Image produces

whose

limited intensity

by diffraction brightness bandwidth the

at the at the

aperture.

extremely

high

focus.

1. 5

laser
To evaluate

bandwidth

of

a laser Secondly

we the

must

first

consider arises

the a

bandwidth standing of by the the are

of

the

amplifiers within modes. the

themselves. cavity These and and are only as

output to

from

wave cavity

such

is

restricted longitudinally

a and

superposition transversely for the

boundary allowed. The associated

conditions

certain

discrete

wavelengths

radiation

bandwidth with

of

the

amplifiers emission lamp.

themselves for This the

is

exactly state

the when

same the

as

that are

spontaneous discharge

upper

atoms

in a conventional

we wilt

examine

first.

1.5. 1
a.

Bandwidth linewidth

of Spontaneous

Emission

Natural An

individual

atom the

in

an

excited

state

has ; less

a characteristic these than lifetime lifetimes one of

natural vary from

lifetime a but few

associated milliseconds typical

with

particular

transition to

(metastable state might

states) have

nanosecond. around 10ns.

excited

a natural

If the

&·6 radiating resonant as atom Is thought


Vo

of

as

damped energy

harmonic

oscillator

at

the

frequency

then

the T

dipole

wet)

decays and is

exponentially given In this

wen

We e-tlT

where

Is the

natural

lifetime

case

by T

1
Fourier at ve analysis leads of to this a damped bandwidth sinusoidal b.v such output that

Av=l/T.
The order Unfortunately the situation with radiation T and in other a is coherent then only over times of

if T=lOns
real

b.v=lOOMHz Is the complicated motion of by the

discharge and by

collisions/interactions emitters. b. CQllisional broadening

atoms

If an emitter coherence further discharge lamp. c. Motional Much in or and the is

Is interrupted lost the in a

by a collision time shorter time Is

during T

Its decay and the In a in line

then is

the

phase

than

broadened gas

coherence

reduced. be significant

conventional a high

additional

width

could

pressure

Doppler serious motion

Broadening than and a. the or b. is the of fact that individual produces With a emitters a are

more

thermal

ensemble the

emitters linewidth. with is the Doppler

Doppler

bandwidth distribution

which the

greatly resulting .6v o

exceeds iineshape

natural

Maxwellian by

is Gaussian

a width

.6vo given

7. 16x10-7 v
0

(I1J2

M1

(M the

Molecu tar we ig ht) width may the be 10 to

Under 100

typical times

discharge the natural

lamp width

conditions and

accordingly

determines

effective

S.7
bandwidth spactral for the (-1 GHz) line of a and coherence lamp. system. frequency It time It (-1 ns) Is also obtainable the from a single

discharge In a laser of

appropriate since the

bandwidth Doppler for high

amplifiers Is lines. to

We

note

that most

broadening frequency It Is

a function

becomes

serious

Important and

realise

that

althouqh of of

the a

Doppler conventional

width

determines lamp

the It of

bandwidth does the not

temporal the

coherence bandwidth cavity

discharge a laser

determine set waves

the

output 'in the

from iaser.

because

requirements Standing

by the

modes

1. 5. 2
a. Axial For wave.

In a laser

cavity

modes wave must to fit be the coherently cavity amplified L with the wavelength of the standing

the A.

length

= =

nA

where

n is any
C

integer.

2
c A

11

n.

2L between adjacent longitudinal modes

The

separation

.6vm
n

=~
the

With mode If the

typical spacing cavity

values
~1Im

of
-

L300

O. 5m MHz. of

and

A-

650nm.

-1. 5 x 106 and

contains

material

refractive

index

7}

then

L in

the

above.

is the b.

optical

length.

f 7]d!.
are wave to possible and has that This uniphase in the a laser lowest this has with cavity. diffraction transverse a no simple phase but the losses. mode TEMoois As has

Transverse Several the a

modes modes axial

transverse to it is an

nearest result

easy to

arrange

only mode

sufficient intensity across

gain profile the beam

oscillate. its

Gaussian reversals

across (unlike

wavefront.

higher

modes).

S.8 1.5.3.
laser Bandwidth combine gain : Axial the of modes within the gain bandwidth in the the laser cavity of

We can with the the laser

now

longitudinal the

modes

possible to predict

Doppler output.

curve

amplification

bandwidth

In

the

diagram wiihin the the

we

see

four Only

longitudinal two of to

modes these iie

failing above cavity laser two mode It Is apparent that If are the

curve. gain cause be at


011. 112

threshold -and will

necessary laser

overcome The of with the a

losses output frequencies bandwidth

action.

su perposition and
113,

each

minimum then so laser be

laser a single that

bandwidth mode only

and be

the

maximum for above

temporal example threshold. usually not by will Doppler The laser system. is

coherence

required the

should mode be the the and

selected. lie

by

shortening When this its

laser. the will

one will by

will to

is done value

frequency determined

near

v 0 but not
length and

at

110

and

cavity mode not at

any be width.

fundamental deterrntnad

atomic

property. losses in the

Similarly cavity

bandwidth. alt

by

the

by

the

bandwidth. determined.

Ov. as

and for

the any

cavity

quality

factor.

Q.

of

single

mode In the

electronic

oscillator.

by the

losses

=
l)v

and from of the

the the

losses

can

be measured or from

either the free supply decays

directly decay Is y
o

bandwidth when

oscillations The
-21TtiV

the

power

turned
-21TV

off.

stored

energy

as e For

tla

:::::e the

a laser

single

mode

bandwidth

is

usually

5.9
much too small to from time be the can Is The measured coherence be directly. time or as from the as It the time the can time after time single be of free which over mode measured decay an which laser 01

Interferometrically the output. of Is than This

Interpreted or

Initial the can

collection coherence be and less a

photons lost.

lost.

alternatively of a well of

bandwidth

designed 5x

1MHz on

a basic of In is

frequency

iO 14Hz giving
a laser. the 108•

a Q of with

5 x 108 frequency of time. of the

coherence could speed and

time be of

10-6
the

sec. future to

Such

stabilisation. Already the

used light

establish part in

standard In terms

defined.

to

one

wavelength

frequency

of a stabllsed and any Is no spatial other

laser. coherence source. than available In the single many with laser light Is the In and

The temporal vastly superior of to the there

coherence that laser is from light

applications available; operation

coherence these the 1. 6 cases

less

Important to

power mode

usually

attempt

select

laser

is allowed

to operate for

in several

modes

simultaneously.

Mirror systems Although our

lasers so this far has implied the case the the in end per use of plane except faces of mirrors for a is at ruby ruby low.

discussion cavity

the

end

of the

laser

is rarely often where for

lasers crystal. plane

where

the

mirrors gas

are

simply the the

polished gain reasons. arc) in the

In most mirrors are

lasers.

amplifier

unit

length

unsatisfactory is very

following (1· of

1.

The

alignment

critical many

order

to

confine

near

paraxial 2. The

rays' to allow

passes

through

amplifier. does not hence produce the an

diffraction-limited wavefront of the at beam

Gaussian the

beam

profile

uniphase coherence too Both mrrrors. high.

mirror

surfaces and

and the

spatial are

is downgraded

diffraction

losses

these

problems

can

be with

much

reduced to

by their

the radii

use of

of

spherical and

appropriately

positioned

respect

curvature

5. 10 mounted wavefronts mirrors (good been outside from the the discharge tube for ease of alignment. are almost The uniphase and spherical rays. have

diffraction-limited good

beam

spherical of near

also

produce

geometrical stable popular. the

confinement using

paraxial mirrors or

stability>. adopted

Several most

configurations for gas

spherical

but the

lasers. and.

are the where

confocal maximum

hemispherical the

power

is

required.

large-radius also allow

arrangements. better modes around l'

Such

configurations against alignment Mirrors losses; layers 1. 1 A Population prerequisite inversion the details there inversion for laser action be higher

discrimination and of and with have arc. low many

transverse of excellent frequently of dielectric

tolerances must they have are 23)

reflectivity made coating

(e. g.

on glass.

between established used to

two

energy between

levels the

Is two

that levels. to
f,..,r

population Although laser laser. The normally be

must of are the


a
~

first

techniques
.f_"l.I
1'0'," ~C'I Je'l Cil

do
__
ro

this

are

specific
!'=ar.::':'l. Qle

each

~1.J~+_~

""'_1

~'f0LOI'1

___ ro.;",_ ......... +l \.,.i\JII';:)IUglC.\.tVII~

,-&,hl,....h
"HI...,.,

\.I!:!IIIn
'l'UIiU

.v.

any

atoms reside

must at all

be

excited

from

some· ground

state

level This

in

which

they can or

practical

laboratory absorption.

temperatures. which is

excitation process. be a

achleved

either

by photon or It

a resonant need the not

by

collisions process. two levels

with In

electrons either case

other is not

atoms. possible one other

which to

resonant between

invert

population

without

Involving

at least

level.

5,. 11
If only levels El and
E2

are

involved E2 will

then also

any be

excitation loser

mechanism at deexcitation energy light

from

E1 to from Is from

A
II

effective

back

E2 to

E,

since In the the by be

flo

the case same

same of

difference

involved. E1 to

Uf'\

'

I P ;rja
i.

jJ

'I L

absorption will also the

il

E2.'

111~er'B
y
£/

frequency

depopulate . best that of

E2
could

stimulated achieved would

emission; with sufficient produce inversion. E3 (pump

intensitity equal

light In

at

v'2
and also at E3

be to but no

populations E3 is to

E,

E2 (saturation
it is possible the and decay same

of

the

transition), atoms from E2,

When the

Involved E3) without between isa

to raise

E1 to This

atoms an to

time

populating A), E2 but

could If after

produce pumping from

inversion E3 there to

E2 (as from

laser E3 to

Alternatively. a rather an in the

rapid with E, and is

slow

decay could case

E2

back

E1 then. E2 and state which

sufficient (Iaser B),

pumping The highly state. and E2 the The gain

power, problem populated In is

inversion second therefore

develop

between

is that to

E,
invert

is a ground against E2,

is initially an excited

and this

difficult fourth as the

case

a used

excited lower

level laser are

(norrrtally level from as

empty)

between obvious 4-level the can

E,

sometimes in

E2.

For and on level be

reasons lasers,

lasers success

these or

various of the rate or a

cases laser

known

3-level depends' laser can

failure on the decay

system

always the upper

amplif!er be

and by by

through pumping

this and

rate

at which the

populated either have may

at which by and

lower In gain this.

laser general,

emptied, state gas

some

further density much

pumping. a high for

solid length:

lasers lasers

a high made

of amplifiers longer

per

unit

be

to compensate

S.12

1.8

Control

and

modulation

of the

laser

output

1.B.l
in power

Q Switching many high pulsed output become operate power from applications the laser. by the (CW) Important. the laser action itself Inevitably and the hence depletes the gain. the In It is desirable Many lasers. to produce extremely pumped can high by be

such

as those whilst

flashlamps. made to

pulsed continuously are

excitation and are

process much

others preferred

to

be

when

bandwidth It upper the will

and coherence be appreciated and the It Is up to

that

laser same

level way If

reduces onset of

the

population action

Inversion limits

laser to high be control

population whilst action the

inversion population a Q the The The

attal nabla. Inversion large

possible a very can

inhibit value

laser then

action when This by obtain of very of ways

is built

laser

Is enabled is Q called during pulse. pulses.

single or

output Q

pulse

obtained. Is

technique lowering the

switching pumping process same The

spoiling and then

since

achieved to

phase can

restoring to used done

Q suddenly a train

output

be

repeated can can be be

produce to

powerful from

procedure Q switching 1. 2.

produce

a train several

pulses

a CW laser.

In onaof which

including: produces which of the cavity absorbs two alignment. the of laser the

A rapidly An light

rotating

mirror saturable 'light

periodically (dye)

Inter-cavity until that and

absorber

produces transparency using

saturation of the a

levels

absorber 3.

hence

absorber. cell or a Kerr cell with

Electro-optical crossed

switching

Pockets

polarisers. deflection by diffraction of the beam using an ultra sound

4.

Acoustic

wave generated These (1) to methods (3)] differ and

by a piezoelectric greatly in cost In pulse

crystal. lengths produced Whilst power [from the 10 j..I..sin average higher.

10ns in of a laser

and convenience. peak

overall

power

Is reduced

by Q switching. the

is much

S. 13
1. 8. 2.
The also be Cavlt'j' dumping processes used with to of a CW lase. in reiation of to Q switching (modulation) produce the pulse is the of a pulsed from laser can In

described

produce

a train It is

pulses to

a CW laser. rates an

addition to

a CW laser by cavity energy Is

possible

repetition closed small with

at up optical in the the then

several until

MHz the

dumping. input

Here

cavity with the

switch system; contents closed

reaches

balance

losses switch switch

the of and

cavity the the

then are

opened released

rapidly In a

using time -

optical The

and is

cavity process

2L/c.

Is repeated.

1.8.3
An driven exceeds excited exciting excited modes with

Mode locking of a CW lase. optical at the and the the the switch (e. g. KDP crystal> frequency the is placed c/2l. of the In the cavity the and Is Just be of are all

inter-mode the

spacing mode nearest will either modes the

When gain

gain will

losses the

centre

curve

modulation modes

produce side will gain of

sidebands this

which

are once

capable these until

nearest two

frequency; be excited

next-nearest within

similarly curve

and

so on

above

threshold

width These

I::J.v

are

coherently
"..~i:ll
nil,

excited
......

fixed

phase

relationships

between If there the are

_.,._,..,I_1f""
1.,VUCoO:)

:_ .. __ ..t __ "Bl.t:1llt:1lt;!J.

bJ
\ It
average producing this CW laser large power. pulses narrow are purpose pulse Mode resulting 200MHz. amplitude laser fusion widths locking can can

N phase amplitude maxima) pulse

locked then will

modes the

each

having

same

pulses width [~]

produced

(Interference and It is a peak clear

have which is

height

is N times most Suitable later) repetition

the at for the of as In

that

mode i::J.1I are

locking large. (see with

effective lasers where rates as well useful

where

Nand and small

neodymium/VAG be also as

dye as

lasers 10-12s

be produced locked lasers

by phase are likely

modulation to prove

modulation. experiments

Mode and

in communications.

5.14

1.8.4

Harmonic

generation radiation the atoms

with

a laser through In turn matter act by Inducing secondary per unit oscillating sources of is

Electromagnetic electric radiation. related dipoles The in

propagates which or

as

induced

polarisation E by

dipole

moment

volume.

P.

to the

electric

field

of If E Is an oscillatlng field E

the medium.

Eo slnwt + 2
E~ (1-cos2wt) wave but

then Under first normal term

o,Eo of

slnwt an

+ ....
(E-100Vm-1) in the also only the fields In

conditions be

electromagnetic (linear the that optics) higher these and

need

considered (E-l Is 05 Vm-') apparent

extreme

generated some

in a laser It the
02

terms higher could that the

can order be

be Important will for

crystals. of

terms used has

involve

harmonics generation. symmetry; laser

original to

frequency

harmonic of the 30% newer

For the

be non-zero generation

requires Is also and

crystal

no centre focus achieve and of

harmonic For

most KDP

effective crystals without

at the can focussing

beam.

example. Into the

ADP second

conversion materials

efficiency promise

harmonic

even

higher

efficiencies.

"

S.16 2.2 Solid State Semiconductor lasers (Low and small power i. r. but and with very poor high coherence efficiency. In red very

size and

low cost) p-n junction giving diode photon

Gallium ArsenigS! GaAs

Very heavily with large

doped

forward

current

productlon recombination

from at the

electron-hole junction with

hv=band
Usually also

gap

of semiconductor.
and pulsed but can

cooled

be CWo

Typical CW -

output
1 watt. >"=840nm; doping )"=640nm).

(with

Phosphorus

Very modulated Other range

important at up to more

In Conjunction 1GHz and with

with 10% and

fibre

optic

links

since

small

and

easily

efficiencies. have extended the wavelength

recent

materials

techniques

and efficiencies. Atomic Gas lasers NelOn


3s
a.~
i

2. 3

(Low visible spatial

power and and

and i. r ,

low but

efficiency with

in

the

excellent and

,.., e.to.:t-. ~I<Ifve ls

collis;,,,!

- A.to_.

temporal

coherence

low cost). Helium-Neon Gas


/'··/sr"'1~(l,,,('1' ~f

discharge

pumping

with from

resonant helium states

~-~~~

collisional metastable as upper

exchange

\!
sta{es.!\ to laser levels. neon excited

s.
2. 2. 1 Solid State

15 SYSTEMS pulsed poor : or CW In red or

A SUMMARY OF SOME lASER lasers (High power

Crystal

I. r but with
3 level Typical Puised repetition Q switched Very laser

coherence. pumped nm: h)'-O.5nm. at iow

flashlamp
).=

output lOJ

694 i ms

in

( 10kW)

rates. 10J In 10ns (1 GW) .

low efficiency length

< 0.1%.
-1 mm normally and

Coherence poor Neodymium Ions Nd3 + In YAG or glass 4 level Very spatial

coherence.

laser;

low threshold. output pulsed or

high

power

CWo
Typical output CW. at 10kHz 20kV'J peak power
).=

1. 06

usn

h>..-l nm

100 watts Q switched pulses

of width

lOOns. ruby 1%. to give very large laser.

Coherence

as for -

Low efficiency Often used in conjunction e. g. with 5000J 1500J 350J a laser amplifier

chain

but infrequent (use in laser

pulses fusion)

In 3 ms pulse in 5 ns pulse In 20 ps pulse (20

train. (Q switched) locked)

(Mode

TW peak

height>

5'. 17 Typical CW and output at A


j.Lm

lOmW

633

nm

A'A.-

lO-5nm

(single

mode)

also

at

).

1.15

.am

3.39

available.

2.4

Meta! vapour Iasers (Low good CW power In blue and UV with

Haiium-Cadmium

coherence). cadmium vapour. Active material

D. C.
is the Typical

discharge

In

mixture

of

helium

and

Od" ion.
output

ccvo

>.
or

441. 6 nm
325 nm

50

mW

5 mW

2.5

Atomic

gas

Ion lasers

(High

CW

power It In coherence and high the

the but

visible very

with low

excellent efficiency f4.rgon Ion


4.p

cost). argon is of atoms necessary cooling confinement low are at high ~ a very and with of O. 10/0

To high has

Ionise current

and

excite d.c.

dlscharge;l problems and

difficult lsolatron

.J....,-

electrical

magnetic are very

~-

rv72..nr<"'l

the

lons,

l\

'Efficiencies power and

At

".-.t ,b,"

(3p·)

but

output

coherence

Typical

output lines with


5

(CW) at ).. to

L
.. Krypton Similar

Major each
r!::c:d:~ (3p

=
20

488
watts

nm

and

)..

514

nm. UV at

up

and

also

near

fl,r-(r-Rulm15",......,d

"l up

to

watts.

Ion to Argon Ion but with more emission at red end of spectrum.

S.lB 2.£) Molecuiar gas

lasers

(Very

high

CW

power

In

far

Infra

red

and

with

very. high Carbon Most based dioxide powerful on the CW laser with levels many

efficiency)

industrial

welding/cutting of the

applications

and

rotational A Sq

of vibrational Typicai output

modes (CW) with

molecule.

S'tj"" ,..~,tt.~
HDd'!..

JV\~e

t; r''1:e

,...,.\ CY..t!2....

). = 10,. 6 J.Lm
efficiencies and good up

powers

up Low beam

to

a few

kW

and

to· 20%. of the

beam lead

divergence to many

focussing requiring

applications

highest

powers.

o---o~~---o

0- - -4# -

--;)

el~c~-rt:, ..-,c.-

a re.u.rtL

:;-t:o..!:..t;;.."

2. 6 s.

Exclmer lasers Kr F

(UV

high

power

pulsed. from

High

efficiency) rare gas and ground If a gas to a a

g.

Molecules halogen state mixture pulsed the the but of

formed often a bound

a a

non-binding state. is

excited fluorine

krypton

and via

subjected

excitation

discharge us with

or electron

beam in

exclrner excited

molecule state it

formed

exclusively

a
the

100% groundstate.

population Laser

inversion action follows of at and 20% 100 pump the lower level

between

and as

empties with giving dye 15M

rapidly Watt

the

molecule of of the ). 20

dissociates. 249 nm This and is

Efficiencies width an lOns

are Hz

possible

pulses powers also In

repetition. for a

averaged and

Watt. a

excellent laser.

laser

laser

future

possible

fusion

S.19 2.7 Dye lasers (Tunable medium visible Large vibrational vibrational In solution the rapid wavelength power spectrum). organic modes mode each (has dye of a molecules oscillation set of have and many each levols. by and laser. good CW or pulsed. over with the

coherence

rotational is

rotational

level

broadened with

10-125)
The

collisions

solvent strongly with any

molecules. couple , all

bonding molecular so that

electrons motions each the

these transition

.' 11,

electronic 'state' state. of

electronic ground band wide of

c(lff r-oct.·on.

.1

'JT"/:;"9

the -molecule. a quasi

Including

becomes and

continuum are

levels Fast any level longer

and

the

absorption relaxation

spectrum between

fluorescence and beginning

spectrum

band. in

internal absorption within a

vibrational process

rotational from

sublevels the lowest to be

results

or· fluorescence band and relative cavity it the is this

vibrational shifted solution or to is by of the with a on dye

causes

the

fluorescence band. pumped laser is

band If such with output a

wavelengths in a then

to the and Is

absorption optically to obtain

a dye

incorporated another laser

·flashlamp over a

possible

range

wavelengths cavity gain

where at the

wavelength

selection

determined is filter of the usually or

by

maximising out

chosen or an

wavelength. intercavity The large locking.

Tuning

carried

diffraction the

grating

interference bandwidth

etalon.

depending makes

bandwidth very

required. for

gain

profile

lasers Typical

suitable

mode 6G

output of

Rhodamine a few

H ;'rJ

CW output as low as

watts.

tunable With

550

650

nrrirC~it picosecond pulse trains at

10-7 nm

(15KHz). produced.

mode

locking

several

GHz have

been