Applications
of Modern .Optics·
FIFTH
EUROPEAN
OPTICS
SUMMER
SCHOOL
Applications
of Modern
Optics"
8
12th
July
1985
University
of Reading
Speakers:
University
of Reading: Dr .. G. W. Green Professor H. H. Hopkins Professor B. R. Jennings Dr. J. Macdonald Dr. M. H. Tinker
Visiting: Dr. S. G. Brown Professor B. Culshaw Professor F. Lanzi Professor J. C. Vienot Dr. M.G.F. Wilson Dr. J. K. Wright University of London University of Strathclyde DFVLR. Wessling. W. Germany University of Besancon. France University of London JK Lasers. Rugby.
co
Lecture Duration numbers ( hours)
NTENTS
Title
Lecturer
Foundation lectures 1 2 3 4 5 6.7 8 1.5 1 1.5 1.5 2 1 Fourier analysis and !interference HHH HHH BRJ theory of lasers and Image devices Image formatlon HHH MHT GWG JM
Geometrical
Lectures 1.5 1 2 2 2 2 1 2.5 1.5 1 Industrial applications of lasers of lasers JKW SGB HHH sensors optics BC MGFW JCV optical elements JM FL BRJ BRJ
1.1
FOURIER
ANALYSIS
H.H. HOPKINS
Lecture 1
1.
ditions,
any function
where p = (X2  Xl) is the length of the interval, efficients are given by an b
n
dx
0.2)
!{f(x  0) + f(x + OJ} where f(x  0) and f(x + 0) are the values left and right of the value of x. a function thus gives its 'local average'
(1. 3)
A Fourier
is then written
f(x)
(L4)
where a
a
o n
!a 20
o
(1. 5) ~ arctan ( ::)
(1.4) represents
f(x) inside Xl
<
<
X2 as a constant If we replace
terms.
o x in (1.4)
term
!a
1.2
±l, ±2, .. ~ the values of the cosines of the form of f(x) in this interval. and 'wavenumber',
are un
E
C5
xn
of a discrete
(1. 6)
spectrum
consists
set of terms
spaced in wavenumber,
of the term n is
a
a exp{i¢ } n n
(1. 7)
This is the complex number whos e modulus and whose argument x T 0. is the initial phase, For a function given by
T n n
of time, represented
frequency
1
T
(1. 8)
and n
0, having v
In optics there are usually the complex form of Fourier mulae cos 6 !{exp(i6)
+ exp(i6)}
series.
the standard
Sln 6
ii{exp(i6)
 exp(i6)}
f (x)
(1. 9)
where
the coefficients
MUltiplying
complex numbers.
an
d'
lntegratlng
1.3
The integral
m, S1nce p
m, and thus
(1.10)
in (1.9). It should be
gives the values of the coefficients noted that the positive then has a negative An important one not involving by (1.10), sign.
that 1S n 1S,
1=1.
The value of F
for negative
where
denotes
n
F* n
and, also, F
o F
real.
a .
We may thus wr i te
F
0'
!a n exp{ i<jJ} n
n~ 1
(l.12)
so that F +n = ~a n exp{+i~ }, by (1.11). 't'n ±n in (1.9) to give f(x) exactly as 1n (1.4) above.
We now combine
the terms
(1.13)
form of series,
we
=a
=F
(complex amplitude
of term n)
a exp{i<jJ}
n n
2F* n
(n ~ 1) (1.14)
giving jugates
the important
quantities F.
n
directly
con
of the coefficients
n
sign used in
(1.9) it is F
itself which
appears
1.4
series
is simpler. x,
of the
d.
correspond
to the left
ser~es. Integrals and Transforms f(x) ~n a finite interval repetition To represent of this segment f(x) over the to of
2.
Fourier
A Fourier p
series represents
f(x) to the left and right of p. infinite interval take a limiting the Fourier
00
to x2
+00,
it is necessary
integral
Since p i.t e 00
is small, and we
= (~).
The coefficient
now
00S f(x)exp{i(2nno0)x}dx
Xl We, therefore, introduce
x2
(1.15)
and
+
0 as p
+
00
the 'spectral
densi ty'
F
n 00
F(n00)
S2f(x)exp{i(2nno0)x}dX Xl
+
00
(1.16)
Using
(1.16),
the Fourier
1.5
f (x)
L
n=oo
F(noa exp{i(2TInoa)x}da
(1.17)
oa ~
0;
and, 1n
integral
(1.18)
whilst
(1.16) becomes
F (a)
(1.19)
which
(1.16)
transform
Fourier quencies
spectrum
j[f(Xlexp{i2,"XldX
~ {Jrf (xleXP{+i2n"xldx]*
that 1S
F (a) F"~ (a) (1. 20)
in the complex
Fourier
ser1es repre
when
F(a)
The Fourier integral
(1.18)
0.22)
+00 SF(a)exp{i2TIax}da
o
a by a in the second
= f{F(a)exp{i2TIax}
o
1.6
and, using
Sa
o
F*(cr)
cr > 0
(1.24)
series.
If we use a positive
3.
Theory
00
to in00
a Fourier
spectrum, whereas to
a nonperiodic spectrum
periodic
also to be described
transform,
involving
<p
the conditions.
Lim ¢(x, a)
o
00
I 0 x o
x
(1. 25)
of unit
+00
'strength',
Lim
a"=
S ¢ (x , a) dx
(1.26)
00
1.7
gration has been effected. An easy way to visualise illuminated infinitesimal intensity passing slit of uniform width, a afunction intensity is to consider an (since
p(x).
If the slit is of
the intensity
is zero for x
00 at x
t
0, but
= o.
through
(x)dx of illuwhen
00
and this is equal to unity for a slit of unit 'strength' mination. For this case, if a the slit is of width 1 we have
= intensity of illumination
a'
¢ (x , a)
o
which satisfies
Ixl Ixl
+1.
<
~a
1 2a Also 1
(1. 27)
>
00
f
¢(x, a) may be used:
+00 ¢ (x , a)dx
= f~aa
dx
00
Za
0.26). Other forms of are
T;
~~ .., a~
sin (nax)
(n x)
(1
\..L
..
') Q\ ~U/
and
a
Note that
(x)
Lim a exp{na2x2}
a~
(1.29)
is precisely
the afunction
f(x)
1.
The defining
formula
+00
00
exp{ i2nox}dx
~ Lim J;exp{i2nox}dx a~ Z
(1.30)
which evaluates
to give
1.8
F (a)
Li.rr a+=
. sin ('ITaa)
('ITa)
a (a)
(1. 31)
of this result
lS
= 0 for a
0, and
cr
F(a) =
It
00
for
O.
lS
o
wh i ch is often referred afunction. and, for X Using periodic Fourier
o
Xl Xo
< <
Xo
<
x2
(1.32)
xl or xo> X2
I
to as the 'sifting
property
of the
For X
series
(1. 33)
whose Fourier
transform
will be
Combining
factors, by
replaced
(a  ~),
of
This
0
lS
It may be noted that F (a) n(p , w i th 'strengths' F n n zero for all other spatial frequencies, but gives infinite spectral densities at the points a
'1)
a series of equally
spaced afunctions,
at the points
lS
a.
n
4.
Functions A function
of Two Variables f(x, y) of the tHO variables ex, y) can be repby the lines
bounded
1.9
+00 f (x , y)
m=oo where p
(1.35)
found
discrete
n(il _
Each component of (1.35) is equivalent azimuth.
\j!
(1. 37)
to a onedimensional
y) be
Then
fre
coordinate
\j!
\j!
\j!
+ x Sln
\j!
(0
(0
cos
\j!
\j!)x
(0
\j!
Choosing $ to
be such that
T
tan gives
T
\j!
(1.38)
sln
\j!
cos
1);
becomes
simply
(0
x+
y) n
0X,
whe r a
(1.39)
T
serles
n m
n has a
1.10
mn
of a set of Idimensional
lS
i(x)
an extremely important result for optics. Note that, using (1.39) for /(02 + T2) in the m n above formulae for sin 1jJ and cos lP, a spatial frequency component
1jJ corresponds
in different
a in the azimuth
to the frequency
vie
spatial frequencies
(i)
(t).
OOOT.
fIF(O,
00 +00 Sff(X, 00
T)exp{i2n(ox
+ Ty)}dodT
(1. 40)
F(o, T)
y)exp{+
i2n(ox + Ty)}dxdy
(1.41)
lS
periodic
mn
o(o_m
p'
TE:. )'
q
(1.42)
transform,
lS
the significance
to be attached
to the ofunction
of two
only on x, say
(1. 43)
1.11
where
<5 (r)
of a factor h (y)
f(x, y) 5.
f(x') is defined
+00
f(x')
J:gCX)h(X'
 x)dx
The
of f(x') is given by
g(x)exp{i27rox}dx hex'  x)exp{i27ro(x' x=oo x'=w factor in the first integral gives H(o): similarly having
+00
Using
for the
it merely
the first
F (0)
G(o)H(o)
F(o) is merely
(1.45)
as in (1.44),
the is
of the Fourier
transforms
This
if
+00
F (0)
j'G(O)H(OI
00
 o)do
(1. 46)
defines
Feo),
then
f ex)
g (x) hex)
(1. 47)
from
transform of
of
their transforms.
2.1
THE INTERFERENCE
OF LIGHT BEAMS:
1.
Coherence
is found to be equal to the sum of the separate intenintensity is greater or less than the sum of the two that is when there is some interference, coherent. The deis, therefore, a measure of the
the two beams are either fully or partially gree to which two beams interfere degree of coherence between them.
Light beams corning from different light source, a tungsten filament interference. sources. These are consequently
points of an ordinary lamp, do not show spatially incoherent mode do interfere: two light beams even this
or a mercury
By contrast, light beams from two separate points of in a single transverse Again, coherent source.
from the same element of any light source will not show interference at a point P if the two paths, followed by the beams from the given source element, have too great a difference optical path length. the coherence a wavetrain of the source. This difference length of.the radiatiDn~andthetimerequired of this length to be emitted is the coherence Ordinary, socalled lengths varying
IUIU.
in for time
uously 1n a single mode. It 1S important beams to interfere difference to note that the terms 'coherent' and 'incoWe consider any two instantaneously; but, if their phaseinterference over any time,
2.2
T Now no detector responds instantaneousof the radiation. coh ly: it must absorb energy, and this together with other phythat a detector measures only an average inl.Je can thus characterise any detector by an integrat
int time, T. When T. t »T lnt ln changes in the phase difference beams, and the timeaveraged superposed
two beams
h there will be many random co between two superposed incoherent as constructive intensities interference, of the two is then equal to the
It is only in this sense that we say that the that is that they
are coherent
the
parts of a spatially
has T. »1/6v, where 6v = difference ln frelnt quency; and, for the second case, that T. »T h' where t.n t co T h = coherence time of the radiation. co that the detector Typical values coherence time, T co of the coherence h length, L
= L co hlc, are:
L
coh'
and of the
coh
coh
.z, 1]1
= 546.1
nm)
:2.3
Typical values of the integrating time, T. , of detectors ~nt are:
T.
~nt
It is seen that, in most circumstances, T. t »T ~n 2. co h is well satisfied. Time and Energy Spectrum
the condition
Coherence Consider
the
wave disturbance
Set)
o
as shown in Figure.1. 1. (transform) The function
It I It I
< >
!T !T
(2..1)
spectrum
s (v)
cos(2TIV t)exp(i2TIvt)dt
o
or
s (v) a sin{TIT(v  v )} o a sin{TIT(v  v )} o 2 TI V + V ) ( (2 .2) o
2TI(v  v )
o
spectrum has
2s(v) with v ~
o.
Ao = 400 nrn to 700 nm, so that v lies be tween O. 75 x 1015 o 0 and 0.43 x 1015 Hz. The second term in (3.2) is thus negligible, and the energy spectrum of the wavetrain (3.1) is
cn,
For visible
light waves,
E (v)
('2..3)
The form of E(v). shown in Figure 2.2, has a maXland falls to zero at v is thus
(2.4)
= (aT)2 at v = v 0'
= v0
(liT).
The halfwidth
holds in all cases whe re the energy maXlmum. maXlma l/T2' For a doublet In E(v), at VI and
line, having
it is necessary
The light emitted by any element sequence of wave+ t ra i n , each having at random times. averaged trains. spectrum, questions niques", 3.
of a where
a monochromator, relationship
Hhich gives a light beam with a narrower [For details see Chapter
and preserves
of coherence,
6 of "Advanced Optical
The TimeAveraged
a cos{2nvt lS let)
e}
(2.5)
intensity
intensity
lS thus
T
~:ria2cos2{2TIvt
2
+ e}dt
writing
cos2{2nvt
+ e}
of the
2..5
We thus find
I
(:2 .6)
intensity,
where A
pr oduce disturbances
instantaneous
SI (r) and S2 (t ) at a is
intensity
value of this is
(1..7)
If SI(t) acts
0, (:1..7)
gives
With a similar
measured
intensity
composition
the sp.atialextent· of the source and the optical The effects of these different using the concepts of de
factors, we shall see, may be described grees of temporal and spatial coherence. 4. Two Beams of Different Consider then two beams, Frequency VI,
of frequency
The instantaneous
intensity
(Z .8)
2.6
T
II + 12 + 2~Jr~ala2COS{2TIVlt
+ ¢~cos{2TIV2t + ¢2}dt
 "2
Noting that II the product of the cosines In terms of the sum and difference angles, gives
T
II + 12
=I
"2
because
terms give
I
('2
.9)
intensity.
Figure:2 .2.
(3.9)
gives
I (2.10)
coherence.
to zero when QV
de= 1
E2.11)
incoherence. between
The condition
for infre
QV
<
('2.12)
where T
integrating
For T
106 sec,
for example using a photomultiplier and circuit of bandwidth = 106 Hz, the permissible frequency (2.12) is 106 Hz. Even for a coherence length L co h
1 metre,
that is
:2.7
h = 0.33 x 10S sec., the halfwidth of the energy spectrum co is ~v = 3 x lOS Hz. Thus,even with a relatively fast detector and a long coherence is only frequencies interference. length, such as that given by a laser, separated by less than ~v!300 which will therefore, that under practical as incoherent. frequencies it show con
We conclude,
5.
Elements
of a Source Sl and
S2 in Figure 2..3, be
(2 .13)
(2.14) where 8l(t) and 82(t) are the source phases, which will change constant only over periods of the time T h' Suppose these disturbances co paths to a point P, and letO',~, 0',2 at P. If tl, t2 are the.times produced at P of
randomly with time, remaining order of the coherence be their amplitudes will be travel along two different
on arrival
S!(t)
s; (t)
Now tl <= PI! c, where Plis P. ¢l Thus~21Tvtl = ..... 21TVPl!C the optical path length from Sl to (21T!A)Pl =kpl=¢l, defined where phase
difference. disturbances
S (t )
S; (t )
1S
I'
Ii + Ii + 2~ia;cos{21Tvt
+ ¢l + 8l(t  tl)}
2..8
where Ii
(ai/IZ)2,
12
Expressing
of the cos~nes
I'
Ii + I; + 2IriI210s{(<P2
 <PI)
the timeaverage
of the sumterm
being
elements
of a spatially
correlated, change
(2.15) w i.Ll,
randomly
such random
changes
h there wi.I I be very many co the integrating time of the detector, as often negative as positive, the
If T »T
In this case
II
(2.16)
between
light beams
from different
incoherent
If 81, source,
1.4, or different
(i.e. a laser),
elements
spatially identical:
that is S2(t)
SI(t)
Set),
then gives
It
Ii + 12
+2/IIII.~OS{(<P2
<PI)
(2.17)
and interference source phase the phase zero; is possible. However, even in this case, the
at times
at time t.
~ t + This completely uncorrelated with co In this case also the timeaverage ~s that I'
we then have
again
is no ~n
terference.
This condition
is that
path
lengths, to
tl
P2/C•
is thus equivalent
2.9
L
(2. • 18)
coh
is observed
exas seen
2.4,
this condition
is that a wavetrain
leaving
the source gives rise to (S')1 and (S')2 at P which never overlap m m there.
If Ipl  P21 «
I (t
«Tcoh
= 8(t  tl)'
The Intensity Produced by a Spatially Incoherent Finite Size and Finite Spectral Width Let E(X, Y; v) be the energy distribution
at the point
as a function
of frequency,
v.
1
of v it is often convenient
I = vic.
of ampli
E(X, Y; a).
tude /E(X, Y; a) for the Fourier Let a wavedisturbance at (X, Y) produce The component elemen.tsof
a.
complex amplitude
U(X, Y; a) at a point P. at (X, Y) of the source then Since different a from the who l.e source do not .interfere,t.he
I'(a) Integrating
=JJE(X,
S
(2.20)
I' =SI'(O)dO
(2.21)
o
for the total intensity We thus consider produced at P. of given wavenumber
a Fourier
component
coherent, but is incoherent add such intensities finally integrate wavenumbers present
with light from all other points wi th other wave+numb ers . intensity points of the source, over the range of
of and
We then
this resultant
.;"",
I' (0)
Pl/E(X,
Y; 0)U(X,
Y;
0)dXdY12
('2.22)
are then
source elements
components, source.
even of
h' the total wave disco Howe ve r , beams deriving or coherent source, are
from a single element of the source, of a spatially coherent To justify irrespective of the path rather more The effects
to be perfectly involved.
this requires
considerations
in fact, on integrating
2.ti
T
E(vJ
Llv =
Vr
of
a wave  train
Figure
2·2
The Punctiion
sin [TrT(v2_ 
Fi9ure
2. •..3 Light:
pz
Fi9ure
.2
4
or
Light;
beams
I
source
from
2,13
1.
Coherence
o Let E (a) o
In Figure
= (l/A).
Each Fourier
component Fourier
the coherence time of the radiation. coh' If Plea), P2(a) are the optical path lengths from Po to P along the two paths, and pea)
= Plea)  P2(a)
whe re II (a),
intensities
arriving
at P, at P
and k
2~a.
a is thus I"T""T""
2~'1'2
II + 12+
SJ
CO
where 11,2
= JrIl)2(a)da
o
intensities
at P. sign of
Now, if a varies over a large range, the oscillating cos{2TIap(a)} will cause the integral unless pea) is correspondingly many components term averages turbances many give destructive small. a give constructive interference,
p
in
(2.~)
This situation
interference
to zero, and I
II + 12'
for example when pea) is small or the energy spectrum E (a) is very narrow, to a nonzero covalue, and this allows us to define a degree of temporal herence between the two disturbances
To simplify
the analysis,
we shall consider
the special
case of p.
transmittances, Tl(a)
the two
a.
and refractive
of the
II + 12 +
2/III2SE(a)cos(2nap)da
o
(:2..25 )
where
E (a)
(2.2b)
lS
the normalised
energy spectrum s
= (0 
at P .
o
ra,
o
positive
and negative
values.
Noting
(2,'rJ)
P
where
lEeS
+00
)exp{i2nps }ds
(2.2'3)
0 lS
of the normalised
energy spectrum
(:2.29)
E (s )
(2.2<)')
is simply
(2,2(0,)
with s
(a 
the degree
to when
at P interfere,
from P o to P differ by pic the disturbance leaving P 0 at time t interferes wi.t h that leaving P at time t + (pic). For these
o
two reasons,
K(p) is designated
the (complex)
degree of temporal
at P.
at Po at times t and
pea)
in (2.2+) can depend on a, so that the difference times of flight is different Moreover, such treatments the total disturbances into account do not consider
the coherence
as they arrive o.
the possibility
of a the transmittances
K(p)
W(p)exp{il/J(p)}, (:2.2.7)
II + I2 + 2W(P)lrlI2cos{2TfO
of monochromatic
with intensities
I
II and so
12 and of the mean "lavenumber 0 , but with a ference' H(p). that p varies, I
p
degree of inter
If P in Figure
2·5
the contrast,
+I
or v i s i b i l i. ty of gives
(2.3\ )
.), m~n
where
perfectly turbances
total di s
and then,by
(2,2S),
exp{TI(60p)2}
W(p)
(2,31
=00
±60:
thus 60 is
will be given by L
1//:'0,
to 0.04 .when p
(1//:'0).
of decreasing
contrast
(1//:'0) = Lcoh'
always occurs when Ipl «
= LcohllO,
coherence. customary Ipl «
we This to Lcoh
Lh, and it has become co . speak of quasimonochromatic light in this case. some ways, an unfortunate rise to the pathdifference 2. term because p. has rather more to do with the instrumental
This is, In
the condition
arrangement
giving
The Degree of Spatial Coherence In the same way that the mutually incoherent Fourier comof
ponents
of different
frequency
coherence between
wh i ch the source illuminates. In Figure 2.7 , dS is an element at (X, Y) of spatially coherent source S, having a distribution over its surface.
VI
In
mutually
;of .the<pathsPI+
IflUI + f2U212dS.
or, expanding
produced
at PI and P2 are
2.17
(2.34)
so that
where
(2
_'u, )
will be seen to specify the (complex) degree of spatial coherence between ledge of explicit the total disturbances at P2 and Pl' Knowing II, I2 and the complex transmittances reference fl' f2, it requires only a know
If Tl, T2 are the intensity plex transmittances Thus Ifll2Il produced are fl
~exp(ikpl)
and f2
!T2eip(ikp2)'
IrlI21T1T2exp{ik(Pl
and shows how the two separate bined depending turh.ancesatJ>2.and If we wr i t e f21 PI
intensities
V21exp(iS21),
Ip
(PI  P2)
c
so that V21 measures terfere,
(2.39
1nthe
it
lS
the co
herence b e twe en points P2, PI which are spatially separated. ): If P2 coincides with PI, 12 = II and U*U IUl12 In (2.'3(,; I2 The the formulae (2,.3"" ) then show that (2.36 ) gives r21 = l. value of r21 decreases as the points P2 and PI are separated.
We shall obtain a formula for the degree of spatial coherence r21 between any two points P2 and PI when directly with the (mutually incoherent)
0.
illucom
minated by a source with intensity Yo(X, Y). tensity associated ponents of given wavenumber Let Pl. P2 in Figure direction
y o
(X, Y) at P
UI
Iy o eX,
o
Y)exp(ikRI),
0
Iy o (X,
Iy o (X,
(2.30
Y);
and so
Y)exp(ikR2),
(P PI), R2 = (P P 2) .
This integral is identical with the integral giving the complex amplitude source. at P2 produced by a spherical wave converging equal to the intensity
y
to PI,
(X, Y) of the
theorem.
The coordinates
has coordinates
(X, Y, 0),
X) 2 + (MIRl X)2 + (N2R2 Exp and i ng the brackets gives In Rt, and noting that Li + Hi + Nt 1,
as in diffraction
theory,
2 .13
and similarly
Hence
and
(2.40)
now becomes
(2.'t1
where
(2.34.)
pve
"R2
ffyS
(X, Y)dXdY
0
 R2)}SIy(x,
S
Y)exp{ix}dXdY
(2,,+3.)
(X, Y)dXdY
is the normalised
intensity
To study the effect of source size on the visibility fringes in a 2beam interferometer, points PI, P2 in the source space whose geometrical the two paths are at a point P in the fringe plane. mula V21
(2.~3)
= Ir211.
cases illustrated
and a circular
(2~4Z') that X
(2.43')
k(~X + nY)/D,
then gives
(~D)
3}
dXdY
)
(2.£6
the integral
transform
of
For acircula~
find y(X, Y)
where JI(x)
lS
function
2.9 .
When P2 and PI
lS
the coherence
zero for
3.83;
0.61
(o/D) we get either zero or a very small contrast.
>,. 0.88;
(2)+~
For x ~ 1, we
that is, wh en
0.16;', (2 . y.':)
'l,Je of trans
by a distance
through Pl'
We then have
L1, M2
!k(X2 + y2){(1/RI)
case are shown lying on the axis in the lmver diagram 2;8 Using this value of X, (2.~5)
2,1.1
0 when x
when x ~ 0.86, we find, for the case when P2 and PI lie on the same ray from the centre of the source,
1(~J (~JJ
t
11 \ 11 \
as the condition
and (2.53 )
as the condition
100 mm and
(with Rl
merely
b e twaen
 (R2)' and p in these calculations emphasises max m~n the great importance in 2beam interferometers of arranging that on the same interplane. This condition
o
the points P2 and PI should lie as nearly as possible ray from So' is satisfied the same ray from S , after following the two separate
0.4:\.2 n2 (2. 5Lf ) which ensures that V21 ~ 0.80. More details are to be found in
Chapter 6 of 'Advanced Optical Techniques', A.C.S. van Heel, NorthHolland. 3. The Total Coherence The treatment Factor
edited by
coherence
~n
2. '2:2.
Section
2.2~ applies
to each Fourier
component
of a source time »T
for
the normal
has integrating
over 0 to obtain
the expression
(0)
+ PI (0)  P2 (0) }}
or, integrating
over 0,
I
(2.5',)
where
.:r.1}
path difference
from S , that is
o
light of wave
spectral
width,
the variation
of
V21 (0)exp{iS21 (o) } wi t.h 0 may be ignored, (2.47) and (2.50.), (2.S'1).
V 21 (0 )exp{ iS21 (0 )}
o 0
12
and optical
path lengths
(2.59 )
2.23.
as rn (2.27), (2.. :2.S) above, with
pea)
p.
Writing gives
(2.59)
used in (2.Sb)
pI2
effect
Hid th of
the source and (b) _the f i.n.i size of the source. t.e
The visibility
) thus applies to, say, a 2beam interferometer o using a lowpressure Hg lamp as source: p 1S the optical pathdifference and V21(a
o
potib I E (0)
o
Fi9ure
2,5
The degree
of t;emporal coherence
Lll,.
~o
S=trff. o
Fi9LJre
2.7·
The degree
of spatial coherence
2..'25
f2
~(L2~M2,N2)
Yo«y)?>
x
Figure
a.s
Calculation of tihe
degree
of spatia}
coherence
/0
08 2I,('C)
x
..O.b 04
j \
\\
\
10
08
Sin )(
x
·i()6
\
\
\
o
02
\
~
02
V
~
/ +,
o
02
8
X
10
\
4
if
(\
8
\
10
»:
Figure . 2,9
The curves of
2J, (x) x
and
sin.x
.Jr
3.
Lecture 3 OF UGHT
POLARISATION
B. R.
I. Wave Nature Light which. coupled propagate each media. controlled other at may any a of Ught be considered in time. as an
JENNINGS
an
phenomenon Is quadrature
in
oscillating magnetic
with
(H). oscillating
coupled
fields to
linearly and
space
field
vectors
the
wave
propagation. their
these
vectors
phase of the
and
relative Each
are the
by the
physical wave
parameters
medium.
threedimensional
equation
curl
(curl
E)
V2
E=
equation. those for Of E the and various
(1)
H replacing
equations. waves
E for
it is
the usual
magnetic to
solutions
of
consider
H which
represent
namely
cos(k·r
cut)
( 2)
H has this is
similar
form. as
In cos
some 9
the 9).
(wt
k· r ) form
is used.
is used
but for
insignificant
exponential is the
convenience.
when
real
alone t
X A I
considered. time.
Eo
and
is r
the the or
vector vector k
amplitude. (r
w
+
1
the
z ~).
vector
vector
is important
and
has
form
( 3)
where
is
the which
of
the
wave. to
For
Isotropic
media.
expressions properties
parameters
fundamental
constants
of the
3. 2
c/n
.c
.and
(4)
with
c the
speed
of light
in vacuo.
and
€o
the
absolute
permittivities of
of
the
medium
and media. of of
whilst
€r
JJ. and
the the
JJ.o are
permeabilltes or E.
these
same
constant
is
relative
permittivity of
shows
interrelation to
E.
the
we
shall
hereafter in terms
H E.
figures
phenomena
presence
of H should
be forgotten
however.
II.
POLARISED UGHT Figure 1 Implies same and k an electric It vector represents which linearly Is maintained (formerly with to with called time. consider the the plane) The the E
in
the light
plane. has a
sinusoidally of
varying
amplitude instructive
E and of in
define
a plane
It is
combination oscillating
under which
conditions. X and
Consider Y axes
waves travel
orthogonal z direction.
define
as they
in a common
wt +6)
resultant
electric
field
is
then
achieved
by vector
If 6 has
or ± (201T)
( 6)
This
is
again
linearly
polarised
beam.
but
of
amplitude
(E
ox
E 2) ~ oy
3,2(a)
x
Fi gure
1
z
Relationship between electric and magnetic field vectors and
Figure
/'
,
/'
z
Linearly polarised light at azimuth
e.
3.3
inclined two
at
an
azimuth factors.
of
with two
a=
This
illustrates are in
important
namely polarised
linearly
which direction
phase. similar an be
orthogonally angular
propagating to form
with at can
frequency.
a single any
linearly linearly
beam beam
inclined resolved
Inphase.
polarised
components
where
linearly
polarised
beams
(Eqn. 5)
same
zdirectlon. (Eox
but have
equal
amplitudes phase
EOY
a constant
difference
of TT 12
Ex Ey
= l'
= {'
wt)
wt)
}
has the form
(7)
resultant
of the
disturbance
=
is
Eo{
l'
cos (kz
wt)
+ {'
sin
(kz
wt)}
(Eo>. whilst
time
independent
amplitude plane.
time
restricted
In fact" in a
the
electric sense
rotates observer
at who If
w
The
clockwise
( Fig. 3) . components
phase negative.
n 12
l'
becomes
Eo{
l'
cos (kz
wt) 
f'
of
sin
(kz
wt)}
(9)
produces
a disturbance
characterised
2Eo
l'
cos (kz
wt)
(10)
which indicates
«()
same
direction,
polarised
(Il) A
linearly
polarised
can
be
split
into
two
circularly
polarised
and of equal amplitude and phase. combination produce of two linearly polarised light.
the
amplitudes traces
phase
elliptically around as an
polarised
The resultant
(z)
rotates projects
direction
a varying
4) .
the
instantaneous
amplitudes
of the
generating
linear
waves,
Ex and Ey
= =
 wt>  wt + 6)
( 11)
The second component can be expressed as E/EOY from 11 (a), :: cos (kz  wt) cos 6 sin (kz  wt) sin 0
Exl Eox
{1 
=
x
and so that
(E IE
ox
)2}~ =
sin ( kz  wt),
or
given by
tan (28)
3,4(a)
Figure
z
RLght circularly
polarised 1 ight
Figure
Elliptically
polarised
light
3. 5
It Is more
easily
recognised
with
{)
(2n
+ 1) 71/2.
when
a .... O.
and
(12)
Once
(I)
Eoy
Eo'
this
becomes
0
above.
then
which (iii)
is a line. The various variable states that can be generated amplitudes light can from the ellipse are equation with
phase
{) (and
relative
EOy/Eox> be
shown in
In Fig. 5. of two
(Iv)
Just
as
circularly
considered so
terms
polarised be generated
polarised a combination
beams. of
polarised circular
a left
amplitudes. no longtime preferred of place the and It polarisation multitudinous time. Is all vary state. sources with time to vary states The which in a as at of of
Light
and
natural no
that
longtime
correlation. of different
sometimes states
In fact. rate
it consists
polarisation
them
indiscernible polarised
can
occur.
may consist
within
The the
reader
tempted in It
think of
foregoing generating
of a
various
states
pair
somewhat that
however. to or break as
when a
certain
have as
beam
generating them.
natural
devices
made
3. 6
III.
IN CRYSTALS are structurally Is an anisotropic. electrtic for Their (and atomic array differs with
light vary
with
anisotropic
ease their
which
the
E vector in the of
displace
atomic
electronic the
regular
positions the
various light
materials.
depends of of the
upon light.
potartlsatlon that
material. or a
The
most
phenomenon which to
Illustratess polarised
orthogonally
beams is as
light. beam
In which the
passes
through from
Further lasers
intense is the
optical realm
beams of
high optics.
power
through we limit
nonlinear
In this
chapter.
discussion
to linear
phenomena . .QQuble RefractiQn In basic dielectric theory. local dipoles of moment p are induced in
a material
by a field
E according
to the
polarisability
a.
where
aE
or
Na
(13)
with Here.
P the
polarisation
density
and
N the
number and
of
dipoles
per
unit
volume.
can
values X
with
direction where
is thus
a tensor.
Often.
the
is used
=
This is also a tensor which relates that liquids. The further equation
NaE directlfy to
(14)
a,
especially
for
gases
and
g.7
(1
+ X>
similarly tensor properties. In general. therefore.
€ are
(15)
crystals.
the
tensor
is symmetric as
and
the
trace
components
principal
=
that
o o
o
the
X33
In
passing.
one of the
notes material.
offdiagonal
terms
relate
to
the
absorption
properties
that
v2
c2 2""'
and
that
at optical
frequencies
n2
Er•
wave equation
(Eqn , 1)
becomes
=
Also. 'VE = ikE leads
~
=
at
and
=
iw E.
then
expanding
out
and
equating
components
to the
equations
( 16)
all
terms with
on zero.
the
left Hence.
in
each the
case.
one
obtains of the
three
equations must
equate with
determinant
coefficients
zero.
namely
3.7(a)
Figure 5
/ tJ 0
phase
Jr:{
~
Il
S
\
0 = n/2, it would
Various polarisation
o.
If E
oy
= Eox ,and
Figure 6
OA
k surface
~.8
This
forms the
surface ~
in
'k' The
space
To
Interpret
it.
consider
= O.
determinant
becomes
'\ 2ky2
}[
when either (or both) A or
1
O.
which
is satisfied
Bare
then
,\2 + ky2
~2
=
+
(n Wlc)2 3
(1
and
(n
ky2 (n wlc)2 1
wlc)
=
is
(18)
Eqn. the
17 other
is
18 yz.
an
equations are
appear
for
normals
generally
encountered
Consider
'\ ;k
x axis, are
then
=
of
0, kx'
\(=
kz)
0 and
O. with
From
17 and
there
2 values in Hence
so the
travel
different in Eqn.
phase 16(c).
Further, Ez.
Eqn.
16( i».
'\
THESE has
POLARISED. or
incident
wave
doubly from
emerge vectors
along
which
equate.
polarised
beams
travel
velocity no
and
thus is
do
not
separate.
This if
is n1
the
OPTIC n2
AXIS. a
along second
observed. plane
the of
of the
The
material and
biaxial. is
the
equal index
The
identical
indices
ordinary the
no and index
Snell's The
unique
refractive as the
extraordinary
birefringence
is defined
difference
(19)
so that
if na > no'
uniaxial
material.
whilst
na < "0
is
useful Fig. 6. in
from indices
this. equate. wavefront and a Is circular that Snell's profile which law. is
From
refractive
observed be
appropriate in an
plane.
The
would The
encountered has
materials
it obeys
positive
no implies
that.
as v
w/k
c/n.
ke >
ko
Flg.6 for
is each
a wavevector of three
crystal
classes.
velocities
inverse (Iv)
of k. of the wave velocity double three profiles leads in to the often reproduced when to the
for
refraction orthogonal
uniaxial
crystals. relative
the
directions
shown
In Fig. 8. predicts to be the class. We trigonal. Isotropic. expect. triclinic. and typical
crystal
and to given be
orthrhombic uniaxial;
biaxial; to be
tetragonal Some
structures
below.
3.9(a)
OA
OA
OA
OA
Figure 7
bro.YLttL
Wave vector (k) profiles in
the XZ plane
Figure
~.
OA
I
,;, •• ~"CiJcc·.o
C
OA
Wave velocity
profiles
for uniaxial
crystals.
;j.
10
Table
I:
Principal
Refractive
Indices
of Chosen
Crystals
_ ..'__. _..,_""'_
.._
Biaxial
1.520 1.522 1.552 1. 619 1.309 1.544 2.616 1.584 1.658 1.669
1.530 1.530 1.588 1.627 1.310 1.553 2.903 1.336 1.486 1.638
Uniaxial ( positive)
( negative)
Prisms association a means both or of of discrete isolating linear linearly beams lost polarisation polarised are retained a single with light differently from an refracting unpolarised as as in in a
affords
Either.
polarised one is
after
separation beam
doubleimage
prisms.
to leave
polarised
polarlser.
For perpendicular through rays the example. to crystal the consider Incidence circular a uniaxial (as and air the In crystal. Fig. with acr . law 1). the Both holds and for optic waves each. the axis travel For
with
Snell's n ==
travelling angle
(with
common
internal
and
related
refracted
angles.
then
s.
11
sin
= 
(20)
The
and
rays They
polarised th us a
optic can
axis be
separated.
angle total to
that. the
negative escapes.
crystal. This is
whilst polarised
other
In glass cut to
prisms a
prisms of
different to optimise
optical
axis of
Canada achieve
balsam
refractive catctte
index
and
polarisation.
Negative
Is used. Flg.11 also shows a variety the of doubleImaging axes the as shown. beams could (c) prisms. They or with are components designed to for been
cut
in
positive
quartz
with
optic
maximum
deviation state.
between
two material
polarisation
Negative
equally
IV..
MATRIX We recall
REPRESENTATION the generalised expression requires for the a plane wave in terms phases Eo with of of the the
orthogonal components.
components.
Definition to
amplitudes vector
and
It is convenient
use a complex
amplitude
(21)
Each
term
can
embrace
phase
if we use exponential
notation.
as
and
E oy
II
E oy
el<l>y
(22)
Jones
(1941)
suggested
the
notation
for
the
complex
amplitude
( 23)
3. 11 (a)
Nicol
prism
above: below:
Polarising Doubleimage
prisms prisms
.calcity quartz.
Ili/
Rochon p r ism Senarmont prism
\~ollaston
pri sm
Polarising
Prisms
3.12
which phase
is the data
Jones
cases,
exact
amplitude of In to
required,
relative
influence
such
normalising unit
unit
lrr adtance.
reduces
elements.
Hence.
from
Eqn.23.
beam.
linearly
polarised
in the
horizontal
(x)
direction.
In normalised
notation,
it becomes
By similar
reasoning
(Fig. 10) .
is a horizontally
polarised
beam
Is a vertically
polarised
beam
[~1
is linearly
polarised
at 45°
azimuth
!: 1
[ 1
is right
 "/2
circularly phase)
polarised
light
(the
component
is left
circularly
polarised
light
!_~j
The resulting by light calculated beams addition of equal
lis elliptically polarised light with n ~ 2, the components being out of phase. of unequal amplitude and right rotating.
obtained of the
by
mixing
two For
or
more
polarised two
beams
can
be
vectors.
example.
circularly Then
polarised
amplitude
but opposing
handedness
combine.
j.13
and
polarised Is in
light
the
amplitude of
estimating II lists
Influence Jones
elements elements.
Table
matrices
Then
If light
of form
[:]
passes
through
element
[:
:] to become
[~:]
( 24)
For polarised
example. beam is
the as case
of
quarterwave incident
plate is
<0>
on
a to
If the then
azimuth
parallel
axis of Q.
in this
and
the
beam
is unaffected.
results.
Successive system.
matrices
can the
to account is polarised.
for
a complete
optical
provided
that
j,13(a)
Figure 10
r
It]
[~J
)C
x.
1..(
>c
Jones vectors
states
3. 14
Table
II.
Jones Matrix representation of various optical (zero azimuth is taken as the vertical)
components
Linear
polariser
horizontal
Linear
polarlser
vertical
Linear
polarlser
at ± 450
),,/4
plate
fast
axis
horizontal
),,/4
plate
fast
axis vertical
),,/4
plate
fast
axis
at
± 450
),,/2
plate
fast
axis
either
0 or
90°
Olroular
potarlser
 right
circular
polarrser
 left
V.
Optical Certain
Rotation materials rotate the the light such plane as terpentlne. of polarisation the material. the sugars of an and crysallised quartz have
the light
to as
linearly per to
traverses power if it
The material to
defines active.
specific
rotatory
and
be
rotates to was
increasingly the
clockwise left.
propagation. recognised
occurs
Fresnel (or
phenomenon
associated
symmetry
:3. 15
in the to
structure the
Tinoco To the a
has
demonstrated the
that
helicity
alone
is the
generate
generate
of the
St
vector Hy to must
helical
structure H resultant.
AHx
with
couples the
with
rotated
Exactly with
Hy vector rotated
a AEy component
which.
constitutes
resultant Is
description left
of
different can
speeds
of from
propagation the
of
circularly beam.
which nL
be derived relevant
incident. for
polarised
nR
be the and kL
refractive
indices
nR w/c. in the
= nL wlc
(x)
is polarised
horizontal
direction.
(25)
After
a distance
L,
these
two circular
components
become
.!2
[_: le
f [ :
lkR
~[]e
1
lV
( 26)
~G
j.HkR
~.>tl2
( 27)
3. 15(a)
Optical
Activity
Figure
11.
(a)
Dextrarotation
(b)
Fresnel
prism
3, 16.
For etrnoncttv.
let
Ji (kR J6 ( kR
kL) R.
1/f
(28)
then
the wave
amplitude
representing
a linear
beam
rotated
through
CPo
From rril.
Its definition.
(eqn.28)
Hence. and
the
rotary
cP
l
::: (nR
nL) TIl)..
( 30)
is wavelonqth Equation 30
means
of An.
isolating
the
Rand
by
with are
the
linear
of right refractive
juxtaposed in
The at In
indices rather
their
divergence prism. to
interface. case. of it
the
Wollaston be used
is
the of
FresneJ circularly
determine
rotation
polarised
light.
VI.
OTHER POLARISING MECHANISMS There are other common methods for obtaining polarised light.
(I)
Light When
Scattering un polarised the light is scattered has by a collection angular of molecules or and to the
small variable
particles.
scattered
intensity The
strong
dependence at angle
polarisation
characteristics.
intensity
scattered
1. 17
forward Rayleigh direction equation. relates namely to the incident Intensity 10 according to the original 
(31)
the the
Inverse shorter
square
law
and This
the
greatly Is
scattered of two
intensity varies as
which is
cos2e of
other plane,
perpendicular
Tyndall that
noted bears
900.
polarised:
his
name.
The
polarisation
in fig. 12 (c) .
ctn
Qlchroic
e.ol~!lQn
has axes. also
€r
Its origins
in
an
index to
index values be
permittivity part of n
which
and of thus
€r
hence to
which
loss
optical
absorption
coefficient
( 32)
with
nj
the
imaginary
part
of
the the
With varies
certain with
highly different
absorbing. axial
anisotropic
materials. the
directions Such
crystal
to
those
directions. such as
absorption are
'dichroism', that
herapathlte selectively an
anlsotroplc light
polartsera. allowing
absorbs
polarised to be
one
polarised
orthogonal
direction
transmitted.
j.17(a)
Figure
(a)
12
(b)
Polar
intensity
diagram
Polarisation
at
900
(c)
Polarisation
by light scattering
j.18
light the
loss principle
is
and
the
polarisation
Is
not
very
efficient.
This
is
polaroid.
cun
by RmJ.fLQ!!.Q.n is reflected of the differs can and refracted at the interface between vector to it. two in An whose
behaviour incidence
polarised
with
its electric
pctartseo
into two
perpendicular such
unpoiarlsed are
wave
resolved
components.
embraced
in the
Fresnel
Intensity
rettoctton
which of Is for
case
atrtoptass
of the an the
interface. component
angle the
designated Is
.Q.Q.D..\it
plane
reflected. plate at
Only such
glass
a very condition
small for
proportion 96 is when
of the
(i
+ r)
:: 900 with
of refraction.
( 33) and Be Is the The is, light Brewster angle. For alrtoglass the parallel interface it is approximately is not linearly
560.
polarised. It not An
transmitted rich of
through in the
however, A
relatively series
polarised forms a
component.
is
reflected. ever at
such
interfaces
increasing the
number
mounted high It
parallel
Brewster of
angle,
transmittance is a useful
polarisation azimuth
a transmitted
of an unknown
linearly
polarised
beam.
3.18(a)
Figure
13
~I
I
jo
&1
60
90
&8
/ ( (/£J.fEGS)
Reflectance incidence.
for Data
1. and
II
to
the
plane
of
interface.
rJ
00
')v
4.1
DIFFRACTION THEORY
1.
The HuygensFresnel InTegral This is the basic formula for the calculation amplitude, of the effects such that is amplias More
light wave.
wave, and look for a formula for the complex at a point P by the wave disturbance that each point P spherical
o
later Fresnel,
combining
with at P
of interference,
integral.
considerations
Thus, let EPF in Figure 4.1 be a wavefront wave from the element dA of A at P •
o
spherical wave,
(4.1)
It is reasonable That is, a dU to
0
(2.22), where R
that a is proportional
U , at P
o
and to the size, dA, of the area element. using a elements iu dA/A, and integrating
o
=
p
KU dA
o
Thus, at P,
the contributions
from all
complex amplitude
ifJu
AA
exp{ikR}dA
0
(4.2)
4.2
integral. inte
of the wave+equa
wh en to dA, on
A.
It is then found that the amplitude of the secondary in the direction In different
e.
or ~(l + cos
e),
which
e=
rather formidable
scalar formula
is found in practice. 2. Fresnel Diffraction: In applying The Point of Stationary Phase problems different approximaand P r.n
tions are made in different has coordinates the plane A at Z sensitive arriving
n) ln the plane
= D.
o.
The resultant
between
greater accuracy
(P P) in the argument
o
of the exponential
than in the factor l/R which relates from Po' R (PoP) has a mlnl1;,
mum value at P , whose coordinates PoP is perpendicular the secondary ary phase. P
o
= n;
that is
disturbances
o
of P , which
in Figure 4.2, and the integral of cos(kR) by the neighbourhood the value of R changes inlittle
creasingly or nothing
rapidly, and the curve of cos(kR) then oscillates to the integral of cos(kR), the real part of
4.3 The same ~s true for sin(kR). we expandR For the present
exp {ikR}. R
case, therefore,
=
(P p) = D, where D = (EO).
o
The coordinates
of P
e 1;, n ,
D).
Thus, with R
(4.3) It is customary to find the value of R by expanding theorem. the square to trans
It is better
=
D
2D + (R  D)
(I;  X)2 +
R
2D
en 
11 +
I..
r,
(R  D)_]l 2D
If (R  D) reaches
cos (kR), and in sin(kR) , to the right or left of P The value of the integral IR is thus dominated DI ~s not large, that ~s the region of p0 Hence
Figure
4.2.
For
IR  DI
lOa;', with ;. = 500 nm and for D even as small as 10 mm, the final factor and then (4.5) value. of Rto use ~n the phase factor
as the reciprocal
of
D + (R  D)
nt i
+ (R  D)/D},
as above allows
up
lI)
en
 Y) 2]dXdY
(4.6)
with k Fresnel
for
P is not at or near the focus of the wave at the plane A. The important role played ~n this case by the point of
stationary practically
region around
Po ,
when it point P
at
= n,
As an example u(z)
a perXl, the
u(a) to Y2'
a, and
are Xl to X2 and YI
With
= (2 ~ JTD
(4.7)
and
J ~D (~
X)
ds
~X
JTD
the integration
Hith respect
to X in (4.6) becomes
",,)1
~L/J
Hhere
denotes
the
.comp
Lex conjugate, 2
and
F (u )
C(u) + is(u)
r{
Y., IT S 2) + iJsin(2 ds
(4.8)
lS
the complex
integrals
the integral
and
4.5
Up exp{ikD}4{Fi~(u  UI) 'F*(u  U2)}{F'~(v  VI)  F*(v  V2)} (4.9) for the complex amplitude tance D from the screen A. If the aperture X2 at A is very large, and we put Xl
00
at the point
= Y2
s (z=)
+1
=±!
F(±oo) F (u)
72
F(u)
e~4
.1T
F* (±oo)
±«_i2:..4
1
(4.10)
a exp{ikD}:
that is the wave propagates For a finite aperture, shadow that either it ~s (u  UI),
to geometrical
optics.
(4.9) then gives fringes around the s h adow edge. the form of these fringes, consider the case of X
<
To illustrate
0, The
+00 and YI
00
,
The
0, U2
+00 and vI
, = 00 v2 = +00.
U P
 F*( )}
that ~s,with
(4.10),
Up
a exp{ikD}
12
(+i:) {
[CCu) + !Ji~
(u) +
fl]
(4.11)
s=
(/AD/2)u
from the edge of the shadow at 0 in Figure values of u, the final bracket 12exp ii ' g~v~ng Up turbance according given by the argument
For larger
in (4.11) tends to the value that is the wave disThe phase at P is of Up' and it shadow distribution optics.
a exp{ikD}:
to geometrical
will be seen that near to the edge of the geometrical when u ~s small, there will be a more complicated of phase.
are no longer a valid concept. The intensity for the halfplane, is given by the squared modulus of U .
P
Thus,
where I
a2 lS the intensity
The form of
A useful rule lS to note that the I II is shown In Figure 4.3. p first fringe has its maximum when u = 1.2, that lS for
I;
= 0.8SI5J5.
For D
With A
I;
o.oun,
O.
with D In
mm.
= 100
= 0.2
mm
This is the case when D lS large compared with the dimensions of the aperture at E. It is found that terms In X2 and y2 no for R
=
we specify the point P by the length R sines (L, 1'1, of its polar radius EP. N)
are given by L = Sln 8X' H wh e r e 8 ' 8y are the angles shown In Figure 4.4. X ordinates
(I;
The direction COSlnes /{l  (L2 + 1'12)}, = Sln 8y and N P thus has colS the point and, if P
R2
(4.13)
(R  R)(R + R)
(R  R){2R + (R  R)}
= (R  'R) iR{l
R
+ (R 
4.7
Now R 
in path to P between is
the secondary waves from P very many wavelengths, large phase differences For points where U therefore,
we
and E.
the secondary
D.
P
is at all significantly
different
from zero, in
shall have
(4.14) gives the value of R to be used (4.2). By the same argument, factor in (4.2). is ",ritten If we
= f(X, Y),
D(L,H)
exp {
;ikRl
Iff (x,Y)
exp
x:; Y}XdY
R»
\1..
(~\)(X2
y2)
max
(4.16)
where
R(a,T)
=JJf(X,
_00
(4.18)
transform
of the aperture
the reg10n of A itself. (4.17) shows that any aperture distribution of diffracted by pair frequency integral ampli tude determined
Omitting function
factors,
an angular
T = H/>'"
4.8
+00
f(X, Y)
J1F(a,
00
,)exp{i2rr(aX + ,Y)}dad,
(4.19) a exp(i¢)
a exp(i¢)exp{ik(LX
+ MY)}
= 0.
Comparison
f(X, Y), at the screen is of plane wave s , where the plane a exp(i¢)
=
F(a,,),
L A.
,=
A.
(4.21)
of f(X, Y). exp{ikZ} falls on a screen of complex leaving the screen at Z light has L or negative values of positive
r rx, Y).
= M = 0,
or negative
above and below the direct beam. fracted light is equal to (1/A.) The· above fo rmu.l becomes a focus;of'theplanewaves We, therefore,
The maximum values of L, Mare is detail of size ;;.A.. that is at the directions (L, M).
exact as·R+oo,
diffraetecialongthe
ture plane A is replaced by a sphere of radius or near the plane Z sphere of radius
= D, and P is at
= D = R. o
o
We now have the case of the lower has coordinates (X, Y, Z) on a and P, with coordinates
and centre 0;
(~  X)2
which uSlng the equations
(n  y)2
(R
C  Z)2
of the spheres EP
4.9
X2 + y2 + Z2  2R Z
a
0, easily re
duces to
Factorising gives
RR
R , this
a
factor
(l/R) ~
a
(i/AR )exp{ikR
}, gives
Up " U(~,
n) ~ exp i i£(~,
[~x;0nY
i~]}dXdY
(4.22)
dA
dXdY/cos
a
8 ~ dXdY.
last, like the approximation shall show that the quantity practical cases.
(l/R)~
(l/R ), merely
I (~X
nY)/R
, in all
equations (EP )2
a
above glve X2 + y2 + Z2 2R Z
a
(OP)2
so that I;;Z/R
a
zrp,
so that
(4.24)
If
(~X + nY) /R
amplitude
at P
will be negligible.
4.10
mID,
Hence
u(~, n)
(4.25) with f(X, Y) defined to be zero outside the reg~on of the aperture
A.
There are two special cases of (4.25) which are important. If R
00,
and then
U(~, n)
exp{iE(~,
n)}F(Ai ' o
A;O)
(4.27)
The intensity
lu(~, n) 12
by
(4.28)
that is, w i rh high accuracy, Fourier objects. transform of f(X, Y). the theory of image formation
both of incoherent
18
R' 0'
= O.
transform
(EP a
herent cavity.
.4.11
~A
int:egT'al
y
p
7 R=/)
x
FiguT'e 4 2
Fresnel
4.12
~5=
Figure 4·3 Fresnel diFfraction at:
085
AD
edge
a .straiqnt:
<,
'
<,
<;
'
'
:s
'
...,
..,
1
Figure 44
Fraunboper
diFfraction {orrnutae
r
i
Lec:tture 5 LASERS 1. 1. Introduction Lasers several lamps or have been described from These as Ideal light sources. by Laser light differs In PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
respects bodies.
light
generated are
discharge a laser is is
differences also
quantitative in that
but
qualitative
iight
well
extremely
These lasers
spawned to of
applications of the
designed expense
features. areas to Is to
usually of
revolutionize possibly
many do
science variety
could
justice here
the
Our so that
purpose more
establish may
basis
laser
specific
applications
establish
limitations
conventional
Thermal Body
adequately
modelled of this
by
Planck's are
Radiation.
Important
results
theory
discussed
Electromagnetic temperature by
radiation
In
thermal
equilibrium density
U
with with
cavity
at
T has a distribution
of radiation
frequency
v given
Planck's
Law.
and
the
radiant
emittance
into
all directions
from
unit
area
of the
surface
W(v.T)
ov
c
4
s.
In terms of the wavelength spectrum
W().,T>
d).=
ehV/k.
spectrum peaks at
lI).T
1
d)'
The
km
with
2.9 x 106 T
nm
with
an
Integrated
total
emittance
over
all
W Tot al with Black and are body neither and source of if sources are limited nor system to
a r4
X
Stephen's
Law
a = 5.68
In terms
108
Watts
m2
K4•
temperature radiations the light can at the are then never cost by
of
brightness The
by the
individual or focus
leads
whose can
exceed of
that
losing
most
can
only
improved of light.
drastically
reducing
than suffer
since
directionality of the
individual for
source
required
of radiation
by atoms
give rise to three distinct
of electrons
in atoms
interactions
radiation.
Nn
E",
(a)
Soontaneous Here an
atom decay
E,...,
random
lower
level.
of
decay
Anm
where
Anm
is
the
Einstein
'A'
coefficient
two levels.
(b)
Absorption An atom to reach The in the the lower level Is driven by resonant radiation of density
Uv
upper
probability/sec
=
hVn m
Uv
8mn where
Is
the
Einstein
between power
levels. 8mn
Stimulated An atom
emission in the upper the level Is driven Since Is coherent hvnm. are reciprocal only processes when and also that by It resonant Is with radiation. by the
.=
of
density
uv'
to
reach the
lower
level.
driven the
incoming
radiation
emission
driving
radiatlon.
=
(b)
No
Uv
Bnm (c)
and
incident
radiation
have
a net
amplification
This
Inequality
Is
at
the
basis
of
laser
action.
or
light
amplification
by
stimulated It body Is
emission easy to
of radiation. show that then if atoms are in thermal on equilibrium populations with black
radiation
in a cavity
the
Boltzman
condition
together
with
Planck's
law.
leads
to the
equality
Bnm
8mn
and
81Thv3 nm
The
prerequisite
for
laser
laction
Is then
that
Nn
> Nm.
Population
inversion
3000K
kT
Is
only gives
It and
follows
laboratory of
equilibrium will
action only of
considerable
thermal
attained to
a transient
the
continuously
a continuous
energy from
achieve
appropriate Is to
Further. the
if
coherent
radiatlon from
stimulated
emission then
incoherent
radiation
spontaneous
emission
Both
these of
conditions the
become Is
10 achieve of the
as
the why
radiation are
reasons UV
high
more The
whereas
for
achieving
population in more
inversion detail
type
discussed we must
later try to
lasers. lower
Meanwhiie and
why
bandwidth from
greater
temporal gas
coherence operating
a single spontaneous
spectral
line
a conventional
discharge
atoms
resonant
/,
radiation.
/! ;1
~ "',
_.__.__:[
~ }o>+t:~~
k" r/
such
is
in
narrow of
tube
within
cavity
by two along
plane the
wave
appropriate by stimulated
frequency emission.
be
amplified
coherently
$5
The will wave be will be successively between mirror profile. of from Is reflected the mirrors. and is within An this the cavity and a standing wave wave be
travelling be
may
spatially
profile laser
frequently In
resulting losses
diffraction
aperture.
some
occur of the
diffraction
profile
amplifier
The will
the
requirement spatial
of
produce
excellent
coherence a point
profile. and
This
behaves can be
If It originated down to
from a
focussed laser
point This
Image produces
whose
limited intensity
at the at the
aperture.
extremely
high
focus.
1. 5
laser
To evaluate
bandwidth
of
a laser Secondly
we the
must
first
consider arises
the a
of
the
output to
from
wave cavity
such
is
restricted longitudinally
a and
conditions
certain
discrete
wavelengths
radiation
bandwidth with
of
the
is
exactly state
the when
same the
as
that are
spontaneous discharge
upper
atoms
in a conventional
we wilt
examine
first.
1.5. 1
a.
Bandwidth linewidth
of Spontaneous
Emission
Natural An
individual
atom the
in
an
excited
state
has ; less
with
particular
transition to
states) have
excited
a natural
If the
of
as
damped energy
harmonic
oscillator
at
the
frequency
then
the T
dipole
wet)
decays and is
wen
We etlT
where
Is the
natural
lifetime
case
by T
1
Fourier at ve analysis leads of to this a damped bandwidth sinusoidal b.v such output that
Av=l/T.
The order Unfortunately the situation with radiation T and in other a is coherent then only over times of
if T=lOns
real
discharge and by
atoms
during T
then is
the
phase
than
broadened gas
coherence
reduced. be significant
conventional a high
additional
width
could
pressure
Broadening than and a. the or b. is the of fact that individual produces With a emitters a are
more
thermal
ensemble the
Doppler
bandwidth distribution
which the
exceeds iineshape
natural
Maxwellian by
is Gaussian
a width
.6vo given
7. 16x107 v
0
(I1J2
M1
(M the
Under 100
typical times
lamp width
conditions and
accordingly
determines
effective
S.7
bandwidth spactral for the (1 GHz) line of a and coherence lamp. system. frequency It time It (1 ns) Is also obtainable the from a single
discharge In a laser of
amplifiers Is lines. to
We
note
that most
broadening frequency It Is
a function
becomes
serious
Important and
realise
that
althouqh of of
the a
Doppler conventional
width
determines lamp
the It of
temporal the
discharge a laser
the
from iaser.
because
requirements Standing
by the
modes
1. 5. 2
a. Axial For wave.
In a laser
cavity
modes wave must to fit be the coherently cavity amplified L with the wavelength of the standing
the A.
length
= =
nA
where
n is any
C
integer.
2
c A
11
n.
The
separation
.6vm
n
=~
the
values
~1Im
of

L300
O. 5m MHz. of
and
A
650nm.
contains
material
refractive
index
7}
then
L in
the
above.
is the b.
optical
length.
f 7]d!.
are wave to possible and has that This uniphase in the a laser lowest this has with cavity. diffraction transverse a no simple phase but the losses. mode TEMoois As has
transverse to it is an
nearest result
easy to
arrange
only mode
oscillate. its
Gaussian reversals
across (unlike
wavefront.
higher
modes).
S.8 1.5.3.
laser Bandwidth combine gain : Axial the of modes within the gain bandwidth in the the laser cavity of
now
longitudinal the
modes
possible to predict
Doppler output.
curve
amplification
bandwidth
In
the
we
see
four Only
longitudinal two of to
failing above cavity laser two mode It Is apparent that If are the
necessary laser
action.
su perposition and
113,
each
and be
the
temporal example threshold. usually not by will Doppler The laser system. is
coherence
required the
selected. lie
by
one will by
will to
is done value
frequency determined
near
v 0 but not
length and
at
110
and
any be width.
fundamental deterrntnad
atomic
Similarly cavity
bandwidth. alt
by
the
by
the
bandwidth. determined.
Ov. as
and for
the any
cavity
quality
factor.
Q.
of
single
mode In the
electronic
oscillator.
by the
losses
=
l)v
the the
losses
can
be measured or from
directly decay Is y
o
bandwidth when
oscillations The
21TtiV
the
power
turned
21TV
off.
stored
energy
as e For
tla
:::::e the
a laser
single
mode
bandwidth
is
usually
5.9
much too small to from time be the can Is The measured coherence be directly. time or as from the as It the time the can time after time single be of free which over mode measured decay an which laser 01
Interpreted or
photons lost.
lost.
alternatively of a well of
bandwidth
designed 5x
1MHz on
a basic of In is
frequency
iO 14Hz giving
a laser. the 108•
a Q of with
time be of
106
the
sec. future to
Such
used light
establish part in
standard In terms
defined.
to
one
wavelength
frequency
laser. coherence source. than available In the single many with laser light Is the In and
less
Important to
power mode
usually
attempt
select
laser
is allowed
to operate for
in several
modes
simultaneously.
lasers so this far has implied the case the the in end per use of plane except faces of mirrors for a is at ruby ruby low.
discussion cavity
the
end
of the
laser
where
the
mirrors gas
are
lasers.
amplifier
unit
length
unsatisfactory is very
following (1· of
1.
The
alignment
critical many
order
to
confine
near
paraxial 2. The
rays' to allow
passes
through
Gaussian the
beam
profile
mirror
surfaces and
and the
spatial are
is downgraded
diffraction
losses
these
problems
can
be with
much
reduced to
by their
the radii
use of
of
spherical and
appropriately
positioned
respect
curvature
5. 10 mounted wavefronts mirrors (good been outside from the the discharge tube for ease of alignment. are almost The uniphase and spherical rays. have
diffractionlimited good
beam
spherical of near
also
produce
confinement using
paraxial mirrors or
stability>. adopted
Several most
spherical
but the
lasers. and.
confocal maximum
hemispherical the
power
is
required.
Such
configurations against alignment Mirrors losses; layers 1. 1 A Population prerequisite inversion the details there inversion for laser action be higher
(e. g.
on glass.
two
energy between
levels the
Is two
that levels. to
f,..,r
first
techniques
.f_"l.I
1'0'," ~C'I Je'l Cil
do
__
ro
this
are
specific
!'=ar.::':'l. Qle
each
~1.J~+_~
""'_1
~'f0LOI'1
,&,hl,....h
"HI...,.,
\.I!:!IIIn
'l'UIiU
.v.
any
atoms reside
must at all
be
excited
from
some· ground
state
level This
in
which
they can or
practical
laboratory absorption.
temperatures. which is
excitation process. be a
achleved
either
by photon or It
by
with In
other is not
which to
resonant between
invert
population
without
Involving
at least
level.
5,. 11
If only levels El and
E2
are
involved E2 will
then also
any be
excitation loser
from
E1 to from Is from
A
II
effective
back
E2 to
E,
flo
same of
difference
involved. E1 to
Uf'\
'
I P ;rja
i.
jJ
'I L
il
E2.'
111~er'B
y
£/
frequency
E2
could
intensitity equal
light In
at
v'2
and also at E3
be to but no
populations E3 is to
E,
E2 (saturation
it is possible the and decay same
of
the
When the
to raise
E1 to This
atoms an to
time
could If after
inversion E3 there to
E2 (as from
laser E3 to
slow
E2
back
develop
between
is that to
E,
invert
is initially an excited
and this
case
a used
excited lower
empty)
E,
sometimes in
E2.
reasons lasers,
lasers success
these or
cases laser
known
system
amplif!er be
and by by
through pumping
this and
rate
at which the
at which by and
laser general,
some
solid length:
lasers lasers
a high made
of amplifiers longer
per
unit
be
to compensate
S.12
1.8
Control
and
modulation
of the
laser
output
1.B.l
in power
Q Switching many high pulsed output become operate power from applications the laser. by the (CW) Important. the laser action itself Inevitably and the hence depletes the gain. the In It is desirable Many lasers. to produce extremely pumped can high by be
such
as those whilst
flashlamps. made to
process much
others preferred
to
be
when
that
laser same
level way If
reduces onset of
the
population action
Inversion limits
inhibit value
laser then
is built
laser
single or
output Q
pulse
obtained. Is
since
achieved to
phase can
Q suddenly a train
output
be
produce to
powerful from
procedure Q switching 1. 2.
produce
a train several
pulses
a CW laser.
In onaof which
including: produces which of the cavity absorbs two alignment. the of laser the
A rapidly An light
rotating
periodically (dye)
absorber
saturation of the a
levels
absorber 3.
hence
Electrooptical crossed
switching
Pockets
4.
Acoustic
crystal. lengths produced Whilst power [from the 10 j..I..sin average higher.
10ns in of a laser
overall
power
Is reduced
by Q switching. the
is much
S. 13
1. 8. 2.
The also be Cavlt'j' dumping processes used with to of a CW lase. in reiation of to Q switching (modulation) produce the pulse is the of a pulsed from laser can In
described
produce
a train It is
pulses to
a CW laser. rates an
addition to
possible
several until
MHz the
dumping. input
Here
reaches
balance
the of and
then are
opened released
rapidly In a
using time 
optical The
and is
cavity process
2L/c.
Is repeated.
1.8.3
An driven exceeds excited exciting excited modes with
Mode locking of a CW lase. optical at the and the the the switch (e. g. KDP crystal> frequency the is placed c/2l. of the In the cavity the and Is Just be of are all
intermode the
When gain
gain will
losses the
centre
curve
modulation modes
sidebands this
which
are once
nearest two
frequency; be excited
nextnearest within
similarly curve
and
so on
above
threshold
width These
I::J.v
are
coherently
"..~i:ll
nil,
excited
......
fixed
phase
relationships
_.,._,..,I_1f""
1.,VUCoO:)
:_ .. __ ..t __ "Bl.t:1llt:1lt;!J.
bJ
\ It
average producing this CW laser large power. pulses narrow are purpose pulse Mode resulting 200MHz. amplitude laser fusion widths locking can can
modes the
each
having
same
produced
have which is
height
that
where
neodymium/VAG be also as
dye as
lasers 1012s
modulation to prove
modulation. experiments
Mode and
in communications.
5.14
1.8.4
Harmonic
with
a laser through In turn matter act by Inducing secondary per unit oscillating sources of is
propagates which or
as
induced
polarisation E by
dipole
moment
volume.
P.
to the
electric
field
of If E Is an oscillatlng field E
the medium.
Eo slnwt + 2
E~ (1cos2wt) wave but
o,Eo of
slnwt an
+ ....
(E100Vm1) in the also only the fields In
conditions be
need
extreme
generated some
in a laser It the
02
can order be
crystals. of
involve
original to
frequency
For the
be nonzero generation
crystal
harmonic For
most KDP
beam.
ADP second
conversion materials
efficiency promise
harmonic
even
higher
efficiencies.
"
S.16 2.2 Solid State Semiconductor lasers (Low and small power i. r. but and with very poor high coherence efficiency. In red very
size and
doped
forward
current
productlon recombination
from at the
hv=band
Usually also
gap
of semiconductor.
and pulsed but can
cooled
be CWo
Typical CW 
output
1 watt. >"=840nm; doping )"=640nm).
(with
Phosphorus
important at up to more
fibre
optic
links
since
small
and
easily
recent
materials
techniques
2. 3
and i. r ,
low but
efficiency with
in
the
excellent and
collis;,,,!
 A.to_.
temporal
coherence
discharge
pumping
with from
~~~~
exchange
\!
sta{es.!\ to laser levels. neon excited
s.
2. 2. 1 Solid State
Crystal
I. r but with
3 level Typical Puised repetition Q switched Very laser
flashlamp
).=
output lOJ
694 i ms
in
( 10kW)
< 0.1%.
1 mm normally and
Coherence poor Neodymium Ions Nd3 + In YAG or glass 4 level Very spatial
coherence.
laser;
high
power
CWo
Typical output CW. at 10kHz 20kV'J peak power
).=
1. 06
usn
h>..l nm
of width
Coherence
as for 
Low efficiency Often used in conjunction e. g. with 5000J 1500J 350J a laser amplifier
chain
pulses fusion)
(Mode
TW peak
height>
lOmW
633
nm
A'A.
lO5nm
(single
mode)
also
at
).
1.15
.am
3.39
available.
2.4
HaiiumCadmium
D. C.
is the Typical
discharge
In
mixture
of
helium
and
Od" ion.
output
ccvo
>.
or
441. 6 nm
325 nm
50
mW
5 mW
2.5
Atomic
gas
Ion lasers
(High
CW
the but
visible very
with low
cost). argon is of atoms necessary cooling confinement low are at high ~ a very and with of O. 10/0
To high has
Ionise current
and
excite d.c.
difficult lsolatron
.J....,
electrical
~
rv72..nr<"'l
the
lons,
l\
At
"..t ,b,"
(3p·)
but
output
coherence
Typical
(CW) at ).. to
L
.. Krypton Similar
Major each
r!::c:d:~ (3p
=
20
488
watts
nm
and
)..
514
nm. UV at
up
and
also
near
fl,r(rRulm15",......,d
"l up
to
watts.
Ion to Argon Ion but with more emission at red end of spectrum.
lasers
(Very
high
CW
power
In
far
Infra
red
and
with
very. high Carbon Most based dioxide powerful on the CW laser with levels many
efficiency)
industrial
welding/cutting of the
applications
and
rotational A Sq
molecule.
S'tj"" ,..~,tt.~
HDd'!..
JV\~e
t; r''1:e
,...,.\ CY..t!2....
). = 10,. 6 J.Lm
efficiencies and good up
powers
up Low beam
to
a few
kW
and
beam lead
divergence to many
focussing requiring
applications
highest
powers.
oo~~o
0  4# 
;)
el~c~rt:, ..,c.
a re.u.rtL
:;t:o..!:..t;;.."
2. 6 s.
Exclmer lasers Kr F
(UV
high
power
pulsed. from
High
g.
a a
nonbinding state. is
excited fluorine
krypton
and via
subjected
excitation
discharge us with
or electron
beam in
exclrner excited
molecule state it
formed
exclusively
a
the
100% groundstate.
population Laser
inversion action follows of at and 20% 100 pump the lower level
between
and as
rapidly Watt
the
molecule of of the ). 20
are Hz
possible
repetition. for a
averaged and
Watt. a
excellent laser.
laser
laser
future
possible
fusion
S.19 2.7 Dye lasers (Tunable medium visible Large vibrational vibrational In solution the rapid wavelength power spectrum). organic modes mode each (has dye of a molecules oscillation set of have and many each levols. by and laser. good CW or pulsed. over with the
coherence
rotational is
rotational
level
broadened with
10125)
The
collisions
these transition
.' 11,
c(lff roct.·on.
.1
'JT"/:;"9
Including
becomes and
continuum are
and
the
absorption relaxation
spectrum between
spectrum
band. in
vibrational process
rotational from
results
causes
the
wavelengths in a then
to the and Is
a dye
·flashlamp over a
possible
range
where at the
wavelength
selection
by
maximising out
chosen or an
Tuning
carried
diffraction the
grating
interference bandwidth
etalon.
depending makes
bandwidth very
required. for
gain
profile
lasers Typical
suitable
mode 6G
output of
Rhodamine a few
H ;'rJ
CW output as low as
watts.
tunable With
550
650
107 nm
(15KHz). produced.
mode
locking
several
GHz have
been