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- Fatigue

You are on page 1of 33

because the forces of Nature are always at work and each object

must respond in some fashion.

Fatigue

repeated cycles of loading or fluctuating loading.

estimated to be the cause of 90% of all metallic failures.

suddenly and often without warning. Static loading provides

sufficient

ffi i t time

ti for

f deflection.

d fl ti

a component or structure subjected to fluctuating or cyclic

stresses.

1 of 33

1

Fatigue

to describe the behavior of materials subjected to cyclic

loadings exist; instead, there are a large number of theories to

describe the behavior of particular materials.

• Most of the engineering design experience in fatigue is based

on an experimental understanding of the behavior of carbon

steels. Much effort has been directed toward extending these

semi-empirical rules to other ferrous and nonferrous metals, as

well as ceramics,

ceramics polymers,

polymers and composite materials.

materials

• For the most part, fatigue involves the accumulation of

damage within a material. Damage usually consists of cracks

that can grow by a small distance with each stress cycle.

Fatigue

a surface and propagate through the bulk. Therefore, much

attention is paid the quality of surfaces in fatigue-susceptible

machine elements.

• Fatigue cracks begin at several sites simultaneously and

propagate when one flaw becomes dominant and grows more

rapidly than others.

• Fatigue testing is imperative to confirm safe mechanical

design.

2 of 33

2

Stages of Fatigue Life

3 of 33

3

Examples of Fatigue Failure

stress concentration

The second major class of component failure is due to DYNAMIC

LOADING

Repeated stresses

Alternating stresses

Fluctuating stresses

The ultimate strength of a material (Su) is the maximum stress a material

can sustain before failure assuming the load is applied only once and

held.

Fatigue

i strengthh Resistance

i off a material

i l to failure

f il under

d cyclic

li lloading.

di

A material can also FAIL by being loaded repeatedly to a stress level that

is LESS than (Su)

Fatigue failure

4 of 33

4

Approach to Analysis Fatigue-Life

Fatigue-Life Methods

Fatigue Strength and the Endurance Limit

Endurance Limit Modifying Factors

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity

Fluctuating Stresses

Combinations of Loading Modes

Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative Fatigue Damage

Fatigue-Life Methods

design and analysis for safe life

estimation:

2.

2 Strain life method (ε-N

(ε N Curve)

method

5 of 33

5

Fatigue Regimes

Regimes

Low-Cycle

C l High-Cycle

i hC l

Fatigue Fatigue

1 ≤ N ≤ 103 cycles N > 103 cycles

Stress-Life Methods

It is the least accurate approach, especially for

low-cycle applications.

Most traditional method:

• It is the easiest to implement for a wide range of

design applications

• It has ample supporting data

• It represents high-cycle applications adequately

6 of 33

6

Strain-Life Methods

plastic deformation at localized regions

where the stresses and strains are

considered for life estimates.

Good

G d for

f low-cycle fatigue

f i applications.

li i

detected.

stress intensity.

structures in conjunction with computer

codes and a periodic inspection program.

7 of 33

7

Stress-Life Methods

To determine the strength of materials under the action of fatigue loads, specimens are

subjected to repeated or varying forces of specified magnitudes while the cycles or stress

reversals are counted to destruction. The most widelyy used fatigue-testing

g g device is the R.

R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam machine. The specimen is very carefully machined and

polished, with a final polishing in an axial Direction to avoid circumferential scratches.

the R. R. Moore rotating-

beam machine. The bending

moment is uniform over the

curved at the highest stressed

highest-stressed

portion, a valid test of

material, whereas a fracture

elsewhere (not at the highest-

stress level) is grounds for suspicion

of material flaw.

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8

Fatigue Test (Ferrous Metals and Alloys)

9 of 33

9

Fatigue Strength of Polymer

cycles. (c) Selected properties of assorted polymer classes.

such that the stress sequence repeats itself

Nc=1 Nc=1/2

10 of 33

10

Strain-Life: Hysteresis under Cyclic Load

Fatigue Ductility

coefficient (N=1)

Fatigue

g Strengthg

coefficient (N=1)

Slope of plastic

strain line

Slope of elastic

strain line

11 of 33

11

Strain Life Theory

Manson-Coffin Relationship

Strain (Crack)

Elastic Plastic

∆ε σ

'

2

=

E

b

( ) ( )

2 N ' + ε 'f 2 N '

f c exponent

Stress at fracture

(one cycle) Fatigue ductility Number of

Fatigue strength

coefficient cycle

exponent

b c

12 of 33

12

Limitation of Strain Life Theory

Strain-life theory gives insight into important properties in

fatigue strength determination: as long as there is a cyclic

plastic strain, no matter how small, eventually there will be

f il

failure.

Strain (Crack)

Elastic Plastic

∆ε σ f

'

2

=

E

a

( )

2 N ' + ε 'f 2 N ' ( ) α

• Strain concentration factors are nowhere

R i A

Regime A: slow

l crackk growth. th It is

i strongly

t l affected

ff t d by

b material

t i l microstructure,

i t t

environment effects, and stress ratio Rs.

Regime B (Paris Regime): related to micro-structure, mechanical load variables,

and environment.

Regime C: high growth rate. micro-structural effects and loadings, cleavage

13 of 33

13

Crack Growth

∆K I = β (σ max − σ min ) πa = β ∆σ πa

Crack Growth

da

= (∆K I )

m

dN

Nf 1 af da

∫0

dN =N f =

C ∫a

(i

β∆σ πa )

m

14 of 33

14

Fatigue Strength

1725 rpm

106 cycle -1.5day

108 cycle -40day

• Stress concentration

• Residual stress

• Surface roughness

• Environment (temperature and corrosion)

Endurance Limit

Se' = 100kpsi Sut > 200kpsi

700MPa Sut > 1400MPa

15 of 33

15

S-N Equation under Given Failure Stress σ 'F

(S )

'

f N = σ F' (2 N )

b

σ F' = σ 0ε m or for H B < 500

σ F' = Sut + 50kpsi / 345MPa

For exponent b

b=−

(

log σ F' / S e' )

log(2 N e )

For N=103

(S )

'

f 103 (

= σ F' 2 ⋅103 = fS ut )

b

σ F'

f =

S ut

(2 ⋅10 ) 3 b

Fraction f:

See plot for 70 ≤ Sut ≤ 200kpsi

for S ut < 70kpsi f = 0.9

S-N Eq.

S f = aN b

For a and b

a=

( fSut )2 ; b = − 1 log fSut

Se 3 S

e

For N

1/ b

σ

N = rev

a

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16

Fatigue Strength Example

of 120 kpsi. Estimate the life of the specimen if it is tested at

a completely reversed stress amplitude of 70 kpsi.

Se' = 100kpsi Sut > 200kpsi

700MPa Sut > 1400MPa

Fatigue Example

tensile strength of 95 ksi and yield strength of 74

k i Estimate

ksi. E ti t ((a)) endurance

d li

limit,

it (b) ffatigue

ti

3 4 5 6

strength for 10 , 10 , 10 and 10 cycles of life

Se' = 100kpsi Sut > 200kpsi

700MPa Sut > 1400MPa

17 of 33

17

High-Cycle Fatigue Example

g ppressure

are bolted down to seal the high

exerted by the pressured water. The ultimate

strength is 157 kpsi. Find

10,000 cycles;

(2) A 5% decrease in this stress would give how

many cycles of life.

The maximum compressive stress in the jack is 190 MPa when the car

is jacked up so high that both wheels on one side of the car are in the air

and the load on the jack is 8000 NN. How many times can the jack be

used for a small truck that weighs 6 tons and loads the jack to 17,000 N

before it fails from fatigue? The jack material is AISI 1080 steel.

18 of 33

18

Fatigue Strength under Low Cycle

Fraction f:

See plot for 70 ≤ Sut ≤ 200kpsi

for Sut < 70kpsi f = 0.9

S-N Eq.

S f = aN b

For a and b

1

a = Sut ; b = log( f )

3

For S-N

log f

3 Sf

S f = Sut N 3

,N = log

log f Sut

Fatigue experiments assume that the best circumstances

exist for promoting long fatigue lives. However, this

situation cannot be quarantined for design applications.

Component’s endurance limit must be modified.

S e = k a kb kc k d ke k f S e'

S e' = endurance limit from experimental apparatus

ka = surface finish factor

kb = size factor

kc = load modification factor

kd = temperature modification factor Besides Stress

ke = reliability factor Concentration

kf = miscellaneous factor Effect….

19 of 33

19

Surface Finish Factor

S e = k a kb kc k d ke k f S e'

k a = aS utb

MPa and a machined surface. Estimate ka.

Size Factor kb

S e = k a kb kc k d ke k f S e'

− 0.157

0.91d 2 in < d < 10 in

kb = − 0.107

1.24d 2.79 < d < 51mm

1.51d −0.157 51 < d < 254mm

For axial loading:

kb = 1

20 of 33

20

Equivalent Diameter for Size Factor kb

Equivalent diameter de: equating the volume of material

stressed at any above 95 percent of the maximum stress to

the same volume in the rotating-beam specimen.

cross-section,

For rectangle

π

(

A0.95σ = d − (0.95d )

2 2

) cross-section,

4

= 0.0766d 2 For non-rotation A0.95σ = 0.05hb

round cross-section, de =

0.05hb

= 0.808 hb

0.0766

A0.95σ = 0.01046d 2

d e = 0.370d

21 of 33

21

Loading Factor kc

S e = k a kb kc k d ke k f S e'

1 Bending

kc = 0.85 Axial

0.59 Torsion

Temperature Factor kd

S e = k a kb kc k d ke k f S e'

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

k d = 0.975 + 0.432 10 −3 TF − 0.115 10 −5 TF2 + 0.104 10 −8 TF3 − 0.595 10 −12 TF4

70 ≤ TF ≤ 1000o F

22 of 33

22

Reliability Factor ke

S e = k a kb kc k d ke k f S e'

ke = 1− 0.08 z a

Miscellaneous Effects

S e = k a kb kc k d ke k f S e'

Figure: The use of shot peening to improve fatigue properties. (a) Fatigue

strength at two million cycles for high strength steel as a function of

ultimate strength; (b) typical S-N curves for nonferrous metals.

23 of 33

23

Fatigue Stress Concentration Bending/Axial Load

endurance limit for notched specimen

Kf =

endurance limit for notch free specimen

K f is fatigue stress concentration factor

Notch sensitivity

K f −1

q=

Kt −1

Fatigue stress

concentration factor

K f = 1 + q (K t − 1)

Concentrated stress

Neuber equation : q =

1 σ max = K f σ 0

1+ a / r

Neuber constant : ( ) ( ) (

a = 0.246 − 3.08 10 −3 S ut + 1.51 10 −5 S ut2 − 2.67 10 −8 Sut3 ) Sut − kpsi

endurance limit for notched specimen

Kf =

endurance limit for notch free specimen

K f is fatigue stress concentration factor

Notch sensitivity

K fs − 1

qshear =

K ts − 1

Fatigue stress

concentration factor

K fs = 1 + qshear (K ts − 1)

Concentrated stress

1

τ max = K fsτ 0

Neuber equation : q =

1+ a / r

Neuber constant : ( ) ( ) ( )

a = 0.190 − 2.51 10 −3 Sut + 1.35 10 −5 S ut2 − 2.67 10 −8 S ut3 S ut − kpsi

24 of 33

24

Fatigue Stress Concentration Example

the minimum factor of safety for fatigue based on infinite

life. If the life is not infinite, estimate the number of cycles.

Check for yielding as well.

30mm and a half-circular notch with a 1-mm radius. The shaft

was dimensioned for equal shear and bending stresses. The

shaft material has an ultimate tensile strength of 965 MPa.

Assume the equivalent stress is proportional to σ e = σ 2 + 3τ 2

and torsion of the driveshaft.

driveshaft Also,

Also determine if increased

acceleration or increased curve handling will give the higher

risk of driveshaft failure.

25 of 33

25

Modified Endurance Limit Example

(AISI 1020). Find the fatigue at 104 cycle for

the notched and un-notched bars.

Mean σ + σ min

σ = max

stress m 2

Stress

S σ r = σ max − σ min

range

Stress σ σ − σ min

σ a = r = max

amplitude 2 2

Common cyclic patterns

Stress σ

Rs = min

ratio σ max 1. Completely reversed (σ = 0, R = −1, A = ∞)

m s a

2. Nonzero mean (σ ≠ 0)

m

3. Released tension (σ = 0, R = 0, A = 1)

Amplitude σ 1 − Rs 4.

min s

a

ratio Aa = a = max s a

σ m 1 + Rs

26 of 33

26

Cyclic Stress Example

frequency of 440 Hz. The maximum bending stress in the

tuning fork is 2 MPa at the end positions.

• Calculate the mean stress, the range of stress, the stress

amplitude, the stress ratio, and the amplitude ratio.

without being plastically deformed if it is made of AISI

1080 steel.

27 of 33

27

Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress

σa σm 1

Soderberg Line Se

+

Sy

=

n

Goodman Line σa σm 1

+ =

Se Sut n

2

nσ a nσ m 1

Gerber Line + =

S e S ut n

2 2

nσ nσ 1

ASME-Elliptic a + m =

Se S y n

Sy

Langer static yield σa +σm =

n

28 of 33

28

Safety Factor under Fluctuating Stress

zero axial load varies from -100 kN to 290 kN. Using

G d

Goodman failure

f il theory

th to

t determine

d t i the

th safety

f t factor

f t

R=10mm

60mm 40mm

Thickness =40mm

29 of 33

29

Goodman Line Example I

A straight, circular rotating beam with a 30-mm diameter and 1-m

length has an axial load of 30,000N applied at the end and a

stationary radial load of 400N. The material is AISI 1040 steel,

ka=0.75

=0 75, kb=kc=kd=ke=kf=1. =1 Find the safety factor for infinite life

by using the Goodman line.

Goodman Line

σa σm 1

+ =

Se Sut n

The cantilever shown in sketch j carries a downward load F that varies

from 300 to 700 lbs. (a) Compute the resulting safety factor for static and

fatigue failure if the bar is made from AISI 1040 steel. (b) What fillet

radius is needed for a fatigue failure safety factor of 3.0 (use the constant

notch sensitivity)?

Notes: This solution assumes that the shoulder is machined, but it may be

reasonable to use a ground surface if the application is critical.

30 of 33

30

Fatigue Failure of Brittle Material

from that of a ductile material because

• Yieldingg is not involved

• Suc>Sut

• No enough work down on brittle failure

Sa 1 − S m / Sut

=

σ e 1 + S m / Sut

nσ a 1 − nS m / Sut

=

Se 1 + nS m / Sut

r =σa / σm

rS ut + Se 4rSut Se

Sa = − 1 + 1 + 2

2 (rS ut + S e )

31 of 33

31

Combinations of Loading Modes

• Fluctuating Simple Loads

• Combinations of Loading Modes

1/ 2

(σ ) 2

[

σ a' = (K f )bending (σ a )bending + (K f )axial a axial + 3 (K fs )torsion (τ a )torsion

0.85

]

2

1/ 2

(σ m )axial 2

σ m' = (K f )bending (σ m )bending + (K f )axial

0.85

[

+ 3 (K fs )torsion (τ m )torsion

2

]

Cumulative Damage

composed of n cycles, support a machine part, at a

critical location, is subjected to

• a fully reversed stress σ1 for n1, σ2 for n2, ….or

• a ‘wiggly’ time line of stress exhibiting many

and different peaks and valleys

Failure is predicted if n1' n2' n3'

+ + +L ≥ 1

N1' N 2' N 3'

32 of 33

32

Cumulative Damage Example

carbon steel (AISI 1020), the fatigue stress is 25 ksi for

20% of the time

time, 30 ksi for 30%

30%, and 35 ksi for 40%,

40%

and 40 ksi for 10%. Find the number of cycles until

cumulative failure.

33 of 33

33

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