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What is Circassian nationalism القوميه الشركسيه

What is Circassian nationalism القوميه الشركسيه

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منشور بواسطةOmar Zoqash

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Published by: Omar Zoqash on Jun 08, 2011
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What is Circassian nationalism?

Today a powerful resource for propaganda is directed against nationalism. And it is raises
the question - what is meant by the word nationalism?
In Russia as before in the !o"iet #nion nationalism has been understood as superiority
of some nation and intolerance towards people of other nations that is nationalism is
identified with chau"inism $enophobia and fascism. With these ideas we can%t agree
but inciting ethnic hatred and ethnic discrimination are international crimes.
&owe"er in the ci"ili'ed world nationalism - is the highest form of social cohesion and
its primacy in the state-forming process. (ationalism preaches loyalty and de"otion to
ones nation political independence and wor) for the benefit of their own people to
mobili'e the national consciousness to protect the li"ing conditions of the nation its
territory of residence economic resources and cultural "alues. In this sense nationalism
is a form of patriotism consolidating all sectors of society regardless of the "arious
sometimes conflicting interests.
!uch a doctrine of nationalism lies at the heart of the Circassian national mo"ement. We
show respect for all peoples and at the same time learned how to defend our own national
interests.
&istory shows that nation-state is the most stable political entity guarantor of national
language and national culture. The state must guarantee the rights of its citi'ens of any
nationality guaranteeing the freedom of religion. Another stable model of social
organi'ation does not e$ist. At least there is not such e$ample for today.
What is the purpose of Circassian national movement at this stage?
*
Circassians +Circassians, - the people whose territory was conquered by the Russian
-mpire as a result of a century Russian-Circassian War in the years of *./0-*1/2. And
that as a result of this conquest was sub3ected to genocide. In addition the ma3ority of our
people now li"e in e$ile4 the remaining Circassians in the Caucasus are separated
administrati"ely under different names - 5Adygeys5 56abardianos5 Cher)es and
!hapsugs. In this case the Circassians ha"e a single self - Adyghe and a common
language - Adygeb'e. The situation in which Circassians e$ist today not only contradicts
international law - it is inherently unfair.
Therefore we demand an end to the illegal and un3ust di"ision of our people at home.
Therefore we demand the repatriation of the state organi'ation of Circassians to the
Caucasus the more that modern Russia is a successor of the Russian state and assignee
for whom carried out the genocide of Circassians and their e$pulsion from the Caucasus.
They offer to us not to raise these issues in the 5name of stability5. 7ut why in the name
of the same stability of the Russian 8ederation the question of repatriation of the
Circassians does not address? Why in the name of the same stability there is not
conducti"ity to union territory of the historical Circassia in one entity?
Why the 5stability5 should be achie"ed at the e$pense of the Circassian people and their
natural rights?
Why for e$ample there was created the (orth Caucasus 8ederal 9istrict in which were
not included 6rasnodar territory and the Republic of Adygea? Why the country:s
leadership has decided to further di"ide the Circassian people now in "arious federal
districts?
Whate"er they had accused as on no matter what label affi$ed to us we will put
forward and will raise these issues as long as the Circassian people will not li"e on their
land as a united nation. We ha"e e"ery right to do it. We ; are the Circassian nation and
we ha"e our own interests.
We the Circassians are proud of our history. We are proud of our culture. We are proud
of our national philosophy - &ab'e. <aybe it:s someone does not li)e it but it is
something that identifies us as a nation and without pre3udice to any other nation.
=ur ancestors ga"e us all this and we pay them tribute for it.
7ut it is - 3ust our foundation. We cannot be proud of our ancestors by doing nothing.
!ch*eblesch*er pasereyhem I 9A<- tou"e neh 'hy'he plhen papsch*e - the ne$t
generation stands on the shoulders of the older generation to see beyond.
Today our nation is at a "ery delicate stage in the history of Circassia. 8or our generation
the only case when we will be worthy of the memory of our ancestors if we can
adequately sol"e the problem facing the nation - to )eep our national identity in all
countries of residence of the Circassians to preser"e our culture our language our
traditions and find unity of the Circassian nation in their historic homeland - in the
>
Caucasus.
Circassian nationalism - is not a thesis about the superiority of our nation it is not hatred
of other peoples.
Circassian nationalism - a struggle for the right of the Circassian people in unity in their
nati"e language to their nati"e land to preser"e and de"elop their spiritual and material
culture.
=ur goal - the restoration of historical Circassia as a single state of Aba'as 6arachays
7al)ars Cossac)s and Circassians which would safeguard the rights of any nationality
and any religion.
Chairman of the social movement "Khase" Ibrahim Yagan
Chairman of the Kbardino-Balkarian movement "Circassian Congress" Ruslan
Chesh
Chairman of the Karachaevo-Circassian movement "Circassian Congress" n!or
"tleshev
<arch *2 >?**
ام يه ةيموقلا ةيسكرشلا ؟
0

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.,ر=لا
•-=و ي· ةيّ-=ولا •+تغل ي· ‹~=ولا ي· ي~´رشلا -·شلا ¸= .=' ¸م .ا€ن -- ةي~´رشلا ةيمو-لا
.ةيّ~ّ ا~لاو ةي=ورلا ة·ا-`لا ريو=تو ¸و- .=' ¸م ·»لا
¸ا¸و-لاو ر-لبلاو Žا~ار-لاو -¸ابلا •€ت · ‹~=او ةلو~´ ةي‰يراتلا اي~ي´ر~ ‹~ا·ت~ا -- ا-·~-
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) "•~ا=" ةيّ=ا~ت=لا ة´ر=لا •ي-ر •hase ) ¸غي •ي-ارب' ·( Ìžrahim Yaœan (
) ˜ي~ ¸`~ر ·ايرا-لب ÷ و-ي~رابق ي· "ي~´رشّ لا سرغنوكلا" ة´ر= •ي-ر Ruslan Ÿhesh (
ة´ر= •ي-ر ي· "ي~´رشّ لا سرغنوكلا" ) -يشيلت' روزن' ·اي~´ر~ ÷ و-ي~ارق šnzor
Etleshev (
1– سرام 2011
Forced displacement Žر~-لا ريج+تلا
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#ا ة=Z(لا ة&(&@\ )لا ا$9 ?1اL0ا 1/ج3ف يسكرشلا رج6ملا )لا ة@س$لاب#
ةلثمملا %اسA,ملا# %امH$ملا ة&@لاd ل@= !" ةج63$ملا ة"ا(لا ةAا&سلا
>Eا&س&كرLE !\2لا s1ا T" ا63=Zع يف رج6ملا يف يسكرشلا M(شلل
:يل ا" ةH-Z" !كم ]&-
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• E!&"0ا يJ2لاE ة&A#رلا %ا'لسلا يف cر4 ة&سكرشلا %امH$ملا :;9 <ا
ة&J# ا6ن#ر@3(# لب >ا&س&كرL يف ةسكارشلا يSا1ا !" )ق@4 ا"# q1ا4 )لع
O!\2لا s1ا )لع ةسكارL !" )ق@4 ا" )لع )3-
• ?/&-2لا لJا23لا ة'قن# لJ2لا ?زم9 ة&A#رلا %ا'لسلا %امH$ملا :;9 ر@3(4
ة&A#رلا %ا'لسلا <p !" مdرلا )لع >!\2لا s1ا# يسكرشلا رج6ملا !&ب
!كم 0 >ا9ر&d# :Zعا ةلث"0ا sرع NZ[ !"# ة&ملا(لا ة&سكرشلا ة&(مجلا#
يسكرشلا رج6ملا !&ب لJ# ?زم9 )3- #ا EيJ#E•ك ا6&ف Fث <ا ل=ا(ل
O!\2لا#
• ة"2H$" !" ءز8 ي9 رج6ملا يف ة&سكرشلا %ا&(مجلاب )مس4 ا" مH(" <ا
Tم3س4 0 ة&سكرشلا %اسA,ملا :;9 <ا ]&- >ة&ملا(لا ة&سكرشلا ة&(مجلا
!" //(لا <ا مd1 ة&ملا(لا ة&سكرشلا ة&(مجلا# ة&A#رلا %ا'لسلل c2A
ي3لا .ا/-0ا BSا# لكشب ت3@fا يسكرشلا !\2لاب KC(4 Nاز4 ا"# تفCع
0 ا6كلف يف 1#/ !"# ة&ملا(لا ة&سكرشلا ة&(مجلا# ة&A#رلا %ا'لسلا <ا
ة&سكرL ة&"2= %امH$" ?/ع 126I مd1# >يسكرشلا BلاCلا ل8ا !" لم(4
Oا6ش&م63ب X2ق# ا9+28# Vفر Nاز ا" يسكرشلا رج6ملا <اف cر[ا
ءا'عا !كم&ف ة&سكرشلا %اسA,ملا# %امH$ملا :;9 %ا6824 aربا ا"ا
:ا64ا6824 ةق&ق- ةفر(مل ة&لا3لا ةلث"0ا
Xاع يفف jkkl %ا02لا‚يAر&82&ن يف ة&سكرشلا ة&(مجلا تلA1ا
><2ل2ق امك ءاملا# ز@Dلا !" م9ا ةلا/(لا# ةر5لا ا6&ف ر@3(4 ي3لا ?/53ملا
ة&(مجلا g&Y1 MYان !" ة(=2" ة&=رب ة&سكرشلا %ا126مجلا ءاA`1 )لا
cرك;لا يف م6ل m1ا@4 nok ؟؟؟؟!!!!ا&A#رل يسكرشلا يع2'لا XامWنZل
ءاWعا) ةسكارشلا لك مAا# 7مAاب %0اف3-0ا :;6ل vاج$لا لك )$م3#
!!؟ةم&H(لا ة@Aا$ملا :;6ل (ة&(مجلا
يف 1#/4 ي3لا# رج6ملا يف ة&سكرشلا %ا&(مجلا %ا6824 )لع ر[ا Nاث"
/قف >ة&سكرشلا ة5لCملا يف Fل(3 ام&ف ة&ملا(لا ة&سكرشلا ة&(مجلا Gلف
Xاعة&ف ل3= jk{k *1#/لا %ا1ا@" c/-ا يف e#رلا !&(جشملا /-ا
ة'با1 g&Y1 Xا= Gل^ رfا )لع# >لJ0ا يAاقف= 7ل4ا= <اب !&@4# يA#رلا
) kafad ?1ازب ا&كر4 يف ة&سكرشلا %امH$ملا# %ا&(مجلل Tمج4 ر@كا 29# (
*;لا ت=2لا يف ?اAا2ملا# *aا(3لا م/ق3ل ا&كر4 يف ة&A#رلا ?1افسلل
مع/ل %ار&سملا# %ار9اHملا مH$ يسكرشلا _ا@شلا 7&ف <اك
Xاع <ا مd1# >م6ق5ب يA#رلا *رC3(لا ز&&م3لا 78# يف !&&Aاقفقلا
jk{k ~2ك28 <ZJا _اشلا يسكرشلا iLا$لا ل3ق" !ع ةP&A ءا@نا لم-
) g&Y1 /&سلا <ا 0ا Gس&كرL يف افZA2ك Z&ب ة&ف5Cلا# kafad مق مل (

:;9 !" ة&A#رلا ?1افسلل 7قل= !ع ر&@(3لا )3- #ا 1اك$3Aا #ا ةز(3ب mا;نا
ةع1اسملا _رb3سملا !" <اك !كل# ةسكارشلا vا#1ا %/C- ي3لا مYارجلا
N2- N`اس4 ا$9 ر6H# >2كA2" mا41ا@A Tجش" ?اف# يف ةز(3لا )لا
X/D4 ا6ناب ا6فJ# !كم 0 ي3لا# %امH$ملا :;9 c/ل K=ا2ملا !ا@4
Oة&سكرشلا ة5لCملا
hةAا[ #12&لا) ةمH$" %ا2$A ?/ع ;$" اب#1#ا يف م&ق4# euro khasa X2&لا (
T=2" <ا&ب sر(ل ا6ل 7823لا م4 ]&- >يب#1#0ا <املر@لا يف يسكرشلا
يف /ق($ملا يسكرشلا _ا@شلا c/3$" ل@= !" {j‚u‚jkku لثم 7ن2ك
م4 ر"ƒا ا;9 <ا 0ا >ا&س&كرL يف يسكرشلا _ا@شلا Mلا'"# %ا6824
%ا2'Dب لم(لا <#/ر م6نا ةج5ب رم4,ملا )لع !&مYاقلا ل@= !" 7Wف1
مd1 >يعام380ا# يفاقثلا Nاجملا يف ءاق@لا# ةAا&سلا !ع ?/&(ب ?+/5"
لم(لا ة"2H$" vZJا# _ا@شلا mارLا )لا 2ع/ <اك <ا&@لا <ا
اaاDبا NZق3Aا لث" T&Sا2" „=ا$4 ت=2لا %ا^ يف !كل>يسكرشلا
T&Sا2" ا6نا !" مdرلا )لع ةمH$ملا :;9 %ارم4," يف ة&ب2$جلا ا&3&A#p#
!" //(لا 1اث ا$9# V=ا$3لا ةم= ر@3( Gل^ <• !!!ا
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Wا يAا&A Tبا\ %ا^
Oةق&ق5لا ةمH$ملا :;9 ~ا/9ا# %ااd N2- %0`اس3لا
T3م34 ي3لا N#/لا يف ة&سكرشلا %امH$ملا %ا6824 لثم4 :Zعا ةلث"0ا
ة&Wقلا T" ل"ا(3لا c23س" <ا …-Z ا6لZ[ !"# >ةر5لا !" ر&@ك „"ا6ب
%امH$مل cر[ا %اA1ام" mا$9# >ا
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/8 <

/3" 29 ا65لاC"# ة&سكرشلا
0) لYاA1 NاA1اب p/@4 ي3لا iA#0ا yرشلا N#+ يف cر[ا ة&سكرL
ة$&(" ة&سكرL %ا&CDL ?12J T&مل4 )لا ~/64 (R28 !" ي$b4 0# !مس4
1ا@3عاب ة@لا'ملا# يA#رلا %ا3شلا %ارم4," يف ةك1اشملاب ءا63نا#
>ا9ر&d# يA#رلا يفZسلا رC$(لا !" ةسكارشلا <اب /ك, F@A املك
ا" Gلف يف 1#/4 ي3لا# رج6ملا يف ة&سكرشلا %اسA,ملا# %امH$ملا
BلاCملا يفاج4 ة$&(" ةAا&A )$@34 >Eة&ملا(لا ة&سكرشلا ة&(مجلاE)مس
OBSا# لكشب ة&سكرشلا
ا64ا^ /5ب %امH$ملا# %اسA,ملا :;9 يف !مك4 0 ة&AاA0ا ةلكشملا <ا
ا6نا ا"ا ي9 ي3لا ة&سكرشلا %ا"اعزلا# %ا+ا&قلا c23س" يف !مك4 ا6نا لب
Fر\ %1ا3[ا ا6نا #ا يسكرشلا M(شلا 78ا24 ي3لا %ا/53لل ةك1/" ر&d
ا
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/8 ر&'[ ر"0ا ا;9# ><#ر[‡ا ا6ل 7مAر *;لا 1/قلل XZس3A0ا# ?0ا2ملا
م9اA# ة&f1اك ˆYا3ن )لا ة&"2قلا ة&-ا$لا !" %ا+ا&قلا :;9 K(S c+ا /قلف
0?
ة&سكرشلا ة26لا يف BSا# 72ش4 )لا ي$\2لا# ي"2قلا م9ركف 1ا/5نا
M(ل4 ة&سكرشلا BلاCملل ة&فاجملا# ة&"2= ر&bلا م64اAا&A ت5@Jا ]&5ب
M(شلا /$ع Xر6لا Eeا1E•ف >1اf/ن0ا# Rا&Wلا ةAا&A يف ر@ك0ا 1#/لا
MعZلا B@Jا !كل# BSا# *ركف K(S ةلا- يف 7نا يفك 0 يسكرشلا
;&ف$3ل ة@Aا$ملا ?ا+0ا B@Jا# >ي"2قلا ل6جلا X26ف" q&Aر4 يف يAاA0ا
ا6329 !ع ~ر(4 0 ا6ل"اكب Nا&8ا ء2شن )لا c+ا ام" >!ر[‡ا T1اش"
ءيL لك /جم4 ي3لا ة&D1ا3لا M^اكƒا V(ب# ءا$bلا# ‰=رلا c2A ة&"2قلا
OXا4 لكشب ا6$\# )س$4# !\2لا z1ا[ ةسكارشلا 7ل(ف
يسكرشلا +رفلا !كم3 /قف (ةق&ق5لا ةل-ر") ة&لا5لا ةل-رملا NZ[ !"
?+2قفملا ةقل5لا +اجا# K(Wلا !\ا2" )لا v2S2ب ?1اL0ا !" ?ر" N#0
ل(ج *;لا <rف Eة@Aا5ملا# ةبا=رلا Eي9# 0ا يسكرشلا لم(لا يف
ة68 ل@= !" ةبا=1 +28# X/ع 29 1ا/5ن0ا يف رم3س4 ة&سكرشلا %ا+ا&قلا
#ا ا6$" ة&ل[ا/لا ءا2A م64اAا&A# م64اA1ام" ة(با3"# ة@=ار" !مW4 ة$&("
>€'Dلا Nا- يف م63@Aا5"# ة&81اDلا %ا"اعزلا# %ا+ا&قلا <ا ~#ر(ملا#
Kل[ ءا@3[0ا# ?1#ا$ملاب X2ق4 ا64اAا&A N2- ةش=ا$" *ا يف ة&سكرشلا
!ع ر@(4 ا6نا *ا >ا6ل ة&سكرشلا %ا(م3جملا _اD3ن0 ةج&3ن ة&4€3ملا ا63&عرL
a2ج 0 يلا3لاب# م6ل@= !" ا6باD3نا م4# يع/
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4 امك يسكرشلا M(شلا ?+ا1ا
ة&@لاd <rف ا
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(@\ >Gل;ل ةCCDملا ة&$=0ا NZ[ !" c2A ا6لا,A <اك *0
<2CلD" E<2(با4E م9 %امH$ملا :;6ل ة;ف$3لا #ا ة1ا+0ا gلاجملا ءاWعا
%اباD3ن0ا يف N#ا5 g&Yرلا ا;9 <0 74اAا&A #ا 7ك2لA <اك ام6" g&Yرلل
M&س$3لا م4 /= <2ك <ا&-ƒا !" ر&ثك يف# 73لكاL )لع ءاWعاب ي4ا <ا
%ا'لسلا) ا6(" ل"ا(3 ي3لا ةفل3Dملا %ا6جلا ل@= !" م6YامAاب
O(ة&A#رلا
%ا"Zع !" //(لا ا6ب2ش ة&سكرشلا %ا+ا&قلا مH(" <ا BSا2لا !" ا
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+28# X/ع !ع ˆ4ان :رك^ KلAا ا" لك# ر&b34 0 ة&=اب ا6$كل# Xا6ف3A0ا
>ا64اAا&A )لع %ا+ا&قلا :;9 ة@Aا5"# ة@=ارمب X2ق4 ا" ة68 #ا ةP&9
:;6ب X2ق4 <ا !كم ي3لا ة6جلا ي9 ا" #p !"E Nا,سلا ا$9 ر6H#
E؟!ةم6ملا
1ا/" )لع ا6ش&م64# ا9`اC=ا م4 ي3لا ة6جلا %ا^ ي9 E_ا@شلاE ةPف <ا
/&لاق3لا# %ا+ا(لاب )مس امب تم5=p ي3لا ي9# %ا2$سلا !" //(لا
%2J %اكAا ا63'Aا2ب م4 ي3لا 1ا@كلا Xار3-اب ةقل(3ملا ة&سكرشلا
0*
)لا رق3ف4 ا6ن2ك ر&bلا %ا/$8ا ;&ف$4 يف Eةل6كلاE %ا+ا&قلا تW"# ><ا@شلا
ةسكارشلا !&&"2قلا /-ا N2ق امك# ي"2قلا ركفلا %ا"2ق" !" X2ق" *ا
)لا لC4 يكل <2ل Kلاب تن2ل4# ت@Cن# تلا3-ا ي3لا %ا+ا&قلا :;9 تلمع)
+رفلا B@Jا# يسكرشلا +2مCلا v#1 gم\ )لع يعام380ا Xر6لا ةم=
لب >7$ع Tفا/ ركف #ا p/@" *ا Gلم 0 ل[ا/لا !" Š1اف <اسنا يسكرشلا
!" ا9ر&d# ةعاجL# y/J# ةنا"ا !" +ا/80ا .#12مب )مس ا" 7ل يقب
M(شلا ا6=/J ا"ا9#ا ا63ق&ق- يف تناك ي3لا# ?/&م5لا %افCلا
!" 7باC3dا م4 *;لا 7D1ا4# 7$\# )س$ !" 29 Rاجشلا ل6ف Oيسكرشلا
_2f )مس امب <2ل3# _;ك !" y+اCلا ل9# !؟ا;9 ا$"2 )لا e#رلا ل@=
يف لم8 0# 7ل ة=ان 0 7نا ~ر( 29# مكا5لا XاH$لا Mس- ءام3ن0ا# ء02لا
)س$# :+ا/8ا ءا"+ <2D !" E!&"0ا Eل9# !؟ة&Aا&سلا ة&لم(لا :;9
يسكرشلا M(شلا 78ا# ا"/$ع !؟7$\# s1ا !ع ا
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عاف+ ل4ا= !" %ا&5W4
!" 7D1ا4 %ا5فJ M3ك# 7Yا$با vا#1ا !" ~0‡ا %اPمب )5S# e#رلا
cرك;ب ا2لف35# م6ل +اف-ا ي4ا <ا ء0,9 T=23 <اك ل6ف >م6Yا"+
1ا(L ت54 يش42A +ا&@مل#ا يف ةك1اشملا #ا !؟ا&A#رل يع2'لا XامWن0ا
!؟ا6$" aر@4 Nا'بƒا ةسكارشلا XاHع Nاز4 ا" s1ا y2ف ةSارلا# XZسلا
Eا&س&كرLE !\2لا Xر5 ا^امل !؟ا$9 ة&سكرشلا yZ[0ا لYاWف ي9 !اف
(E!؟ مكر&bل ا92'(3ف مكلYاWف !" _ا@شلا <ا ا
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&ل8 ر6H ا;ك9#
*0 !كم# >%ا+ا&قلا :;9 ة@=ار"# ة@Aا5" )لع 1/ق !" 29 يسكرشلا
يسكرشلا _ا@شلا <ا cر&ل ة&سكرشلا ة&"2قلا %ا\اش$لا T8ار <ا ‰DL
M(شلا %ا"اعa# %ا+ا&= تس&ل# >!\2لا# M(شلا ة"ارك !ع Tفا/ !" 29
ةمH$" g&Y1 K&ش&ك <ZA#1 /&سلا <ا N2قلا يفك? >يسكرشلا
!" %ا&$&fZثلا يف 29 :Zعا Nاثملا يف 12ك;ملا ي$+ر@قلا eرbن2كلا
Xا(لا 7824 *;لا يسكرشلا /ف2لا 1امعا N/(" <€ب N2قلا يفك# >:رمع
ة&سكرشلا ة&Wقلا مع+ Mل'ب ين23A0ا <املر@لا ءاWعا )لا يSاملا
Nا c/(3 0 ة&ملا(لا لفا5ملا )لا ا6لقن# || Oiقف ا
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"اع
ر&&b3لا T$J )لع يسكرشلا _ا@شلا ا6كل3م ي3لا ?1/قلا <ا5S2 <0اث"
!" ا6&لا2 !"# ة&A#رلا %ا'لسلل //شلا Mس
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53لا )لا v2S2ب <ار&ش#
ي9# يسكرشلا _ا@شلل ةركف ?25J !" >ة&سكرشلا %ا"اعزلا# %ا+ا&قلا
:يل امك
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• Xاع يف :N#0ا Nاثملا jkk‹ مS G&س&كرL ة$/" يف يYا$ث3Aا رم4," /قع
TS2لا e1ا/3ل يسكرشلا M(شلل ةلثمملا %ا&لا(فلا# %امH$ملا !" //(لا
E!سلا 1ا@كE ل@= !" K'3D <ا +اك رم4,ملا >mا;نx يسكرشلا M(شلل !9ارلا
!" _رق ا" !كل# >Xا2ع0 لJا23" لمع /68 T&W# 73&م9ا /قف <ا# {okk
)لا ?2ع+ ر&d !" ا#`ا8 %ا126مجلا !" +/ع !" gكرشلا _ا@شلا !"
c/3$" /ق(ب ا2"ا=# >!سلا 1ا@ك Mنا8 !" %اقفا2" *p ر&d !"# رم4,ملا
رم4,ملا ةعا= ا2ل[+ !رSا5لا _ا@شلا Oرم4,ملاب ء/@لا ل@= لق3سملا _ا@شلا
ا2(@4ا# Oة&سكرشلا %اارلا# XZع0ا !&ل"ا-# يسكرشلا */&لق3لا *زلا !/4ر"
]&- %انا2&5لا <#ر= !" R2$C" y2ب يف qف$لا يف ةم/قلا ة&سكرشلا ?+ا(لا
%ا=#ا يف Rام380ا )لا c2ع/لل ر"0ا ا;6ب <2"2ق ا
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م/= ةسكارشلا <اك
رم4,ملا ةكر- م&عa >K&ش&ك <ZA1 )ل• ت@9^ ةملكلا >ر'Dلا# %ا"a0ا
vامسلا X/ع !سلا 1ا@ك %0#ا5" مd1# >G&ش3لان !" _ا@شلل يسكرشلا
!كم4 7نا 0ا >*/0اب 7($" ةل#ا5" )لا تلJ# ة81/ل ةملكلا ءاقلاب EK&ش&كE•ل
/&-24 ?+اعاب vار3=0ا ت$مW4 ي3لا# 73ملك )قلا# ةC$ملا )لا N2J2لا !"
ˆ"+# /&-24) ا&س&كر&L ]&- aا=2قلا NامL !" ةق'$"# %ا126م8 .Zf
ةق'$" لمش3ل ا=رL 7ج34# >ا&=رع ة$م&6ملا ة&@لdƒا gكرشلا ا6&ف لكش
ة126م8 )ل• ةفاSŒاب 1ا+2$Aارك ة(\اقمب ةق5لملا يش42A يف Š2سباشلا
vار3=0ا ا;9 <اب رك;لاب ر/جلا# >(ا1اقلب‚2$+1ا@=# gكرL‚*اLر=# ة&b+0ا
/&سلا •~ر'3لا# NاCفن0ا )لا ?2ع+ ة&4ا&ف2سلا ة@ق5لا NZ[ ر@3( <اك
يb@$ 7ناف >M&ج3س4 <ا /ر4 0 2كA2" تناك ا^اE :7ل2قب 73ملك م33[ا K&ش&ك
TS2لا ا;9 لث" لم54 T&'3سن /(ن مل (ةسكارشلا *ا) ا$نا ا
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/&8 m1/4 <ا ا6ل
<اج&6ب# +ا5لا F&فC3لاب K&ش&ك /&سلا ةملك تلب2=# Ž>Eا&A#1 يف ا$@(شل
ا
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رf," ا
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ف'($" يسكرشلا _ا@شلا +26جب رم4,ملا ا;9 لكL# >ر&@ك *ر&9ام8
ة=1اف ة"Zع رم4,ملا ا;9 B@Jا# >eاقفقلا لك يف ة&Aا&سلا ?ا&5لا )لع
ا;9 /(ب %ر6I ي3لا Xاسجلا %ا/53لا !" //(لل ةسكارشلا */C4 يف تم9اA
<2ناقلل */C3لا لث") يسكرشلا ي"2قلا لم(لل ا
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(8ر" B@Jا ]&- رم4,ملا
{|{ O(gكرLh*اLرقلا ة126م8 يف ةسكارشلا +ا6'Sا#
• ةP&6لا يف 2Wع ي9# >(12ن )ع/4) %ا&سكرشلا %ا&3فلا c/-ا :يناثلا Nاثملا
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اهجئاتن - اهدا·-' - اه-ا-~' ةيسكرشلا ةيموقلا ةم,Vا
ةيموقلا ةم,Vا
: يف ا,ام ¡,-= J-ش- ري·ت- ¡-لا ي-امت=لا ي-ولا ةلا= يه ;' =و-ه ة-=رم
ةمVا -اي= ةمو=-م 4ر=- يتلا ةلا·-لا -وقلا يف -'=ا-م ,ايهنا : ,ةي=ولو-يسلا ةلا=لا ,ةفاق-لا ,ة·-لا
; ¸,Vا ,(ةيموقلا ةل;-لا) يموقلا J-يهلا ة-=رم اه-=- ةم,Vا --ه .ىر=Vا ةيموقلا ¸ئا~=لا
ةي-م- ة-م= ,م ,ي·م -= ; ة~ا= ¡ري~م ,اي= مام' ةمVا ~-وت- ام--- ,ةم>ل ي=-,اتلا ,و=تلا
م-- ; دو=ولا ,ي- اهئا-ف ; ةمVا --ه -اي= ,ي- ,دو=ولا .
يف ,و=ت- ; 'ش-- ل ةيموقلا ةم,Vا ة--و= ~ارتف _-- ة-,و=- ةلا= يه امن! ; ,ة-~ ;' مو- ;' ة==ل
,;ر- --- ى-م _-- -تم- -وشن ~ا-~' اهل ,ىر=' -رها= ة-' J-م اه--م ةيموقلا ةم,Vا .,ام,لا ,م
J=ارم ,,و=- ; .ةمVا ;' ~·شلا -اي= ,م ,ي·م ر~- 4ل-- ة--شم ,دوم= J=ارم ; ة·-ر~ ومن
---شلا ~~>ل ة-~ا- ,ة-;ا~'م ة-=رم يف رم- ~ين ; ,ينر- ى-م _-- ; يسكرشلا ~·شلا ,اف
; -ر-وتم ةيسكرشلا ةيموقلا ةم,Vا ر~- ,-اق- ةل'سم .^-اي= يف ة-ري~م .
~ر=لا ,! ة-~ _-- ^-,اض= ; يسكرشلا ~·شلا ~·~;; ا-= ةي--~ ا,ا-' ~--= ةي~اق-قلا-ةي~;رلا
-ر-= يف ره=- يتلا ةيموقلا ةم,Vا -وشن يف ,يئرلا ~-سلا ر-ت·- اه-·ل ; .ماتلا -ا--لا ,م ---
22
اهمه' ةي~ا~' ,;ا=م :
ةينا-سلا - ةيفار·جلا ةم,Vا :
-قف -قل ى-م _-- ,اسن! ,وي-م ,م ر-ك' ةي~اق-قلا ةي~;رلا ~ر=لا يف يسكرشلا ~·شلا 100 ما- ,
در= امك 94 ىر--لا ايسيكري~ ي~ا,' ,م يق- ; ,ةينام-·لا ة-,و=ار-م(ا _ل! ç-~ ,مم % ,م J-'
10 يسكرشلا ~·ش-ل _-,اتلا ,-~ --م ةي=-,اتلا ¸,Vا ر-ت·- يتلا ي~ا,Vا ,م % . ~~رقنا -قل
¡او=-ا-لا ,,و=املا Jئا-- J-م اهي-' -ر-- _-- ,م -ري-ك ةيسكر~ Jئا-- , 4-كذ; ._-;Vا ; ^ناجلا
,- çهد-- --,- ,اك ,--لا _ا,-Vا J-م -ري-ك Jئا-- 400 ~ل' ة-ر- يف ,وشي·- مويلا او=-~' ةمسن
,- اهنا-~ د-- --,- ل اي·-د' ة-,وهم= يف -ري·~ 3000 يتلا _وس-اشلا ة-ي-- 4ل-ك ; .ةمسن
,=وتس- ; , ةيسكرشلا Jئا-قلا ر-ك' ~ناك ,يش-و~ _ت= ,اما- ,م ةي~اق-قلا دو~Vا ر=-لا J=او~
,اك يتلا ة-ي-قلا --ه -ا-- _-~' _و-- اهدارف' د-- 700 -ري·~ ىر- -- يف ,وشي·- ةمسن ~ل'
,;اجت- ل اهنا-~ _ومجم 10 ةمسن ~ل' .
¡رسقلا ريجه-ل ¸ر·ت- çل يتلا يسكرشلا ~·شلا ,م ة-ي-قلا ةيق-لا ~ا-ومجم J-~ _-- اه-ي=و- ç-
; ىر=Vا ,- --=اولا --ي·- ىر- يف د-·لا -ري·~ ة-رش- ~ي-- يتلا ةي-,قلا ىرقلا ~ارش·- ة=ا=م
4لذ ; ة-;ر=ملا ةيسكرشلا ىرقلا ¸اقن' _-- çهي-- -ر=يسلا ةلوهسل .
ما- اي~;, يف ةي-ويشلا -,و-لا -·- 1917 -اشنا ç- ç-= ~اذ ~ا-,وهمجك ;--- مويلا ,ة-,اد! Jكايه
~ا-,وهم= يه ; ي~;رلا دا=-لا ,م~ ي-اذ ; .ايسيكريش- - ¡ا~ر- ; ,ا-,اق-- - ا--در-- ,اي·-د'
يف ~-ر=' يتلا ~ا-ا~=لا ~س= ,ي·- اي·-د' يف ,ي~املا ما·لا ر=ا;' اي~;, 118 ,يسكر~ ~ل'
ا-,اق-- - ا--در-- 520 ايسيكريش- - ¡ا~ر- يف ; ~ل' 80 çه-م ~ل' 30 ,ي-,ا-Vا ,م ~ل' .
ةفا~(ا- -ري--لا- ~سيل ~ا·مجتك ىر=' _=ا-م يف مVا çه-=; يف ,كرشلا ,ي·- ~ا-,وهمجلا --هل
; يه :
çهد-- ; _وس-اشلا ة-ي-- ,م ) دو~Vا ر=--ل ةي-رشلا ~ا-ضلا _-- 8 ~ل' ات~ çي--! يف ,(ةمسن
çهد-- ; ) ةيلامشلا ايتي~;' ة-,وهم= يف 4;د,م ةق=-م ,J-;رف 1000 ,ادو-~رك çي--! يف ,(ةمسن
د-- ةيسكر~ ىر- ة->- -=و- ري-م,' ة---م ,م ~رقلا- ,;اجت- ل اهنا-~ 1500 ة-ي-- ,م ةمسن
ي--س-لا .
,م _ق-- ,م ¿-,و- ةي-م- ,! ; ةيفاق-لا --=ولا ,و·~ ~رمد ة-~تم ري- _=ا-م يف ةسكارشلا
~·شلا دارف' ,ي- ةيموقلا , ةيم=لا ; ,امVا ,و·~ 4ل-ك .
يف ةيتيفوسلا ç- ,م ; ةي~;رلا ة~ايسلا ~رمت~ا; ةم-=تسم يسكرشلا ~·شلا _=- -دا-لا ةي-م-
ç- ¡در-قلا ةق=-م يف >-مف .ة--ت=م ~يلا~' يلاو= _ا=ت-ا 70 ةق=-م يف 4ل-ك ; ,ي~ا,Vا ,م %
J-يهلا -ا·ل! ç- ~ي= _وس-اشلا ا-ا-سف;ر-,ل ةق=-م _ل! ^--و=- ; دو~Vا ر=-لا _وس-اشل ¡,اد(ا
ما- يف 1956 ) ة-م= دا- ¡-لا وه ,ةق=-ملا ^م~ا- ~يم~ ¡-لا ي~;رلا Jار-جلا ç~ا ~;,;,ل
_=- -دا-لا رم- ç- امك .(ةي~اق-قلا - ةي~;رلا ~ر=لا ,ا-! ةيسكرشلا _وس-اشلا ة-ي-- 13 ة-ر-
,ادو-~رك -ري=-ل ا-ا- ىرقلا --ه _-~تل اي·-د' ة-,وهم= يف _;-ج-لا ةق=-م يف ةيسكر~
ةمو-شملا .
2@
ةيموقلا ةل;-لا ةم,' :
ةي~;رلا ~ر=لا J-- ام -رتف يف - ; ي~ا,>ل ¡و-- ~لا=- ,- -,ا-- ايسيكري~ ~ناك ةي~اق-قلا
Jئا-قلا ; ~ا,ام(ا ,_ا,-Vا ) ي=ارقم-د ç-= ما=-- ¿تمت- ,اك Jئا-قلا --ه ¸·- .ةيسكرشلا
_وس-اشلا ,( ¡در-قلا ) ي--م ي=ارقت~,' ç-= ما=ن 4-م- ,اك ةيسكرشلا Jئا-قلا ,م ر=•ا çس- ,
ي=ارقت~,' ç-= -رها= 4ا-ه ~ناك ^ن' _ل! ةفا~(ا- ,(_;-ج-لا ; ي--س-لا ,¡اوقت=لا ي=ارقم-د
~ا-لا- ¡او=-ا-لا ة-ي-- --- 4رتشم .
ç-=لا ما=ن _و-- ,م ç-رلا-; -اي= ç=-- ةما- ~اي~ا~' 4ا-ه ~يق- ^ن' ل! ةيسكرشلا Jئا-قلا ---
--ا-- ; ¿متجملا ي->=Vا ,وناقلا ;' € -,-ا= ^·-دVا € ~ناك ~اي~ا~Vا --ه ,م~ .ي~ايسلا
يئاضقلا ةم-=ملا ,ري-·تلا _~ ,! ي·-رشتلا ¿مجتلا ;' ,املر-لا €^~ا=لا€ € ,ما·لا يسكرشلا
,م ة-ومجم _-ا- _-- ~ناك ة--ي--تلا ةيئاضقلا ة=-سلا .€ ^~ا= ا•,ا=- € ةيئاضقلا ~اي~=شلا
ي=ارقت~,Vا ما=-لا ; ç-=لا ~اذ _=ا-ملا ,م امت= ة=,ا=لا .
-·- Jك ام' ةي~;رلا ة-ر~يقلا ~اوقلا _ل! ~ا=-سلا Jك ~-قتنا ةيسكرشلا ي~ا,Vا J>ت=ا ~اس~‚ملا
ةل;-لا يف çهق= ةسكارشلا -قف -قل .امام- ~رمد -قف اق-ا~ اهانركذ يتلا يف çهق= يلاتلا- ; ةيموقلا
ةمVا ; ~·شلا ري~م ر-رق- .
ر-وتك' -,و- -·- ما- اي~;, يف ةيكارت~لا 1917 ~اي=>~لا ~اذ ة-,اد(ا Jكايهلا ¸·- ةما-! ç-
~ا-ه' _يق=تل ةمم~م ; ة·-=~م ~ناك Jكايهلا --ه .ة-ي·ضلا ~اينا-م(ا ; -د;-=ملا ما=-لا
و=م يف ¿-رستلا J=' ,م ƒ>~ -·- اميف ~=-~' Jكايهلا --ه .د>-لا يف ي-ويشلا ةيموقلا ة-وهلا
-=اولا ~·شلا -ا--' ,ي- J~اوتلا -وه ¿ي~و-; .
)) _و-ر- رها=لا يسكرشلا ,ا=-سلا ((
~ارت-لا 4-- ~~-م ~=ا- ر--- ل اهقق= يتلا -رها-لا ة-ر-س·لا ~ا,ا~تنلا- ة-فا=لا ة·ئارلا ةيلو=-لا
ما=·لا ,ي=>سلا ر--- ,' -=' 4ل-ك ¿ي=تس- ل; „ 4يلامملا ,و~- ç~ا ا…م-= اهي-- _-='† ,و~- يف
ر~- ,' ^-اضم; ,م ا…ض·- دا·ت~ا -- „ -ي·- -م' --م _هتنا ¡-لا çي=·لا ةيم>~(ا ~ا=وت-لا
ا…ض-' ¿ي=تس- ل; „ ,ي-اقملا J-- ,ا--لا ,ي=>سلا -ل‚ه ¡--' _-- --ي-تلا ة-ر-س·لا ,' ر--- ,'
„ ةي-ه-لا ة-,اض=لا ^-اضم; ,م ا…ض·- çهما-' يف دا·ت~ا -- ي-ر·لا çلا·لا يتلا ^ت-يه ,م ا…ض·-;
~ف-- ¡-لا „ يل>=(ا ينا=يت~لا ي-ي-~لا ;,·لا ,ا-‡! اه-قتفا „ ~,ا=م ,وي-م ,م ر-ك'- ^ل>= ا-,;'
ة-ي= -ري·~; -ري-ك ة-ر-س- ة-م= ةئام ,م ر-ك' يف ~ا-ه' _يق=- ةي·- ,ام,لا ,م ,ينر- ,م ر-ك'
„ ةيجي-ارت~ا; ة-دا~ت-ا; ةي~اي~; ةي--د -ل‚ه -اض- لول ,و-- ام ¿--'ك اه,ام- ي-‚- ~داك
¿-اولا ا-ه _-- ما=·لا ,ي=>سلا J-ملا ل; J--لا ~ر·- çل يتلا ة-~اوتملا çهدوه=; çهداهج- „ çيلVا
.
~ر·ن çل; ما- J-ش- يم>~(ا _-,اتلا ^- ç=وه ¡-لا ~-·لا J-م- ç=وه ام ا…=-,ا- ,' ,•ا _ت=
J-~ ,ك ‡ رملا موجهلا ا-ه -=-ا -قف ˆا= J-ش- ماشلا د>-; ر~م يف 4يلامملا _-,ا-; ~--لا; ر-;,تلا
ا-=-,ا- اه-م -=‚- يتلا ¿=ارملا; ,دا~ملا _ل! -,;,ملا ~ا-ا;رلا ‰د; . Jما=- يف ~-سلا;
_-,ا- _-- çه-م ,يي-,;Vا اميŠ~ل; ~نا=Vا ,ي-رشتسملا; ,ي=,‚ملا ,! . ا…-= _~ا; 4يلامملا
çه; „ ي-ر·لا _رشلا ,م ,يي-ي-~لا اوس-ك ,--لا çه 4يلامملا _رشلا J>قت~ا _-- او=فا= ,--لا
çه-~- 4لذ; ةيم>~(ا ةي-ر·لا ^-,اض=; ^-ار- _--; ,;ا·- ,م Jك çهت--ا·م; ةي-ي-~لا ~>م=لا Jك
ةفا~(ا- „ ,يي-ي-~لا ¿م د>-لا Jه' ,م ةيلاتتملا ,اتتلا; Jو·ملا ~امجه çه-~ل .
ريه=ت- اوما- 4يلامملا ,' ة~>=لا; يف çهئ>م-; çهناو-' ,م; ,يي-ي-~لا ,م ةي-ر·لا د>-لا
ةق=-ملا .
2/
,م ,يل' : ا…ذ! او·-م ,--لا ,يي-ي-~لا -ل‚ه دا-=' çه ,--لا ,وي-,;Vا ,و=,‚ملا موق- ,' ي·ي-=لا
,م ي-جتلا; çهي-- Jما=تلا- 4يلامملا -- _-- يم>~(ا _رشلا ,م ا;در=; çهم>=' _يق=- _--
ري- رم' وه ,-·لا; „ ç·ن ا…·-= ~اوجلا; ؟ ة-,اض=لا çه-ا,ج-م ; ةي=-,اتلا çه,ا-' امي~ل; ي·ي-=
4لذ او-·ف çهن‹ف „ يم>~(ا _-,اتلا ة-ات-- اوما- ام--- ,يي-,;Vا ,' çه-ا-ا·ل _-,اتلا ري=ستل
ام; ةي=-,اتلا _ئاق=لا _ل! Jو~ولا J=' ,م ,يل; ةي~ايسلا ةفر=تملا ة-ريش-تلا ~ام=-ملا ~لا,
رمتس- ةي-ي-~لا ~;ر=لا _ل! اه,;-= يف دو·- يتلا; اه·-اوم يف ةسكارشلا ةم=اهم يف ,•ا _ت=
ى-م ره=-†; ~ينرتن(ا ~ا=-~ _-- ة--ت=ملا يف ةسكارشلا ~تش- ,م ç-رلا- çهي-- ةسكارشلا ر==
J>ت=(ا -·- ا…--- ,ي·-,' ,م ر-ك' ما- يف çهد>-ل ي~;رلا ي-ي-~لا 1864 م .
,م ¸-=- ي-ر·لا çلا·لا ,' مو-·ملا ,م; ي-و-Vا ,--لا ƒ>~ ,ا=-سلا Jض-- ~اي-ي-~لا ¸·-
,--لا ةسكارشلا ,م ^-دا- ¸·-; ,يئ, ,' ا-م-- اذ‹ف „ 4ا-ن' çلا·لا ~ره- يتلا ~ا,ا~تنلا ا;,ر='
يف ة--~Vا ة-ر-لا ,--لا ر=ف ةي=>~لا ة-ر-لا ,يئ, ,' امك „ ي~اق-قلا Œوك ,ا-' وه ةي-و-Vا ةل;-لا
4-- يف ي-ر·لا _رشملا يف ةسكارشلا ماه~! ,ا-قم ا-م-- „ ا…ض-' ي~اق-قلا يسكرجلا ,ا-' ة-=رملا
يف ا…-ل' رش- ي--ا وه 4ار-Vا; ةسكارشلا د-- ,'- ا-م-- -·- ة~ا=; ةي=-,اتلا ,--لا ƒ>~ ,ي=
) ي-و-Vا 1 ا…ن'~ دا-=Vا ç=-' çه; : ةينا=-سلا 4يلامملا ,م اوناك; ( ƒ>~ ,ا=-سلا --- ة… ل,-م;
در-لا; 4رتلا ,م -ل‚ه ~--ا; ا…-ا=-! çهرف;'; ,--لا ),كرشلا; 2 . (
_رشلا ,م çهد† _ت=„ ^~ا-ن' •قت-- ي-ر·لا çلا·لا داك ام; ة-ر-س·لا ~ا=وملا 'و~' ~ايلو·ملا-
_=~ولا ,و~·لا _-,ا- اه-ه~ يتلا --=-ملا ة-ر-ر-لا ,اك; „ _,مملا ي-ر·لا çلا·لا ~=ات=ا يتلا
--ه ~اك, يف يشم- ,ام-لا Jك ,ام-لا ,=-† لول اه-اذ ا-,;' ريم-- _ل! _م=- ~ناك يتلا ~ايلو·ملا
,ي- يف(يسكرشلا) ‰ر-ي-; ~-; يتلا •ي~ولا _-,اتلا يف ة-~ا-لا 4,ا·ملا çه' ى-=! „ ~ولا=
,افو=لا ا-ه اه--- ^-ار-; --قت·م; ^~,' م>~(ا _-- ~=-=ف „ -رم J;V رم-ملا يلو·ملا
„ ^-,اض=; ~ض-; ماشلا; دا-·-- _=ل ¡-لا _ق=ملا ,ام-لا ,م ر~م ~م=; „ ماشلا د>- ~دا·ت~ا;
_-- ~قق=-; „ ةيملا·لا ^تنا-م ,م ا…-ي~ ي-ر·لا çلا·-ل ~دا·ت~ا; „ ا-,;' يف Jو·ملا Jام' اهر-! يف
4يلامملا ري- ~ي= ~=ق~ ةكر·م; ¸م= ةكر·م -·- ة~ا=; „(4يلامملا) ةل;د ةم=- ةي=ر-لا
,يجلا ~ا--جم -=V -ري-ك -,اس=- ~'-- يتلا ةكر·ملا ىرجم (ةيسكرشلا) ,' ~داك; يم>~(ا
‰ر-ي- يسكرشلا -ئاقلا م-Ž ~Ž ,' لول ة-ما-لا ةم-,هلا- يهت-- -·- اميف _-~' ¡-لا) ¡ري--~اجلا
ر-س- م,ه† ,' _ل! ةسكارشلا ,--هاجملا- (ا†نا=-~ çهتم-,- ~-Šف† ; Œر-لا; ,م,Vا ,يي-ي-~لا; Jو·ملا
) 3 ,م ةمداقلا ~>م=لا ,Š ' ل!„( _-- ~,ا= ¡-لا 4-ل,ومي- -ه- يف ---= ,م ~'-- اي~' •~ا;'
م,,او= يف ة--ت=م ~اه-= ,كرشلا; _اج-قلا د>-; اي=,و=; „ ,ي-Ž ار·لا;„ ,ار-!; „ اتجلا د>-;
„ ماشلا د>-; -- ل 4-ل,ومي- Jام-' ,- ~ت-ن ام---; . _ل!.... --هلا; „ ةينام-·لا ة-=-سلا د>-; ,م
ةيسكرشلا ةي=ر-لا ةل;-لا مايق- ^م~ا ,رت-ا ¡-لا _و-ر- يسكرشلا ,ا=-سلا ركذ .
) 1 : ( -رهاقلا• ةم--, ,ون' : ر~م يف 4يلامملا ~اتك ,م .
) 2 : ( ~اتك ,م ˆ• ~·~ ي-و~ ,وتك--ل ~ا,اض=لا ¸,' ,ي=س-ف 47 .
) 3 : ( د>- يف ىر--لا Jو·ملا 4,ا·م ˆ ي--·لا مركV ماشلا 138
2.
ZcNOKy mr•a— .... MP`V—
و' ةي~اي~لا -نا´ -او~ سا---لا .ا~~ ة-=-م ي· Œار-لا ايا€-ل عبتت~لا ¸' ةيمو-لا و' ةي=ول~يلا
رار-لا ¸يبو -ا=ار-لا -~- ¸يب ة-ي`و ةل- ~و=و „=`ي~ · ا+-م _ل= ةي~ورلا ةيلار~-لل -يرغلا
~ايب~لولا ة·ا€ت~` ( ةي~´رشلا ) يشتو~ ة-ي~م ˆي~رت »ا= ةيوتشلا 201– ة-ي~~لا -¸ا· يتلاو
¸و-لا ا~- · ريب·تلا ˆّ - ¸' ( ا+~ي†-ت …رشب ) ˆي~رتلا ا~- ¸م ,زغ~لا .و= -`¸ا~ت ‹~= •ب=ا-ي
.و= ي· --ل=نا يتلا ‹رماغلا ة=ر-لاو ابير™ ايموق ا·با= -ب~ت´ا يتلاو · ا+-ر=و ةي~ورلا ةيلار~-لا
-قو ي· --ا= ~-ل· .ا~~ ة-=-م ا+ي· .=~ت ا~= ة~ا~= ةل=رم ي·و ي~´رشلا يمو-لا ~~لا •ي· ~=ا-تي
سا---لا ة-لت‰~لا ,¸رلا ¸= ر='ب و' .كشب _ار·لا -~- -رب= ~-لو ةياغلل »ا- ي‰يرات _-=-م
•+·ا~-' …`ت=ا _ل= ة-=-~لا ي· ‹~و=و~لا -ا=ار-لا ي· ¸يي~ا~لا ¸يب=`ل ةيلب-ت~~لاو •+تا-اجتاو .
¸·ب .بق ¸م ¸و-لا •يلو " انر-تنا " ˆل=-م .ا~·ت~ا ¸ا´ ا~´ ي· ˆ-اولا ر`لا سورلا ة~ا~لا
¸و-لا ا~- -ارو ي-ي-=لا …~+لا .و= -`¸ا~ت رو+= -ر`´ ا~+م -`¸ا~تلا عي~= ¸' `' · ة·ا€ت~`اب
•ت ا~' ا~= ة=-او ا+تبا=' و~بت _ل' -اغ-لا •ت ا~' Ž' يشتو~ ة-=-~ل ي-ي-=لا خيراتلا _ل' Œا~ت~`ا
¸اك~لا ةياور _ل= •+تياور »و-ت يتلاو · خيراتلاو ’رلا Šا=-' ة~´ارشلا •-و يشتو~ل ¸ييل-لا
¸-ا-= ,ر='و يشتو~ ي-ا~ب ¸ل·تت ¸-ا-=ل •~-ت ¸-ا-=لا -~- · ا+ي· ¸ا--لل .اجم ` ة‰~ار
ةيلاتلا ¸-ا-=لا ’ار·ت~ا ¸ك~ي •ن‡· يشتو~ ة-ي~م ي-ام ¸‰ي ا~ي·و · ا-ر-ا=ب :
1 . ~-م ة~´ارشلا ا+ي· ¸ا= -ي= · ةي~´رشلا خيبولا ةليبق ة~-ا= ي- يشتو~ .ت=تو ¸ي-~لا …`'
ر=' .`~ت ي+· · ةي~´رشلا ةيمو-لا ة·ا-`لا ي· ا~+م اناكم يشتو~ .بق ةي~´رشلا ةموا-~لا .قا·م
ة-=-م ي· ر--لل ةي~ورلا -او-لا ¸ي-=ت ~·ب· ا-راي+نا »ا= .ما~ »املا »`~ت~اب سا---لا .ا~~ ¸ر~
1•59 »ا= _ت= ةي~´رشلا ةموا-~لا -ر~ت~ا 1•“– _ازبلا ¸=ا-م -ي-ب -ي= ةي~ورلا -او-لا .تا-ت
•~قو خيبولاو ‘و´ا=لاو _و~باشلاو ~ي~·لا ا+يل' ر=ا+· سورلا ‹ر=ي~ ¸= ة=را= _و~ازبلا ¸=ا-م ¸م
,ر=لا ¸=ا-~لا ¸اك~ ¸م ¸=ا-~لا -~+ب ¸اك~لا ~اي~¸` ,~' Ž~لا رملا · .`ت=`ا -=ت -·قو يتلا
21
•-= _تن ا~م Ž~ير~لا •ي=زلا ¸' _ت= · ة-بولاو ’ارملا ¸·بل راشتناو ةي~ا-تق`ا ةلا=لا ي· رو-~ت
/ ةموا-~لا ةل-اوم ي· .ملا ~-· ( ¸يم' ~~=م ) ة-=-~لا •لت ي· .ما~ »املا --ان •ل~ت~ي ¸' ~ار'و
-·شلا •لجم ¸' `' · .ما~ »املا •~ي=¸ .·· ا~´ سورلا =ورشل ‹~ا-لا .`~ي Ž~لاو ي~´رشلا
ا~ي~=ت يشتو~ ة-=-م ي· ا=ا~ت=ا ~-= ة~´ارشلا -ا~=زلاو »ا= ي· 1•“1 •لجم Šا‰تنا •ت -ي=
ا+~-' ¸ا´ يتلاو -ارار-لا ¸م ~ي~·لا ~‰تا ~ي~= »`~ت~`ل .ك~ و' -ي~= Žل ˆير-لا ¸·رلا
.=ر ر=' _ت= ةموا-~لا رار~ت~ا _ل= ~ي´'تلاو .و~لا •-او= ةب=ا‰مو -اي=€تلا -نا´ ا~+مو
~- •+~=~و •+ت~نا~م -ل=ل =ا~ن' ةيبرغلا _و~باشلاو _ازبلا ¸=ا-م ¸' `' · Žربربلا ي~ورلا وزغلا
»ا= -·قو 1•“” .`ت=`ا -=ت _ت= .تا-ت -ل= يتلا ( خيبولا ) يشتو~ ة-=-م _ل' ةموا-~لا -ل-تناو
»ا= 1•“– -ي= · ’ر' ¸= •-~يرشتو ة~´ارشلا ة~يز+ب Šر=لا -+تناو ةي~´رشلا ةموا-~لا -را+نا
•+-=و .
2 . ةي~´رشلا ةموا-~لا =را·م ر=' يشتو~ ي· انايلوب ايا~ار´ .اب= ة-=-م -~+~ .`~ت ي+· ا~+لو
¸' `' ~ات·لاو ‹~·لا ي· -ايناكملا -·- •™ر ‹ازغلا ةموا-~ل ازمر ةموا-~لا ي· اور~ت~ا ة~´ارشلا
ري=لا ¸مرلا _ت= .
” . سورلا »اق' يشتو~ =و-~ ~·ب •†-م .كشبو ةي=ا~جلا ‹~ابلاو يقر·لا ري+=تلا •-ار= ¸م ةل~ل~
· يشتو~ ة-=-م ي· ة-ا= -نا´ ا-ا~=' ة=ورم ر¸اجم ¸= -~=تت ة-ي‰م -اير´~ب ا+~~ا =بترا -ي=
سورلا »ايق Žورت سو¸ر ع=قو · ا+ي· -اي=' •-و •+قار='و ‹ريب´ ر-=ب ة~´ارشلا -ا~نو .ا-=' ع~جب
-ا~+شلا •-ر--ب .ا-ت=`ل ي~´رشلا .=ا~لا _=او~ _ل= ا+=ر¸و Šار=لا ة-~' _ل= ا+·-وو
ام -ي-رتو ر¸اج~لاو •-ارجلا _ل' ة·ا-لاب · •+-ر' ‹ر~اغم _ل= •-راب=ل ي~´رشلا -·شلا ¸م ي-ب
ا+نل يشتو~ ة-=-م ي· ة-ا=و · ي~´رشلا -·شلا ~- ا+ب »اي-لا •ت يتلا ‹~ي~·لا ,ر=لا ر=' -نا´
· عي~جلل ‹رب= ا+-م .·جت ¸' ~يرت ةي~ورلا -او-لا -ناك· ةموا-~لا .قا·م _ل= --·ت~ا ا+نو´و
¸مو يشتو~ .-' ¸م او~-ت-ي ¸' سورلا ~ار' »ا= ة-ام ¸م ر`´' سورلا _ير-تب •ل~و · ا·ي~= ة~´ارشلا
¸ا¸و-لا ¸ي-=وت~~لل ا+´رتو اما~ت •+-م ة-=-~لا -ا~لبو ,رق ¸م ا+ي· ةي~´رشلا •لا·~لا عي~= ¸ار='و
¸م _-بي •ل •ن' ة=ر~ل · ا-ري™و _ل' .ي=رلا _ل= -رب=' -`-ا= ع€ب ,و~ ةي~´رشلا خيبولا ةليبق
=ا~ن' ةينا~`·لا ةلو~لا ةي~´رشلا .-اب-لا ,وق'و رب´' ¸م ~·ت´ ةليب-لا -~- -نا´ ¸' ~·ب .
– . ام .`= ¸م ةموا-~لا Šر= ي· يشتو~ •تب·ل Ž~لا يمو-لا ي‰يراتلا رو~لا „=`ن ا-ن‡· ¸ب~
ةي~´رشلا •ي†-تل ‹~=اقو ي~´رشلا -·شلا •لجم -ا=ا~ت=` ار-م -نا´ ~-ل· Žربربلا ي~ورلا وزغلل
ة~-ا= -=-' ة~´ارشلا خيرات ي· ‹رم .ولو يشتو~ ¸' .ب ةيرك~·لا ةموا-~لا -ايل~= ري~ -·شلل
_ر~و ا+~=~و ا+ت~=ا~م -ل=ل =ا~ن' _~†·لا .و~لا ةب=ا‰~ل ارب-مو ي~´رشلا ةي~´رشلا ةي€-لا
ةيلار~-لا ~~·ت ¸' Šرغت~~لا ري™ ¸م •ن‡· ¸ب~ ا~لو · ةل~ا·لا يشتو~ ˆي~رتل يلا=لا ا-تقو ي· ةي~ورلا
ا+ت== ¸~- •ل~و ةيوتشلا ~ايب~لولا ة·ا€ت~` _ل= ي+· ي~´رشلا يمو-لا ~~لل Ž~-تلا _ل' ةيمارلا
¸= ة-ي·م ‹رو- را+=' .وا=ت و~بي ام ةي~ورلا ةيو+لا ~ي´'ت _ل= .~·ت -ي= ي=را‰لا •لا·لل ة-=-~لا
ة-ير= =ا-- •يلو ة-=-~لل ازمر ربت·ت يتلا يشتو~ ة-=-م .`= ¸م ‹رو-لا -~- را+=' ¸م .€·'
ةيمو-لا ةموا-~لل يلي ا~´و ~=او رج=ب ري·ا-= ة``` Šر- ةي~ورلا ةيلار~-لا .وا=ت ا-+· · ةي~´رشلا
:
1 . ع=ق ةلوا=~ب •ل~و ة-ي~~لل ةي~ورلا ةيو+لا ~ي´'ت _ل' ةي~ورلا ةيلار~-لا _·~ت _ل= ¸ير=لا
ي+· ا~+لو · ةيلو~لا .·ا=~لا _ل' •+تي€ق .-ن ¸ولوا=ي ¸ي~لا ة~´ارشلا •ك·ل .-ا~ولا ة·اكب .~·ت
ةينونا-لا ةج=لا •لت~تل · ايلو~ ا+-قوم ةم`~ ~´¸ت ‹رو- ةيمو-لا -لا=~لا _ل= ا+ب ~رت يتلا
ةي~´رشلا .
2 . ريوزتو •يوشت _ل= .~·لا ¸' ¸ييمو-لل ة~-اق ةبر- •ي=وت ¸و~ •لا~ت´ا ¸ك~ي ` يشتو~ خيرات
¸وكت ~ق · ة~´ارشلا ي~لا·لا Šا-رلا ةقرو _ل= ~ا~ت=`ا عي=ت~ت ا+ن' -'ر ~ق ةي~ورلا ةيلار~-لا
ا+--لل ¸را· عم ) ¸اشيشلا ي· -ل·· ا~´ اما~ت · ةي~´رشلا ةيمو-لا -ا´ر=لاب انات+بو ارو¸ •يبشتلا
ةيو+لا ا+-ا=='و ةي~´رشلا ةموا-~لل زمر ي-و يشتو~ رايت=ا ¸‡· ا~+لو ( ا·ب= ة-لا‰لا ةي~ورلا

.~·ت -ي=ب ة~´ارشلا ¸ييمو-لل ة·=و~لا ةبر€لا ةبا`~ب ¸وكت~ س'يلا ة·ا=ل •+لا-ي' _ل= ةيلار~-لا
•تيا~ب ي· .ا¸ ام ي~´رشلا يمو-لا ~~لا ¸' ة-ا= ¸' .بق -~ا~=' ا-ر†ن ي· Žرور€لا ¸م •ن‡· ا~+لو
•تيقا~-~ب •يكشتلا .`= ¸م ~=ا-تي -ا~ ة+=اوم ي- ةيلا=لا ة+=او~لا ¸ل ~و~-لا _ل= •تر~قو
و-و Žرا€= ي·ا-` يموق عبا= .`ت=ا •™ر ,ر=لا ¸=~ت ¸' ا-ا~=' .وا=ت ¸يتيموق ¸يب Œار-
`' ا+ل-' ~يرشتو ا+-ر' ا+ل ي-·ي Ž~لا و- ر=•ا …ر=لل ةيمو-لا ‹~ارلاو ~و~-لا .تق ¸' ,رت ا+ن'
را-تن`ا .
” . ¸م ‹~ا-ت~`ا .`= ¸م _~†·لا ةلو~لا عبا= -ا==ل ةي~ورلا ةيلار~-لا _·~ت ~راو~لاو -ايناكملا
ي~لا·لا -~=لا ا~+ل ا+~ي†-ت ¸‡· ا~+لو يشتو~ب ‹~و=و~لا ة~‰€لا ~ي-ر ا-~ا-ت=ا -~= ا+ل ¸م¸ي~
` -' ا+ل ‹~و--~لا ةي~لا·لا ةناك~لاو ةبي+لا ¸م .-ا- ¸و-= .اجم ي· ا+لج~ ¸ي~=ت _ل= .~·ي~و
ربت·ي يلو~لا -ي--تلا -~=و Ž~لاو ¸ا~نلا .و~لا ¸م ا-ريغب ةنرا-م ا-ي~ .
ة-ي~م ر-ا=ب ة-ل·ت~لا ¸-ا-=لا ¸‰ي ا~ي· ام' يلي ام ر´~ن ¸' ا--ك~ي· يشتو~ :
1 . •·= ةي~ورلا -او-لا يشتو~ ة-=-م -قا~' ¸' ~·ب · ا+-ا-ب' ¸م »~ ‹ر=ق ر=' _ت= -مواقو Šا~·لا
.و=~ ¸م ة~´ارشلا ع-م _ل= سورلا .~= ا~-اق .ازي ام رملا ا~-و · يشتو~ ة-ي~م ي· ة-ي·م ¸=ا-م
ة-=-م ` `~· · ا~- ا-مويل ˆ~~ي´ ` ةي~´رشلا ةموا-~لا =را·م ر=' -~+~ يتلاو انايلوب ايا~ار´ .اب=
ة~´ارشلل ¸·رلل ا~= ‹ريب´ ةيناكم' عم »اي' ة·ب~ -را~-ت~ا »زلي ~ق ƒا= ˆير-تب `' ا+لو=~ب `بو
ي· ة-ي·م ¸=ا-م ي· ¸ا´ ا~+م را-= Ž' •ل~ت ¸م ة~´ارشلا ع-~ي´و ا~- · Šاب~' _ت= ا+لو= و' يشتو~
ي~´ر~ Žرتش~لا ¸' ر´~ي´ ¸' ي-كي· · -ارشلا ¸ير= ¸= •ل~ ¸ا´ ¸'و عيبلا ةلما·م ¸·رت _ت=
ا+لماكب .
2 . ¸م ‹ريب´ ة=و~جم •€ت يشتو~ ة-=-م ¸' =-· ة--‰م .ازت امو -نا´ يتلاو ة~‰-لا -ا·جت-~لا
~ا=ت`ا راب´ يلو¸~مو -ا~=زل ¸م ينا·ت ة-=-~لا ¸‡· ا~+لو ايلا= ةي~ورلا ةيلار~-لاو ا-با~ يتيي·و~لا
¸ا-ت=ا ¸ييل=~لا ¸اك~لا -ا-ب' _ل= ةي~ي~= ةي-م' ة€بقو ي-م' .
” . ةي~ورلا -ا=ل~لا ¸·رت ~و=و ¸م •™رلا _ل= ة-=-~لا ي· را``ل -ي--ت -ايل~= ةي'ب »اي-لا
ة~+م ةير`' -ا·اشت´ا -ا~ل= .بق ¸م ‹ري=لا -ابلا=~لل ةب~-لابو · ةي~ورلا -=ات~لل ا+بير+ت •ت •ن' `'
¸م ا·و= ةي~ورلا -ا=ل~لا .بق ¸م ع=ا-لا ¸·رلاب -+بو= -ي--تلل ¸ييغي~لا را`•ا خيراتلا را+='
ة-=-~لل ي-ي-=لا ي~´رشلا .
ا-ري™و ة-با~لا ¸-ا-=لا ان~=' ا~'و يلي ام „=`-~· يليل=ت رو†-م .`= ¸م ا+يل' انر†نو :
1 . ايلا= يشتو~ ¸' _ا~~لا »~= ري~-ت ¸ك~ي `· ا-رو- عشب'ب ةير--·لا ةقر-تلاو زيي~تلا ة~ق .`~ت
ر´~ ا~´ ة-ا= ˆيرا-تب `' ¸=ا-~لا ¸·ب .و=~ب ¸ييل-لا ة-=-~لا ¸اك~ •-و ة~´ارشلل `' ا-با~
-~- ريربتب سورلا ة~ا~لا Œرب ا~+مو · ة~´ارشلا ~- .ما´ Žر--= زيي~ت •ن'ب -ا-ار=لا
.-·لا •لب-ي ~=او ري~-ت ~اجي' او·ي=ت~ي ¸ل •+ن‡· ةير--·لا .
2 . --·تلا ر'`لاو •+-م »ا-تن`ا •+تلوا=مو ة~´ارشلا ~- يشتو~ ة-=-م ي· سورلل ˆ-اولا يمو-لا
¸م ~و=و~لا ~-=لاو ةي-اركلا ,~م ¸يبي Ž~لا رملا · •+-ر' ¸= Œا·~لل ةل~ابلا •+تموا-م ا~- ا-موي _ل'
¸م ر`´' رورم ¸م •™رلا _ل= ةي~ورلا -ا=ل~لا ,~ل 1–” ةيا+ن _ل= اما= ةي~´رشلا Šر=لا
ةي~ورلا .
” . ةير--·لا -ا-ار=لا عي~= .`= ¸م „=`~´ لا ة=-اولا ةي~ورلا ةب™رلا و- يمو-لا --·تلاو
ي~´ر~ يموق Œورشم Žل .م' ¸ي-ب Ž' .ت-ل ا+‰يرات و=مو ة-=-~لا •يورت ةلوا=مو ¸ا´ ا~+م
…~+ت -ي= · ‹و-لا ري™ -ي~ `و ‹و-لاب يشتو~ ة-=-م خيرات •يوشتو ريوزت _ل' ةي~ورلا -ا=ل~لا
.ما´ ي~ور عبا=ب ا-را+=‡ب .
– . ةيت=تلا ةي-بلل ر-ت-ت سورلا ¸يلو¸~~لا …ارت=اب ي- يتلاو يشتو~ ˆي~رت _ل' ة=ا=بو ةب~ا-~لا
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ةي-ايرلا ¸·ار~لا -ا-بل ةل-ا=لا .اوملا ¸م ~ي~·لا ¸ا-ن' و- ي-ي-=لا …~+لا ¸' ¸اي·لل ر+†ي · ةب~ا-~لا
•=ا·ت~لا ي~´رشلا يمو-لا ~~لا ة+=اوم .
~='ي~ سا---لا .ا~~ ة-=-~ب Œار-لا ¸' .و-لا ¸ك~ي •ن‡· ¸ب~ ام .`= ¸مو ¸' ~·ب ا~ي~= ا·با=
-ي~=لا و' ’وا-تلا _ت= ¸ك~ي ` •ن' و~بي ام _ل= اي~ور -ر+=' ة-=-~ل ( ي~´رشلا ) .ب-ت~~لا ¸=
•=ا·ت .= ي· ي~ورلا -قو~لا ا~- يت'يو سا---لا .ا~~ .ا~~ ة-=-م ي· ةي~ا-تق`ا -ارا~`ت~`ا
-او=~لا ¸·ب رو+= .= ي·و · سا---لا ةي~´رشلا ¸=ا-~لا ˆ-م _ل' ةي=ا~لا ةي~ورلا ةيلاربيللا
.اك~' ¸م ` ك~ و' ا+ل`-ت~ا · و·و~و´ ويرا-ي~ل •باشم ويرا-ي~ ¸م …و‰لاو · ع~ّ و~´ لا يتا~لا •ك=لا
ا€ي' …و‰لاو ¸·بلا ,ري ~ق Ž~لاو ةي~ورلا -ا=ل~لل ةقرّ ¸م ةلكشم ˆب-' Ž~لا ي~´رشلا ~~لا ¸م
¸م •ن' ¸م ة=ر~لا -~- •ل`ت=او ةي~ورلا ة~اي~لل ةب~-لاب ي~´رشلا ¸'شلا •ي†·ت ةغلاب~لا · ةي~-لا
ا~ا~ل ر~-ي ¸'و ة-با~لا =ا--لا 'ر-ي ¸' _ر=لا ا~+ب •كشم Žل ¸ك~ي ¸كلو .و=~ ة~´ارشلا _ل= »رّ =ي
ازمر ربت·ت ة-=-م رايت=ا •ت ا~ا~لو يشتو~ ي· ة-ي·م ¸=ا-م ¸' -شتكي~ ا-~-=و · ةي~´رشلا ةموا-~لل
عنا- ¸رّ ¸ت ةلكشم ` ·· ي- •+تي€قو ة~´ارشلا ةليو=لا ةيرا~·ت~`ا •ترب‰ب •-كلو ي~ورلا رار-لا
.وا=ي ة·ور·~لا ةي~اي~لا •تك-=و ¸و-= Œا=رت~ا _ل' …~+ت يتلا ةي~´رشلا ةيمو-لا -ا´ر=لا -ا`ت=ا
ي· ي~´رشلا ¸ا~نلا »لا •-=و .
~ا-·ن` اناكم ةيلو~لا ةيب~لولا ة-جللا رارق ¸' .و-لا ¸ك~يو -ير™ رارق و- ةم~ا-لا ةيوتشلا ~ايب~لولا
¸م .-ا~ر ‹~= •ي=وت .= ي· ة-ا= · ¸ج+ت~م´ و ة-جلل ي~´رشلا ين~~لا ع~تج~لا -ا~~¸م .بق
خيرات ة-ي-= ا+ل ¸يبت ~ايب~لو‚ل ة~†-~لا -~= ي-و ~ايب~لولا »ا-ت´ ¸' -يرغلا ¸م •ن' -ي= · يشتو~
‹ا=ا¸~لاو »`~لا _ل' زمري ~رّ ~´ و .تق ´ »ول†م -·شل ‹رب-م ¸= ‹راب= ي- ’ر' _ل= رشبلا ي-ب ¸يب
.ازت امو •-ر' ¸م ,و-لل ةبل-ت~لا -ا~اي~لا •يلاو´ ي· ة·-ا-و ةنا-م´ ري™ ا~- ا-موي _ل' •قو-=
· _~†·لا ةيرو+~= ي· را`•او ة-يبلا -ا~ل= Ž'رب ~=‚ل ¸ير=€م ¸وكن ~ق -~‚ل ا-ن' و~بيو •يغي~لا
ي· ا¸راب ارو~ -ب·ل ~ق ‹و~رلا ¸'ب او=رّ - ¸ي~لاو · سور -ا~ل= •+-مو يشتو~ ة-ي~م رايت=ا .
¸م ا+ناك~ ¸' ˆي=- · ةي~´ر~ _-بت~ يشتو~ ¸‡· ةيا+-لابو •ل´ •لا·لا ,~ل ربت·ت ا+ن'و ¸•ا سورلا
_-بت~ يشتو~ ¸' `' ة-لا= ةي~ور ة-ي~م ام' ة‰~ارلا ة-ي-=لا •- •+نل ا+‰يراتو ا+ب·شب ةي~´ر~
•+تي-ب'و •+ناك~ب سورلا ¸'و · ي~`تلا ¸م •ل ~ب ` Ž~لا Šار~لا •+ن‡· ا+-= •+ل _-™ ` يتلا •+لي`ا~تو
…و‰لا ¸و-=ل ة‰~ارلا ة-ي-=لا -~- _ل= .يل~ رب´' •ل ي~´رشلا يمو-لا ~~لا ¸م •-ا~لا ي~ورلا -·شلا
ري+=تلاو Žر~-لا ريج+تلاو ع-ا†-لاو •-ارجلا .´ •™ر •ن' .و-لا ي-كيو · ي~´رشلا ‹~ابلاو يقر·لا
ةلي= خيراتلا ريوزتو 1–” ¸ييمو-لا ‹ر´ا~ ي· _-بت~و -ي-ب اما= -ا~-لاو ةلو=بلل ازمر ة~´ارشلا
¸' ر´~لاب ري~جلاو · Œابي´ `و ,~-ي´ Ž~لا ¸=ولل يشتو~ رايت=ا _ل= ’ارت=`ا _ل= ةينا`لا ةل=ر~لا
‹ر~لا -~- زكترت ي-و ابيرق '~بت~ ي~´رشلا خيراتلاب …ارت=`ا _ل= ةي~ورلا -ا=ل~لا راب=' _ل=
ة-=-~لل ي-ي-=لا .
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
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1 . سا---لاب يلا=لا ع-ولا 2009
~رجم و- .- ·ةي~´رشلا ةيمو-لا ة´ر=لا ي· _ويشلاو Šابشلا ¸يب Œار- و-
.ا~~ ¸=ا-م ي· Žر~= Žرو` ريغت ةيا~ب و- و' ة-لت‰م .اي=لا ¸يب Œازن
ا=-او ¸•ا ˆب-' -ا=ا~جلا -~- ¸يب .اي=لا Œار- º ةي~´رشلا سا---لا
¸‰~ Ž' -اجت' ي~´رشلا Šابشلا -نا= ¸م ¸·رلا ‹~= ~يازت عم · اما~ت
-·قو يتلا -ا~=لا ةل~ل~ ·ةي~ورلا ةلو~لا عم ¸·اوتي ¸' ¸ك~ي -ي~ Ž' و'
ايوق ار~¸م -==' ·ةي-ا~لا ةت~لا ر+~لا ,~م _ل= ةي‰يراتلا اي~ي´ر~ ي·
.كشب ريغت ~ق ةي~´رشلا ¸اقو-لا .ا~~ ة-=-م ي· ي~اي~لا ~+ش~لا ¸' _ل=
~·ت •ل ةي~´رشلا سا---لا .ا~~ -ايرو+~= ي· ةي~اي~لا -ا=اش-لا ·ا~= ريب´
اي~ورل ¸يلاو~لا ¸ا ¸م •™رلا _ل= ) ا~ي~ق ~-ا~لا ي‰يراتلا =~-لا عبتت
_ل= ¸ير=ي~م ¸ولازيامو ~ات·~لا Ž~يل-تلا Šا=‰لاب ¸وك~~تم ¸ولازيام
ا´ي~اي~)=~ا-لا ي~´رشلا Šابشلا =ول~ ¸'·(ةي~اي~لا -‰-لا •لت ة·يل=
يبابشلا رايتلا ا+-ل=' يتلا -ار~اب~لاو -ا~=لا ¸' ·ريغت ~ق (اي=ا~ت=او
ةل-ت~م ةي~اي~ ‹و-´ …ر-تلا ي· •+تب™ر --ل=' ~ق · ’را·~لا ي~´رشلا
رملا ا~-و ·ة-=-~لا -~- ي· ي=ا~ت=`ا =اش-لا ¸م ام ا~ت ~ي~= Œون .`~ت
‹رج=ت~لا ةي~يل-تلا ة~†ن`اب •~~تلا ¸م ا-با~ -ارن ا-´ ام _ل= ’را·تي
راب´)_ويشلا ةبي´رتو اي~ور ¸يب Ž~يل-تلا يمر+لا .~ل~تلا _ل= ~ا~ت=`او
-ا~اي-لا ¸ر-ل ةيل•ا -~- _ل= ~ا~ت=`ا •تي ام ‹~ا= -نا´ يتلا (•´رشلا
.` ب-ت~م ي~´رشلا رار-لا ي·نا-و
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ينورتكل`ا عقو~لا _ل= .ا-م رشن Žراجلا ¸ا~ين ¸م عبارلا »وي -ا~م ي·
"ةيلا--نلا" ة~+ت ¸ا-ل' ¸و~يري ) ¸او-= -=ت ةيراب=`ا »و-جير ةلا´ول
•ت ي~´ر~ يموق ,~ت-م ¸= -~=ت .ا-~لا (ةيمو-لا ةي~´رشلا -ا=اش-لاب
ةيرو+~= ة~-ا= ي· Žراجلا ¸ا~ين ¸م عبارلا خيراتب •~ي†-ت
¸كلو ·-رشن ¸م ة=ا~ يلاو= ~·ب .ا-~لا …~= •ت •ن' `' ·ايرا-لب/و-ي~رابق
-~- _ل= -رشن •تو ةي~´ر~ عقاوم ‹~= _ل= .ا-~لا .--ل ةي·ا´ -نا´ ة=ا~لا
•ت -ي= ة-~-م ‹رو-ب ¸كل .ا-~لا رشن ‹~ا=' -~ت ¸يموي ~·ب ·ع~او ¸ا=ن
اوب™ر ¸ي~لا ¸ابشلا -+=او يتلا -ابو·-لا ¸= -`~=ت يتلا .ي-ا-تلا و=م
ةي-م`ا -او-لا .بق ¸م •+-م ¸يري`كلا ع-م •تو ,~ت-~لا رو€=ب
يتلا -امول·~لا .ا-~لا .وا-تو (»ا·لا »ا†-لاو ¸م`ا _ل= ة†·ا=~لا)ةج=ب
’و~غلاو را-ت=`اب ---تا يتلاو ةي~~رلا ةيراب=`ا -`ا´ولا ا+ترشن
.-~=لا _ل= •يت·تلا ةيغب ¸ي~ي~شلا
و=ن ¸م ة=و~جم -ماق 150 ي~´رشلا رايتلا ¸م Šابشلا -ا=ش-لا ¸م
-€·ر يتلا(,~ت-~لا ~ا-·نا ¸اكم)ي·ا-`لا _ر~~لا »اما »ا-ت=`اب يمو-لا
-ايلا·· رو€=ب •+ل _ا~~لا او€·ر ¸ي~لا ة=رشلل ¸ا=~`او عقو~لا ‹ر~اغم
¸ي=~ا-لا ·,~ت-~لا -ارارق را†تناب Œراشلا ي· او-ب •ل~ ¸م ` ~بو ,~ت-~لا
¸ل" •+ناب او=ر- -ي= ¸ييل=~لا ¸يي·ا=-لل او`~=ت ة~´ارشلا ¸ابشلا ¸م
¸وكي ام~-= ة-ا= رار-لا ع-- ةيل~= ¸م •-~ا·بت~ا ‹رك· عم او=ما~تي
سر=لا)ة~ي~-لا -ا~اي-لاب ¸`ن ` ¸=ن" : او·ا-او "ةلوا= _ل= ¸=ولا ري-م
¸= او-ل=' ا~´ ·(ة~ا‰لا)ةي~´رشلا ةي·~جلا -ا~ايق _لا ‹را~ا ي· (•ي~-لا
ةبلا=~لاو Œا·~لاو •+لي`~ت _ل= .~·ت •+ب ة-ا= ة~†-م -اشن' ¸= •+تين
¸= ¸`=لاب (Š`=لا ¸م •+~†·مو)Šابشلا ¸ي=~ا-لا »ايق ة-ي-= ·•+قو-=ب
¸يلل=~لا · =و=لم رو=ت و- (ا+·-وب =راشت `) -ارارق ةيل ا+€·ر
‹را~لا ر~جت -ي=(ة~ا= ةغي~`ا)ة~†-~لا -~+ب ةيار~ _ل= او~يل ¸ييبرغلا
¸ا~لرب ةبا`~ب ربت·ت ة~†-~لا -~- -نا´ ة~ي~-لا رو-·لا ~-م •ن' _ل'
~ا‰تا ي· -·شلا ¸= Šو-ت ي-و (ة~ي~-لا ةي~´رشلا ~يلا-تلل ا-·و)-·شلا
~يازل ريشي Šابشلا ¸ي=~ا-لا -~‰تا Ž~لا -قو~لاا~- ¸ا ·ةيري-~لا -ارار-لا
-~-· ة=ا~بب (ة~ا= ةغي~`ا) ة~†-م ¸'ب ¸ور·شي ¸ي~لا •´رشلا ~ا~=ا
عي€ت ة-ير=ب ةي~ورلا -ا=ل~لاو ¸يلمركلا عم ¸وا·تت ا+ناو ·ا+ل`-ت~ا
ا--ا€=ا •†·م ¸ا ةمات ة=ا-ق =ا-- ¸ا .ب · ي~´رشلا -·شلا ˆلا-م
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·ةي~ورلا ¸م`ا ‹ز+=` ة·بات ةيراب‰ت~ا ر-ا-= `ا •- ام -ا~اي-لا ة-ا=و
¸ا ¸يبت ا~´ .ا€ي' اي¸ا‰ب' _ل' .-و ,~ت-~لا ع-اقو -=ا- Ž~لا -€غلا
¸م اومر= ¸ي~لا ¸يي~ي=ولا اونوكي •ل ايرا-لب/و-ي~رابق ةيرو+~= ي· ة~´ارشلا
¸ابشلا ¸م ~ي~·لل ¸امر= =ا-- ¸ا´ .ب · •يلا .و-ولاو ,~ت-~لا ي· ة´راش~لا
)ة~ا= ةغي~`اة~†-م -ا€=' ¸م ة~´ارشلا akhra …``ا .`~ت يتلاو (
او´را~ ¸ي~لا ¸ي-با~لا ¸يلتا-~لا ¸م •+~†·مو اي¸ا‰با ي· ¸يي~ي-~لا ة~´ارشلا
»ا= ي· ةي¸ا‰بلا ةي=روجلا Šر=لا ي· 1992 -`¸- ·•+براق'و •-ر~'و
¸ايب رش-ب اوماقو (Žز‰~لا)Š -ايا ¸ي--او يمات‰لا ,~ت-~لا ¸ايب او~-تنا
•--و ¸ي~لا ة~ا= ةغي~`ا -ا~=¸ او~-تناو ع~او .كشب رم`ا ا~- ¸= رب=
ةي~´رشلا ةيمو-لا ‹رك-ل ¸ي--ا= اي¸ا‰با ي· ة~´ارشلا ¸ي=‡ب او=ب-ا •+ناب"
."»ا†-لل »ا~= او=ب-او
_لا ي~ت-ي ` · ايرا-لب/و-ي~رابق ي· .ي‰لا Šو´ر ~ا=تا •ي=¸ · ¸™اي •ي-اربا
.اق -ي= ·•+ت=شنل رو+~جلا •=~ ¸= Šر=' •-كل ¸ي=~ا-لا Šابشلا
.بق ¸م ‹ر~ابم ةباقرلا ¸ي~ت ايرا-لب/و-ي~رابق ي· ة´ر= .´ ¸ا" ¸يي-=-لل
·"¸وب~م ري™ =غ-"Š ا+--و ¸ك~ي يتلا ةباقرلا -~- -اراب‰ت~`ا ‹ز+=ا
ري™ ¸™اي ~ي~لا ¸ا ¸م •™رلا _ل= — اما- ربت=ا ¸™اي •ي-اربا ~ي~لا ˆير-ت
-ا=ا~جلا ¸يب ةيب·شب عت~تي •نا `ا· (ة~ا= ةغي~`ا ي·)اي~~ر -‰ت-م
»ا~و .~=ي •نل -او~ ا~= _ل= -·شلا ةما= ¸يبو ةي=ا~ت=`او ةي~اي~لا
»ا= ي· اي=رو= ~- ةيرك~·لا •تا¸اجن` اي¸ا‰ب' .=ب 1992 Šر=لا ¸ابا
ي~†-م Žا)ا-ت=و~جم -ا€='" ` -اق •`ي~= عبات -ي= ·اي¸ا‰ب'و اي=رو= ¸يب
ةلو~لا ¸ما ¸ا+=و · ةيل=ا~لا ‹را¸و _ل' رار~ت~اب •+تو=~ -~ت(,~ت-~لا
-`´ ¸= ةباقر ’ر· •ت" …ا-او ·"•+تلبا-~ل (Ž~ا=ت`ا ¸ملا ¸ا+=)
¸ا+= -يلا~ا •-ن »ا~‰ت~ا •ت ~-ل· ا--تاو- _ل= ---تلا •تو · ا-يل=
•=ير-ت عبات ¸™اي (ا ~ي~ق يتي·و~لا -اربا‰~لا ¸ا+=).=-~لا(يب.ي=.ي´).ا
ة~+ت ¸-ل .وا=ت ةي~ورلا -اراب‰ت~`ا ‹ز+=ا" ¸ا ~´¸~لا ¸م •نا " ` -اق
_ا-كلا _+ن _+ت-ت يتلا ةي~اي~لا ةي~´رشلا -ا~†-~لاب ةيلا--ن`ا ة=ز-لا
.بق ¸م •=~و ايازم _ل= .و-=لل •ل~و •†-~لا ي=ا~ت=`او ي~اي~لا
"سا---لا .ا~~ ة-=-م ي· Šا-ر`ل •+تبرا=م ةج=ب ةيموك=لا -ا=ل~لا
‹ز+=ا _ل= .+~ا رما و- ةي~ل~لا ةي~´رشلا -ا~†-~لا ة·باتم ¸ا ": …ا-او
ر== .كشن ` ,ر=`ا ة=ل~~لا -ا~†-~لا •ك= _ل= ا-ن` ·-اربا‰~لا
_ل= .و-=لل ا-يل= =غ€لاو ا-ت-=`م ¸ولوا=ي •+· يلاتلابو •+يل= Ž~~=
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."ةي-ي=ولا اياز~لاو •+ل يموك=لا •=~لا .اوما
اي~ي´ر~ ي· ةل-ت~~لا ةي~´رشلا ةيمو-لا -ا´ر=لا -ا=اشن ‹ريتو Œا-ترا ¸ا
رب~·ون / ينا`لا ¸يرشت ي· ا€يا ¸اي·لل ة=-او -نا´ 200• ¸ل=' ام~-= ·
ة~-ا= · •~ي´ري~ ي· ي-=و ر~ت¸م •ي†-ت ¸= ي~´رشلا سرغنوكلا
عي~= ةيقر= ةيلق' •- ة=اب`او •´رشلا -ي= · •´ر~/Žا~رق ةيرو+~=
ةي-م`ا ‹ز+=`ا ¸م •+-ا=~ت~ا •ت ي~´رشلا سرغنوكلا ة~†-م -ا€=ا
-ا=ير-تو · ةيل=~لا ة·ا=-لا ي· -ر+= يتلا -`ا-~لل ا-·و ·•+·م ¸ي-=تلل
‹ز+=`ا -`وا=م _لا -را~ا =ا~نا ي~´رشلا سرجنوكلا -ا~=¸ ¸·ب
ا~-· ي-=ولا ر~ت¸~لا ا+شقا-ي~ يتلا عي-او~لا ’ر-ل ةيراب‰ت~`او ةي-م`ا
ي· ةي~ورلا _لار~ي-لا ¸م`ا ¸ا+= •م~‰ت~ي Ž~لا •يتكتلا •-ن =ب€لاب و-
· •ل~ عمو ·ا-ر~'ب اي~ور -ا=ن' عي~= ي· ةي=ا~ت=`ا -ا´ر=لا عم •ل~=
ي· ·•~ي´ري~ ي· ¸-=ت •لو ةل=ا· ¸كت •ل ةي-م`ا ‹ز+=`ا -ا=وغ- ¸‡·
ةيل=~لا -ا=ل~لا .بق ¸م .ما´ .كشب ا-~ا~=ا •ت يتلا -ا~لكلا --ت-م
·ر~ت¸~لا ي· -ي-ل' يتلاو ةي~ورلا ةيراب‰ت~`او ةي-م`ا ‹ز+=`ا عم ¸ي~-تلاب
ة--~لا _لا ~و·-لا ةلوا=~ب -يشي´ ¸`~ور و-و Šابشلا ‹~ا-لا ~=ا »اق
-ا€=' ¸م ¸ا-`ا ¸كل (ة~´ارشلا ¸ييمو-لا)ي~´رشلا Šابشلا .`~ت ة~ل´ -ا-ل`
»ا~‰ت~ا اولوا= •+نا .ب · •·-~ب اوماق (ةي~´رشلا ةي·~جلا)ة~ا= ةغي~`ا
ي~´رشلا سرغنوكلا ة~†-م ة~ل´ -ا-لا ¸م -يشي´ ~ي~لا ع-~ل ةي~~جلا ,و-لا
»اما -~·-م _ل= سولجلا _ل= ا+ما™را ةلوا=مو •··~ب اوماقو ·Ž~رب-لا ي·
¸م ر`´اب ر~-ي رو€= 2.000 -ا-لا _ل= ر-ا -يشي´ ~ي~لا ¸ا `ا ·¸‰~
Œورشم »~قو ة--~لا _لت=او •-م Šارتق`ا .وا= ¸م .´ ع·~و •ت~ل´
‹~= _لا ة~~-~لا ةي~´رشلا ة-=-~لا ~ي=وتل ة== ي-و · ‹~=و~لا اي~ي´ر~
-~+~ يتلا ة-=-~لا ي-و ·سا---لا .ا~~ ي· -ايرو+~= 101 ¸م اما=
ي=ا~= _وز-ب -+تنا يتلا Šر=لا ي-و · ةي~ورلا را~·ت~`ا ~- ةموا-~لا
‹~اب`ل ¸ير-ا·~لا -ا~ل·لا ر†-يو ة~´ارشلا ¸م ا+ناك~ل يقر= ري+=تلاو
‹~اب`ا -ايل~= رب´او •-او _لوا ا+ناب ة~´ارشلا ا+ل ’ر·ت يتلا ةي=ا~جلا
-اشن' ’رت-ت ` ‹~=و~لا ا~ي´ر~ ة==و ·رش= ع~اتلا ¸ر-لا ي· -·قو يتلا
ا~´و ·Žرا~ا ¸اي´ .=ا~ ة~´ارشلا ~ي=وت _لا …~+ت ا+-كلو ةل-ت~م ةلو~
•=~ ¸اي~ ي· يت'ت اي~ي´ر~ ~ي=وت _لا ‹و=~لا ¸ا ا+تقو -يشي´ ~ي~لا _ر-
¸كل ·ا+جم~و ¸=ا-~لا •- _لا ةي=ا~لا ةي=`-`ا ¸يتوب ري~ي~`· -ا~اي~
ةيرو+~= _م~ _لا …~+ت ةي~ورلا ==‰لا· · -لت‰ت ¸يلمركلا ة==
@@
را~و-~ر´ ة·=ا-~ب ةيغي~`ا ةيرو+~=و .وبر·ات~ ة·=ا-~ب •´ر~/Žا~رق
ر†ن ي·. ¸ات~™ا~لاو ايتي~وا -ايرو+~= عم ايرا-لب/و-ي~رابق ةيرو+~=و
ي~´رشلا -·شلا ‹ا·و ¸= ¸`=`ا ي-·ت ¸يلمركلا ة== ·ة~´ارشلا ¸ييمو-لا
.-را`~ناو
-·شلا ة=اق ي· · _~†·لا اي~ي´ر~ Œورشم ¸= •~ي´ري~ ي· ¸ل=' ام~-=
-=ا- · ريب´ Žري-ا~= ¸اجي-و ةغلاب ‹وا-=ب -يشي´ ~ي~لا ة~ل´ -لبوق
¸ا `ا·ةي~´رشلا ةي-=ولا ~ي~ان`ا ~=ا -ا-لاب ¸ابشلا ¸م ريب´ ~~= »ايق •ل~
" •لو-ب •تلا-ت~ا ¸لل·م ·ر~ت¸~لا ا~- ~·ب •ب--م ¸م .ا-ت~ا -يشي´ ~ي~لا
~ي-~لا .`م --´ ·~=ل ¸ك~ي ` .~·لا ي· رار~ت~`ا ¸ك~ي ` ة=ار-ب
¸و~يري ا~´ =~- -ي~ Ž'ب »اي-لا ¸و·ي=ت~ي •- ·•يقا~و •يم~ق ي· .~`~ب
ا~+لو ¸ي·لا ةشمر .`م ة=ا~ب .كب =ولت-ي ¸ا ¸ك~ي •+ل -~ا-~لا -قولا ي·و
اي~ي´ر~ ‹رك·و Œورشم "ةي~´رشلا -ا~†-~لا ي· .~·لا ¸= ~ا·تب`ا -ل€·
رب~·ون / ينا`لا ¸يرشت -ا~=' ~-م ع~او ¸ا=ن _ل= ˜قون ~ق ‹~=و~لا
يتلاو ةي~´رشلا عقاو~لا .بق ¸م ¸ا-ن ع-وم و- Œو-و~لا ا~- ·ي-ا~لا
»وي ~و~رلا ¸م ‹ريب´ ا~ا~=' .ب-ت~ت “ .بق ¸م ‹ر~ابم ¸= ¸ل=' · .يربا
ي· ~=او ‹~=او ةما" •يل= ¸ل=ي ~ي~= Œورشم ¸`=` ي~´رشلا Šابشلا
· "ةي~´رشلا" ةلو~لل ةيقر·لا ةيو+لا رييغت و- ي~ي-رلا …~+لا ".ب-ت~~لا
¸ا=ن _ل= ةيب·~ ‹ر~اب~لا -~- -ب~ت´ا ةي~´رشلا .-اب-لا عي~= .~شت~ يتلاو
ي· -نرتنلا _ل' .و-ولل ~و~=~لا .ابق`ا ¸م •™رلا _ل= · ع~او
…•ا عي¸وتب اوماق ¸و=و=ت~لا ¸ابشلا `ا .ةي~´رشلا -ايرو+~جلا
,ر=لا -ارا·شلا ¸يب ¸م ·‹ر~' .´ ~يربلا ¸ي~ا-- ي· --لاو -اروش-~لا
"!Šرت-ت ةير=لا _اير" و-و `ا ةما- ةي-و-‰ب عت~ت را·~ --ل=ا يتلا
ةل'~م ربت·ت ` ي+· !!º` ب-ت~م ةيبابشلا ةي~´رشلا ‹ر~اب~لا -~+ل -~=ي~ ا~ام
.اي~ور ي· ةي=ار-~ي~لا ةيل~·لاب ¸ل·تت ةل'~م ا~ن'و · =-· ةيل=م ةي~-' -ا~
Œا~ت~`ا .وا=ت~ .- ةين~~لا -ا~†-~لا عم ةي~ورلا ةلو~لا .ما·ت~~ -ي´
¸كل !ºة·ر=ت~لا -ا+=وتلا ¸م ~يزت~ يلاتلابو ا+·~-ب »و-ت~ ا+نا »ا ا+ل
Œو-و~ب »ا~ت-`ل ‹~·ت~م ا+نا و~بت ` · ةي~ورلا ةيمو-لا ة~اي~لا
. عقاولا _ل' Šرق' ¸وكت ة~-اشت~لا -ا·قوتلا ¸‡· •ل~لو · ةي=ار-~ي~لا
: •بت´ Varouqa Zaid
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7 - 9 »ا·لا ¸م رب~تب~ / .ولي' 2007 ,ر´~ب =ا~ن' ي~~ ا~ب ة~~اغلا ةيّ~ورّ لا -ا=ل~ّ لا عم
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-ا-ي+لا ¸·ب -ا€=' ¸ا ¸= •ي-ان ·ةي~ورلا ةيرا~·ت~`ا -ا=ل~لل ة·باتلاو ا+يل= ةبو~=~لا
ي· ة´راش~لل -او=~ اوبل ¸ي~لا -اتشلا ي· ةي~´رشلا -ايّ·~جلاو -ا~~ّ ¸~لا ي· ةيّرا~لا
ةيّاب =-ا=لا ’ر= ¸يبرا- .ت=~لا ¸اقو-لا ¸م ةي~´رشلا ¸=ا-~لا ي· -ر= يتلا -`ا-ت=لا
.ت-لل ¸و-ر·تي •-و •+ب=ن او€ق ¸ي~لا و=ن ةيّموق و' ةيب~' و' ةيق`=' -امازتلا و' -ارابت=ا
.ةي¸اغلا -او-لا .·ا== .بق ¸م ةنا+~لاو -ي~·تلاو ريج+تلاو ‹~ابلاو =`+لاو

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17 .ولي' / رب~تب~ 2010
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eLot.ru: Ali Keshtov. On The Ideology Of The Circassian
posted by eagle on Deceber, 2010 as CIRCASSIA ADI!A
Ali Keshtov. On the ideology of the Circassian
02"12"2010, t#e
$uerous e%ents &n t#e C&rcass&an publ&c arena s&nce t#e end o' 200(, and s#a)&ng &t
to t#&s day, test&'y to t#e enorous nuber o' probles 'aced by t#e C&rcass&an
coun&ty" *o+e%er, t#e obser%er o' an e%ent can eas&ly see t#at t#e p&cture &s
&ss&ng soet#&ng &portant" Re'lect&ons on e%ents and s&tuat&ons &n general, lea%e
no doubt t#at +e are tal)&ng about people #a%&ng t#e&r o+n, spec&al )&nd o' nat&onal
proble" $e%ert#eless, +e #a%e ent&oned scene obser%ed c#aos, &nstab&l&ty,
d&''erences and &nab&l&ty to put t#e C&rcass&an &ssue &n t#e anner &n +#&c# t#&s s#ould
be done" ,#ere &s a ult&pl&c&ty o' pos&t&ons, %ery d&''erent, - a sure s&gn o' probles
at t#e top o' t#e C&rcass&an coun&ty o' t#e pyra&d",#e collapse o' 1-./ and
endured t#e +ander&ngs #a%e led to t#e 'act t#at t#e C&rcass&ans +ere perce&%ed as a
coun&ty +&t#out &ts o+n &deology, and e%en soe nat&onal &dent&ty" ,#e&r
e0per&ences decl&ne #as allo+ed ot#er nat&ons to assert t#at t#e C&rcass&an proble
does not e0&st, and oreo%er, &' t#e concept o' 1nat&on1 &s &nappl&cable to t#e
C&rcass&ans, as a people +&t#out a #oeland"
,#e C&rcass&ans are e2ually d&sappo&nted #&s 'r&ends and ene&es - by
reason o' lo+ le%el to +#&c# s#e 'ell C&rcass&an &deology, and t#&s led to
t#e loss o' a cons&derable part o' t#e C&rcass&an &ssue o' trust and
ob3ect&%&ty" Instead, t#e 2uest&on about t#e essence o' t#e C&rcass&an
proble ot#ers +ere +onder&ng, &s t#ere a general )&nd o' people -
1C&rcass&an1, so #e could be a proper nat&onal proble4 In connect&on
+&t# suc# &deolog&cal and &deolog&cal setbac) C&rcass&an 2uest&on sees
necessary to loo) &nto t#e past and outl&ne t#e current C&rcass&an
real&ty &n t#e po+er o' t#e c#aos and contrad&ct&ons" In t#&s d&''&cult
s&tuat&on &t &s e0ped&ent to try to '&nd a 1pr&ary1 %&s&on o' real&ty,
C&rcass&an, and bu&ld&ng on &t, to ans+er t#e 'ollo+&ng 2uest&ons5
1" *o+ do t#&n) t#e C&rcass&ans4 6C&rcass&an ental&ty7
2" 8#o represents t#e C&rcass&ans4 69eg&t&acy7
:" In +#at state &s t#e C&rcass&an 2uest&on4 6C&rcass&an
pol&cy7"
Real&;&ng t#at a deta&led cons&derat&on o' t#e sub3ect &s &poss&ble &n
one art&cle, but re2u&res spec&al researc# 'or t#e study o' all aspects o'
t#e C&rcass&an 1p#enoenon1, +e '&nd &t use'ul to present #ere soe
'undaental obser%at&ons"
1. How do Circassians think
.0
A str&)&ng 'eature o' C&rcass&an ental&ty &s t#at t#ose %alues and &deals
t#at are cons&dered &n ot#er nat&ons &n%&olable and not sub3ect to
d&scuss&on and barga&n&ng - suc# as nat&onal d&gn&ty, so%ere&gnty, t#e
supree &nterest o' t#e nat&on, etc" - &n t#e C&rcass&an ental&ty are
t#e sub3ect o' acceptable 'or d&scuss&on, and e%en auct&on and
concess&ons" ,#e reason &s t#e loss o' t#e C&rcass&ans &n t#e long run
t#at ost o' t#e nat&onal ental&ty and &ts o+n &deology" ,#&s cond&t&on
led to la;&ness and &nact&%&ty, result&ng &n &gnorance o' t#e nat&onal
plan, ost do not understand +#at<s go&ng on and does not real&;e &ts
dangers lay &n +a&t" Cond&t&on C&rcass&ans can be copared +&t# t#e
state o' Ital&an soc&ety dur&ng t#e e0&stence o' sall states, +#en t#e
o%erall s&tuat&on +as c#aracter&;ed by 'ragentat&on and d&%&s&on t#at
#a%e occurred under t#e &n'luence o' &nternal and e0ternal
'actors" 8#&le t#e strengt# o' t#e Ital&an people +ent to ot#er peoples,
but also appeared aong t#e sons o' Ital&an &ntellectuals d&rected t#e&r
e''orts at un&t&ng t#e country, 'or&ng a s&ngle &deology and
deter&nat&on o' t#e #&g#er &nterest o' t#e nat&on"
Modern C&rcass&an ental&ty #as se%eral 'eatures5
1" The concept of leadership at t#e C&rcass&ans de%o&d o' 'a&t# &n one
leader or super%&sor" ,#e C&rcass&ans are proud t#at t#ey are not under
one leader, and 'ollo+ t#e pr&nc&ple o' 1enl&g#tened anageent1,
presented by a layer o' t#e elders o' t#e nat&on, and t#at t#e un&t o'
po+er t#ey #a%e cob&nes t#e 1ar&stocracy and deocracy,1 +#&c#
eans t#e po+er o' soc&ety or people &n general - #ence t#ere &s no
subord&nat&on o' t#e&r o+n leaders or leader" ,yp&cally, d&''erent nat&ons
o' t#e&r glor&ous ac#&e%eents are &ne0tr&cably l&n)ed +&t# t#e naes o'
nat&onal leaders and c#&e's" At t#e sae C&rcass&an Malu) #&story and
soe ot#er sall states assoc&ated +&t# t#e naes o' t#e c#&e's and
pr&nces, +#o +ere able to rally t#e C&rcass&ans under &ts banner and
br&ng t#e 'ae and glory" And #ere you can tal) about t#e '&rst
'eature o' C&rcass&an ental&ty - naely, t#at t#e c&rcustances
surround&ng t#e e0puls&on and catastrop#e o' 1-./, led to a d&storted
%&e+ o' t#e C&rcass&ans &n t#e essence o' anageent and leaders#&p"
Instead o' leaders#&p, represented by people &ntell&gent and +&se,
C&rcass&an peoples becae rule t#e cro+d" A'ter t#e 'all o' C&rcass&a &n
1-./ and began t#e ass deportat&on o' t#e Russ&an aut#or&t&es #a%e
begun t#e process o' Russ&'&cat&on, +#&c# eant a c#ange o' ental&ty
and C&rcass&an C&rcass&an &dent&ty Russ&an ental&ty and Russ&an
&dent&ty and g&%&ng C&rcass&an terr&tor&es o' Russ&an pa&nt&ng" =ne
eans o' ac#&e%&ng t#ese ob3ect&%es &s t#e &pos&t&on o' t#e leaders o'
t#e people 'ro t#e outs&de - groups or &nd&%&duals loyal to+ards t#e
&n%aders" ,#ese people #a%e rece&%ed support and '&nanc&al strengt# to
ta)e a leaders#&p pos&t&on &n t#e C&rcass&an coun&t&es, and as soon
.2
as &t +as poss&ble to do t#e latter-day leaders began to pursue t#e
&nterests o' t#ose +#o rated t#e" ,#&s e0pla&ns t#e pol&cy o' t#e
current Russ&an aut#or&t&es a&ed at t#e e0puls&on, abandonent and
%&ct&&;at&on o' nat&onal leaders +#o re3ect cooperat&on +&t# t#e - a
pol&cy t#at began &n t#e past and cont&nues to t#&s day" In a s&&lar
s&tuat&on +ere C&rcass&an coun&t&es and countr&es o' e0&le, +#ere
t#ey +ere &posed by anagers, d&rectly re'lect&ng t#e &nterests o'
ot#ers and not represent&ng t#e +&ll o' t#e C&rcass&an people &n t#ese
countr&es" ,#e %ery syste o' go%ernent &n C&rcass&an soc&ety, t#e
de'eat o' 1-./ and Russ&an pol&t&cs - t#ree 'actors t#at contr&bute to
t#e el&&nat&on o' C&rcass&an top o' t#e soc&al pyra&d and &ts
replaceent by a no&sy cro+d, +#&c# led to t#e destruct&on o' t#e top,
and a'ter #& - t#e decopos&t&on o' t#e people"
2" Dependence and allegiance. Apparent contrad&ct&on deonstrates
t#e a3or&ty o' t#e C&rcass&an people about t#e %ery &dea o'
go%ernent5 proud t#at once t#e&r ancestors ruled t#e 'ar outs&de o'
t#e&r country, t#ey at t#e sae t&e re%eals t#at #&s country #as
al+ays l&%ed under a 'ore&gn po+er and 'ollo+ t#e &nstruct&ons o'
ot#ers" C&rcass&an Malu) proud o' t#e board and d&scusses t#e causes
o' al&enat&on C&rcass&ans 'ro po+er at certa&n stages o' #&story &n
e0&le, suc# as &n ,ur)ey, but #e ne%er tal)s about +#o &s r&g#t &n #&s
o+n #oeland" ,#at &s, t#e C&rcass&ans &n one 'or or anot#er agree
+&t# t#e &dea o' a 'ore&gn po+er, &n +#ate%er role or +ere t#ey - t#e
rulers and t#e go%erned, but re3ect t#e &dea t#at t#e C&rcass&ans
anaged by t#esel%es"
:" Coexistence and merging. It &s not&ced t#at t#e C&rcass&ans &s 'ast
adaptab&l&ty to en%&ronental soc&al en%&ronent, but t#at t#e&r 1g&'t1
#as t#e d&sad%antage, as an unl&&ted, due to +#at #e calls t#e ot#er,
a dangerous p#enoenon - t#e d&ssolut&on and erger" In t#e absence
o' educat&on &n t#e sp&r&t o' nat&onal&s and nat&onal co&tent to
t#e &dea o' C&rcass&ans d&d not real&;e t#e &portance to relat&ons +&t#
ot#er nat&ons +ere based on &nteract&on, but &n copl&ance +&t# t#e
easures, espec&ally because &n ost countr&es, t#ey represent a
&nor&ty" For e0aple, an ord&nary C&rcass&an not understand #o+
&portant &t &s to l&%e &n an area populated by soe C&rcass&ans,
espec&ally &n e0&le, +#&le ot#er &nor&t&es tend to copact l&%&ng, not to
lose t#e&r language, trad&t&ons and culture" Densely populated by
nat&onal &nor&t&es &n a part&cular area g&%es &t a sort o' deograp#&c
+e&g#t, soc&al s&gn&'&cance, guarantees t#e preser%at&on o' r&g#ts" A
c#aracter&st&c 'eature o' any C&rcass&an coun&t&es &n t#e
deportat&on &s t#at t#e&r ebers do not #a%e anyt#&ng aga&nst t#e
sale o' t#e&r #oe or land and o%e to anot#er locat&on, e%en &' soe
o' t#e +&ll be t#ere only representat&%e o' #&s nat&on - &n contrast to
.@
t#e ot#er coun&t&es, pre'err&ng to l&%e toget#er &n certa&n areas and
re'use to sell t#e&r #oes to ot#er nat&onal&t&es" ,#rust C&rcass&ans to
e0cess&%e erger +&t# t#e outs&de +orld led to t#e ental&ty t#at
C&rcass&an +as under 'ore&gn &n'luence, and t#e 'act t#at t#e a3or&ty
o' t#e C&rcass&ans are a &nor&ty, #a%e accelerated t#e &ne%&table &n t#&s
case, t#e processes o' d&ssolut&on and e0t&nct&on"
/" Indifference. 9ac) o' educat&on &n t#e sp&r&t o' nat&onal&s led to a
C&rcass&an people &nd&''erent to any t#&ngs t#at #a%e &nsp&red people
o' any ot#er des&re 'or re%enge, espec&ally t#ose l&%&ng &n e0&le" >ut
ord&nary C&rcass&an, 'or e0aple, do not +orry +#en #&s ancestral lands
>al)ars dec&de to pass, #e &s &nd&''erent to t#e =lyp&cs &n Soc#& and
t#e assass&nat&on o' nat&onal leaders &n C#er)ess)" *e &s not eas&ly
angered, and do&ng not#&ng or +#en #ear&ng about t#e attac) o'
?arac#ay young people o' C&rcass&an et#n&c&ty, nor +#en a Russ&an g&rl
t#&n)s t#at t#e C&rcass&an coast &s actually a Russ&an, nor about any
ot#er s&tuat&ons o' t#&s )&nd" >ecause t#e lac) o' educat&on 'or a
#ealt#y nat&onal&s a)es t#e C&rcass&an people #elpless, &nert,
&nd&''erent to &ssues relat&ng to t#e d&gn&ty o' t#e nat&on and o''end &ts
past and &ts &deals"
@" C&rcass&an ental&ty &s also c#aracter&;ed by the inability of the
definition of what constitutes the highest national interest - due to lac)
o' essent&al, 'undaental &dea, +#&c# +ould pull toget#er all t#e
representat&%es o' t#e nat&on, as &s t#e case +&t# ot#er nat&ons" In t#&s
regard, &t &s e0treely &portant to beg&n to &dent&'y probles 'ac&ng
t#e C&rcass&an peoples, and to 'orulate &ts nat&onal asp&rat&ons and
ab&t&ons t#roug# t#e ans+er to t#e 2uest&on5 18#at do t#e
C&rcass&ans41 At '&rst glance t#e 2uest&on ay see d&''&cult - 'or t#e
s&ple reason t#at t#e C&rcass&an people lost t#e ab&l&ty to respond to,
or, ore prec&sely - t#e ab&l&ty to de%elop a clear strategy to deter&ne
t#e&r o+n 'uture" C&rcass&an nat&on #as &ts o+n &deology, &t lost &ts
&dent&ty and s#ould be around 'or t#e ot#er, and ne&t#er C&rcass&an not
able to ans+er t#e 2uest&on, +#at &s t#e supree &nterest - or best
&nterests - &ts people" As t#ere are no C&rcass&an organ&;at&on able to
&dent&'y t#ose &nterests to t#e 'ullest e0tent t#at &n today<s ebull&ent
and ult&'aceted real&ty ra&ses a natural 2uest&on5 &' +e apply t#e ter
1nat&on1 to t#e C&rcass&ans, t#ey do not )no+ +#at t#e&r #&g#er
purpose, and +&t#out t#e organ&;at&on +or)&ng on t#e&r
ac#&e%eent4 In response to a 2uest&on about t#e d&''&cult&es 'ac&ng t#e
C&rcass&an people, you get a long l&st o' probles, and t#at<s
'&ne" Abnoral &s t#e only t#&ng t#at all t#ese probles are e2ually
#&g# pr&or&ty, and eac# o' t#e #as &ts ad#erents, and cons&ders &t an
&portant pr&or&ty" I' you as) t#e abo%e 2uest&on, t#e representat&%e o'
anot#er nat&on +&t# a s&&lar 'ate +&t# a C&rcass&an &n ters o' t#e
./
struggle 'or sur%&%al and preser%at&on o' nat&onal &dent&ty, #&s response
+ould &nd&cate t#e consensus o' t#e asp&rat&ons and e0pectat&ons o' t#e
un&ty o' t#&s nat&on" I' you as) t#e ?urds l&%&ng &n t#e #oeland or &n
e0&le, +#at &s t#e&r nat&onal proble, you +&ll say5 1?urd&stan"1 I' you
as), +#at &s t#e #&g#est goal and drea o' t#e ?urd&s# nat&on, you
aga&n +&ll ans+er5 1?urd&stan"1 I' you as) a s&&lar 2uest&on to
Aren&ans &n t#e #oeland or &n e0&le, t#e ans+er &s 1recogn&t&on o'
t#e Aren&an !enoc&de and Aren&a"1 I' you as) t+o 2uest&ons
ent&oned se%ero&rlandtsa, &n response, +e #ear t#at t#e&r nat&onal
proble &s, 'or e0aple, 'or >r&ta&n to t#e, and - 1+e +ant to #a%e
t#e&r o+n &ndependent state"1 =' course, bet+een t#e C&rcass&ans and
t#ese nat&ons t#ere are d&''erences &n any aspects, but t#e general
conclus&on &s5 e%ery nat&on #as &ts o+n bas&c, central &ssue, t#e
supree nat&onal &nterest, on +#&c# t+o op&n&ons can not be, and t#&s
&nterest &s dr&%en by 'eel&ngs and dest&n&es o' t#e people and
deter&nes &ts leaders" And +#en t#e leaders#&p are people +#o do not
s#are t#&s ult&ate goal and not +or)&ng to sol%e a3or probles, t#&s
gu&de &s deposed and declared &llegal"
." In t#e absence o' pros%es#ennogo, s)&lled anageent, as +ell as
uncerta&nty o%er +#et#er +#at &s t#e supree nat&onal &nterest, t#e
C&rcass&an people #a%e becoe &n 'act a collection of the Circassian
peoples. A'ter t#e e0puls&on and settleent &n t#e M&ddle Aast, ,ur)ey,
Aurope and Aer&ca eac# o' t#e C&rcass&an coun&t&es &nto a s&ngle
nat&on, and e%ery C&rcass&an d&aspora #as de%eloped &ts o+n ental&ty
and &ts o+n &deology, #&s 'ace, +or)ed out t#e&r asp&rat&ons, #opes and
goals" Many C&rcass&an coun&t&es +ere strongly &n'luenced by soc&al
en%&ronent, and coon &n t#e C&rcass&an coun&t&es &n d&''erent
countr&es #a%e only a nae" ,#ese coun&t&es #a%e l&ttle &nterest &n
suc# a t#&ng as a supree nat&onal &nterests o' t#e C&rcass&an people &n
general" Plural&ty C&rcass&an 1persons1 and &deolog&cal pos&t&ons +as
one o' t#e 'actors t#at contr&buted to t#e decl&ne o' C&rcass&an nat&onal
&deology, and led to t#e current state o' apparent c#aos and
d&sun&ty" ,#e leaders o' t#e %ar&ous C&rcass&an coun&t&es #a%e ne%er
tr&ed to '&nd anot#er coon, un&'y&ng concern, and &t can be argued
t#at t#e C&rcass&an leaders played an &portant role &n t#e per%ers&on
o' t#e C&rcass&an and t#e ental&ty o' t#e asses a+ay 'ro
understand&ng t#e ult&ate goal o' people"
B" ,#e proble o' ad#erence to t#e C&rcass&an #oeland, +#&c# &n t#e
case o' t#e C&rcass&ans can be de'&ned as 1a plurality of the
homeland," - anot#er d&st&nct&%e 'eature o' C&rcass&an ental&ty" I' all
t#e nat&ons o' t#e +orld<s pra&se and copose odes to t#e&r #oeland,
e%en &n t#ose t&es +#en s#e &s &n a deplorable state and #ate t#e
e0&le and al&enat&on, t#en t#e C&rcass&ans - t#e only people glor&'y&ng a
..
'ore&gn land and cons&ders ancestral #oeland, t#oug# beaut&'ul, but -
#oe o' t#e ancestors " ,#&s &s t#e p#enoenon o' ult&pl&c&ty
#oeland, +#&c# contr&buted to t#e loss o' t#e C&rcass&ans< sel'-estee
and nat&onal 'eel&ngs" ,#&s p#enoenon #appened +#en t#e C&rcass&an
people 'ound outs&de t#e&r #oe country, e0per&enc&ng a per&od o'
e0tree depress&on" C&rcass&an pro%erb says5 18#o lost #&s #oeland,
#e lost e%eryt#&ng"1 And because e%ery nat&on #as to be #oe, and t#e
not&on o' 1people +&t#out a country1 pro%ed to be untenable and
&llog&cal, t#e C&rcass&an people dec&ded - not +&t#out #elp 'ro t#e
=ttoan and Russ&an ep&res - to replace t#e concept o' #oeland
de%ot&on and loyalty to t#e rulers, so t#at 1loyalty to t#e rulers< #as
becoe synonyous +&t# t#e 1#oeland1 and part o' t#e C&rcass&an
ental&ty" C&rcass&ans #a%e se%eral #oelands5 one - t#e ancestors,
t#e ot#er - t#e 'at#ers, t#e t#&rd - t#e sons, t#e 'ourt# - t#e grandson,
t#e '&'t# - cous&ns, etc" It can be argued t#at t#e C&rcass&an nat&on<s
'&rst 1global&;ed1 nat&on &n t#e +orld, as &t eets all t#e cond&t&ons o'
global&;at&on5 &t cob&nes t#e p#ys&cal attr&butes s#ould be only #uan
&nst&ncts, are &ncreas&ngly los&ng t#e&r o+n ental&ty """ In 'act, 3udg&ng
by t#e lo+ le%el o' nat&onal culture &n t#e C&rcass&an yout# C&rcass&an
concerned no+ only eat&ng so personal s&tuat&on" 8ell, o' course,
C&rcass&an danc&ng"
-" Circassian people - people of "philosophers." A%ery C&rcass&an - a
p#&losop#er by &tsel', &t can not be dependent on t#e ot#er, or be
+rong" $o s&ngle &dea t#at de'&nes t#e coon asp&rat&ons, goals and
plans, +#&c# ust be 'ollo+ed e%ery C&rcass&an, but eac# - a
conno&sseur o' t#e C&rcass&an &ssue +&t# #&s o+n op&n&on" ,#&s 'act led
to a state o' &deolog&cal con'us&on, and C&rcass&an are no longer attracts
t#e part&c&pat&on &n t#e o%erall +or) to ac#&e%e t#e supree &nterest o'
t#e nat&on" Moreo%er, t#e relat&ons#&p &s &nterrupted, t#e C&rcass&ans do
not #ear eac# ot#er, alt#oug# t#e ot#er l&stened +&t# great &nterest - to
rece&%e &nstruct&ons and carry t#e +&t#out copla&nt" ,#e C&rcass&ans
are no longer asters o' t#e&r 'ate, t#e solut&on o' t#&s 1&nor1 &ssue,
t#ey #a%e pro%&ded to ot#ers - t#e Russ&an Federat&on, 'or e0aple" As
a result, d&storted and lost C&rcass&an #&story" For e0aple, unt&l
recently, ent&on&ng t#e naes o' soe C&rcass&an pr&nces around
+#&c# once rall&ed t#e nat&on, suc# as ?abarda, Inal, and ot#ers +ere
banned because o' d&sagreeents bet+een t#e C&rcass&ans t#esel%es
about t#e&r or&g&n5 soe cons&der t#e t#e Ab)#a;&ans, +#&le ot#ers -
t#e Russ&an and etc" And &' 'ru&tless con%ersat&on called 1>y;ant&ne
d&spute1, t#e C&rcass&ans &n t#&s case 'ar e0ceeded t#e >y;ant&nes
t#esel%es"
(" 8e can say t#at Circassians are tied to its history, "negative-
selective manner. ,#ey e0tol #&s ac#&e%eents 'ar beyond t#e&r
.1
#oeland but are not 'luent &n t#e #&story o' t#e&r o+n country and
nat&onal culture" For e0aple, all t#e C&rcass&ans #a%e #eard about t#e
C&rcass&an Maelu)es and t#e&r #ero&c deeds, but 'e+ o' t#e can
nae t#e popular leaders, becae 'aous dur&ng t#e Russ&an-
C&rcass&an 8ar"
10" Circassians do not listen to each other. As bet+een t#esel%es,
t#ey are #ard and &n'le0&ble, &n 'ru&tless d&scuss&ons an&'ested t#e&r
+#ole p#&losop#&cal g&'t and ab&l&ty to +&n &n any d&spute" ,#ere &s a
+#ole ary o' C&rcass&ans - asters turn any con%ersat&on, espec&ally &'
&t relates to nat&onal &ssues &n a d&spute about anyt#&ng" Most
C&rcass&ans ad#eres to t#e pr&nc&ple 1t#at one +#o louder %o&ce,1 and
people +&t# strong s&ps and strong %ocal c#ords occupy a lead&ng
pos&t&on &n t#e C&rcass&an soc&ety"
11" Circassian dances and songs. In one o' t#e progras s#o+n on
C#annel Rus&a al-yau, %o&ced t#e op&n&on t#at t#e young C&rcass&an
e0presses &ts nat&onal &dent&ty, e&t#er by danc&ng or s&ng&ng or play&ng
t#e nat&onal &nstruent """ ,#&s %&e+ &s +&despread aong t#e
C&rcass&ans as t#e #oeland, and &n e0&le"In %&e+ o' t#e any 'actors
assoc&ated +&t# +ar and e0&le, a representat&%e o' t#e C&rcass&an et#n&c
began to a%o&d tal)&ng about #&s #oeland and nat&onal &dent&ty, s&nce
t#&s &s not t#e leg&t&ate +&nner &n t#e #oe ode, and ass&&lat&on&st
pol&c&es &n t#e countr&es o' e0&le" An'orced s&lence o''set by danc&ng and
s&ng&ng as t#e only +ay to sa%e e%en a sall part o' t#e&r culture,
+&t#out caus&ng resentent o' ot#ers"Fear and sel'-decept&on - t#at &s
+#at &s be#&nd t#e e0cess&%e glor&'&cat&on o' dance and dancers" ,#e
'act t#at t#e nat&onal 'lag o' t#e '&gure o' arro+s - t#e +eapons o' +ar,
sybol&;&ng t#e po+er at all t&es - replac&ng t#e '&gure o' a danc&ng
C&rcass&an, #as daaged t#e nat&onal d&gn&ty o' t#e C&rcass&ans" Is &t
per&ss&ble to dance becoes t#e core o' nat&onal e0press&on 'or t#e
people, #a%&ng a .-year #&story4
12" In t#&s age o' global&;at&on Circassian thiner or an &ntellectual, +as
to occupy &n soc&ety &n'er&or pos&t&on" ,#e lead&ng place +as t#e o+ner
o' t#e cap&tal, a an +&t# &n'luence, and t#&s +as t#e deter&n&ng
pr&nc&ple to ser%e &n t#e C&rcass&an ental&ty" I' any o' t#e peoples
and nat&ons o+e t#e&r de%elopent o' t#e appearance o' &ts o+n
t#&n)ers and &ntellectuals, to +#&c# t#ere are any e0aples, t#e
C&rcass&an soc&ety as suc# #as no place" Re'ers to t#e &nd&%&dual,
broug#t up &n t#e nat&onal sp&r&t and t#&n)&ng on a nat&onal scale,
because t#e educated lot C&rcass&ans, but 'e+ o' t#e are ready to
ser%e t#e coon cause, and t#ey are ostly elderly people +#o start
to s#o+ &nterest &n nat&onal &ssues at end o' l&'e" ,#&s s&tuat&on &s not
conduc&%e to &dent&'y&ng people +#o deeply understand t#e essence o'

t#e C&rcass&an proble and purpose'ully engaged &n &t, +#&c# depr&%es
t#e C&rcass&an t#oug#t t#e eleent o' 'orce and a)es &t dependent on
t#ose &ntellectuals +#o are C&rcass&ans 1suddenly1"
1:" Pol&t&cs" Apparently, #ere l&es t#e a&n reason 'or t#e &nab&l&ty to
sao%o;ro;#den&yu C&rcass&an ental&ty and see)&ng solut&ons to
related probles" Pol&t&cs - taboo +ord 'or t#e C&rcass&ans, caus&ng
terror &n t#e&r souls" Fear so+n by ot#ers - t#at #e &s respons&ble 'or
t#e current state o' &deolog&cal decadence and lo+-le%el leaders#&p &n
t#e C&rcass&an coun&ty" Fear o' pol&t&cal act&%&ty #as been and
rea&ns t#e per'ect e0cuse 'or abandon&ng any act&on +&t# nat&onal
'ocus, and 'ocus on t#e +rong d&rect&on - proot&ng a culture and
'ol)lore - a case t#at ay not #a%e pos&t&%e results, +#&le not 'raed &n
t#e proper pol&t&cal 'rae" $e&t#er at #oe nor &n e0&le C&rcass&ans d&d
not #a%e su''&c&ent opportun&t&es to tal) about pol&t&cs or do&ng &t, and
+e can say t#at t#e C&rcass&ans bloc)ed an &portant source o'
&deolog&cal &nsp&rat&on - t#e pol&t&cal culture" C&rcass&ans d&d not #a%e
t#e pol&t&cal culture" ,#ere &s no ec#an&s 'or e''ect&%e representat&on
and e0press&on o' t#e +&ll o' t#e people #ere - a state o' con'us&on and
unconsc&ousness, &n +#&c# res&de t#e C&rcass&ans today" C&rcass&ans
s#ould 'ocus &ts e''orts on pol&t&cal act&%&t&es" And #ere &t s#ould be
understood t#at t#e pol&t&cal act&%&t&es, +#&c# 'or years #as been 'or
t#e under a ban, does not &ply a clas# or con'l&ct +&t# ot#ers,
eans restor&ng order &ns&de - &n a +ay t#at +ould guarantee t#e
reo%al o' rando people 'ro t#e aut#or&t&es and +ould ensure t#e
recogn&t&on o' t#e leg&t&acy o' t#e C&rcass&ans t#e&r nat&onal leaders"
In conclus&on, t#e a&n d&''&culty &n t#e re#ab&l&tat&on o' t#e C&rcass&an
leaders &s not to pro%e a lo+ le%el o' t#e current leaders#&p, because to
do so &s a snap" ,#e d&''&culty l&es &n re-educat&on o' t#e &gnorant &n
nat&onal &ssues aong t#esel%es ost o' t#e C&rcass&ans" 8#en you
see a group o' enl&g#tened C&rcass&ans, r&g#t-or&ented nat&onal and
&deolog&cal ters, no leaders#&p &s unable to e0plo&t t#e&r s&tuat&on and
to proote ot#er people<s &deas at t#e e0pense o' #&s people, not t#e
r&s) o' be&ng d&sgraced and #eld accountable" And &t +&ll be t#e
beg&nn&ng to+ards t#e re#ab&l&tat&on o' t#e C&rcass&an leaders#&p, and &n
t#e 'uture - re%&%al o' C&rcass&an nat&on +&t# a ne+ ental&ty, t#e
rele%ant re2u&reents o' t#e current s&tuat&on"
!nd of part " of article "The Circassian ideology."
Ali Keshtov
Translated by A. Kerashev
! www.eLot.ru
Ali Keshtov - #ordanian political analyst and writer, author of a
1?
number of analytical materials in $rabic, which is dedicated mainly to
developments taing place in the Circassian world. In %&&' he
defended his master(s thesis at the )niversity of #ordan and holds a
*aster of +olitical ,cience. Thesis entitled "The internal conflict in the
-orth Caucasus Circassian territories. $ study and analysis /"''"-
%&&01" was one of the few papers devoted to studying the political
aspects of the Circassian issue. $. 2eshtov actively cooperates with the
Circassian internet sites are, in particular, the editor
circassianews.com. 3is analytical articles receive wide response in the
$rabic-speaing environment, Circassian, some of them out in the
translation into other languages. 4rom his published articles. "The
vision of today(s Circassian reality," ,ochi will Circassian, "" 5n the
congress held in *aiop 2hasa, "" 5n the day of accession of the
6epublic of $dygea .... between life and the withering away "," ,orry,
but the Circassians are not stupid, " ")ncertain 6ussian statements and
research" and others.
Circassian (ationalism and the Internet
Ñeynel Abidin 7esleney >* <ay >?*?
!ub3ects
Internet
International politics
Conflict
Russia
russia Ä eurasia
russia
conflicts
postso"iet
Internal
1*
&istory
Conflict
Circassian communities are scattered throughout the (orth Caucasus and the diaspora is
spread throughout the world. =n the day of Circassian Genocide and -$ile Ñeynel
Abidin 7esleney e$amines the role played by the internet as a lifeline lin)ing otherwise
isolated acti"ists and communities and reinforcing the Circassian nationalist cause
About the author
9r Ñeynel Abidin 7esleney is engaged in the study of Circassian nationalism
In recent years nationalism studies ha"e been paying increasing attention perhaps rightly
to the impact of the internet on "arious ethnic groups national identities and diasporas.
The internet facilitates trans-national communication between scattered communities
beyond the geographical and political restrictions imposed by nation states national
institutions or by international borders. The internet is an important communication tool
not only for the Circassian diaspora scattered all around the world but also for
Circassians li"ing in their homeland. This article focuses on the use of the internet by a
new breed of Circassian acti"ists in the (orthwest Caucasus. 7ut before loo)ing at the
e$tent to which the Circassian acti"ists ma)e use of the internet in disseminating their
messages and organi'ing their political pro3ects perhaps a brief introduction as to who
the Circassians are might be of some help to o"ercome confusions committed e"en by
"eteran academics and policy-ma)ers.
&istorical 7ac)ground
The Circassians are one of the indigenous peoples of the (orth West Caucasus. Their
self-appellation is Adyge and they are titular nations in the republics of Adygeya
6arachay-Cher)essia and 6abardino-7al)aria. !maller numbers of them are also found
in ad3acent Russian regions. Circassians as much scattered in their homeland as in
diaspora li"e in se"eral constituent units of the Russian 8ederation +R8, that are cut off
from each other both geographically and administrati"ely. According to the >??> Russian
population census there were a total of .>???? Circassians li"ing in the Russian
8ederation at the time.
In both the !o"iet and post-!o"iet periods the terminology used in Russian academia and
the administrati"e structures to define the Circassians was somewhat inconsistent. The
!o"iets defined them as Adygean +ÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÔ, Cher)ess +ÙÖÚÛÖÜÔ, 6abardian
+ÝÞßÞÚÓàáØÔ, and !hapsough +âÞãÜäÕà, depending on their place of residence and the
dialect of the Circassian language spo)en.
The first of these terms is a deri"ation from the Circassian self-designation. The second is
the pre-!o"iet e$onym in Russian while the third and fourth terms are the names of two
Circassian sub-groups. The post-!o"iet Russian administrations ha"e carried on with this
terminology but in recent years the Adyge themsel"es ha"e begun to ad"ocate the
official use of Circassian to denote their unity as one people. In fact some Circassian
acti"ists are currently running a campaign for that ob3ecti"e in the upcoming All-Russian
population census which is planned for =ctober >?*?.
1>
!ource http¹¹commons.wi)imedia.org¹wi)i¹8ileCaucasus-politicalÁen.s"g
The Circassian diaspora came about as a result of the Russian -mpire%s conquest of the
(orthwest Caucasus in the*1/?s when appro$imately a million people were forcibly
remo"ed from their land and deported to the =ttoman -mpire. #p to a third perished
from hunger and disease in the Russian controlled coastal areas before their departure on
o"ercrowded ships or in refugee camps on their arri"al in Anatolia and the 7al)ans. The
descendants of those who sur"i"ed the ordeal which Circassians and an increasing
number of scholars and 3ournalists call the åCircassian Genocideæ currently number
around 0 million in Tur)ey and 0????? elsewhere in !yria çordan Israel the #!A and
the Western -urope.
While all )inds of political acti"ists are utili'ing the internet intensi"ely in the
contemporary (orthwest Caucasus my attention here is drawn to the re-emerging secular
Circassian nationalist acti"ists. 8or the past few years they ha"e been hea"ily present on
the internet not only to obtain and disseminate news about the Circassian world but also
to propagate their manifesto and to debate and analy'e old and new te$ts Ä boo)s dealing
with "arious aspects of Circassian history and politics - a practice that has a "isible
impact on their political manifesto.
Circassian (ationalist <o"ement+s,
The first wa"e of Circassian nationalist acti"ism appeared in the glasnost Ä perestroi)a
years and pea)ed in the early *¯¯?s during èeltsin%s reign. It gained popular support and
became a potent actor in the struggle for power in the early post-!o"iet era. This was
helped in no small measure by the participation of up to two thousand Circassian
"olunteers in the Georgian-Ab)ha'ian War of *¯¯>-¯0 on the side of the Ab)ha' who
are ethnically "ery close to them. <ost of the demands of the nationalists were heard and
acted upon by the local and central authorities with the e$ception of 6arachay-
Cher)essia where they were in the minority and loc)ed in a struggle for power with the
6arachay. 8or instance Adygeya%s status was upgraded to a republic4 mechanisms for
administrati"e parity between Circassians and Russians were put in place e"en though
Circassians only constituted >>¼ of the population. Circassian elites dominated the
political scene in 6abardino-7al)aria and the citi'enship process was made easy for
returnee diasporans.
In time howe"er former local bureaucratic elites who by then had already adapted to
post-!o"iet conditions and firmly restored themsel"es to positions of power absorbed
these nationalist mo"ements into the establishment. After éutin became éresident the
largest organisation the International Circassian Association +ICA, was gradually ta)en
o"er by the functionaries of the go"erning 6abardian +Circassians of 6abardino-7al)aria,
10
elites. 7y the end of >??? some of the leading members who refused to be co-opted
including Ibragim èagano" and êalery 6hata'hu)o" had been eliminated from the
political scene lea"ing no functioning independent nationalist organisations.
The 8irst Chechen War of *¯¯2-¯/ also had a negati"e impact on the o"erall political
en"ironment in the whole of the (orth Caucasus including the Circassian part. êarious
religious mo"ements began to fill the social "acuum that had been created first by the
collapse of the !o"iet order and then by the diminishing appeal of nationalism. -specially
in 6abardino-7al)aria where an Islamic mo"ement began to ta)e root amongst the
Circassians. Indiscriminate police brutality and political oppression at the hands of the
local security structures radicali'ed the followers who were mostly alienated youngsters
affected by social issues such as alcohol and drug abuse a brea)down of moral "alues
and lac) of career prospects locally. Their frustration was gal"ani'ed by the leaders of the
mo"ement into ma)ing the Islamists a formidable contender "is a "is the official
structures for respect and authority in society. &owe"er after the fateful e"ents in
(alchi) in =ctober >??@ the Islamists began to lose support and a new breed of
nationalist organisations began to appear on the scene.
9espite the fact that some of the current leading figures in the Circassian nationalist
mo"ement are "eterans of early *¯¯?s acti"ism the bul) of the current acti"ists are by
and large new to the scene. They are typically aged between *1 and >1 and unli)e the
"eterans ha"e no memories of the war in Ab)ha'ia. When it comes to political issues
they are unrestrained by the traditionally unquestioned authority of the elders in
Circassian society. ëast but not least they are professional and prolific internet users.
There are currently two ma3or acti"ist groupings in Circassian politics in the (orthwest
Caucasus
=rganisations that are part of the International Circassian Association +ICA, the ICA
which was founded in *¯¯* is actually an umbrella organisation comprising the main
Circassian organisations of the time in the Caucasus and in the diaspora in Tur)ey
-urope the #!A !yria and çordan. It was "ery influential during the war in Ab)ha'ia in
*¯¯>-¯0 and then in 6arachay-Cher)essia during the political power struggle in *¯¯1-¯¯
between the 6arachay and Circassians.
After coming under the full control of the pro-<oscow 6abardian elites in >??? the ICA
leaders ha"e repeatedly stated that they no longer want to engage in political matters and
are merely concerned with the cultural and linguistic needs of the community. &owe"er
of late the Adyge 6hases ìíÞÜî ;assembly edï in Adygeya and 6arachay-Cher)essia
under the respecti"e leaderships of Arambi 6hapai and <u)hammed Cher)eso" ha"e
begun acti"ely engaging in ethnic politics. Their position on political issues such as the
unification of Circassian republics or the Circassian Genocide thus differs greatly from
the official position of the ICA of which both organisations are members.
The !econd Generation of Circassian Acti"ists it may be misleading to call these
organisations second generation because some of their leading figures actually belong to
the earlier generation of the acti"ists of the *¯¯?s. I use this term as they now ha"e a
different follower base pursue different recruitment strategies and are "ery )een to
engage with international political actors for their cause all of which distinguishes them
from the ICA.
åThe Cher)ess Congressæ åèouth 6haseæ and å6haseæ in Adygeya 6arachay-
Cher)essia and 6abardino-7al)aria come into this category as all of them ha"e come into
being in the last decade. In general they were born out of frustration with established
organisations and their percei"ed political inacti"ity. The leading figures are Ruslan
12
6eshe" Ibragim èagano" <urat 7er'ego" and 8atima Tliso"a. The last two ha"e
recently mo"ed to the #! after being repeatedly sub3ected to threats and physical attac)s
for their political and 3ournalistic acti"ities.
The current political issues of concern to contemporary Circassian acti"ists are
>?*2 Winter =lympics in !ochi there is a broadly accepted perception amongst the
Circassians that !ochi was the last stronghold of the Circassians in their resistance to the
Russian -mpire%s conquest of historical Circassia. As such it holds a significant place in
the collecti"e Circassian consciousness. 8or this reason there was indignation at éutin%s
speech to the International =lympics Committee in çuly >??. he listed the ancient
Gree)s 6ol)hi and Cossac)s amongst the former inhabitants of !ochi but failed to ma)e
any mention at all of the Circassians. 8urthermore the Russian =lympic Committee too)
a Cossac) dance troupe to the êancou"er =lympics to represent the culture of the 6uban
region where !ochi is located. Circassians historically consider the Cossac)s were agents
of *¯th century Russian Imperialism who played a pi"otal role in the demise of historical
Circassia so this was 3ust adding insult to in3ury.
There ha"e been three distinct Circassian approaches to the issue of holding the Winter
=lympics in !ochi declared by éresident <ed"ede" to be a åRussian (ational éro3ectæ.
!ome organisations such as the Cher)ess Congress want the Games cancelled. They
claim that the =lympics cannot be held on land where thousands of Circassians were
)illed in the Russo-Circassian War and that >?*2 is the *@?th anni"ersary of what they
call åthe Circassian Genocideæ.
!ome other groups including the Adyge 6hase of Adygeya and many intellectuals and
academics in the Circassian world want increased and "isible Circassian participation
mirroring the role of (orth American and Australian nati"es in past =lympics.
The third approach was until recently that of the ICA and officialdom in the Circassian
republics and reflected the general Russian position that there should be no special
Circassian dimension at all.
(onetheless a campaign of increased publicity mounted by the other groups in recent
months has somehow forced the ICA and its member organisations towards a gradual
acceptance of the second approach. The Adygean éarliament made an appeal to the
Russian Go"ernment in <arch this year for the inclusion of what they called a
åCircassian cultural elementæ in the =lympics. -"en Ale$ander 6hloponin the first
appointed head of the newly-created (orth Caucasus 8ederal 9istrict said recently that
the Games should ha"e a Caucasian dimension gi"en that there has been none at all in
the preparatory discussions o"er the past three years.
The issue of åCircassian Genocideæ there are many Circassian acti"ist groupings that
want the tragic e"ents of the *¯th century to be recogni'ed as genocide against the
Circassian nation by the Russian -mpire. To put it rightly there is an almost uni"ersal
agreement across the whole spectrum of Circassian communities and organisations on the
concept of the Genocide. 8urthermore the parliaments of both 6abardino-7al)aria and
Adygeya passed laws in *¯¯> and *¯¯/ respecti"ely officially recogni'ing what they
termed åthe Circassian Genocideæ and also appealed to the Russian 9uma for such
recognition. -"en the ICA has supported it for many years at least on paper.
The issue becomes di"isi"e howe"er when organisations want to ta)e the problem to
international platforms by liaising with elements in the Circassian diaspora. A good
e$ample of this would be the protest actions of some diaspora Circassian acti"ists against
the !ochi =lympics during the last Winter =lympic Games in êancou"er. <ore recently
in <arch this year following a conference on the issue in Tbilisi an official appeal was
1@
made by some Circassians to the Georgian éarliament to recogni'e the Circassian
Genocide. The new acti"ists want to publici'e the issue where"er and howe"er possible
whereas the established or state sponsored organisations want a more subdued and
conciliatory approach "is a "is the current Russian administration.
éroblems with the 8ederal Centre the republican status of Adygeya is a cause of friction
between Circassians and the federal centre as <oscow seems to ha"e made plans to
merge it with 6rasnodar 6rai in which Adygeya is an encla"e. The last time this issue
came to the fore in earnest was in >??@ when thousands of protesters too) to the streets
in <ai)op the capital of Adygeya. As an alternati"e many Circassian acti"ists though
not the ICA demand the creation of a single Circassian republic within the R8
comprising Circassian inhabited lands in the (orthwest Caucasus.
Issues Circassian acti"ists currently ha"e with <oscow are
the erosion of federalism and the diminished political autonomy of the Circassian
republics under éutin%s administration4
the abolition of presidential elections4
the lac) of local independent representation4
the remo"al from passports of sections in non-Russian languages4
forced changes to republican constitutions4
a general lac) of freedom of e$pression and democratic rights.
Inter-ethnic Issues in the 9ual Republics there are serious conflicts between Circassians
and the <ountain Tur)s +6arachay-7al)ars, in both 6arachay-Cher)essia and
6abardino-7al)aria o"er political power and ownership of certain strips of land both
historically and currently which ha"e destabili'ed these republics for the past >? years.
There ha"e been calls from Circassians for separation from 6arachay-Cher)essia and for
the reinstatement in the form of a republic of the Circassian Autonomous =blast which
e$isted before *¯@.. Con"ersely some 7al)ar organisations ha"e repeatedly "oiced their
desire to secede from 6abardino-7al)aria in order to establish a 7al)ar republic.
Repatriation of the Circassian 9iaspora almost all Circassian organisations support this
idea. They want the modern Russian state to ac)nowledge responsibility for the historical
in3ustice the Circassians suffered at the hands of its predecessor the Russian -mpire. To
this end they consider that <oscow should gi"e the Circassian diaspora special rights and
some financial assistance to enable them to return to their historical homeland. In the
early *¯¯?s the Circassian republics had specific laws co"ering the return of the diaspora.
These were amended recently to comply with Russian federal laws remo"ing the
Circassian diaspora%s special status in the process. Without this status "ery few foreign
Circassians will want to obtain citi'enship and settle in the Circassian republics.
There certainly are other issues but there is a broad consensus on the importance of these.
The Internet and Circassian Acti"ism
The new generation of Circassian acti"ists uses the internet in much the same way as
other social groupings do all around the world. &owe"er what is significant in their case
is the le"el of reliance on the internet for this form of acti"ism to operate. =ne reason for
this is that con"entional communication lin)s between Adygeya 6arachay-Cher)essia
and 6abardino-7al)aria ha"e always been and still are "ery poor which results in the
isolation of Circassian communities from one another. This is coupled with a lac) of
Circassian-specific media outlets such as Tê newspapers and political 3ournals co"ering
all these republics without being sub3ect to any censorship or political pressure. Those
that e$ist can only toe the local go"ernment line and do not offer platforms for new ideas
or free debate. <any e"ents or debates that are of importance to Circassians ne"er ma)e
1/
the news in the mainstream Russian media either which itself suffers from political
pressure and censorship by the central authorities. This ma)es the internet the sole bridge
lin)ing the otherwise isolated Circassian communities and acti"ists.
The role of the internet for the new breed of acti"ists is all the more remar)able in the
light of the fact that one of the main actors in Circassian politics the ICA does not e"en
ha"e a website of its own. This is despite the fact that it is an international organisation
with members all around the world whose high le"el lin)s with official structures in the
Caucasus and the 9iaspora gi"e it considerable political weight. It is almost cut off from
the world of communication and "ery few politically-minded Circassians in either the
Caucasus or the 9iaspora actually )now what this organisation does or who its leaders
are. 7y contrast e"ery word uttered by the li)es of èagano" 6eshe" or 7er'ego" is
closely followed by thousands of young Circassians all around the world than)s to their
presence on the internet.
(eedless to say the internet is a multidimensional phenomenon but I should li)e to
highlight its three main functions for the new generation of Circassian acti"ists by using
three Circassian web portals as e$amples with their speciali'ed roles in the o"erall
picture.
* ; The internet acts as a platform offering alternati"e sources and materials on
Circassian history and politics with the specific aim of countering both the !o"iet and
post-!o"iet official historiographies. The web portal www.adygi.ru is a "ery good
e$ample of this. It is a source of old and new scholarly )nowledge on Circassians and
offers in digital format full boo)s and academic articles by *¯th century writers Western
tra"ellers or emerging Circassian researchers.
An illustration of digitally created co"ers of some of the boo)s and articles that are
a"ailable on www.adygi.ru
The significance of young Circassian acti"ists% ability to access these materials is that
their contents are in star) contrast to the Russian official historiography for Circassians.
Accounts of the *¯th century Russo-Circassian Wars by Western authors or diplomats
were banned in !o"iet times but can now be read freely on the internet. !ince printed
materials are far and few between and the Caucasus is not e$actly renowned for its large
number of boo)shops the internet pro"ides an online library of these sources.
To be fair once censorship was lifted in the early*¯¯?s local and Western scholars
began producing publications dismantling !o"iet historiography and its depiction of
Circassian resistance to the Russian -mpire. 7ut !o"iet historiography staged a curious
1.
comebac) under éutin%s administration with the official celebrations in >??. of the 2@?th
anni"ersary of the å"oluntary integration of the Circassians into Russiaæ. The celebration
itself was originally in"ented by the !o"iets in *¯@.. At that time the 2??th anni"ersary
of a Circassian prince see)ing Russian protection against his local ri"als and the Crimean
Tatars and marrying his daughter to Tsar I"an the Terrible was suddenly considered to be
å"oluntary union with Russiaæ. This ignores the fact that many wars between the Russian
Army and Circassians were fought thereafter. To counter this trend acti"ists use websites
such as adygi.ru to disseminate their own Circassian historiography. The new online
translation tools such as Google Translator are "ery useful as they enable non--nglish
spea)ing Circassians to read wor)s in -nglish too.
>- The internet is a source of current news in the absence of a Circassian >2-hour
tele"ision news channel to report current news of any significance to Circassians from
within the Circassian world or from outside it. !tatement by organisations political
debates within the Circassian world protest meetings or incidents such as large scale
inter-ethnic confrontations between 6arachay and Circassian youth in"ol"ing hundreds
on both sides can only be broadcast on the internet.
www.natpress.net is run by a professional 3ournalist from Adygeya and is one of the
online news portals with a specifically Circassian content. Its reports are regularly re-
published on other websites and forums.

&omepage of www.natpress.net
0- The internet functions as a forum where acti"ists debate what they read on the
aforementioned websites. Circassian web forums are spaces where both policy- and
decision- ma)ing ta)e place and as such they are where "irtual reality meets actual
reality. Acti"ists discuss what political actions to ta)e and once a particular action has
ta)en place an assessment process follows. This is e$actly what happened in 9ecember
>??¯ when there were mass public meetings in"ol"ing a few thousand acti"ists in
6arachay-Cher)essia and 6abardino-7al)aria. The subsequent debates on the many
forums frequented by the same acti"ists were also spiced up with the "ideos and
photographic images captured during the e"ents. Therefore in a sense the internet lin)s
theory with practice.
www.elot.ru is one of the leading web portals whose forum section is "ery popular with
Circassian acti"ists.
11
The main page of the forum section of www.elot.ru
Conclusion
8or the new breed of Circassian acti"ism the pi"otal role of the internet is not by design
but by necessity. This is not a centrali'ed process it consists of independent processes
ta)ing place both in the Caucasus and the communities in the diaspora. It is perhaps
possible to draw some parallels between the spread of print technology in the */th
century described by 7enedict Anderson as åprint capitalismæ in his Imagined
Communities and the internet in the >?th and >*st centuries in that both processes ha"e
helped brea) down the hegemony o"er )nowledge. The ceaseless flow of information has
actually brought what was pre"iously the domain of the educated few within the reach of
the layperson resulting in the widening of the potential audience for new ideas. The
internet seems to offer a lifeline to Circassian acti"ists in terms of re3u"enating their mass
appeal. #ntil the legal financial and administrati"e restrictions on the media in Russia
are eased one can assume that the internet will continue to play its crucial part for
Circassian acti"ism in the foreseeable future.
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=. èagan ¯ months ago
The perspecti"e used in the article is a rather misleading and disturbing one
I thin) the terms such as 5 nationalism5 5 circasian acti"ists5 4 as well
as conclusions drawn are pre3udgemental and far away from understanding the real issue
of Circasians e$istence struggle. Colonialist 3argons and pre-cut superficial
e"aluations do not help us to understand the essence of replenishment desire for a great
culture.
=. èagan
9enmar)
8lag
ëi)e ReplyReply
(art ¯ months ago
- It seems to me that the author ignored many other website where the same political "iew
is not shared li)e www.circassianworld.com.
- 59espite the fact that some of the current leading figures in the Circassian nationalist
mo"ement are "eterans of early *¯¯?s acti"ism the bul) of the current acti"ists are by
and large new to the scene. They are typically aged between *1 and >1 and unli)e the
"eterans ha"e no memories of the war in Ab)ha'ia.5 I:m not sure about this argument
young generation do remember Ab)ha'ia or is it a )ind of e$planation from the author
about holding a conference in Tbilisi? Ab)ha'ia and Ab)ha' are considered by
Circassian as a part of their (ati"e homeland and nation.
- 5Ab)ha' who are ethnically "ery close to them5 Circassians means Ab)ha' and
formerly #be)h as well as Adigha and all solutions presented by the International
Circassian Association +ICA, came at this way4 the Circassian +Adigha - Ab)ha', nation
so why a Circassian author will use the same western argument li)e +Ab)ha' are
ethnically and linguistically close to Circassian, or +Ab)ha' are )in nation to Circassian,
this argument is used by Western Author simply to e$plain how they show sympathy and
support to Georgia and Circassian against Russia at the same time regardless to
Ab)ha'ia.
- The Russian recognition protection of Ab)ha'ia ha"e changed the relation between
Circassian and Russian so much that it becomes dangerous to scarify Ab)ha'ia
independent for a Georgian recognition of Circassian Genocide.
- Why holding =lympic Winter Games in !ochi >?*2 a pro3ect will totally impro"e the
economical situation in Caucasus will help e"ery body in the area and will create more
opportunities for Circassian 9iaspora to return is presented as e"il pro3ect needs some
stupid show li)e two people dressing Circassian Traditional Costumes to be accepted.
-"en if Russia didn:t recogni'e our Genocide and didn:t present our history in !ochi we
can do it by oursel"es we ha"e strong I(T-R(-T Community...

8lag
ëi)e ReplyReply
¯?
èunus ¯ months ago
9o not foget about
Circassian World http¹¹circassianworld.com
and
Adyghe &e)u
http¹¹ahe)u.org or http¹¹he)u.ru
8lag
ëi)e ReplyReply
7asel 1 months ago
Circasian is a name historically used by Gree)s Russians Tur)s ArabsÐetc to describe
all the people of the (orth Caucasus regarding of there language or race. find this
from the maps of old and middle ages and during the -gyptian <amlu)s era
8lag
ëi)e ReplyReply
!os 2 months ago
(art
&ow has the Russian recognition of Ab)ha'ia 5changed the relation between Circassian
and Russian so much5? &ow ha"e conditions for Circassians +and I mean specifically
Adyghe, impro"ed. If anything they ha"e deteriorated +6lopenin:s call on Cossac)s
to 5Russify the Caucasus5 plans to transfer Circassians from Caucasus and bring in
ethnic Russians etc,. Russia wants e"eryone to belie"e that Circassian acti"ism is a
threat to Ab)ha'ia which is ridiculous. èet people li)e you continue spreading this
trash to silence any dissent against Russian policies.
Another fallacy you perpetuate is that the =lympics will help Circassians +again I mean
Adyghe, in any way politically economically or culturally. <ost of the Circassian
communities are totally cut off from !ochi. There will be no in"estment in any of the
other Republics related to the =lympics. Instead you ha"e an imposition of marshall law
to pre"ent any Circassians from publicly spea)ing out.
Its funny how Ab)ha' are considered Circassian when it helps their cause but are
Ab)a'ian when it doesn:t. Then Ab)ha' start to form their own organi'ations while
remaining in the Circassian organi'ations. (ow we see Ab)ha'ian parlimentarians
questioning the Circassian genocide and stating Circassians ha"e no right to protest the
=lympics because it was not their land +I can send you a lin) to the "ideo if you li)e,. We
can fight and lobby and die for Ab)ha'ia but it is a betrayel to spea) up for Adyghe
rights? Can Adyghes get Ab)ha'ian citi'enship as do ethnic Ab)ha'? (o they cannot.
élease ta)e your Russian propaganda someplace else.

8lag
ëi)e ReplyReply
¯*
(art 0 months ago
9ear !os
I belie"e you:"e got something wrong here I:"e ne"er considered that Circassian acti"ists
as a threat toward Ab)ha'ia I don:t e"en consider that their is a separated Ab)ha' case
from Circassians case also I don:t accept the concept that Circassians are Adighas only
and not include Ab)ha' and #by)hs. And if you are tal)ing about the conference in
Tbilisi I:"e ne"er considered the Circassians who attended it as a threat to Ab)ha'ia I
)new from the begining and from Georgian website that they openly supported Ab)ha'ia
::According to Areshid'e those Circassians attending the conference in Tbilisi fa"oured
Ab)ha'ia:s independence from Georgia::: The Georgian Times - Georgian éarliament
<ay Recognise Circassian åGenocideæ 7y 9ali 7'hala"a on >?*?.?0.>¯ **2/
I only question those Circassians: 3udgment as ha"ing a conference under the patronage
of this "ery rec)less Georgian leadership which could be used by them to destroy our
unity and belie"e me this is happening since then. ëet me here tell you that I was little bit
mista)en bac) then +the time of my pre"ious comment, as I didn:t trust my people enough
to not allow such thing to happen now I can see I was mista)en in this point at that time.
I totally agree with you that the claim that Adighians threatening Ab)ha'ia is a trash but
please don:t accuse me for doing so I didn:t bac) then and I will ne"er do it. again for me
there is Circassian who can be categori'ed for three sections Ab)ha' #by)h and
Adighians.
èou ha"e said 5Ab)ha' start to form their own organi'ations while remaining in the
Circassian organi'ations5 which mean they still belie"e they are Circassian but as we
+Adigha and Ab)ha', has different political situation now we need some different bodies
to deal with our one case from different perspecti"es these are different approaches but
that doesn:t mean different goals.
I:m familiar with many cases that some Ab)ha' has stated against Adighians either for
!ochi or for many other issues especially after Tbilisi conference as they felt offended by
holding it there and they are totally mista)en in their statements and they don:t ha"e the
right to claim that Circassians are only Adighians so !ochi +which is #by)hian:s li)e
Gagra and north Ab)ha'ia as well, doesn:t belong to them. but also there are many who
did their best to support their Adighian brothers there is an open letter from many
Ab)ha' in Ab)ha'ia send to Adigha 6hasa where they e$pressed their refusal for all such
offensi"e statements made by some Ab)ha' éarliamentarians and stated that they are
ready to die for our one case with their Adighian brothers. Arden'iba the first president of
Ab)ha'ia had many statements as a politician and researches as a historian that supported
the unity of Circassian (ation. -"en the International Circassian Association +which
many try to consider us a wea) body, always issued the letters literally under such words
In the name of the Circassian +Adighians and Ab)ha', (ation......
<y information about not gi"ing Adighians the Ab)ha'ian citi'enship is that it has been
requested from the leaders of Circassian associations in homeland as they where afraid
that such a mo"e will turn Ab)ha'ia as the only homeland of all Circassians which has
been suggested by Gerno"s)y +a political Russian leader, se"eral years ago and he went
too far to suggest to deport Adighians in (orth Caucasus to there so Russia can ha"e
more 5Russian Caucasus5 I don:t agree with them but they ha"e a point here.
Recogni'ing Ab)ha'ia by Russia had turn things toward Russia:s benefits as now they
)eep it as hostage with the West considering Ab)ha' as Russian protectorates and
¯>
playing against its interests so if in any time Russia decided to re"ise its decision they
can easily destroy the Ab)ha' power and through them under the Georgian mercy +which
we all )now how it is from the war of *¯¯>, and the West will do nothing to those how
thin) they can play +7ig (ations Game, they did nothing in *¯¯> and they did nothing
also in *1/2 so I belie"e they will do nothing again. This is why we need to be so careful
with dealing with Russia. élease note that I don:t mean to sacrifice any of our legitimate
rights in our homeland but we shouldn:t start a war that we can ne"er win and e"en if we
did it will be o"er a totally destroyed land and nation this is something Georgians openly
started to promote a georgian website called 5e$perts club5 which always present
georgian propaganda called the Ab)ha' to chose among Russiani'ing being sub3ected to
the ne$t Genocide with their Circassian brothers or to chose the path of ci"ili'ation
within Georgia. !o this is e$actly what they hope4 a new Genocide to harm Russia and
destroy Circassians especially that the only reason for them to hate Russia that much is
because they blame them for their defeat in Ab)ha'ia +as !he"ardnad'e and his
go"ernment used to say, so they hate Russians because they belie"e they are our allies
which only means that they hate us more and they wish nothing good for us. This is the
reason why I don:t belie"e them in their propaganda about helping us.
Anyway those who attended to go to the two conferences in Tbilisi +the second one has
been 3ust finished few days ago, where right in their decision becasue we need to ha"e as
much possibilities as we can and they succeeded to get Russians attention toward us so
they started to deal with us more seriously. I and many others were wrong to not trust our
people to not be submitted for any Georgian propaganda and I hope that the future will
pro"e that your thoughts about Ab)ha' is wrong as well.
About the =lympics they are considered as massi"e in"estments where all huge costs
would be co"ered by less than a month of benefits so all businessmen would in"est on
them and collect their moneys that co"er the costs and then they are able to compete in
the mar)et of Tourism by more low prices. this is why all =ligarch in all the world
actually fight to held =lympics in the 'ones of their influence and this is why high
official li)e éresident 7ara) =bama put all their weight to gain them for there territories.
And I belie"e that is the only reason for Western <edia to start a campaign against !ochi
>?*2 also I belie"e that now after it is too late to change the decision +The main
constructions has already begone so en"ironmental damages are already done and the
claims about being late doesn:t stand any more, they almost stopped to care that much.
The main problem for the West in the arguing about pre"enting them becasue of our
Genocide is that if they did so for this reason Chicago Rio and all American cities will
ne"er been allowed to host them either and because of that they will not go so far with
this argument they are 3ust trying now to get more compromising from Russia by
selecting their candidate cites for similar occasions or by gi"ing them more in"estments
in !ochi itself....
8rom our perspecti"e of the issue of holding them in our ancient capital is painful
becasue it is not our capital any more and becasue it is not so becasue of our Genocide
but for me the whole situation of our &omeland changing and de"eloping without us is
painful too people ha"ing sunbathes where members of my own family refused to ta)e
the ships to Tur)ey and pre"ented from staying home so they remained their stri)ing till
death from thirst and hunger is "ery painful for me this pain will ne"er go away and
belie"e me I will pass it to my children as well. 7ut I ha"e chose life and future4 we can:t
go bac) with no strong economy that can create de"elopment we need that and this is
why I belie"e that !ochi >?*2 can help and yes it is only one spot and yes the main
¯0
benefits will not go to the Circassian society but in"estments are in"estments this the
deal of Capitalism in e"ery part of the world and ha"ing de"eloped infrastructures
becasue of such pro3ect will help Circassians and if they deal right with it +again that
doesn:t mean to deal with it under Russian conditions and against our interests,. If they
didn:t more Russians and other nationalities will start to settle their instead e"en so I
don:t beli"e so much that could happen simply because Russians are reducing in number
in 2? years they will ha"e half the numbers of these days so I don:t ta)e the statements of
bringing more Russians o the area seriously +they are 3ust a propaganda, because they
will bring them from where? only nations with growing numbers can do so but definitely
not a nation reached a point +as many international resources agree, where they can:t
re"erse their decreasing at the other hand Caucasians unli)e Russians are increasing.
The idea of ha"ing so stupid show +li)e the one that happened in êancou"er where to
indigenous people welcomed the guests, is unaccepted to me4 I want solid mo"es toward
the restoration of our homeland !ochi in >?*2 should be a city if not the capital +this
should be decided by Circassians, of united Republic of Adigha +I don:t li)e the name
Circassia because it will e$clude Ab)ha'ia, on the historical land of old Adigha and the
#by)hia +without those parts in Ab)ha'ia of course, with clear policy that recogni'e our
rights and supporting +not only allowing, our 9iaspora:s bac) and for this purpose we all
should do our bests in engaging with Russia for some of us engaging with the West for
others or trying any potentials. And if we:"e didn:t succeed I belie"e that it is not only
those who engaged with Russians ha"e failed but also those who engaged with West and
with Georgia. And only those who didn:t belie"e in peaceful solution +who are e$tremely
minority right now but they will increase their numbers if we failed, will remain those
who will open the gate of hell by see)ing support from e$tremist <uslim communities
and starting a holy war that will destroy the life of Circassians Russians and Georgians.
This is why we should ne"er fail and this is why we should not start to accuse each others
of ha"ing 5 Russian propaganda5 or Georgian one. we need to support each others not to
start arguing about who is right and who is wrong and definitely we should ne"er start
accusations to each others of being traitors or +again, ha"ing 5Russian propaganda5 that
was hurtful from you.
7est regards
8lag
ëi)e ReplyReply
!os 0 months ago
(art
Than) you for your comment. I thin) whene"er someone continuelly refines his opinion
on a sub3ect through e$tensi"e thought or research it is a mar) of intellectual maturity.
This is a character strength not a wea)ness and I commend you for it. I thin) we all
need to wor) on this. çust a couple of points to ma)e
I really doubt that there will be any meaningful economic benefit to Circassians from the
=lympics outside of the small community in¹around !ochi that may be able to
temporarily ma)e some money as street "endors or such. 7ut this does not e"en come
close to compensating for the tremdous damage it will ha"e. !ochi was chosen as the site
for the =lympics and recently for the 8* for a reason. To completely and permanently
¯2
cement Russia:s claim to that region and ma)e their narrati"e of our history the official
one. These =lympics almost ensure that !ochi or any part of the 7lac) !ea coast will
ne"er again be part of Circassia.
If they honestly wanted economic de"elopment in Circassia they would support massi"e
repatriation of the 9iaspora. There are @ million Circassians with deep and di"erse
)nowledge e$perience and capital that can rebuild that region. In terms of economic
de"elopment policy this is the holy grail. The Russian go"ernment simply needs to
allow us to create the circumstance to do this. The problem is they ha"e demonstrated
beyond a reasonable doubt that their hegemony of the region is more important than
economic de"elopment. =ur 3ob as Circassians is to peacefully but effecti"ely con"ince
them otherwise. That a radical change in their current policy is the most optimal
approach for all concerned.
As such Circassians need to appeal to the world to get whate"er help they can to obtain
their rights. Communicating with Georgia was the most feasible way to bring our
appeals to the international stage and to ma)e Russia ta)e our demands seriously.
-"eryone who attended )new that Russia would use this to try to create animosity
between Adyghe and Ab)ha'. And they )new that they would be critici'ed roundly for it
by their own people e"en though they were unwa"ering in their support of
Ab)ha'ia. The sad part is it was only contra"ersial if Circassians made it contro"ersial.
And unfortunately some did. 7ut the truth e"entually seeps out and the benefits
e"entually become "isible. And there are enough patriotic and intelligent Circassians
who can see the truth through the bullshit and then act accordingly. 9istrust between
Adyghe and Ab)ha' will be a calamity for all of us Circassians.

7est regards
8lag
ëi)e ReplyReply
(art 0 months ago
9ear !os
#sually architectural pro3ects don%t hold that much power in )eeping (ations% control
o"er lands such issue has been always o"er estimated during the history4 yes they lea"e
permanent trace but they turn to represent the present dominated culture o"er the land
instead of the original culture that created them and this is because mainly they de"elop
the esthetic aspects and the scientific )nowledge of all people who inherited them states
come and go but nations and their culture remain and de"elop. &agia !ophia in Istanbul
is now a mosque the Great <osque of Cordoba is now a cathedral the Great #mayyad
<osque of 9amascus has been built in the style of 7y'antium éalaces and Ta3 <ahal in
India has been built under <uslim <ongols by Afghan Architects and now it is the
greatest symbol of &indus dominated IndiaÐÐ !o there is no need to consider Russian
architecture in Circassia as a threat toward our rights in our homeland because such a
concept had always great failure during the history.
¯@
&uge cultural +e"en sporti"e, pro3ects create an atmosphere of a producti"e life as people
usually li)e to li"e in areas where a lot of e"ents going on and that will attract
in"estments to target those people =lympics and other ma3or sporti"e e"ents ha"e such
effects beside also pro"iding an infrastructure that will remain after the e"ent as they
ha"e been economically co"ered by the profits of the e"ent itself <etro Train lines and
stations Airports marine portsÐ all those would be remain in !ochi after the =lympics
and the locations of such e"ents will turn to be urban centers of the whole area.
Circassians will benefits from all of such things created in !ochi >?*2 but only if they get
bac) to their united historical Adigha and this is why I do accept holding =lympics in
!ochi but only under a 8ederal Republic of Adigha on all our historical homeland +e$cept
Ab)ha'ia of course, and under a new policy that support Circassians% return. =therwise
!ochi would de"elop without us and that would damage our cause at least for sometime
but e"en so that wouldn%t be irre"ersible. And it is the responsibility of Russian
authorities to reply to us by their actions as they hold the power now it is them who can
define the way that things should go from here and I belie"e if they are going to do
anything it will be before the end of >?** and we can 3ust wait till then and yes we
should try our best to promote our cause to the word and to the a"erage Russian we
should not stop demanding what is our right in any peaceful way we can find.
7ut regarding those peaceful ways I don%t trust Georgians they brought war to Ab)ha'ia
and they still refuse e"en to accept what happened there. If they really ha"e a good
intention toward us why they don%t recogni'e the Ab)ha' Genocide only as they always
claim that Ab)ha'ia and Ab)ha' were part of their land and nation? They didn%t because
then they will recogni'e the fact that Ab)ha'ia belong to Ab)ha' in &omeland and in
9iaspora and this is not what they want4 they want Ab)ha'ia ma3orly populated by
Georgians and its heritages claimed by Georgians. The same here for the West if they
would support our cause why they didn%t do the same to Ab)ha'ia? Why they let them
sub3ected to the Georgian atrocities and then let them suffer the effect of both Georgian
and Russian sanctions? And when they had been recogni'ed by Russia that opened the
only window to Ab)ha' people they )ept their policy that pre"ent 9iaspora from
supporting them independently from Russia? !o why they are going to support us against
Russia but not against Georgia if they belie"e in right and wrong? <y only e$planation is
that they don%t care about us and they only using us as a tool against Russia and tools are
the first thing that get destroyed. I thing Georgians will start to e$plode bombs in !ochi to
damage Russians in the name of Circassians +an e$plosion happened few days ago in
!ochi, and they will do e"erything to humiliate Russia at our e$pense and they will try to
flame a new war that destroy Circassians and Ab)ha' so they can benefit from that. !o
e"en that we can be benefit from them we shouldn%t allow them to hurt us or our cause by
anything. I 3ust want Circassians to be careful toward them that%s all.
best regards


8lag
¯/
ëi)e ReplyReply
Trac)bac) #Rë
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