‫ حسام اشتيوي‬.

‫ا‬

( Grammar )

‫قواعد اللغة النجليزية‬

Pronouns
:‫ وتختلف الضمائر بأشكالها و استخداماتها على النحو التالي‬، a pronoun replaces a noun ‫الضمير يحل محل السم‬
Subject pronouns
‫ضمائر الفاعل‬
I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they

Object pronouns
‫ضمائر المفعول به‬
me
you
him
her
it
us
you
them

.Examples: - I go to school everyday.

Singular – ( ‫) المفرد‬
Plural – ( ‫) الجمع‬

Possessive adjectives
‫صفات الملكية‬
my
your
his
her
its
our
your
their

- This is my book.

- This book is mine.

Possessive pronouns
‫ضمائر الملكية‬
mine
yours
his
hers
its
ours
yours
theirs

- Give me the book.

Reflexive pronouns
‫ضمائر النعكاس‬
myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
ourselves
yourselves
themselves

- The boys hurt themselves

Reflexive pronouns ‫ةةةةةةة ةةةةةةةة‬
myself – yourself – himself – herself – itself
ourselves – yourselves – themselves
‫استخدامات الضمائر المنعكسة‬

( ‫ عندما يكون الفاعل و المفعول به هما الشيء ذاته ) يعودان على بعضهما البعض‬-1
My father himself cleaned the car ← ‫ للتأكيد‬-2
( Did you do your homework on your own? ←
( on your own = by yourself = alone ‫ نستخدم‬-3
: ‫ ل تستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة عادة مع بعض الفعال وهي‬-4
approach – afford – bath – dress – shave – wash – meet – sit down – stand up – worry – decide – remember – concentrate
I shaved after I had got up ← ‫مــثــــال‬
( She put her bag next to her (herself
← ‫ مــثــــال‬position ‫ أو‬place ‫ ل نستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة مع حروف الجر من نوع‬-5
( Idioms with reflexive pronouns ) ‫ مصطلحات مع الضمائر المنعكسة‬-6
enjoyed ourselves – behave themselves – help yourself – make yourself ← ‫مـثــــال‬
Let the kid do it for himself ← ‫ ( في التعبير التالي‬for ) ‫ تستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة بعد حرف‬-7
He lives by himself = alone ← ‫ ( في التعبيرات التالية‬by ) ‫ تستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة بعد حرف‬-8
I answered these questions by myself = no body helped me ←
Ali cut himself ←

Practice
.Fill in the gaps *
?A: Welcome to the class.
2- A: That is Hans. ……..is
.B: ……am David and this is
from Germany.
.Maria. …… is from Italy
?A: And who are …..?
5- A: Do you know Maria?
. …… B: …..are new students from Qatar.
B: No, I don't know …... .

3- A: Where is Qatar -1
B: ……is near Saudi Arabia
6- A: Do you know the teacher -4
B: No, I don't know

.Complete the sentences with a possessive adjective *
?My sister's married.' What's …….. husband's name ' -1
?My brother's office is in New York.' What's ……. Job ' -2
?Mum and Dad are in Rome.' What's ..….. phone number ' -3
.Use reflexive pronouns to complete the sentences *
.Your hair looks terrible. Look at ……………… in the mirror -1
.Ahmed is getting very strange. He talks to ………………… all the time -2
.The question ………………. Is not very complicated, but the answer certainly is -3
.The old lady lives …………….. these days, and she rarely goes out to see anyone -4

( some of ( us ‫بعض من‬
( any of ( them ‫أي من‬

.… all of ‫ جميعكم‬/ ‫جميعهم‬
.… both of ‫كل من‬

( few of ( you
( a few of ( it

‫قليل من‬
‫قليل من‬

.… none of ‫ل أحد من‬
.… either of ‫كل من‬

...… most of( ‫ كم‬/ ‫ نا‬/ ‫أكثر )هم‬
.… each ( one ) of ‫كل واحد من‬

.……………… You don't need to explain what I did to everyone. I can speak -5
.Choose the correct answer *
.( To understand ancient Egypt, scholars study its hieroglyphics and try to interpret ( it – them – itself – themselves -1
.The dialect that is spoken in Olimbos is so old that many of ( its – his – hers – theirs ) words date back to the time of Homer -2
.As the bare mountains turned green, the people found ( they – them – their – themselves ) looking forward to spring -3
.New chemicals are not always tested to determine if ( it – she – he – they ) will cause cancer or genetic mutations -4

: Other pronouns ‫ضمائر أخرى‬
Who visits her? -

What are you going ← ‫ مـثـــــال‬....?Who? Which? Whose? What : ‫ ( وهي‬Interrogatives ) ‫☺ ةةةةة ةةةةةةةةة‬
?to buy
Faisal is the man whose car is black ← ‫ … مـثــــال‬who – whose – that – which : ‫ ( وهي‬Relative pronouns ) ‫☺ ةةةةة ةةةةة‬
: ‫ ( يلي هذه الضمائر ضمير مفعول كالتالي‬Quantitative ) ‫☺ ةةةةة ةةةةةةة‬

: ‫وهي‬
somebody / one
everybody / one
anybody / one

( Indefinite pronouns ) ‫☺ ةةةةة ةةةة‬

something
somewhere
nowhere
anything
anywhere
nothing
everything
everywhere
nobody / one
Do you need anything else? – Somebody else called you ← ‫ ( مثل‬else ) ‫ يتبع هذه الضمائر أحيانا كلمة‬somebody's explanation - someone's suggestion – everyone's clothes ← ‫ يمكن استخدام هذه الضمائر في صيغة الملكية مثل‬this ‫ هذه‬/ ‫ هذا‬- that ‫ تلك‬/ ‫ ذاك‬- those ‫ أولئك‬- these ‫ هؤلء‬: ‫ ( وهي‬Demonstrative pronouns ) ‫☺ ةةةةة ةةةةةةة‬
‫تـــمــــــت‬

‫ ةةةة‬.‫ة‬

( Adjective ) ‫ةةةةةة‬
‫ةةةةةة‬

Syllables
‫ فهناك كامات‬، ‫ ) المقاطع ( حيث نجد أن كلمات اللغة النجليزية تختلف عن بعضها البعض‬syllables ‫بداية نود أن نتحدث عن موضوع أساسي في اللغة يسمى بـ‬
.‫ إليك بعض المثلة‬، ‫ذات مقطع واحد و هناك اثنين و هناك ثلثة و هكذا‬
One syllable
Two syllables
Three syllables Four syllables
Five syllables
Six syllables
tree
be-long
sub-ma-rine
ex-pe-di-tion
ca-pa-bil-i-ty
ex-tra-cur-ric-u-lar

Comparative & Superlative adjectives
.‫بداية نعرف الصفة على أنها كلمة تضاف إلى السم لتميز الشيء المتحدث عنه عن الشياء الخرى من نفس النوع‬
.Ali is tall.
John is a clever boy.
The lion is a dangerous animal
← ‫أمثلة‬
.(beautiful – dangerous ) ‫ وهناك أكثر‬، (lucky – happy) ‫ وهناك من مقطعين‬، (short-nice-thin)‫والصفات تختلف في مقاطعها فهناك صفات من مقطع واحد‬
:‫ انظر إلى الجدول التالي‬،‫ونستطيع أن نحول الصفات إلىصفات مقارنة ) أي عندما نقارن شيء بآخر ( وممكن في هذه الحالة أن تكون الصفات عظمى‬

Comparative ‫مقارنة‬
l → taller than - long → longer than }
‫نجد أنه مع صفات المقطع الواحد نضيف إليها‬
-1
n ‫عند المقارنة وعند صياغة جملة المقارنة نضع بعدها‬
Adel is taller than Ahmed
‫مع بعض الصفات ذات المقطعين و التي تنتهي‬
-2
. i ‫ إلى‬y ‫ مع تحويل ال‬er ‫نضيف لها عند المقارنة‬
py →happier - funny → funnier
‫الصفات القصيرة التي تنتهي بحرف ساكن و‬
-3
‫متحرك فإننا نكرر الحرف الخير من الصفة عندما نض‬
.er ‫لها‬
→bigger - hot→hotter - fat →fatter
‫مع الصفات التي تتكون من مقطعين فأكثر فإنن‬
-4
‫ قبل الصفة عند عملية المقارنة بالضافة‬more ‫نضيف‬
. than
tiful → more beautiful than
erous→ more dangerous than
The lion is more dangerous than the fox
s ‫عند المقارنة للتقليل من شأن الصفة نستخدم‬
-5
big - less expensive - less thin
The fox is less dangerous than the lion

ctive
d ‫جيد‬
d ‫سيء‬
ar ‫بعيد‬

Superlative ‫عظمى‬
{ tall → the tallest - long → the longest }
‫ ونضع قبلها‬est ‫مع صفات المقطع الواحد نضيف‬
-1
.the
.Ex. Adel is the tallest student in our class
.i ‫ تقلب إلى‬y ‫الصفة التي تنتهي بـ‬
-2
happy → happiest - funny → funniest
.the most ‫مع الصفات الكبيرة نضع قبل الصفة‬
-3
exciting → the most exciting
terrifying → the most terrifying
Ex. The Piranha fish is the most terrifying
.creature
‫ للمقارنة بين أكثر من اثنين‬least ‫تستخدم‬
-4
.‫) عظمى ( و معناها القل‬
beautiful → the least beautiful

:‫ وهي كالتي‬est ‫ أو‬er ‫يوجد في اللغة النجليزية صفات شاذة لتنطبق عليها قاعدة‬
Comparative
better
worse
farther/furthe
r

Superlative
best
worst
farthest/furthest

Adjective
little ‫قليل‬
much ‫كثير للكمية‬
many ‫كثير للعدد‬

Comparative
less
more
more

Superlative
least
most
most
. ‫ لتعبر عن شيئين متساويين‬as ….as ‫تستخدم‬

.Ex. Omar is as tall as Ahmed.

The wolf is as dangerous as the lion
. not as …. As ‫ هو‬as …..as ‫نفي‬

.Ex. Mary is not as tall as Ahmed

a bit – ‫يمكن أن نحدد مقدار صفة المقارنة باستخدام‬

‫ملحظات هامة‬
-1
. much – a lot

.Ex. The box is a bit heavier than the bag ( ‫ل من‬
ً ‫) أثقل قلي‬

.Ex. Traveling by plane is a lot more comfortable than traveling by train ( ‫) أكثر راحة بكثير عن‬
‫كما‬، .... ‫هناك أسلوب آخر للمقارنة بين شيئين و هو ) كما‬
-2
(.… The more ….., the more.
.Ex. The more your work, the more your gain
‫ ممكن أن‬، ‫هناك بعض الصفات التي تتكون من مقطعين‬
-3
(quiet – clever – narrow – simple ) ‫ مثل‬more ‫ و‬er ‫نستخدم معها السلوبين‬
. more clever than ‫أو‬
cleverer than ‫أي نستطيع أن نقول‬

Exercises
.Choose the correct answer -1
.Question two is not ( much – too – far – as ) difficult as question one .The question is ( difficult – the most difficult – more difficult ) of all .Correct the following adjectives -2
.This is the ( interesting ) book I have ever read .The weather today is ( good ) than it was last year .Rewrite the following using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning -3
( The house and the villa are the same price.
( expensive ( No mountain in the world is higher than Everest.
( highest ‫تـــمـــت‬
‫ حسام اشتيوي‬.‫ا‬

( Grammar ) ‫قواعد اللغة النجليزية‬

Countable & uncountable nouns
‫السماء المعدودة و غير المعدودة‬
:‫ قارن بين التي‬، ‫السماء في اللغة النجليزية ممكن أن تكون معدودة و ممكن أن تكون غير معدودة‬

Countable ‫المعدود‬
t a banana every day ke bananas ‫ حيث أن المفرد منه‬، ‫ اسم معدود‬banana ‫نلحظ هنا أن كلمة‬
.bananas ‫ و الجمع‬a banana
.‫ وع السم المعدود المفرد‬a – an ‫نستخدم‬
ook
an orange
a table

‫ مع السماء المعدودة في‬any – some ‫نستطيع أن نستخدم‬
.‫الجمع‬
ere are some books e there any books ‫ )قليل( مع السماء المع‬few ‫ )كثير( و‬many ‫أيضًا نستخدم‬
.‫في حالة الجمع‬
ere are many students in school ere are a few students in school -

dation

ssion

Uncountable ‫غير المعدود‬
.I eat rice every day .I like rice ‫ اسم غير معدود حيث يوجد له شكل واحد‬rice ‫نلحظ أن كلمة‬
.one rice ‫ أو‬two rices ‫فل نستطيع أن نقول‬
:‫ مع السم غير المعدود فل نقول‬a – an ‫لنستخدم‬
a water
a tea
a sugar
:‫ولكن نستطيع القول‬
a bowl of rice
a drop of water
a cup of tea
a game of tennis
. ‫ مع السماء غير المعدودة‬any – some ‫نستطيع أن نستخدم‬
.We listened to some music ?Do you listen to any music little ‫ )كثير( و‬much ‫أيضًا نستخدم مع السماء غير المعدودة‬
.(‫) قليل‬
.I have a little work to do much sugar
much advice -

:‫ يوجد في اللغة النجليزية بعض السماء و التي تعتبر أسماء غير معدودة ) ممكن أن تعتبر معدودة في لغات أخرى ( مثل‬:‫ملحظة‬
traffic
advice
bread
furniture
luggage

progress
weather
baggage
chaos
news

work
information
scenery
blood
freedom

fun
silver
travel
clothing
knowledge
.I am looking for work.

– It is nice weather today - ← ‫أمثلة‬

.. room – time – hair – paper – experience :‫هناك الكثير من الكلمات التي يمكن أن تستخدم كإسم معدود أو غير معدود مع اختلف في المعنى مثل‬
:‫قارن بين التي‬

Countable
ought a paper to read .‫ بمعنى جريدة‬paper ‫هنا جاءت‬
ere's a hair in my soup .‫ شعرة واحدة‬a hair ‫المقصود بـ‬
d some interesting experiences while I was way
.‫بمعنى تجارب حدثت لي في حياتي‬
u can stay with us, there is a spare room ‫بمعنى غرفة‬
joy your holiday. – Have a good time ‫بمعنى مرة‬

Uncountable
.I need some paper to write on .‫هنا جاءت بمعنى ورق‬
.You have got very long hair .‫ حيث يقصد الشعر ككل‬hairs ‫لنقول‬
They offered me the job because I had a lot of .experience.‫ وهي بمعنى خبرة‬experiences ‫لنقول‬
.You can't sit here. There isn't room .‫ متسع‬space ‫بمعنى‬
.I can't wait. I haven't got time .‫بمعنى الزمن‬

Exercises
.Put in a – an or some where necessary .I've seen …….. good films recently -1
.When I was ……….. child, I used to be very shy -2
?Would you like to be …….. actor -3
!What ……… beautiful garden -4
.I'm going shopping. I want to buy …….. new shoes -5
.Which of the underlined parts of these sentences is correct .(If you want to know the news, you can read ( paper/a paper -1
.I had to buy ( a/some ) bread because I wanted to make ( an/some ) sandwiches -2
.Your hair is/Your hairs are ) too long. You should have ( it/them ) cut ) -3
.It's very difficult to find a ( work/job ) at the moment -4
.We had ( very good weather/a very good weather ) while we were on holiday -5
.Bad news ( don't/doesn't ) make people happy -6
‫تـــمـــــت‬
‫ حسام اشتيوي‬.‫ا‬

(Grammar ) ‫قواعد اللغة النجليزية‬

Relative Clauses
Relative Clauses . ‫إليك بداية هذه التعريفات حتى يتضح ماذا نعني بـ‬
.A clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a verb and which is part of a larger sentence A relative clause tells us which person or thing ( or what kind of person or thing ) the speaker means. Also, it acts .an adjective qualifying either a subject or an object
Relative clauses connectors
[ who – that – which – whose – where – when ]
.A butcher is somebody. He sells meat -1
.A butcher is somebody who/that sells meat
.‫ حلت مكان الفاعل العاقل‬who/that ‫نلحظ هنا أن أداة الوصل‬
Relative Clause
.The woman who lives next door is a doctor ‫ يخبرنا عن أي شخص‬relative clause ‫في هذا المثال الـ‬
.‫أو صفة هذا الشخص الذي يعنيه‬
‫ تخبرنا‬The woman who lives next door←‫فجملة‬
.‫عن أي امرأة التي يعنيها بالضبط‬
.This is the book. It talks about history -2
.This is the book that/which talks about history

Extra Information' Clause'
.My brother Ali, who lives in London, is a doctor ‫ ل يخبرنا عن أي شخص أو شيء‬relative clause ‫هنا نجد أن الـ‬
brother Ali ‫يعنيه لننا نعرف من هو الشخص الذي يعنيه‬
‫ في هذه الجملة يعطينا معلومات‬relative clause ‫فنجد أن الـ‬
.Ali ‫ عن الشخص‬extra information ‫إضافية‬

.‫ حلت مكان الفاعل غير العاقل‬that/which ‫نلحظ هنا أن أداة الوصل‬
.A) This is the man. I met him yesterday -3
.This is the man who/that I met yesterday
.B) This is the book. I bought it yesterday
.This is the book which/that I bought yesterday
him, it, …) relative pronoun )‫ وفي هذه الحالة نحذف الـ‬، ( object)‫ يتحدث عن أداة الوصل في حالة المفعول به‬A+B ‫ المكون من‬3 ‫نلحظ أن مثال‬
This is the man I met yesterday ‫ مع العاقل و ممكن أن نحذفها فتصبح الجملة‬who/that ‫إضافة لذلك في حالة المفعول به ممكن أن نستخدم‬
.‫ لغير العاقل‬B ‫ وكذلك المر مع مثال‬who/that) relative clause) ‫ وحذفنا أيضًا‬him) relative pronoun) ‫نلحظ في هذه الجملة أننا حذفنا‬
.A widow is a woman. Her husband is dead -4
.A widow is a woman whose husband is dead
.( our – your – its – my – his – her ) ‫ تحل مكان ضمير الملكية‬whose ‫نلحظ هنا أن‬
.This is the hotel. We stayed in it last year -5
.This is the hotel where we stayed last year
.‫ جاءت لتصف المكان‬where ‫نلحظ هنا أن‬
.I saw the film. I was in Paris at that time -6
.I saw the film when I was in Paris
.‫ جاءت لتصف الوقت و تحل مكانه‬when ‫نلحظ هنا أن‬

Extra Information' Clauses '

:‫ و انظر إلى المثلة التية مع بقية الروابط‬Extra Information ' Clause'‫( في الـ‬,) ‫لحظ استخدام الفاصلة‬
.We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us .This morning I met Ahmed, whom/who I hadn't seen for ages .Amy, whose car had broken down, was in a very bad mood .Mr. Bord is going to spend a few weeks in Egypt, where her daughter lives ‫ و ذلك‬that ‫ ول نستخدم‬which ‫ ومع الفاعل غير العاقل نستخدم فقط‬، that ‫ فقط و ل نستخدم‬who ‫في حالة الفاعل العاقل يجب أن نستخدم‬
.Extra Information' Clause' ‫في طريقة‬

Exercises
.Choose the correct answer
.I watched the film yesterday ( who – which – where – when ) won five prizes -1
? What is the name of the school ( who – which – where – whose ) your son goes to -2
.A watch is something ( that we use – when we use – that we use it ) to tell the time -3
.Complete the following sentences with suitable relative clause
.An orphan is a child ……………………. Parents are dead -1
.A cemetery is a place ………………. People are buried -2
.The place ………………. We spent our holidays was really beautiful -3

‫تـــــــمـــــــــت‬

‫ حسام اشتيوي‬.‫ا‬

(Grammar ) ‫قواعد اللغة النجليزية‬

'Have' & ' Have got '
‫ تستخدم في‬have ‫ تستخدم في اللغة النجليزية البريطانية أما‬have got ‫ يوحيان إلى نفس المعنى ) يمتلك( بحيث أن‬have/have got ‫نستطيع القول بأن‬
.‫اللغة النجليزية المريكية‬
I've got a car
= I have a car
‫أنا أملك سيارة‬
He has got a car
= He has a car
‫هو يملك سيارة‬
I have got a headache = I have a headache

ave got
ar

a car
a car
I haven't
he hasn't

Have
?Do you have a car
?Does he have a car
.No, I don't have a car
.No, he doesn't have a car
.Yes, I do. / No, I don't
.Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't
:‫ في الحوال التية‬have got ‫ وليس‬have ‫نستطيع استخدام‬

→ Have = noun -1

‫تعبر عن‬

activity or a habit

fast – dinner – a cup of coffee – a cigarette – a bath – a shower
a swim – a rest – a party – a holiday – a nice time – an accident
perience – a dream – a look – a chat – a baby – difficulty - fun
to + infinitive -2
‫المصدر‬
?Ex. Do you want to have a drink
ing )3- 'ing' form ‫) أي الفعل المنتهي بـ‬
.Ex. I find having no car very inconvenient
After model verbs -4 ‫بعد الفعال الناقصة‬
.Ex. She won't have a good chance
( got 5- In the past we use ( had ‫ عادة ل نستخدم‬.had got )
Ex. Adel had long hair when he was a child ‫) لنقول‬
((did/didn't ‫عند السؤال أو النفي في الزمن الماضي نستخدم عادة‬
.Ex. I had a bicycle when I was young
?Did you have a nice weekend
.I didn't have any money when I was a student
: ‫قارن بين التي‬
.I have a shower every morning.
2- I've got a shower -1
.‫ أما الثانية فتعني أنني أملك حمامًا أو دشًا‬، ‫الجملة الولى تعني أنني آخذ حمامًا أو دشًا كل صباح‬
?I usually have a sandwich for my lunch.

: ‫عبر عن رأيك‬
2- I have got some sandwiches. Would you like one -1

Exercises
.Notice that (have) and (have got) are used in different ways in the question, short answer and negative forms
.Ask and answer questions about the following -1
a camera – brothers and sisters – a stereo – your parents/ a holiday home
a computer – your sister/ a car – a bicycle – your brother/ a motorbike
.Choose the correct answer -2
.I usually ( have – have got – having got ) a shower every day .He ( has – has got – had ) his breakfast at eight every day .( Has he got a camera? Yes, he ( have – does – has – has got .Rewrite the following using the words in brackets to give the same meaning -3
( They don't have any children.
( got ( The house hasn't got a garden.
( doesn't ( Does Ali have a car?
( got .Look at the wrong sentences and compare them with the right sentences -4
(
) .I've got a shower in the morning .(
)
I have a shower in the morning (
) ?What time have you got lunch? (
)
What time do you have lunch -

‫تــــــمـــــــت‬

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