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Hin c ngh b sung quyn Rollback cho Wikipedia, mi bn tham gia tho lun.

. Mi bn ng gp kin v ni bt lin quan n cc trng trung hc ph thng Vit Nam.

Archimedes
Bch khoa ton th m Wikipedia Bc ti: menu, tm kim Xin xem cc mc t khc c tn tng t Archimedes (nh hng).

Archimedes ca Syracuse (ting Hy Lp: )

Archimedes suy ngh ca Fetti (1620) khong 287 trc Cng Nguyn Sinh Syracuse, Sicilia Magna Graecia, Vnh Taranto Mt khong 212 trc Cng Nguyn B cc binh s La M git hi trong trn Syracuse Nh ton hc, Nh vt l hc, K s, Nh thin vn, Nh pht minh nh lut Archimedes, inh c Archimedes, Thy tnh hc, n by, V hn

Ni c ng Syracuse, Sicilia Ngnh Ni ting v

Archimedes ca Syracuse (ting Hy Lp: ) phin m ting Vit l c-simt; khong (287 trc Cng Nguyn khong 212 trc Cng Nguyn) l mt nh ton hc, nh vt l, k s, nh pht minh, v mt nh thin vn hc ngi Hy Lp. D t

chi tit v cuc i ng c bit, ng c coi l mt trong nhng nh khoa hc hng u ca thi k c i. Trong s cc ci tin vt l ca ng c cc nn tng ca thu tnh, tnh hc v mt s gii thch nguyn l n by. ng c coi l ngi thit k nhng c my ci tin, gm cc my vy thnh v bm inh c mang tn ng. Cc thc nghim hin i kim nghim cc tuyn b rng cc c my ca Archimedes thit k c kh nng nhc bng nhng chic tu chin v t chy tu bng cch s dng mt mng li gng.[1] Archimedes ni chung c coi l nh ton hc v i nht thi c i v l mt trong nhng ngi v i nht mi thi i.[2][3] ng s dng phng php vt cn tnh ton din tch theo cung ca mt hnh parabol vi tng ca mt chui v hn, v a ra c tnh chnh xc ng ngc nhin ca s pi.[4] ng cng nh ngha ng xon c mang tn ng, lp cng thc tnh cho cc th tch ca cc b mt xoay v mt h thng kho lo th hin cc con s rt ln. Archimedes cht trong trn Bao vy Syracuse khi ng b mt tn lnh La M git d c lnh khng c lm hi ng. Cicero miu t vic ti thm m Archimedes, bn trn c mt hnh cu ni tip bn trong mt hnh tr. Archimedes chng minh rng hnh cu c hai phn ba th tch v din tch b mt ca hnh tr (gm c cc y ca hnh tr), v coi l mt trong nhng thnh tu ton hc ln nht ca mnh. Khng ging cc pht minh ca ng, cc tc phm ton hc ca Archimedes t c bit n trong thi c i. Cc nh ton hc t Alexandria c v trch dn cc tc phm ca ng, nhng s su tp y u tin mi ti khong nm 530 sau Cng Nguyn mi c Isidore ca Miletus thc hin, trong khi nhng li bnh lun vi cc tc phm ca Archimedes do Eutocius vit th k th 6 Cng Nguyn ln u tin a n ra vi ngi c rng ri hn. S lng kh t cc tc phm vit tay ca Archimedes cn li cho ti Thi Trung C l mt ngun t tng nh hng quan trng cho cc nh khoa hc trong thi k Phc hng,[5] trong khi s pht hin cc tc phm trc cha tng c bit ti ca Archimedes vo nm 1906 trong Tc phm da cu Archimedes cung cp ci nhn mi v vic lm sao ng t c cc thnh tu trong ton hc.[6]

Mc lc
[n]

1 Tiu s 2 Cc pht minh v sng to o 2.1 Vng min Vng o 2.2 inh c Archimedes o 2.3 Mng vut Archimedes o 2.4 Tia chiu ca Archimedes thn thoi hay s thc? o 2.5 Cc pht minh v sng to khc 3 Ton hc 4 Tc phm o 4.1 Cc tc phm cn li

o 4.2 Cc tc phm gi mo 5 Sch da cu ca Archimedes 6 Di sn 7 Xem thm 8 Ghi ch v tham kho o 8.1 Ghi ch o 8.2 Ti liu tham kho 9 c thm 10 The Works of Archimedes trn mng

11 Lin kt ngoi

[sa] Tiu s

Bc tng ng Archimedes ti i quan st Archenhold Berlin. N c iu khc bi Gerhard Thieme v khai trng nm 1972. Archimedes sinh khong 287 trc Cng Nguyn ti thnh ph cng Syracuse, Sicily, khi y l mt thuc a t tr ca Magna Graecia. Ngy sinh ca ng da trn mt tuyn b ca nh s hc Hy Lp Byzantine John Tzetzes rng Archimedes sng 75 nm.[7] Trong Ngi m ct, Archimedes vit tn cha mnh l Phidias, mt nh thin vn hc khng c bit ti vi bt k chi tit no khc. Plutarch vit trong cun Cc cuc i song song ca mnh rng Archimedes c h hng vi Vua Hiero II, nh cai tr Syracuse.[8] Mt tiu s ca Archimedes c bn ng l Heracleides vit nhng tc phm ny mt, khin cc chi tit v cuc i ng cng m mt.[9] V d, ta khng bit liu ng tng kt hn hay c con khng. Trong thi trai tr Archimedes c th hc ti Alexandria, Ai Cp, ni Conon ca Samos v Eratosthenes ca Cyrene cng theo hc cng thi. ng coi Conon ca Samos l bn mnh, trong khi hai trong nhng tc phm ca ng (Phng php nh l C hc v Vn Gia sc) c nhng li m u cp ti Eratosthenes.[a] Archimedes mt khong 212 trc Cng Nguyn trong Chin tranh Punic ln th hai, khi cc lc lng La M di s ch huy ca Tng Marcus Claudius Marcellus chim thnh ph Syracuse sau mt cuc bao vy ko di hai nm. Theo li tng thut thng c k li ca Plutarch, Archimedes ang suy ngm v mt biu ton hc khi thnh ph b chim. Mt binh s La M ra lnh cho ng ti gp Tng Marcellus nhng ng t chi, ni rng mnh phi gii quyt xong vn . Ngi lnh ni gin, v dng kim git

Archimedes. Plutarch cng c mt li tng thut t c bit hn v ci cht ca Archimedes cho rng c th ng b git khi ang tm cch u hng mt binh s La M. Theo cu chuyn ny, Archimedes mang theo cc dng c ton hc, v b git bi ngi lnh cho rng chng l nhng c gi tr. Tng Marcellus c cho l ni gin v ci cht ca Archimedes, bi ng ta coi Archimedes l mt ti sn khoa hc c gi tr v ra lnh khng c lm hi ng.[10]

Mt hnh cu c 2/3 th tch v din tch b mt ca hnh tr bao quanh n. Mt hnh cu v hnh tr c t trn m ca Archimedes theo yu cu ca ng. Nhng t cui cng c cho l ca Archimedes l "ng lm hng cc hnh trn ca ta" (ting Hy Lp: ), mt s cp ti nhng ng trn ton hc m ng c cho l ang nghin cu khi b ngi lnh La M quy ry. Cu ni ny thng c ghi li bng ting Latin l "Noli turbare circulos meos," nhng khng c bng chng ng tin cy rng Archimedes tht ra nhng li v chng khng xut hin trong li tng thut ca Plutarch.[10] M ca Archimedes c mt hnh iu khc th hin chng minh ton hc a thch ca ng, gm mt hnh cu v mt hnh tr c cng chiu cao v bn knh. Archimedes chng minh rng th tch v din tch b mt ca hnh cu bng hai phn ba th tch v din tch ca hnh tr gm c cc y ca n. Nm 75 trc Cng Nguyn, 137 nm sau khi ng mt, nh hng bin ngi La M l Cicero khi y ang lm quan coi quc kh Sicily. ng nghe nhng cu chuyn v ngi m ca Archimedes, nhng khng mt ngi dn a phng no c th dn ng ti . Cui cng ng tm thy ngi m gn cng Agrigentine Syracuse, trong iu kin b b hoang v b cy bi ph kn. Cicero dn dp ngi m, v c th thy hnh khc v c mt s cu th c thm vo nh li tng.[11] Cc gi thuyt tiu chun v cuc i ca Archimedes c vit kh lu sau khi ng mt bi cc nh s hc La M c i. Li k v cuc bao vy Syracuse ca Polybius trong tc phm Lch s Th gii c vit khong by mi nm sau ci cht ca Archimedes, v sau ny c Plutarch v Livy s dng nh mt ngun thng tin. N

khng mang li nhiu nh sng v con ngi Archimedes, v tp trung trn nhng c my chin tranh m ng c cho l to ra bo v thnh ph.[12]

[sa] Cc pht minh v sng to


[sa] Vng min Vng

Archimedes c th s dng nguyn l sc ni ny xc nh liu chic vng min c mt nh hn vng c khng. Giai thoi c bit n nhiu nht v Archimedes tng thut cch ng pht minh ra phng php xc nh th tch ca mt vt th vi hnh dng khng bnh thng. Theo Vitruvius, mt vng min mi vi hnh dng mt vng nguyt qu c ch to cho Vua Hiero II, v Archimedes c yu cu xc nh liu n c phi c s dng vng thun ty, hay c cho thm bc bi mt ngi th bt lng.[13] Archimedes phi gii quyt vn m khng c lm h hi chic vng min, v th ng khng th c chy n ra thnh mt hnh dng thng thng tnh mt . Khi ang tm trong bn tm, ng nhn thy rng mc nc trong bn tng ln khi ng bc vo, v nhn ra rng hiu ng ny c th c s dng xc nh th tch ca vng min. V trn thc t nc khng nn c,[14] v th chic vng min b nhng chm trong nc s lm trn ra mt khi lng nc tng ng th tch ca n. Bng cch chia trng lng ca vng min vi th tch nc b chim ch, c th xc nh mt ca vng min. Sau Archimedes nhy ra ngoi ph khi vn ang trn trung, qu kch ng vi khm ph ca mnh, ku ln "Eureka!" (ting Hy Lp: "!," c ngha "Ti tm ra ri!")[15] Cu chuyn v chic vng min vng khng xut hin trong cc tc phm c bit ca Archimedes. Hn na, tnh thc tin ca phng php n miu t b nghi vn, v s v cng chnh xc phi c xc nh lng nc b chim ch.[16] Archimedes thay vo c th tm kim mt gii php s dng nguyn l c bit trong thy tnh hc nh Nguyn l Archimedes, m ng miu t trong chuyn lun V cc vt th ni ca mnh. Nguyn l ny ni rng mt vt th b nhng trong mt cht lng s b mt lc y ln tng ng trng lng cht lng b n chim ch.[17] S dng nguyn l ny, c th

so snh mt ca chic vng min vng vi mt ca vng khi bng cch cn chic vng min cng vi mt khi vng chun, sau nhng chng vo trong nc. Nu chic vng min c mt nh hn vng, n s chim ch nhiu nc hn v c th tch ln hn, v v th s gp lc y ln ln hn mu chun. S khc bit ny trong lc y s khin chic cn mt thng bng. Galileo coi n "c th l phng php ny ging phng php Archimedes s dng, bi, ngoi vic rt chnh xc, n da trn nhng bng chng do chnh Archimedes khm ph."[18]

[sa] inh c Archimedes

inh c Archimedes c th bm nc ln rt hiu qu. Mt phn ln cng vic k thut ca Archimedes xut hin t cc nhu cu thc t ca thnh ph Syracuse. Tc gia ngi Hy Lp Athenaeus ca Naucratis miu t vic Vua Hieron II t hng Archimedes thit k mt con tu ln, chic Syracusia, c th c s dng lm phng tin vn ti xa hoa, mang theo hu cn, v nh mt tu chin. Chic Syracusia c cho l con tu ln nht c ch to trong thi c i.[19] Theo Athenaeus, n c th ch 600 ngi gm c nhng trang tr trong vn, mt phng th dc v mt ngi n cho n thn Aphrodite cng cc trang b khc. Bi chic tu vi kch c ny c th s b r r mt lng nc ln qua v, inh c Archimedes c ch to loi b nc y tu. C my ca Archimedes l mt thit b vi nhng l hnh inh c xoay bn trong mt hnh tr. N hot ng bng tay, v cng c th c dng chuyn nc t ni thp ti cc knh thu li. inh c Archimedes ngy nay vn c s dng bm cht lng v cht rn nh nh than v ng cc. inh c Archimedes c miu t thi La M c i bi Vitruvius c th l mt s ci tin ca bm inh c tng c dng ti tiu cho Vn treo Babylon.[20][21][22]

[sa] Mng vut Archimedes


Mng vut Archimedes l mt v kh c cho l do ng thit k ra bo v thnh ph Syracuse. Cng c gi l "k lm m tu," mng vut gm mt cnh tay kiu cn cu vi mt mc tm ln bng kim loi treo u. Khi mng c nm vo tu ch cnh tay s a ln, nhc tu khi nc v c th lm m n. c nhng thc nghim thi hin i th tnh nng ca mng vut, v mt b phim ti liu nm 2005 vi ta Siu v kh th gii c i ch to mt phin bn ca mng vut v kt lun rng n l mt thit b c th hot ng.[23][24]

[sa] Tia chiu ca Archimedes thn thoi hay s thc?

Archimedes c th s dng nhng chic gng hot ng nh mt thit b phn x parabol t chy nhng con tu tn cng Syracuse. Th k th 2 Cng Nguyn tc gia Lucian vit rng trong cuc Bao vy Syracuse (khong 214212 trc Cng Nguyn), Archimedes dng la t chy cc tu chin ch. Nhiu th k sau, Anthemius ca Tralles cp ti nhng gng t chy nh v kh ca Archimedes.[25] Thit b ny, thnh thong c gi l "tia chiu ca Archimedes", c dng hi t nh mt tri vo nhng con tu ang tip cn, khin chng bt la. V kh ni ting ny l ch ca nhng cuc tranh lun v kh nng ca n t thi Phc Hng. Ren Descartes coi y l mt sai lm, trong khi nhng nh nghin cu hin i tm cch ti to hiu ng ny bng nhng phng tin c sn trong thi Archimedes.[26] Mi ngi cho rng mt mng li cc tm ng hay ng thau c nh bng c s dng hi t nh mt tri vo mt con tu. Cch ny s dng nguyn l hi t parabol theo mt cch tng t vi l mt tri. Mt cuc th nghim tia chiu ca Archimedes c tin hnh nm 1973 bi nh khoa hc Hy Lp Ioannis Sakkas. Cuc th nghim din ra ti cn c hi qun Skaramagas bn ngoi Athens. Ln ny 70 chic gng c s dng, mi chic c mt lp ph ng vi kch thc khong 5x3 feet (1.5 x 1 m). Nhng chic gng hng vo mt ming g dn gi lm mt tu chin La M khong cch khong 160 feet (50 m). Khi nhng chic gng c t chnh xc, con tu bc chy ch sau vi giy. Con tu g dn c mt lp sn ph nha ng, c th gp phn vo s chy.[27] Thng 10 nm 2005 mt nhm sinh vin t Vin Cng ngh Massachusetts tin hnh mt thc nghim vi nhng 127 chic gng vung 1 foot vung (30 cm), chiu vo mt con tu g khong cch khong 100 feet (30 m). La bc ln mt pha ca con tu, nhng ch khi tri khng c my v con tu ng yn trong khong 10 pht. Mi ngi

kt lun rng c th l mt loi v kh nhng iu kin nh vy. Nhm MIT lp li thc nghim cho chng trnh TV MythBusters, s dng mt chic tu cy c bng g ti San Francisco lm mc tiu. Mt ln na mt s im chy than xut hin, cng vi mt t la. c th bt la, g cn t ti im chy, khong 300 Celsius (570 F).[28] Khi chng trnh MythBusters pht sng kt qu cuc thc nghim San Francisco thng 1 nm 2006, kt lun c a ra l "busted" (khng ng) bi di thi gian v cc iu kin thi tit l tng cn c s chy xy ra. H cng ch ra rng bi Syracuse hng mt pha ng ra bin, hm i La M s phi b tn cng vo bui sng nhng chic gng c c hi t nh sng cao nht. MythBusters cng ch ra rng cc loi v kh quy c, nh tn la hay bt la t my phng, c th d dng hn nhiu t chy mt con tu nhng khong cch gn.[1]

[sa] Cc pht minh v sng to khc


Tuy Archimedes khng pht minh ra n by, ng a ra mt gii thch v nguyn l trong tc phm V s cn bng ca cc hnh tinh ca mnh. Nhng miu t trc v n by c trong trng phi Peripatetic ca nhng hc tr ca Aristotle, v thnh thong c gn cho Archytas.[29][30] Theo Pappus ca Alexandria, nhng cng vic ca Archimedes v n by khin ng pht biu: "Hy cho ti mt im ta v ti s nhc bng c Tri t." (ting Hy Lp: )[31] Plutarch miu t cch Archimedes thit k cc h thng puli khi v dy cho php cc thu th s dng nguyn l n by nhc nhng vt bnh thng l qu nng di chuyn vi h. [32] Archimedes cng c gn thnh tch ci thin cng sut v chnh xc ca my bn , v vi vic pht minh ra ng h o trong Chin tranh Punic ln th nht. ng h o c miu t nh mt chic xe vi c cu bnh xe nh mt qu bng vo trong mt thng cha sau mi dm i c.[33] Cicero (10643 trc Cng Nguyn) miu t Archimedes trong mt on ngn trong cun i thoi De re publica ca mnh, th hin mt cuc i thoi tng tng din ra nm 129 trc Cng Nguyn. Sau khi Syracuse b chim khong 212 trc Cng Nguyn, Tng Marcus Claudius Marcellus c cho l mang v thnh Roma hai c cu c dng trong thin vn hc, th hin s chuyn ng ca Mt tri, Mt trng v nm hnh tinh. Cicero cp ti nhng c cu tng t do Thales ca Miletus v Eudoxus ca Cnidus thit k. i thoi ni rng Marcellus gi mt trong hai thit b nh ca ci duy nht ca mnh Syracuse, v hin chic kia cho n c hnh ti Roma. C my ca Marcellus, theo Cicero, c Gaius Sulpicius Gallus gii thiu vi Lucius Furius Philus, ngi miu t n: Hanc sphaeram Gallus cum moveret, fiebat ut soli luna totidem conversionibus in aere illo quot diebus in ipso caelo succederet, ex quo et in caelo sphaera solis fieret eadem illa defectio, et incideret luna tum in eam metam quae esset umbra terrae, cum sol e regione. Khi Gallus lm chuyn ng qu a cu, Mt trng i theo Mt tri bng nhiu vng xoay trn thit b bng ng nh n ang trn bu tri, trn tri t ca Mt tri cng c cng kiu nht thc v Mt trng i vo im ni n ph bng ln Tri t, khi Mt tri thng hng.[34][35]

y l mt on miu t mt m hnh v tr hay cung thin vn. Pappus ca Alexandria ni rng Archimedes c mt bn vit tay (hin mt) v vic ch to cc c cu vi ta V vic ch to cc Mt cu. Nghin cu hin i trong lnh vc ny tp trung vo c cu Antikythera, mt thit b khc t thi c i c l c thit k vi cng mc ch. Vic ch to cc c cu kiu ny i hi mt s hiu bit tinh vi v bnh rng vi sai. Thit b ny tng c cho l vt khi phm vi k thut ca cc thi c i, nhng vic pht hin ra c cu Antikythera nm 1902 xc nhn rng cc thit b kiu c ngi Hy Lp c i bit ti.[36][37]

[sa] Ton hc
Tuy thng c coi nh mt ngi thit k cc thit b c kh, Archimedes cng c nhng ng gp trong lnh vc ton hc. Plutarch vit: "ng t ton b nim am m v tham vng trong nhng s suy xt thun tu ni khng c s hin din ca nhng nhu cu tm thng ca cuc sng."[38]

Archimedes s dng phng php rt gn c tnh gi tr s . Archimedes c th s dng cc vi phn theo mt cch tng t nh tnh ton tch phn hin i ngy nay. Thng qua chng minh mu thun (reductio ad absurdum), ng c th a ra nhng cu tr li cho nhng bi ton vi mt chnh xc bt k, trong khi xc nh cc gii hn c cu tr li bn trong. K thut ny c gi l phng php rt gn, v ng s dng n c tnh gi tr s (pi). ng thc hin n bng cch v mt hnh a gic ln bn ngoi mt hnh trn v mt hnh a gic nh bn trong hnh trn. Khi s lng cc cnh ca hnh a gic tng ln, n s gn nh tr thnh bng vi hnh trn. Khi cc hnh a gic c 96 cnh, ng tnh cc chiu di cc cnh v thy gi tr s nm trong khong 317 (xp x 3.1429) v 31071 (xp x 3.1408), gn vi gi tr thc ca n l xp x 3.1416. ng cng chng minh rng din tch ca mt hnh trn bng vi nhn vi bnh phng ca bn knh ca hnh trn. Trong V hnh trn v hnh tr, Archimedes a ra nh rng bt k ln no khi khi c thm thi gian s vt qu bt k mt ln no cho trc. y l thuc tnh Archimedes ca cc s thc.
[39]

Trong o c mt hnh trn, Archimedes a ra gi tr ca cn bc hai ca 3 nm trong khong 265153 (xp x 1.7320261) v 1351780 (xp x 1.7320512). Gi tr thc l xp x 1.7320508, khin y l mt c tnh rt chnh xc. ng a ra kt qu ny m khng c s gii thch v phng php tnh ton n. Cch lm vic ny ca Archimedes khin John Wallis nhn xt rng ng: "nh c mc tiu nh trc l che du cc cch thc thc hin ca mnh nh kiu mun gi b mt phng php vi th h sau trong khi vn mun khin h phi thn phc vi nhng kt qu mnh t c."[40]

Nh c chng minh bi Archimedes, din tch ca phn parabol hnh trn tng ng vi 4/3 din tch ca hnh tam gic ni tip hnh di. Trong Php cu phng ca hnh parabol, Archimedes chng minh rng din tch b bao quanh bi mt hnh parabol v mt ng thng gp 43 ln din tch ca mt hnh tam gic ni tip tng ng hnh bn phi. Ng th hin cch gii cho vn nh mt chui hnh hc v nh vi t l chung 14:

Nu s hng u tin trong chui ny l din tch ca mt hnh tam gic, th s hng th hai l tng ca cc din tch ca hai tam gic c y l hai cnh ct nh hn, v tip tc. Cch chng minh ny s dng mt bin i ca chui 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + 1/256 + vi tng l 13. Trong Ngi m ct, Archimedes t ra cch tnh ton s lng ht ct m v tr c th cha ng. Khi lm nh vy, ng bc b kin rng s lng ht ct l qu ln c th tnh c. ng vit: "C mt s ngi, Vua Gelo (Gelo II, con trai ca Hiero II), ngh rng s lng ht ct l v hn trong v s; v ti mun ni ti s ct khng ch tn ti Syracuse v phn cn li ca Sicily m c ti nhng ht ct c trong mi vng ni c hay khng c ngi ." gii quyt vn ny, Archimedes t ra mt h thng tnh ton da trn myriad. T t ting Hy Lp murias, tng ng vi 10,000. ng xut mt h thng s sa dng mt myriad m myriad (100 triu) v kt lun rng s lng ht ct cn lp y v tr s l 8 vigintillion, hay 81063.[41]

[sa] Tc phm

Cc tc phm ca Archimedes c vit bng ting Hy Lp Doric, mt phng ng ca Syracuse.[42] Tc phm vit ca Archimedes cng nh tc phm ca Euclid khng cn tn ti, v by chuyn lun ca ng c bit tn ti thng qua nhng li cp ti bi cc tc gi khc. Pappus of Alexandria nhc ti V vic ch to hnh cu v tc phm khc trong polyhedra, trong khi Theon ca Alexandria trch dn mt lu v khc x t hin mt Catoptrica.[b] Trong i mnh, Archimedes thc hin cc cng vic vi s trao i vi cc nh ton hc ti Alexandria. Cc tc phm vit ca Archimedes c kin trc s Byzantine Isidore ca Miletus (khong 530 sau Cng Nguyn) su tp, trong khi nhng bnh lun v cc tc phm ca Archimedes c vit bi Eutocius th k th 6 Cng Nguyn gip a chng ti nhiu c gi hn. Tc phm ca Archimedes c dch sang ting Rp bi Thbit ibn Qurra (836901 sau Cng Nguyn), v Latin bi Gerard ca Cremona (khong 11141187 sau Cng Nguyn). Trong thi Phc hng, Editio Princeps (n bn th nht) c xut bn ti Basel nm 1544 bi Johann Herwagen vi cc tc phm ca Archimedes bng ting Hy Lp v Latin.[43] Khong nm 1586 Galileo Galilei pht minh ra mt chic cn thu tnh cn cc kim loi trong khng kh v nc sau khi r rng c cm hng t tc phm ca Archimedes.[44]

[sa] Cc tc phm cn li

Archimedes c cho l rt n tng vi n by: Hy cho ti mt im ta, v ti s nhc bng c Tri t.

V s thng bng ca cc hnh tinh (hai tp) Cun sch u tin c mi lm xut vi by nh , trong khi cun th hai c mi xut. Trong tc phm ny Archimedes gii thch nh lut n by, pht biu, " ln ca kh nng tc ng lc t l thun vi ln ca lc v ng thi t l thun vi khong cch t im tc dng lc ti tm quay (cnh tay n)." Archimedes s dng cc nguyn tc xut pht t tnh ton cc din tch v cc tm trng lc ca nhiu hnh hc gm c hnh tam gic, hnh bnh hnh v hnh parabol.[45]

V vic o c mt hnh trn y l mt tc phm ngn gm ba xut. N c vit di hnh thc mt bc th trao i vi Dositheus ca Pelusium, ngi l mt hc sinh ca Conon ca Samos. Trong xut II, Archimedes th hin rng gi tr ca s (pi) ln hn

223

71 v nh hn 227. Con s sau c dng nh mt c tnh s trong sut thi Trung C v vn c dng ngy nay khi ch cn mt s gn ng.

V cc hnh xon c Tc phm ny gm 28 xut v cng l trao i vi Dositheus. Tc phm nh ngha ci hin c gi l hnh xon Archimedes. N l qu tch ca cc im tng ng vi cc v tr trong thi gian ca mt im di chuyn khi mt im c nh vi vn tc khng i dc theo mt ng quay quanh vi mt vn tc gc khng i. Tng t, trong to trc (r, ) n c th c miu t bng phng trnh vi cc s thc a v b. y l mt v d sm v mt ng cong ton hc (mt ng cong c c t mt im di chuyn) c mt nh ton hc Hy Lp xem xt.

V hnh cu v hnh tr (hai tp) Trong tc phm ny gi ti Dositheus, Archimedes c c kt qu m ng thy t ho nht, gi l mi quan h gia mt hnh cu v mt hnh tr bao quanh n vi cng chiu cao v ng knh. Th tch l 43r3 vi hnh cu, v 2r3 vi hnh tr. Din tch b mt l 4r2 vi hnh cu, v 6r2 vi hnh tr (gm c hai y), theo r l bn knh ca hnh cu v hnh tr. Hnh cu c th tch v din tch b mt bng hai phn ba th tch v din tch ca hnh tr. Mt hnh cu v hnh tr c khc trn m Archimedes theo yu cu ca ng.

V cc hnh nm v hnh cu y l mt tc phm gm 32 xut gi Dositheus. Trong tc phm ny Archimedes tnh ton cc din tch v th tch ca cc mt ct ca hnh hnh cn, cc hnh cu v hnh parabol.

V cc vt th ni (hai tp) Trong phn u ca tc phm, Archimedes pht biu nh lut cn bng ca cc cht lng v chng minh rng nc s c hnh cu bao quanh mt tm trng lc. iu ny c th l mt n lc nhm gii thch l thuyt ca cc nh thin vn hc Hy Lp ng thi nh Eratosthenes rng Tri t hnh trn. Cc cht lng c Archimedes miu t khng t hng tm, bi ng gi thit s tn ti ca mt im m mi vt u ri v pha n c c hnh cu. Trong phn hai, ng tnh ton cc v tr cn bng ca cc mt ct ca cc hnh parabol. y c th l mt s l tng ho cc hnh dng v thn tu. Mt s mt ct ca ng ni vi y di nc v nh trn mt nc, tng t nh cch cc ni bng ni. nh l Archimedes v lc y c a ra trong tc phm, c pht biu nh sau:

Bt k vt th no ngp ton b hay mt phn trong mt cht lng s b mt lc y ln tng ng vi, nhng ngc chiu vi, trng lng ca cht lng b chim ch.

Php cu phng hnh parabol Trong tc phm 24 xut ny gi ti Dositheus, Archimedes chng minh theo hai cch rng din tch b bao quanh bi mt hnh parabol v mt ng thng gp 4/3 ln din tch mt hnh tam gic vi cng y v chiu cao. ng hon thnh n bng cch tnh ton gi tr ca mt chui hnh hc vi tng v nh vi t l 14.

(O)stomachion y l mt s m x cu tng t nh mt Tangram, v tc phm miu t n c tm thy tnh trng nguyn v hn ti bn vit trn da cu Archimedes. Archimedes tnh ton cc din tch ca 14 ming c th gp vo thnh mt hnh vung. Nghin cu c xut bn ca Tin s Reviel Netz thuc i hc Stanford nm 2003 cho rng Archimedes ang tm cch xc nh c th c bao nhiu cch cch mnh ghp li c thnh mt hnh vung. Tin s Netz tnh ton rng cc mnh c th c lm thnh mt hnh vung theo 17,152 cch.[46] S lng cch sp xp l 536 khi cch cch gii tng ng theo s ln quay v vic lt hnh b loi tr.[47] Cu th hin mt v d v vn bui u trong t hp. Ngun gc ci tn cu khng r rng, v c l thuyt rng n c ly t t ting Hy Lp c c ngha c hng hay thc qun, stomachos ().[48] Ausonius gi cu l Ostomachion, mt t phc Hy Lp c hnh thnh t cc t (osteon, xng) v (mach - nh). Cu cng c gi l Loculus ca Archimedes hay Hp Archimedes.[49]

Bi ton n gia sc Archimedes Tc phm ny c pht hin bi Gotthold Ephraim Lessing trong mt bn vit tay ting Hy Lp gm mt bi th 44 dng, trong Th vin Herzog August Wolfenbttel, c nm 1773. N c gi ti Eratosthenes v cc nh ton hc ti Alexandria. Archimedes thch h tnh s gia sc ti Herd of the Sun bng cch gii quyt mt s phng trnh Diophantine ng thi. C mt phin bn kh hn ca cu ny trong mt s cu tr li b yu cu phi l cc s bnh phng. Phin bn ny ca cu ln u c gii bi A. Amthor[50] nm 1880, v cu tr li l mt con s rt ln, xp x 7.76027110206544.[51]

Ngi m ct Trong tc phm ny, Archimedes tnh s lng ht ct lp y v tr. Cun sch ny cp ti l thuyt Nht tm ca H mt tri do Aristarchus ca Samos xut, cng nh nhng tng ng thi v kch thc ca Tri t v khong cch gia cc thin th. Bng cch s dng mt h thng cc s da trn myriad, Archimedes kt lun rng s ct cn lp y v tr l 81063 theo quan

nim hin i. on m u bc th ni rng cha ca Archimedes l mt nh thin vn hc tn l Phidias. Ngi m ct hay Psammites l tc phm duy nht cn li trong Archimedes c cp ti cc quan im ca mnh v thin vn hc.[52]

Phng php nh l C hc Tc phm ny c cho l mt cho ti khi Sch da cu Archimedes c pht hin nm 1906. Trong tc phm ny Archimedes s dng cc v nh, v th hin cch lm th no chia mt con s thnh mt lng v nh cc phn nh hn khc c th c dng xc nh din tch v th tch ca n. Archimedes c th coi phng php ny l thiu chnh xc, v th ng cng dng phng php rt gn kim tra kt qu. Nh vi Vn gia sc, Phng php nh l c hc c vit di hnh thc mt bc th gi Eratosthenes ti Alexandria.

[sa] Cc tc phm gi mo
Sch b hay Liber Assumptorum ca Archimedes' l mt chuyn lun vi 15 xut v trng thi ca cc hnh trn. Bn copy sm nht c bit ca tc phm l bn ting Rp. Cc hc gi T. L. Heath v Marshall Clagett cho rng n khng th c vit bi Archimedes hnh dng hin ti, bi n c trch dn Archimedes, v cho rng n c sa i bi mt ngi khc. B c th da trn mt tc phm trc ca Archimedes m hin mt.[53] N cng tuyn b rng cng thc Heron tnh ton din tch mt hnh tam gic t chiu di ca cc cnh ca n c Archimedes bit ti.[c] Tuy nhin, s cp ng tin cy u tin ti cng thc l ca Heron ca Alexandria th k th nht sau Cng Nguyn.[54]

[sa] Sch da cu ca Archimedes


Bi chi tit: Sch da cu ca Archimedes

Stomachion l mt cu m x trong Sch da cu ca Archimedes.

Ti liu sm nht c cha tc phm ca Archimedes l Sch da cu ca Archimedes. Nm 1906, gio s ngi an Mch Johan Ludvig Heiberg ti thm Constantinople v xem xt mt vn bn giy da cu 174 trang th k 13. ng pht hin ra rng n l mt cun sch da cu, mt vn bn vi nhng dng ch c vit trn mt tc phm c b ty xo. Nhng cun sch da cu c to ra bng cch co mc in t tc phm trc v s dng li chng, y l mt cch thc thng thy thi Trung C bi giy da rt t. Cc tc phm c trn da cu c cc nh hc gi xc nh l cc bn copy th k th 10 ca cc chuyn lun trc cha tng c bit ti ca Archimedes.[55] Cun sch da cu trong th vin ca tu vin hng trm nm Constantinople trc khi c bn cho mt nh su tp c nhn trong thp nin 1920. Ngy 29 thng 10 nm 1998 n c bn trong mt cuc u gi cho mt ngi mua giu tn vi gi $2 triu ti phng bn u gi Christie's New York.[56] Cun sch da cu c by chuyn lun, gm ch mt bn copy cn li ca V cc vt th ni trong ting Hy Lp nguyn gc. N l ngun duy nht c bit ca Phng php nh l c hc, c Suidas cp ti v tng b cho l mt. Stomachion cng c pht hin trong sch da cu, vi mt phn tch y hn v cu so vi tt c cc vn bn tng c trc y. Sch da cu hin c lu gi ti Walters Art Museum Baltimore, Maryland, ni n c tin hnh nhiu cuc th nghim hin i gm c vic s dng tia cc tm v x-quang c cc vn bn b vit ln.[57] Cc chuyn lun trong Sch da cu ca Archimedes gm: V s cn bng ca cc hnh tin, V xoy c, o c mt hnh trn, V hnh cu v hnh tr, V cc vt th ni, Phng php nh l c hc v Stomachion.

[sa] Di sn

Huy chng Fields vi hnh chn dung Archimedes. C mt ming ni la (Archimedes (29.7 N, 4.0 W)) v mt dy ni (Ni Archimedes (25.3 N, 4.6 W)) trm Mt trng c t theo tn Archimedes vinh danh ng.[58] Thin thch 3600 Archimedes cng c t theo tn ng.[59]

Huy chng Fields cho nhng thnh tu to ln trong ton hc cng mang hnh chn dung Archimedes, cng vi chng minh ca ng lin quan ti hnh cu v hnh tr. on vn bn xung quanh u Archimedes l mt s trch dn cu ni ca ng trong ting Latin: "Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri" (Vt hn chnh mnh v thu hiu th gii).[60] Archimedes xut hin trn nhng con tem bu chnh ca ng c (1973), Hy Lp (1983), Italia (1983), Nicaragua (1971), San Marino (1982), v Ty Ban Nha (1963).[61] Thn t Eureka! c gn vi Archimedes l khu hiu ca bang California. Trong trng hp ny thn t ch ti vic pht hin vng gn Sutter's Mill nm 1848 dn ti cuc x i tm vng ti California.[62] Mt phong tro tuyn dng dn s vi mc tiu a tt c mi ngi tip cn vi chm sc y t ti bang Oregon ca Hoa K c t tn l "Phong tro Archimedes," lnh o bi cu Thng c bang Oregon John Kitzhaber.[63]

[sa] Xem thm


Tin Archimedes S Archimedes Nghch l Archimedes inh c Archimedes Cht rn Archimedes Vng trn kp ca Archimedes S s dng v nh ca Archimedes Archytas Diocles Cc phng php tnh cn lp phng Gi mo Archimedes Salinon Pho hi nc Vitruvius Trng Hng

[sa] Ghi ch v tham kho


[sa] Ghi ch
a. ^ Trong li ni u ca V cc hnh xon c gi ti Dositheus ca Pelusium, Archimedes ni rng "nhiu nm qua k t ci cht ca Conon." Conon ca Samos sng khong 280220 trc Cng Nguyn, cho thy Archimedes c th l mt ngi gi c khi vit mt s tc phm ca mnh. b. ^ Cc chuyn lun ca Archimedes c bit c tn ti ch thng qua nhng s cp ti trong cc tc phm ca cc tc gi khc l: V vic ch to hnh cu v mt tc phm

v khi a din c cp bi Pappus ca Alexandria; Catoptrica, mt tc phm v quang hc c cp ti bi Theon ca Alexandria; Cc nh l, c gi ti Zeuxippus v gii thch s h thng c dng trong Ngi m ct; V nhng s cn bng v n by; V cc trung tm trng lc; V lch. Trong s cc tc phm cn li ca Archimedes, T. L. Heath a ra nhng xut sau v th t chng c vit: V s cn bng ca cc hnh tinh I, Cu phng hnh Parabol, V s cn bng ca cc hnh tinh II, V hnh cu v hnh tr I, II, V cc hnh xon c, V cc hnh nm v hnh cu, V cc vt th ni I, II, V vic o c mt hnh trn, Ngi m ct. khong ^ Boyer, Carl Benjamin A History of Mathematics (1991) ISBN 0-471-54397-7 "Cc hc gi Rp thng bo cho chng ta rng cng thc tnh din tch thng bit cho mt tam gic t ba cnh ca n, thng c gi l cng thc Heron k = (s(s a) (s b)(s c)), theo s l semiperimeter c Archimedes bit ti t nhiu th k trc Heron. Cc hc gi Rp cng gn cho Archimedes 'nh l v dy cung' gy Archimedes c ngi Rp cho l a ra nhiu chng minh v nh l."

[sa] Ti liu tham kho


1. ^ a b Archimedes Death Ray: Testing with MythBusters. MIT. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 2. ^ Calinger, Ronald (1999). A Contextual History of Mathematics. Prentice-Hall. 150. ISBN 0-02-318285-7. "Ngay sau Euclid, ngi bin son cun sch mu mc, l Archimedes ca Syracuse (khong 287 212 trc Cng Nguyn), nh ton hc u tin v su sc nht ca thi c i." 3. ^ Archimedes of Syracuse. The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive (thng January nm 1999). Truy cp 9 thng 6 nm 2008. 4. ^ O'Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F. (thng February nm 1996). A history of calculus. University of St Andrews. Truy cp 7 thng 8 nm 2007. 5. ^ Bursill-Hall, Piers. Galileo, Archimedes, and Renaissance engineers. sciencelive with the University of Cambridge. Truy cp 7 thng 8 nm 2007. 6. ^ Archimedes - The Palimpsest. Walters Art Museum. Truy cp 14 thng 10 nm 2007. 7. ^ T. L. Heath, Works of Archimedes, 1897 8. ^ Plutarch. Parallel Lives Complete e-text from Gutenberg.org. Project Gutenberg. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 9. ^ O'Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F.. Archimedes of Syracuse. University of St Andrews. Truy cp 2 thng 1 nm 2007. 10. ^ a b Rorres, Chris. Death of Archimedes: Sources. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 2 thng 1 nm 2007. 11. ^ Rorres, Chris. Tomb of Archimedes: Sources. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 2 thng 1 nm 2007. 12. ^ Rorres, Chris. Siege of Syracuse. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 13. ^ Vitruvius. De Architectura, Book IX, paragraphs 912, text in English and Latin. University of Chicago. Truy cp 30 thng 8 nm 2007.

14. ^ Incompressibility of Water. Harvard University. Truy cp 27 thng 2 nm 2008. 15. ^ HyperPhysics. Buoyancy. Georgia State University. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 16. ^ Rorres, Chris. The Golden Crown. Drexel University. Truy cp 24 thng 3 nm 2009. 17. ^ Carroll, Bradley W. Archimedes' Principle. Weber State University. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 18. ^ Rorres, Chris. The Golden Crown: Galileo's Balance. Drexel University. Truy cp 24 thng 3 nm 2009. 19. ^ Casson, Lionel (1971). Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691035369. 20. ^ Dalley, Stephanie. Oleson, John Peter. Sennacherib, Archimedes, and the Water Screw: The Context of Invention in the Ancient World. Technology and Culture Volume 44, Number 1, thng 1 nm 2003 (PDF). Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 21. ^ Rorres, Chris. Archimedes screw - Optimal Design. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 22. ^ Watch an animation of an Archimedes screw. Wikimedia Commons. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 23. ^ Rorres, Chris. Archimedes' Claw - Illustrations and Animations - a range of possible designs for the claw. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 24. ^ Carroll, Bradley W. Archimedes' Claw - watch an animation. Weber State University. Truy cp 12 thng 8 nm 2007. 25. ^ Hippias, 2 (cf. Galen, On temperaments 3.2, who mentions pyreia, "torches"); Anthemius of Tralles, On miraculous engines 153 [Westerman]. 26. ^ John Wesley. A Compendium of Natural Philosophy (1810) Chapter XII, Burning Glasses. Online text at Wesley Center for Applied Theology. Truy cp 14 thng 9 nm 2007. 27. ^ Archimedes' Weapon. Time Magazine (26 thng 11 nm 1973). Truy cp 12 thng 8 nm 2007. 28. ^ Bonsor, Kevin. How Wildfires Work. HowStuffWorks. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 29. ^ Rorres, Chris. The Law of the Lever According to Archimedes. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 20 thng 3 nm 2010. 30. ^ Clagett, Marshall. Greek Science in Antiquity. Dover Publications. Truy cp 20 thng 3 nm 2010. 31. ^ c trch dn bi Pappus ca Alexandria trong Synagoge, Book VIII 32. ^ Dougherty, F. KHONG; Macari, J.; Okamoto, KHONG. Pulleys. Society of Women Engineers. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 33. ^ Ancient Greek Scientists: Hero of Alexandria. Technology Museum of Thessaloniki. Truy cp 14 thng 9 nm 2007. 34. ^ Cicero. De re publica 1.xiv 21. thelatinlibrary.com. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007.

35. ^ Cicero. De re publica Complete e-text in English from Gutenberg.org. Project Gutenberg. Truy cp 18 thng 9 nm 2007. 36. ^ Rorres, Chris. Spheres and Planetaria. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 37. ^ Ancient Moon 'computer' revisited. BBC News (29 thng 11 nm 2006). Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 38. ^ Plutarch. Extract from Parallel Lives. fulltextarchive.com. Truy cp 10 thng 8 nm 2009. 39. ^ R.W. Kaye. Archimedean ordered fields. web.mat.bham.akhonguk. Truy cp 7 thng 11 nm 2009. 40. ^ Quoted in T. L. Heath, Works of Archimedes, Dover Publications, ISBN 0-48642084-1. 41. ^ Carroll, Bradley W. The Sand Reckoner. Weber State University. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 42. ^ Encyclopedia of ancient Greece By Nigel Guy Wilson Page 77 ISBN 0-79450225-3 (2006) 43. ^ Editions of Archimedes' Work. Brown University Library. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 44. ^ Van Helden, Al. The Galileo Project: Hydrostatic Balance. Rice University. Truy cp 14 thng 9 nm 2007. 45. ^ Heath, T.L.. The Works of Archimedes (1897). The unabridged work in PDF form (19 MB). Archive.org. Truy cp 14 thng 10 nm 2007. 46. ^ Kolata, Gina (14 thng 12 nm 2003). In Archimedes' Puzzle, a New Eureka Moment. The New York Times. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 47. ^ Ed Pegg Jr. (17 thng 11 nm 2003). The Loculus of Archimedes, Solved. Mathematical Association of America. Truy cp 18 thng 5 nm 2008. 48. ^ Rorres, Chris. Archimedes' Stomachion. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 14 thng 9 nm 2007. 49. ^ Graeco Roman Puzzles. Gianni A. Sarcone and Marie J. Waeber. Truy cp 9 thng 5 nm 2008. 50. ^ B. Krumbiegel, A. Amthor, Das Problema Bovinum des Archimedes, Historisch-literarische Abteilung der Zeitschrift Fr Mathematik und Physik 25 (1880) 121-136, 153-171. 51. ^ Calkins, Keith G. Archimedes' Problema Bovinum. Andrews University. Truy cp 14 thng 9 nm 2007. 52. ^ English translation of The Sand Reckoner. University of Waterloo. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 53. ^ Archimedes' Book of Lemmas. cut-the-knot. Truy cp 7 thng 8 nm 2007. 54. ^ O'Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F. (thng April nm 1999). Heron of Alexandria. University of St Andrews. Truy cp 17 thng 2 nm 2010. 55. ^ Miller, Mary K. (thng March nm 2007). Reading Between the Lines. Smithsonian Magazine. Truy cp 24 thng 1 nm 2008. 56. ^ Rare work by Archimedes sells for $2 million. CNN (29 thng 10 nm 1998). Truy cp 15 thng 1 nm 2008. 57. ^ X-rays reveal Archimedes' secrets. BBC News (2 thng 8 nm 2006). Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007.

58. ^ Friedlander, Jay and Williams, Dave. Oblique view of Archimedes crater on the Moon. NASA. Truy cp 13 thng 9 nm 2007. 59. ^ Planetary Data System. NASA. Truy cp 13 thng 9 nm 2007. 60. ^ Fields Medal. International Mathematical Union. Truy cp 23 thng 7 nm 2007. 61. ^ Rorres, Chris. Stamps of Archimedes. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Truy cp 25 thng 8 nm 2007. 62. ^ California Symbols. California State Capitol Museum. Truy cp 14 thng 9 nm 2007. 63. ^ The Archimedes Movement.

[sa] c thm

Wikisource c vn bn gc t 1911 Encyclopdia Britannica v: Archimedes


Boyer, Carl Benjamin (1991). A History of Mathematics. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-54397-7. Dijksterhuis, E.J. (1987). Archimedes. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ISBN 0-691-08421-1. Republished translation of the 1938 study of Archimedes and his works by an historian of science. Gow, Mary (2005). Archimedes: Mathematical Genius of the Ancient World. Enslow Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-7660-2502-0. Hasan, Heather (2005). Archimedes: The Father of Mathematics. Rosen Central. ISBN 978-1404207745. Heath, T.L. (1897). Works of Archimedes. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-48642084-1. Complete works of Archimedes in English. Netz, Reviel and Noel, William (2007). The Archimedes Codex. Orion Publishing Group. ISBN 0-297-64547-1. Pickover, Clifford A. (2008). Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195336115. Simms, Dennis L. (1995). Archimedes the Engineer. Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. ISBN 0-720-12284-8. Stein, Sherman (1999). Archimedes: What Did He Do Besides Cry Eureka?. Mathematical Association of America. ISBN 0-88385-718-9.

[sa] The Works of Archimedes trn mng


Text in Classical Greek: PDF scans of Heiberg's edition of the Works of Archimedes, now in the public domain In English translation: The Works of Archimedes, trans. T.L. Heath; supplemented by The Method of Mechanical Theorems, trans. L.G. Robinson

[sa] Lin kt ngoi


Tm thm v Archimedes ti nhng ng d n ca Wikipedia: T in Wiktionary Sch Wikibooks H s Wikiquote Vn kin Wikisource Hnh nh v phng tin Commons Tin tc Wikinews Ti liu gio dc Wikiversity

ArchimedesThe Greek mathematician and his Eureka momentsIn Our Time, broadcast in 2007 (requires RealPlayer) The Archimedes Palimpsest project at The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland The Mathematical Achievements and Methodologies of Archimedes Article examining how Archimedes may have calculated the square root of 3 at MathPages Archimedes On Spheres and Cylinders at MathPages Photograph of the Sakkas experiment in 1973 Testing the Archimedes steam cannon Stamps of Archimedes

Archimedes
Archimedes ca Syracuse (ting Hy Lp: ) phin m ting Vit l c-si-mt; khong (287 trc Cng Nguyn khong 212 trc Cng Nguyn) l mt nh ton hc, nh vt l, k s, nh pht minh, v mt nh thin vn hc ngi Hy Lp. D t chi tit v cuc i ng c bit, ng c coi l mt trong nhng nh khoa hc hng u ca thi k c i. Trong s cc ci tin vt l ca ng c cc nn tng ca thu tnh, tnh hc v mt s gii thch nguyn l n by. ng c coi l ngi thit k nhng c my ci tin, gm cc my vy thnh v bm inh c mang tn ng. Cc thc nghim hin i kim nghim cc tuyn b rng cc c my ca Archimedes thit k c kh nng nhc bng nhng chic tu chin v t chy tu bng cch s dng mt mng li gng.[1] Archimedes ni chung c coi l nh ton hc v i nht thi c i v l mt trong nhng ngi v i nht mi thi i.[2][3] ng s dng phng php vt cn tnh ton din tch theo cung ca mt hnh parabol vi tng ca mt chui v hn, v a ra c tnh chnh xc ng ngc nhin ca s pi.[4] ng cng nh ngha ng xon c

mang tn ng, lp cng thc tnh cho cc th tch ca cc b mt xoay v mt h thng kho lo th hin cc con s rt ln. Archimedes cht trong trn Bao vy Syracuse khi ng b mt tn lnh La M git d c lnh khng c lm hi ng. Cicero miu t vic ti thm m Archimedes, bn trn c mt hnh cu ni tip bn trong mt hnh tr. Archimedes chng minh rng hnh cu c hai phn ba th tch v din tch b mt ca hnh tr (gm c cc y ca hnh tr), v coi l mt trong nhng thnh tu ton hc ln nht ca mnh. Khng ging cc pht minh ca ng, cc tc phm ton hc ca Archimedes t c bit n trong thi c i. Cc nh ton hc t Alexandria c v trch dn cc tc phm ca ng, nhng s su tp y u tin mi ti khong nm 530 sau Cng Nguyn mi c Isidore ca Miletus thc hin, trong khi nhng li bnh lun vi cc tc phm ca Archimedes do Eutocius vit th k th 6 Cng Nguyn ln u tin a n ra vi ngi c rng ri hn. S lng kh t cc tc phm vit tay ca Archimedes cn li cho ti Thi Trung C l mt ngun t tng nh hng quan trng cho cc nh khoa hc trong thi k Phc hng,[5] trong khi s pht hin cc tc phm trc cha tng c bit ti ca Archimedes vo nm 1906 trong Tc phm da cu Archimedes cung cp ci nhn mi v vic lm sao ng t c cc thnh tu trong ton hc.[6]

Mc lc
[n] Archimedes sinh khong 287 trc Cng Nguyn ti thnh ph cng Syracuse, Sicily, khi y l mt thuc a t tr ca Magna Graecia. Ngy sinh ca ng da trn mt tuyn b ca nh s hc Hy Lp Byzantine John Tzetzes rng Archimedes sng 75 nm.[7] Trong Ngi m ct, Archimedes vit tn cha mnh l Phidias, mt nh thin vn hc khng c bit ti vi bt k chi tit no khc. Plutarch vit trong cun Cc cuc i song song ca mnh rng Archimedes c h hng vi Vua Hiero II, nh cai tr Syracuse.[8] Mt tiu s ca Archimedes c bn ng l Heracleides vit nhng tc phm ny mt, khin cc chi tit v cuc i ng cng m mt.[9] V d, ta khng bit liu ng tng kt hn hay c con khng. Trong thi trai tr Archimedes c th hc ti Alexandria, Ai Cp, ni Conon ca Samos v Eratosthenes ca Cyrene cng theo hc cng thi. ng coi Conon ca Samos l bn mnh, trong khi hai trong nhng tc phm ca ng (Phng php nh l C hc v Vn Gia sc) c nhng li m u cp ti Eratosthenes.[a] Archimedes mt khong 212 trc Cng Nguyn trong Chin tranh Punic ln th hai, khi cc lc lng La M di s ch huy ca Tng Marcus Claudius Marcellus chim thnh ph Syracuse sau mt cuc bao vy ko di hai nm. Theo li tng thut thng c k li ca Plutarch, Archimedes ang suy ngm v mt biu ton hc khi thnh ph b chim. Mt binh s La M ra lnh cho ng ti gp Tng Marcellus nhng ng t chi, ni rng mnh phi gii quyt xong vn . Ngi lnh ni gin, v dng kim git Archimedes. Plutarch cng c mt li tng thut t c bit hn v ci cht ca Archimedes cho rng c th ng b git khi ang tm cch u hng mt binh s La

M. Theo cu chuyn ny, Archimedes mang theo cc dng c ton hc, v b git bi ngi lnh cho rng chng l nhng c gi tr. Tng Marcellus c cho l ni gin v ci cht ca Archimedes, bi ng ta coi Archimedes l mt ti sn khoa hc c gi tr v ra lnh khng c lm hi ng.[10]

Mt hnh cu c 2/3 th tch v din tch b mt ca hnh tr bao quanh n. Mt hnh cu v hnh tr c t trn m ca Archimedes theo yu cu ca ng. Nhng t cui cng c cho l ca Archimedes l ng lm hng cc hnh trn ca ta (ting Hy Lp: ), mt s cp ti nhng ng trn ton hc m ng c cho l ang nghin cu khi b ngi lnh La M quy ry. Cu ni ny thng c ghi li bng ting Latin l Noli turbare circulos meos, nhng khng c bng chng ng tin cy rng Archimedes tht ra nhng li v chng khng xut hin trong li tng thut ca Plutarch.[10] M ca Archimedes c mt hnh iu khc th hin chng minh ton hc a thch ca ng, gm mt hnh cu v mt hnh tr c cng chiu cao v bn knh. Archimedes chng minh rng th tch v din tch b mt ca hnh cu bng hai phn ba th tch v din tch ca hnh tr gm c cc y ca n. Nm 75 trc Cng Nguyn, 137 nm sau khi ng mt, nh hng bin ngi La M l Cicero khi y ang lm quan coi quc kh Sicily. ng nghe nhng cu chuyn v ngi m ca Archimedes, nhng khng mt ngi dn a phng no c th dn ng ti . Cui cng ng tm thy ngi m gn cng Agrigentine Syracuse, trong iu kin b b hoang v b cy bi ph kn. Cicero dn dp ngi m, v c th thy hnh khc v c mt s cu th c thm vo nh li tng.[11] Cc gi thuyt tiu chun v cuc i ca Archimedes c vit kh lu sau khi ng mt bi cc nh s hc La M c i. Li k v cuc bao vy Syracuse ca Polybius trong tc phm Lch s Th gii c vit khong by mi nm sau ci cht ca Archimedes, v sau ny c Plutarch v Livy s dng nh mt ngun thng tin. N

khng mang li nhiu nh sng v con ngi Archimedes, v tp trung trn nhng c my chin tranh m ng c cho l to ra bo v thnh ph.[12]

[sa] Cc pht minh v sng to


[sa] Vng min Vng

Archimedes c th s dng nguyn l sc ni ny xc nh liu chic vng min c mt nh hn vng c khng. Giai thoi c bit n nhiu nht v Archimedes tng thut cch ng pht minh ra phng php xc nh th tch ca mt vt th vi hnh dng khng bnh thng. Theo Vitruvius, mt vng min mi vi hnh dng mt vng nguyt qu c ch to cho Vua Hiero II, v Archimedes c yu cu xc nh liu n c phi c s dng vng thun ty, hay c cho thm bc bi mt ngi th bt lng.[13] Archimedes phi gii quyt vn m khng c lm h hi chic vng min, v th ng khng th c chy n ra thnh mt hnh dng thng thng tnh mt . Khi ang tm trong bn tm, ng nhn thy rng mc nc trong bn tng ln khi ng bc vo, v nhn ra rng hiu ng ny c th c s dng xc nh th tch ca vng min. V trn thc t nc khng nn c,[14] v th chic vng min b nhng chm trong nc s lm trn ra mt khi lng nc tng ng th tch ca n. Bng cch chia trng lng ca vng min vi th tch nc b chim ch, c th xc nh mt ca vng min. Sau Archimedes nhy ra ngoi ph khi vn ang trn trung, qu kch ng vi khm ph ca mnh, ku ln Eureka! (ting Hy Lp: !, c ngha Ti tm ra ri!)[15] Cu chuyn v chic vng min vng khng xut hin trong cc tc phm c bit ca Archimedes. Hn na, tnh thc tin ca phng php n miu t b nghi vn, v s v cng chnh xc phi c xc nh lng nc b chim ch.[16] Archimedes thay vo c th tm kim mt gii php s dng nguyn l c bit trong thy tnh hc nh Nguyn l Archimedes, m ng miu t trong chuyn lun V cc vt th ni ca mnh. Nguyn l ny ni rng mt vt th b nhng trong mt cht lng s b mt lc y

ln tng ng trng lng cht lng b n chim ch.[17] S dng nguyn l ny, c th so snh mt ca chic vng min vng vi mt ca vng khi bng cch cn chic vng min cng vi mt khi vng chun, sau nhng chng vo trong nc. Nu chic vng min c mt nh hn vng, n s chim ch nhiu nc hn v c th tch ln hn, v v th s gp lc y ln ln hn mu chun. S khc bit ny trong lc y s khin chic cn mt thng bng. Galileo coi n c th l phng php ny ging phng php Archimedes s dng, bi, ngoi vic rt chnh xc, n da trn nhng bng chng do chnh Archimedes khm ph.[18]
[sa] inh c Archimedes

inh c Archimedes c th bm nc ln rt hiu qu. Mt phn ln cng vic k thut ca Archimedes xut hin t cc nhu cu thc t ca thnh ph Syracuse. Tc gia ngi Hy Lp Athenaeus ca Naucratis miu t vic Vua Hieron II t hng Archimedes thit k mt con tu ln, chic Syracusia, c th c s dng lm phng tin vn ti xa hoa, mang theo hu cn, v nh mt tu chin. Chic Syracusia c cho l con tu ln nht c ch to trong thi c i.[19] Theo Athenaeus, n c th ch 600 ngi gm c nhng trang tr trong vn, mt phng th dc v mt ngi n cho n thn Aphrodite cng cc trang b khc. Bi chic tu vi kch c ny c th s b r r mt lng nc ln qua v, inh c Archimedes c ch to loi b nc y tu. C my ca Archimedes l mt thit b vi nhng l hnh inh c xoay bn trong mt hnh tr. N hot ng bng tay, v cng c th c dng chuyn nc t ni thp ti cc knh thu li. inh c Archimedes ngy nay vn c s dng bm cht lng v cht rn nh nh than v ng cc. inh c Archimedes c miu t thi La M c i bi Vitruvius c th l mt s ci tin ca bm inh c tng c dng ti tiu cho Vn treo Babylon.[20][21][22]
[sa] Mng vut Archimedes

Mng vut Archimedes l mt v kh c cho l do ng thit k ra bo v thnh ph Syracuse. Cng c gi l k lm m tu, mng vut gm mt cnh tay kiu cn cu vi mt mc tm ln bng kim loi treo u. Khi mng c nm vo tu ch cnh tay s a ln, nhc tu khi nc v c th lm m n. c nhng thc nghim thi hin i th tnh nng ca mng vut, v mt b phim ti liu nm 2005 vi ta Siu v

kh th gii c i ch to mt phin bn ca mng vut v kt lun rng n l mt thit b c th hot ng.[23][24]


[sa] Tia chiu ca Archimedes thn thoi hay s thc?

Archimedes c th s dng nhng chic gng hot ng nh mt thit b phn x parabol t chy nhng con tu tn cng Syracuse. Th k th 2 Cng Nguyn tc gia Lucian vit rng trong cuc Bao vy Syracuse (khong 214212 trc Cng Nguyn), Archimedes dng la t chy cc tu chin ch. Nhiu th k sau, Anthemius ca Tralles cp ti nhng gng t chy nh v kh ca Archimedes.[25] Thit b ny, thnh thong c gi l tia chiu ca Archimedes, c dng hi t nh mt tri vo nhng con tu ang tip cn, khin chng bt la. V kh ni ting ny l ch ca nhng cuc tranh lun v kh nng ca n t thi Phc Hng. Ren Descartes coi y l mt sai lm, trong khi nhng nh nghin cu hin i tm cch ti to hiu ng ny bng nhng phng tin c sn trong thi Archimedes.[26] Mi ngi cho rng mt mng li cc tm ng hay ng thau c nh bng c s dng hi t nh mt tri vo mt con tu. Cch ny s dng nguyn l hi t parabol theo mt cch tng t vi l mt tri. Mt cuc th nghim tia chiu ca Archimedes c tin hnh nm 1973 bi nh khoa hc Hy Lp Ioannis Sakkas. Cuc th nghim din ra ti cn c hi qun Skaramagas bn ngoi Athens. Ln ny 70 chic gng c s dng, mi chic c mt lp ph ng vi kch thc khong 53 feet (1.5 x 1 m). Nhng chic gng hng vo mt ming g dn gi lm mt tu chin La M khong cch khong 160 feet (50 m). Khi nhng chic gng c t chnh xc, con tu bc chy ch sau vi giy. Con tu g dn c mt lp sn ph nha ng, c th gp phn vo s chy.[27]

Thng 10 nm 2005 mt nhm sinh vin t Vin Cng ngh Massachusetts tin hnh mt thc nghim vi nhng 127 chic gng vung 1 foot vung (30 cm), chiu vo mt con tu g khong cch khong 100 feet (30 m). La bc ln mt pha ca con tu, nhng ch khi tri khng c my v con tu ng yn trong khong 10 pht. Mi ngi kt lun rng c th l mt loi v kh nhng iu kin nh vy. Nhm MIT lp li thc nghim cho chng trnh TV MythBusters, s dng mt chic tu cy c bng g ti San Francisco lm mc tiu. Mt ln na mt s im chy than xut hin, cng vi mt t la. c th bt la, g cn t ti im chy, khong 300 Celsius (570 F).[28] Khi chng trnh MythBusters pht sng kt qu cuc thc nghim San Francisco thng 1 nm 2006, kt lun c a ra l busted (khng ng) bi di thi gian v cc iu kin thi tit l tng cn c s chy xy ra. H cng ch ra rng bi Syracuse hng mt pha ng ra bin, hm i La M s phi b tn cng vo bui sng nhng chic gng c c hi t nh sng cao nht. MythBusters cng ch ra rng cc loi v kh quy c, nh tn la hay bt la t my phng, c th d dng hn nhiu t chy mt con tu nhng khong cch gn.[1]
[sa] Cc pht minh v sng to khc

Tuy Archimedes khng pht minh ra n by, ng a ra mt gii thch v nguyn l trong tc phm V s cn bng ca cc hnh tinh ca mnh. Nhng miu t trc v n by c trong trng phi Peripatetic ca nhng hc tr ca Aristotle, v thnh thong c gn cho Archytas.[29][30] Theo Pappus ca Alexandria, nhng cng vic ca Archimedes v n by khin ng pht biu: Hy cho ti mt im ta v ti s nhc bng c Tri t. (ting Hy Lp: )[31] Plutarch miu t cch Archimedes thit k cc h thng puli khi v dy cho php cc thu th s dng nguyn l n by nhc nhng vt bnh thng l qu nng di chuyn vi h. [32] Archimedes cng c gn thnh tch ci thin cng sut v chnh xc ca my bn , v vi vic pht minh ra ng h o trong Chin tranh Punic ln th nht. ng h o c miu t nh mt chic xe vi c cu bnh xe nh mt qu bng vo trong mt thng cha sau mi dm i c.[33] Cicero (10643 trc Cng Nguyn) miu t Archimedes trong mt on ngn trong cun i thoi De re publica ca mnh, th hin mt cuc i thoi tng tng din ra nm 129 trc Cng Nguyn. Sau khi Syracuse b chim khong 212 trc Cng Nguyn, Tng Marcus Claudius Marcellus c cho l mang v thnh Roma hai c cu c dng trong thin vn hc, th hin s chuyn ng ca Mt tri, Mt trng v nm hnh tinh. Cicero cp ti nhng c cu tng t do Thales ca Miletus v Eudoxus ca Cnidus thit k. i thoi ni rng Marcellus gi mt trong hai thit b nh ca ci duy nht ca mnh Syracuse, v hin chic kia cho n c hnh ti Roma. C my ca Marcellus, theo Cicero, c Gaius Sulpicius Gallus gii thiu vi Lucius Furius Philus, ngi miu t n: Hanc sphaeram Gallus cum moveret, fiebat ut soli luna totidem conversionibus in aere illo quot diebus in ipso caelo succederet, ex quo et in caelo sphaera solis fieret eadem illa defectio, et incideret luna tum in eam metam quae esset umbra terrae, cum sol e regione. Khi Gallus lm chuyn ng qu a cu, Mt trng i theo Mt tri bng nhiu vng

xoay trn thit b bng ng nh n ang trn bu tri, trn tri t ca Mt tri cng c cng kiu nht thc v Mt trng i vo im ni n ph bng ln Tri t, khi Mt tri thng hng.[34][35] y l mt on miu t mt m hnh v tr hay cung thin vn. Pappus ca Alexandria ni rng Archimedes c mt bn vit tay (hin mt) v vic ch to cc c cu vi ta V vic ch to cc Mt cu. Nghin cu hin i trong lnh vc ny tp trung vo c cu Antikythera, mt thit b khc t thi c i c l c thit k vi cng mc ch. Vic ch to cc c cu kiu ny i hi mt s hiu bit tinh vi v bnh rng vi sai. Thit b ny tng c cho l vt khi phm vi k thut ca cc thi c i, nhng vic pht hin ra c cu Antikythera nm 1902 xc nhn rng cc thit b kiu c ngi Hy Lp c i bit ti.[36][37]

[sa] Ton hc
Tuy thng c coi nh mt ngi thit k cc thit b c kh, Archimedes cng c nhng ng gp trong lnh vc ton hc. Plutarch vit: ng t ton b nim am m v tham vng trong nhng s suy xt thun tu ni khng c s hin din ca nhng nhu cu tm thng ca cuc sng.[38]

Archimedes s dng phng php rt gn c tnh gi tr s . Archimedes c th s dng cc vi phn theo mt cch tng t nh tnh ton tch phn hin i ngy nay. Thng qua chng minh mu thun (reductio ad absurdum), ng c th a ra nhng cu tr li cho nhng bi ton vi mt chnh xc bt k, trong khi xc nh cc gii hn c cu tr li bn trong. K thut ny c gi l phng php rt gn, v ng s dng n c tnh gi tr s (pi). ng thc hin n bng cch v mt hnh a gic ln bn ngoi mt hnh trn v mt hnh a gic nh bn trong hnh trn. Khi s lng cc cnh ca hnh a gic tng ln, n s gn nh tr thnh bng vi hnh trn. Khi cc hnh a gic c 96 cnh, ng tnh cc chiu di cc cnh v thy gi tr s nm trong khong 317 (xp x 3.1429) v 31071 (xp x 3.1408), gn vi gi tr thc ca n l xp x 3.1416. ng cng chng minh rng din tch ca mt hnh trn bng vi nhn vi bnh phng ca bn knh ca hnh trn. Trong V hnh trn v hnh tr, Archimedes a ra nh rng bt k ln no khi khi c thm thi gian s vt qu bt k mt ln no cho trc. y l thuc tnh Archimedes ca cc s thc.
[39]

Trong o c mt hnh trn, Archimedes a ra gi tr ca cn bc hai ca 3 nm trong khong 265153 (xp x 1.7320261) v 1351780 (xp x 1.7320512). Gi tr thc l xp x 1.7320508, khin y l mt c tnh rt chnh xc. ng a ra kt qu ny m khng

c s gii thch v phng php tnh ton n. Cch lm vic ny ca Archimedes khin John Wallis nhn xt rng ng: nh c mc tiu nh trc l che du cc cch thc thc hin ca mnh nh kiu mun gi b mt phng php vi th h sau trong khi vn mun khin h phi thn phc vi nhng kt qu mnh t c.[40]

Nh c chng minh bi Archimedes, din tch ca phn parabol hnh trn tng ng vi 4/3 din tch ca hnh tam gic ni tip hnh di. Trong Php cu phng ca hnh parabol, Archimedes chng minh rng din tch b bao quanh bi mt hnh parabol v mt ng thng gp 43 ln din tch ca mt hnh tam gic ni tip tng ng hnh bn phi. Ng th hin cch gii cho vn nh mt chui hnh hc v nh vi t l chung 14:

Nu s hng u tin trong chui ny l din tch ca mt hnh tam gic, th s hng th hai l tng ca cc din tch ca hai tam gic c y l hai cnh ct nh hn, v tip tc. Cch chng minh ny s dng mt bin i ca chui 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + 1/256 + vi tng l 13. Trong Ngi m ct, Archimedes t ra cch tnh ton s lng ht ct m v tr c th cha ng. Khi lm nh vy, ng bc b kin rng s lng ht ct l qu ln c th tnh c. ng vit: C mt s ngi, Vua Gelo (Gelo II, con trai ca Hiero II), ngh rng s lng ht ct l v hn trong v s; v ti mun ni ti s ct khng ch tn ti Syracuse v phn cn li ca Sicily m c ti nhng ht ct c trong mi vng ni c hay khng c ngi . gii quyt vn ny, Archimedes t ra mt h thng tnh ton da trn myriad. T t ting Hy Lp murias, tng ng vi 10,000.

ng xut mt h thng s sa dng mt myriad m myriad (100 triu) v kt lun rng s lng ht ct cn lp y v tr s l 8 vigintillion, hay 81063.[41]

[sa] Tc phm
Cc tc phm ca Archimedes c vit bng ting Hy Lp Doric, mt phng ng ca Syracuse.[42] Tc phm vit ca Archimedes cng nh tc phm ca Euclid khng cn tn ti, v by chuyn lun ca ng c bit tn ti thng qua nhng li cp ti bi cc tc gi khc. Pappus of Alexandria nhc ti V vic ch to hnh cu v tc phm khc trong polyhedra, trong khi Theon ca Alexandria trch dn mt lu v khc x t hin mt Catoptrica.[b] Trong i mnh, Archimedes thc hin cc cng vic vi s trao i vi cc nh ton hc ti Alexandria. Cc tc phm vit ca Archimedes c kin trc s Byzantine Isidore ca Miletus (khong 530 sau Cng Nguyn) su tp, trong khi nhng bnh lun v cc tc phm ca Archimedes c vit bi Eutocius th k th 6 Cng Nguyn gip a chng ti nhiu c gi hn. Tc phm ca Archimedes c dch sang ting Rp bi Thbit ibn Qurra (836901 sau Cng Nguyn), v Latin bi Gerard ca Cremona (khong 11141187 sau Cng Nguyn). Trong thi Phc hng, Editio Princeps (n bn th nht) c xut bn ti Basel nm 1544 bi Johann Herwagen vi cc tc phm ca Archimedes bng ting Hy Lp v Latin.[43] Khong nm 1586 Galileo Galilei pht minh ra mt chic cn thu tnh cn cc kim loi trong khng kh v nc sau khi r rng c cm hng t tc phm ca Archimedes.[44]
[sa] Cc tc phm cn li

Archimedes c cho l rt n tng vi n by: Hy cho ti mt im ta, v ti s nhc bng c Tri t.

V s thng bng ca cc hnh tinh (hai tp) Cun sch u tin c mi lm xut vi by nh , trong khi cun th hai c mi xut. Trong tc phm ny Archimedes gii thch nh lut n by, pht biu, ln ca kh nng tc ng lc t l thun vi ln ca lc v ng thi t l thun vi khong cch t im tc dng lc ti tm quay (cnh tay n).

Archimedes s dng cc nguyn tc xut pht t tnh ton cc din tch v cc tm trng lc ca nhiu hnh hc gm c hnh tam gic, hnh bnh hnh v hnh parabol.[45]

V vic o c mt hnh trn y l mt tc phm ngn gm ba xut. N c vit di hnh thc mt bc th trao i vi Dositheus ca Pelusium, ngi l mt hc sinh ca Conon ca Samos. Trong xut II, Archimedes th hin rng gi tr ca s (pi) ln hn 223 71 v nh hn 227. Con s sau c dng nh mt c tnh s trong sut thi Trung C v vn c dng ngy nay khi ch cn mt s gn ng.

V cc hnh xon c Tc phm ny gm 28 xut v cng l trao i vi Dositheus. Tc phm nh ngha ci hin c gi l hnh xon Archimedes. N l qu tch ca cc im tng ng vi cc v tr trong thi gian ca mt im di chuyn khi mt im c nh vi vn tc khng i dc theo mt ng quay quanh vi mt vn tc gc khng i. Tng t, trong to trc (r, ) n c th c miu t bng phng trnh vi cc s thc a v b. y l mt v d sm v mt ng cong ton hc (mt ng cong c c t mt im di chuyn) c mt nh ton hc Hy Lp xem xt.

V hnh cu v hnh tr (hai tp) Trong tc phm ny gi ti Dositheus, Archimedes c c kt qu m ng thy t ho nht, gi l mi quan h gia mt hnh cu v mt hnh tr bao quanh n vi cng chiu cao v ng knh. Th tch l 43r3 vi hnh cu, v 2r3 vi hnh tr. Din tch b mt l 4r2 vi hnh cu, v 6r2 vi hnh tr (gm c hai y), theo r l bn knh ca hnh cu v hnh tr. Hnh cu c th tch v din tch b mt bng hai phn ba th tch v din tch ca hnh tr. Mt hnh cu v hnh tr c khc trn m Archimedes theo yu cu ca ng.

V cc hnh nm v hnh cu y l mt tc phm gm 32 xut gi Dositheus. Trong tc phm ny Archimedes tnh ton cc din tch v th tch ca cc mt ct ca hnh hnh cn, cc hnh cu v hnh parabol.

V cc vt th ni (hai tp) Trong phn u ca tc phm, Archimedes pht biu nh lut cn bng ca cc cht lng v chng minh rng nc s c hnh cu bao quanh mt tm trng lc. iu ny c th l mt n lc nhm gii thch l thuyt ca cc nh thin vn hc

Hy Lp ng thi nh Eratosthenes rng Tri t hnh trn. Cc cht lng c Archimedes miu t khng t hng tm, bi ng gi thit s tn ti ca mt im m mi vt u ri v pha n c c hnh cu. Trong phn hai, ng tnh ton cc v tr cn bng ca cc mt ct ca cc hnh parabol. y c th l mt s l tng ho cc hnh dng v thn tu. Mt s mt ct ca ng ni vi y di nc v nh trn mt nc, tng t nh cch cc ni bng ni. nh l Archimedes v lc y c a ra trong tc phm, c pht biu nh sau: Bt k vt th no ngp ton b hay mt phn trong mt cht lng s b mt lc y ln tng ng vi, nhng ngc chiu vi, trng lng ca cht lng b chim ch.

Php cu phng hnh parabol Trong tc phm 24 xut ny gi ti Dositheus, Archimedes chng minh theo hai cch rng din tch b bao quanh bi mt hnh parabol v mt ng thng gp 4/3 ln din tch mt hnh tam gic vi cng y v chiu cao. ng hon thnh n bng cch tnh ton gi tr ca mt chui hnh hc vi tng v nh vi t l 14.

(O)stomachion y l mt s m x cu tng t nh mt Tangram, v tc phm miu t n c tm thy tnh trng nguyn v hn ti bn vit trn da cu Archimedes. Archimedes tnh ton cc din tch ca 14 ming c th gp vo thnh mt hnh vung. Nghin cu c xut bn ca Tin s Reviel Netz thuc i hc Stanford nm 2003 cho rng Archimedes ang tm cch xc nh c th c bao nhiu cch cch mnh ghp li c thnh mt hnh vung. Tin s Netz tnh ton rng cc mnh c th c lm thnh mt hnh vung theo 17,152 cch.[46] S lng cch sp xp l 536 khi cch cch gii tng ng theo s ln quay v vic lt hnh b loi tr.[47] Cu th hin mt v d v vn bui u trong t hp. Ngun gc ci tn cu khng r rng, v c l thuyt rng n c ly t t ting Hy Lp c c ngha c hng hay thc qun, stomachos ().[48] Ausonius gi cu l Ostomachion, mt t phc Hy Lp c hnh thnh t cc t (osteon, xng) v (mach nh). Cu cng c gi l Loculus ca Archimedes hay Hp Archimedes.[49]

Bi ton n gia sc Archimedes Tc phm ny c pht hin bi Gotthold Ephraim Lessing trong mt bn vit tay ting Hy Lp gm mt bi th 44 dng, trong Th vin Herzog August Wolfenbttel, c nm 1773. N c gi ti Eratosthenes v cc nh ton hc ti Alexandria. Archimedes thch h tnh s gia sc ti Herd of the Sun bng cch gii quyt mt s phng trnh Diophantine ng thi. C mt phin bn kh hn ca cu ny trong mt s cu tr li b yu cu phi l cc s

bnh phng. Phin bn ny ca cu ln u c gii bi A. Amthor[50] nm 1880, v cu tr li l mt con s rt ln, xp x 7.76027110206544.[51]

Ngi m ct Trong tc phm ny, Archimedes tnh s lng ht ct lp y v tr. Cun sch ny cp ti l thuyt Nht tm ca H mt tri do Aristarchus ca Samos xut, cng nh nhng tng ng thi v kch thc ca Tri t v khong cch gia cc thin th. Bng cch s dng mt h thng cc s da trn myriad, Archimedes kt lun rng s ct cn lp y v tr l 81063 theo quan nim hin i. on m u bc th ni rng cha ca Archimedes l mt nh thin vn hc tn l Phidias. Ngi m ct hay Psammites l tc phm duy nht cn li trong Archimedes c cp ti cc quan im ca mnh v thin vn hc.[52]

Phng php nh l C hc Tc phm ny c cho l mt cho ti khi Sch da cu Archimedes c pht hin nm 1906. Trong tc phm ny Archimedes s dng cc v nh, v th hin cch lm th no chia mt con s thnh mt lng v nh cc phn nh hn khc c th c dng xc nh din tch v th tch ca n. Archimedes c th coi phng php ny l thiu chnh xc, v th ng cng dng phng php rt gn kim tra kt qu. Nh vi Vn gia sc, Phng php nh l c hc c vit di hnh thc mt bc th gi Eratosthenes ti Alexandria.

[sa] Cc tc phm gi mo

Sch b hay Liber Assumptorum ca Archimedes l mt chuyn lun vi 15 xut v trng thi ca cc hnh trn. Bn copy sm nht c bit ca tc phm l bn ting Rp. Cc hc gi T. L. Heath v Marshall Clagett cho rng n khng th c vit bi Archimedes hnh dng hin ti, bi n c trch dn Archimedes, v cho rng n c sa i bi mt ngi khc. B c th da trn mt tc phm trc ca Archimedes m hin mt.[53] N cng tuyn b rng cng thc Heron tnh ton din tch mt hnh tam gic t chiu di ca cc cnh ca n c Archimedes bit ti.[c] Tuy nhin, s cp ng tin cy u tin ti cng thc l ca Heron ca Alexandria th k th nht sau Cng Nguyn.
[54]

[sa] Sch da cu ca Archimedes


Bi chi tit: Sch da cu ca Archimedes

Stomachion l mt cu m x trong Sch da cu ca Archimedes. Ti liu sm nht c cha tc phm ca Archimedes l Sch da cu ca Archimedes. Nm 1906, gio s ngi an Mch Johan Ludvig Heiberg ti thm Constantinople v xem xt mt vn bn giy da cu 174 trang th k 13. ng pht hin ra rng n l mt cun sch da cu, mt vn bn vi nhng dng ch c vit trn mt tc phm c b ty xo. Nhng cun sch da cu c to ra bng cch co mc in t tc phm trc v s dng li chng, y l mt cch thc thng thy thi Trung C bi giy da rt t. Cc tc phm c trn da cu c cc nh hc gi xc nh l cc bn copy th k th 10 ca cc chuyn lun trc cha tng c bit ti ca Archimedes.[55] Cun sch da cu trong th vin ca tu vin hng trm nm Constantinople trc khi c bn cho mt nh su tp c nhn trong thp nin 1920. Ngy 29 thng 10 nm 1998 n c bn trong mt cuc u gi cho mt ngi mua giu tn vi gi $2 triu ti phng bn u gi Christies New York.[56] Cun sch da cu c by chuyn lun, gm ch mt bn copy cn li ca V cc vt th ni trong ting Hy Lp nguyn gc. N l ngun duy nht c bit ca Phng php nh l c hc, c Suidas cp ti v tng b cho l mt. Stomachion cng c pht hin trong sch da cu, vi mt phn tch y hn v cu so vi tt c cc vn bn tng c trc y. Sch da cu hin c lu gi ti Walters Art Museum Baltimore, Maryland, ni n c tin hnh nhiu cuc th nghim hin i gm c vic s dng tia cc tm v x-quang c cc vn bn b vit ln.[57] Cc chuyn lun trong Sch da cu ca Archimedes gm: V s cn bng ca cc hnh tin, V xoy c, o c mt hnh trn, V hnh cu v hnh tr, V cc vt th ni, Phng php nh l c hc v Stomachion.

[sa] Di sn

Huy chng Fields vi hnh chn dung Archimedes. C mt ming ni la (Archimedes (29.7 N, 4.0 W)) v mt dy ni (Ni Archimedes (25.3 N, 4.6 W)) trm Mt trng c t theo tn Archimedes vinh danh ng.[58] Thin thch 3600 Archimedes cng c t theo tn ng.[59] Huy chng Fields cho nhng thnh tu to ln trong ton hc cng mang hnh chn dung Archimedes, cng vi chng minh ca ng lin quan ti hnh cu v hnh tr. on vn bn xung quanh u Archimedes l mt s trch dn cu ni ca ng trong ting Latin: Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri (Vt hn chnh mnh v thu hiu th gii).[60] Archimedes xut hin trn nhng con tem bu chnh ca ng c (1973), Hy Lp (1983), Italia (1983), Nicaragua (1971), San Marino (1982), v Ty Ban Nha (1963).[61] Thn t Eureka! c gn vi Archimedes l khu hiu ca bang California. Trong trng hp ny thn t ch ti vic pht hin vng gn Sutters Mill nm 1848 dn ti cuc x i tm vng ti California.[62] Mt phong tro tuyn dng dn s vi mc tiu a tt c mi ngi tip cn vi chm sc y t ti bang Oregon ca Hoa K c t tn l Phong tro Archimedes, lnh o bi cu Thng c bang Oregon John Kitzhaber.[63]
ng sinh ti o Sicile (nay thuc Italia). Cha Archimedes l mt nh thin vn v mt nh ton hc ni ting thi by gi. Vo thi k y, cc gia nh giu sang thng chm lo cho con ci c mt nn hc vn ton din m trng tm l trit hc v vn hc. Thng h ch hc ton v cn ton hc trit hc Nhng Archimedes li c gio dc mt cch c bit, cha ng a ng su vo ton v thin vn, l nhng lnh vc m sau ny ng c nhng sng to v i nht.Archimedes n Alexandria, mt thnh ph ni ting nht thi by gi ca Hy Lp, mt trung tm kinh t, chnh tr v vn hoi ni tp trung cc nh Bc hc ni ting nht. y, Archimedes tip tc c bi dng v ton hc v thin vn, ng thi ng cng

ch nhiu n c hc. Sau mt thi gian, khi ti nng ang pht trin, ng quay v Syracuse, thnh ph qu hng v y cho n khi qua i. Archimedes c nhiu sng to ln trong ton hc. ng li nhiu cng trnh nh: V hnh cu v hnh tr; v do cc cung, V vic cu trng ng parabn; V cc ng xon. . . [Only registered and activated users can see links] ([Only registered and activated users can see links]) Archimedes l mt trong nhng ngi u tin chng minh rng y s t nhin (1, 2, 3...) l v hn v tm ra cch vit, cch c bt c s d ln n bao nhiu. Archimedes tnh c din tch nhiu hnh, th tch ca nhiu vt th bng mt phng php c bit. iu ny chng t rng Archimedes 4 c khi nim kh r v php tnh vi phn m mi n th k XVII mi thc s hnh thnh v pht trin vi Leibnizt (Lepnit) v Newton (Niutn) chnh v vy m mt nh ton hc ni ting ni: Nu ai bo ti k tn mt nh ton hc v i ca tt c thi i th ti khong do d m tr li rng ngi l Archiniedes. Archimedes cn l mt nh c hc v i tc gi ca rt nhiu sng ch v pht minh c hc ni ting. Cc cng trnh sng to ca Archimedes u gn lin vi yu cu ca cng cuc xy dng bo v T quc, vi yu cu ca thc tin. ng gii quyt c nhiu vn kh nht ca thi v khoa hc v k thut. Hy cho ti mt im ta, ti s nng c qu t ny ln. Cu ni m hng v truyn thuyt m ngi ta k li l ca Archimedes khi ng pht minh ra lc n by. Ngi ta thng k li cu chuyn v vic Archimedes tm ra nh lut vt ni : C mt quc Vng n yu cu Archimedes tm cch kim tra li mt vng m nh Vua thu c c tht l nguyn cht hay khng. ng suy ngh nhiu m cha tm dc cch kim tra. Mt ln ang tm, ng pht hin ra sc y ca nc ln ngi mnh. Th l qun c mc qun o ng vng chy ln v ku "Eurca ! " (c ngha l tm thy ri! ). T , ng tm ra inh lut v sc y ca nc mang tn ng. Ci cht bt t ca Archimedes Archimedes l ngi yu nc thit tha. Trong giai on cui i mnh, ng tham gia bo v qu hng Chng bn xm lc Ra M. ng lnh o vic xy dng ci cng trnh k thut phc tp v sng ch v kh khng chin. Nh vn C Hy Lp Plutaro t li vicqun i La M b nh tr thnh ph Syracuse nh sau : "Khi qun La M bt u nhng cuc tin cng t trn t tin cng nh trn bin, nhiu ngi dn Syracuse cho rng kh c th chng li mt i qun hng mnh nh vy, Archimedes lin cho m cc my mc v v kh cc loi ng sng to ra. Th l nhng tng ln bay i vi tc nhanh phi thng pht ra nhng ting ng khng khip, ti tp ging xung u cc i qun i bng ng b. Cng lc , c nhng thanh x nng un cong ging hnh chic sng c phng t pho i ra, lin tip ri xung tu ch... TngLa M phi ra lnh rt lui. Nhng bn xm lc vn khng thot khi tai ha. Khi cc n tu ch chy gn n khong cch mt mi tn bay, th ng gi Archimedes ra lnh mang n tm ging su mt, cch tm gng ny mt khong, ng t cc tm gng khc nh hn, quay trn cc bn l. ng t tm ging gia cc tia sng ca Mt tri ma h. Cc tia sng t gng chiu ra gy nn mt m chy khng khip trn cc con tu. on tu bin thnh m tr tn..." Cu chuyn ny trc y vn b coi l hoang ng, cho mi n nm 1777 nh ton hc nt ting Buffon mi chng minh c rng iu rt c th xy ra. Bng 168 chic gng, trong ngy nng Thng T, ng t chy mt cy to v lm nng chy ch cch xa 45 mt. Archemedes cn l mt cng trnh s, mt ngi ng tu thy y sng to. Nh vn C Hy Lp Aphin t quang cnh cng trng ng tu thy ca Archimedes nh sau : "Nh hnh hc Archimedes c giao ng mt chic tu to bng 64 chic tu thng. Tt c mi th cn thit, cc loi g qu thic ch t khp ni n. Nhiu th ng tu cng c triu n y. Mi vic tin hnh rt nhanh chng, c quy c, nn ch sau su thng lm xong mt na tu... Ring v h thy phn tu ny cng lm cho mi ngi - bn ci rt nhiu: "Lm sao c th a mt con tu ln nh vy xung nc ?" Nhng Archimedes dng trc quay ko con tu. Vi rt t ngi gip vic... Chic tu khng l ny c y tin nghi, nh nh bp,

nh n, ch do chi, kho lng thc, th vin... " Archimedes vn tip tc xy dng sng to v tham gia bo v thnh ph qu hng. Qun xm lc hung hn c nh ph, nhng khng th tin ln c. Chng bn dng cch vy thnh trit ht mi ng tip t. n ma thu nm 212 Tr. C.N, thnh Syracuse b h sau hai nm b vy hm. Qun La M xng vo tn st nhn dn rt d man. Mt tn linh La M d cm gio dm cht Archimedee trong lc ng ang ngi trn bi ct mi m tinh v v hnh . V trong lc sp b st hi, ng cn h ln, qut qun lnh La M. "Khng c ng n cc hnh v ca ta. Hn hai nghn nm tri qua t khi Archimedes b qun La M git hi, ngi i sau vn cn ghi nh mi hnh nh mt nh Bc hc thit tha yu nc, y sng hin, pht minh v l thuyt cng nh v thc hnh, hnh nh mt con ngi hin dng c i mnh cho khoa hc, cho T quc, n tn gi pht cui cng. Su tmNh bc hc v i ca Hy Lp c - Archimedes ( 284 - 212 TCN )

Archimedes ( 284 - 212 trc Cng nguyn) - l nh gio, nh bc hc v i ca Hy Lp c i, ng sinh ti thnh ph Syracuse, mt thnh bang ca Hy Lp c i. Cha ca Archimedes l mt nh thin vn v ton hc ni ting Phidias, ch thn gio dc v hng dn ng i su vo hai b mn ny. Nm 7 tui ng hc khoa hc t nhin, trit hc, vn hc. Mi mt tui ng i du hc Ai Cp, l hc sinh ca nh ton hc ni ting clit; ri Ty Ban Nha v nh c vnh vin ti thnh ph Cyracuse, x Sicile. c hong gia ti tr v ti chnh, ng cng hin hon ton cho nghin cu khoa hc. Da trn kinh nghim ca thc t k thut, ng tm ra quy tc n by, nh ngha trng tm ca mt vt v tm ra c trng tm ca cc vt phng nh hnh tam gic, hnh bnh hnh, hnh thang...ng l ngi ch to cc loi my mc c hc nng nc sng ln ti rung ng, nh xon c. ng cn ch to c cc my nm , cn cu mc v nhn chm thuyn ch khi qun ch tn cng. Trong tc phm V cc vt ni ng pht biu nh lut Archimedes v sc y ca cht lng. ng cn nghin cu n tnh bn vng ca s cn bng cc vt ni c hnh dng khc nhau. l c s khoa hc rt cn thit cho k thut ng tu bin. Nm 212 TCN, trong cuc tn cng ca qun La M vo Syracuse, Archimedes b lnh La M git cht khi ng ang lm ton. ng c nh gi l nh bc hc nh cao thi Hy Lp c i. Archimedes - Ti pht hin ra ri Mt hm Quc vng s c Hy Lp mun lm mt chic vng min mi v tht p. Vua cho gi ngi th kim hon ti, a cho anh ta mt thi vng ng nh yu cu anh ta phi lm nhanh cho vua chic vng min. Khng lu sau vng min c lm xong, n c lm rt tinh vi v p, Quc vng rt hi lng v i ln i i li li trc mt cc i thn. Lc c ting th thm: "Vng min ca b h p qu nhng khng bit c ng u l vng tht khng?" Quc vng nghe xong lin cho gi ngi th kim hon ti, hi: "Chic vng min ngi lm cho ta c ng l ton bng vng khng?" Ngi th kim hon bng mt, ci xung tha vi vua rng: "Tha b h tn knh, s vng Ngi a con dng ht, va khng tha cng khng thiu, nu khng tin b h cho cn li th xem c ng nng bng thi vng Ngi a cho con khng ." Cc i thn em vng min ra cn th, qu l khng thiu, vua nh phi th ngi th kim hon v. Nhng vua bit rng li ni ca ngi th kim hon y kh c

th tin c v rng anh ta c th dng bc thay vng vi trng lng tng ng m nhn b ngoi khng th pht hin ra c. Quc vng bun phin chuyn ny ni vi ng, Archimedes ni vi Quc vng: "y qu l bi ton kh, xin gip ngi lm r chuyn ny." V n nh, Archimedes cn li vng min cng thi vng, ng l trng lng bng nhau. ng t chic vng min ln bn ngm ngha v suy ngh n mc ngi phc v gi n cm m vn khng bit. ng ngh: "Vng min nng ng bng thi vng, nhng bc li nh hn vng, nu nh trong vng min c trn lng bc nng ng bng lng vng ly ra, nh vy chic vng min ny phi ln hn chic vng min lm hon ton bng vng. Lm th no bit c th tch ca chic vng min ny v th tch ca chic vng min lm ton bng vng ci no ln, ci no nh? Chng l phi lm mt chic na, nh vy th tht tn cng tn sc." Archimedes li ngh: "ng nhin c th nu li chic m ny v c thnh vng thi xem n cn to bng thi vng c khng, nhng nh vy chc chn nh vua khng ng , tt nht l phi ngh ra cch g khc so snh th tch ca chng. Nhng cch g y? Archimedes thng minh bng tr ln trm lng, ng vt c suy ngh mi m vn cha tm ra cch. ng thng lng l ngi c bui, mi ngi ni ng "ang b". Mt hm Archimedes i tm, v mi suy ngh nc chy y bn tm, sp trn c ra ngoi. ng bc vo bn tm, nc trn ra ngoi, ng cng chm ngi vo b nhiu th nc cng trn ra ngoi nhiu. c-si-mt nh bng tnh, mt bng sng ln, ng nhn nc trn ra ngoi b v ngh rng: S nc trn ra c th bng vi th tch phn c th ca ng chim trong b nc khng? ng rt vui, lp tc cho y nc vo bn tm v li bc vo bn, sau li lm li mt ln na. t nhin, ng bng chy ra ngoi v tay reo ln: "Ti pht hin ra ri, pht hin ra ri!" m qun c mc qun o. Ngy th hai, Archimedes lm thc nghim trc mt Quc vng v cc i thn v c c ngi th kim hon mi ngi cng xem. ng th vng min v thi vng cng trng lng vo hai dng c ng nc c th tch bng nhau c cha y nc, sau thu nc trn ra vo hai bnh ng. Kt qu cho thy nc bn vng min trn ra nhiu hn bn th thi vng rt nhiu. Archimedes ni: "Mi ngi u nhn thy. R rng l vng min chim ch trong nc nhiu hn so vi thi vng, nu nh vng min u l vng th lng nc trn ra hai bn s bng nhau, cng tc l th tch ca chng bng nhau". Ngi th kim hon khng cn g thanh minh c na, Quc vng bc tc trng pht anh ta. Nhng cng rt rui v Archimedes gip vua gii c bi ton kh ny. Nhng cng trnh ng pht minh: 1. Cng thc tnh din tch v th tch hnh lng tr v hnh cu. 2. S thp phn ca s Pi. Nm -250, ng chng minh rng s Pi nm gia 223/7 v 22/7 3. Phng php tnh gn ng chu vi vng trn t nhng hnh lc gic u ni tip trong vng trn.

4. Nhng tnh cht ca tiu c ca Parabole 5. Pht minh n by, inh v Archimedes (c th do Archytas de Tarente), bnh xe rng ca. 6. Ch ra my chin tranh khi Cyracuse b qun La M vy. 7. Ch ra vng xon c khng ngng ca Archimedes (c th do Conon de Samos) 8. Tnh din tch parabole bng cch chia ra thnh tam gic v tn 9. Nguyn l Thy tnh (hydrostatique), sc y Archimedes, Trng tm Barycentre 10. Nhng khi Archimedes 11. Nhng dng u tin ca tch phn. Nhiu cng trnh ca ng khng c bit n cho n th k XIX, Pascal , Monge v Carnot lm cng trnh ca h da trn cng trnh ca Archimedes. Cc tc phm ca ng: - S cn bng cc vt ni - S cn bng ca cc mt phng trn l thuyt c hc - Php cu phng ca hnh Parabole - Hnh cu v khi cu cho Ton. Tc phm ny xc nh din tch hnh cu theo bn knh, din tch b mt ca hnh nn t din tch mt y ca n. - Hnh xon c ( l hnh xon c Archimedes, v c nhiu loi xon c) - Hnh nn v hnh cu (th tch to thnh do s xoay trn ca mt phng quanh mt trc (surface de rvolution), nhng parabole quay quanh ng thng hay hyperbole - Tnh chu vi ng trn (ng cho cch tnh gn ng ca con s Pi m Euclide khm ph ra. - Sch chuyn lun v phng php khm ph Ton hc. Sch ny ch mi c khm ph ra vo nm 1889 ti Jrusalem. - V trng tm v nhng mt phng: l sch u tin vit v trng tm barycentre ( ngha vn chng l "tm nng").

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Din tch v th tch ca mt khi cu c tnh ra t bao gi?


Th t, 03 Thng 9 2008 18:33 sang_tao_viet_nam Email | In |

Khong 250 nm TCN Archimedes Nhng cng thc tnh din tch v th tch ca khi cu c dng n trong nhiu lnh vc nghin cu. Ngi u tin tm ra c cng thc tnh l nh ton hc ngi Hy Lp, Archimedes. ng chng minh rng mt khi cu c din tch bng bn ln din tch ca hnh trn c cng mt kch thc. ng cng chng minh rng th tch ca khi cu bng th tch ca hnh tr cha n ( c s o chiu cao v chiu rng bng vi ng knh ca khi cu). Nhng vn ny tht d gii quyt khi dng nhng cng c ca ton hc hin i, nhng Archimedes dng nhng khi cu tng tng chia phn, cn, v o theo tr tng tng c c p n. Nhng phng php ca ng b tht lc qua hng th k, i trc thut ton chuyn

Archimedes khm ph ra mt lng ca Sphere

Archimedes cn bng mt hnh tr, hnh cu, v mt hnh nn. Tt c cc kch thc hin th trong mu xanh l bng nhau.

Archimedes xc nh rng mt ca nn l bn ln so vi mt ca cc tr v hnh cu.

Archimedes tng tng ly mt ming trn trong c ba cht rn. Sau , ng tng tng treo hnh tr v hnh cu t mt im v nh ch cc cht rn ti im F (im ta).

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