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WILJAM FLIGHT TRAINING

Airframes, Systems and Powerplant

WILJAM FLIGHT TRAINING


Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to Structures 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-6 1-7 1-7 1-7 1-7 1-7 1-7 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-9 1-10 1-10 1-11 1-11 1-11 1-11 Acknowledgement Introduction Stresses and Strains that affect Aircraft Structures Tension Compression Torsion Shear Combination Hoop and Axle Stress Effects of Strain Elasticity of Material Creep in Materials Strain Ratio Shock Load Fatigue in Materials Fatigue Cracking Forces that act on Structures and Materials In Flight Lift Drag Mass Weight Acceleration Inertia Other Factors to be Considered Airspeed Temperature Altitude On the Ground During Landing Friction Pressurisation Thrust Reversal Braking Stationary Taxiing On Take Off Design Philosophy Primary Structure Secondary Structure Tertiary Structure Parts Critical Parts Major Parts Table of Probabilities Design Limit Load Proof Load Design Ultimate Load Catastrophic Failure Safe Life

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Structures 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-13 1-14 1-14 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-16 Failsafe Structure Damage Tolerant structure Servicing Cycle Materials used in Construction of Aircraft Wood Steel Mild Steel High tensile Steel Stainless Steel Titanium Alloys Nickel Alloys Copper Alloys Monel Metal Light Alloys Aluminium Aluminium Alloys Magnesium Alloys Composite Materials Advantages of Composite Materials Disadvantages of Composite Materials Fibreglass Graphite Kevlar Electrical Bonding Lightning Strikes

Chapter 2

Fuselage Structures 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-7 2-9 2-9 2-10 2-10 2-10 2-10 2-12 2-12 2-13 2-13 2-14

Acknowledgement Introduction Frame Construction Monocoque Construction Semi-Monocoque construction Reinforced Shell Riveting, Bonding, Milling and Etching Pressure Bulkheads Cabin Floor Blow Out Bungs Flight Deck Windows Direct vision windows Passenger Cabin Windows GA Aircraft Windows Doors Light Aircraft Doors for Aircraft certified under JAR 23 and 25 Doors for Large Aircraft Sealing Seat Mounting Support Structure Spar Attachment Fuselage Shape Jet engine

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Chapter 2 Fuselage Structures 2-15 2-15 2-15 Fuselage Profile and Tricycle Undercarriage Tail Bumper Fuselage Mounted Engine

Chapter 3

Wing Structures 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-7 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-11 3-12 3-12 3-12 3-13 3-13 3-14 3-14 3-15 3-15 3-15 3-16 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-20 3-21 3-22

Acknowledgements Introduction Biplane Braced Monoplane Cantilever Monoplane Components of Wing Structure Stringer Ribs Spars Torsion Box Modern Wing Design Wing Loading Wing Mounted landing Gear Monoplane Centre Wing Section / Fuselage Section Wing Location High Wing Low Wing Mid Wing Hip Wing Fairing Panels Dihedral Angle Anhedral Angle Sweep Back Angle Wash Out Wing Tips and Winglets Wing Tip Vortex High Aspect ratio and Elliptical Wings Modified Tip Caps Tip Tanks Winglets Wing Mounted Engines Engine Chine / Strake Wing Mounted Engines Spread Angle

Chapter 4

Empennage or Tailplane 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-4

Acknowledgements Introduction Positive Static Stability Fins Stability Function Fin Structure Fin- Fuselage Relationship Nacelles Affect on Stability Lift

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Chapter 4 Empennage or Tailplane 4-4 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-11 4-11 4-11 4-12 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-14 4-14 4-16 4-16 4-17 4-17 4-18 Stalling Angle Fin Surface Area Lever Arm Motive Power Airspeeds Ventral Fin and Strakes High Mach Numbers Wing Plan Form Location of Tailplane Propeller Effects Multi Fin Design Dorsal Fin Tailplane Introduction Couples Formed by Lift and Mass Couples Formed by Thrust and Drag Static Stability Function Size of Tailplane Forces Acting on a Tailplane in Flight Lifting Tailplane Tailplane Construction H Tail Location T Tail Propeller Wash and Down Wash Angle of Incidence Delta Aircraft V Tail Canards Flying Wing

Chapter 5

Primary and Secondary Flight Controls 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-3 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-7 5-8 5-8

Acknowledgements Introduction The Reference Axes Longitudinal Lateral Normal Primary Controls Surfaces - Conventional Aeroplanes Aileron Elevator Rudder Function of Primary Control Surfaces Range of Movement Structure Flight Deck Controls Control Column Rudder Control Push Pull Type Yoke Control Wheel and Column Side Stick

WILJAM FLIGHT TRAINING


Chapter 5 Primary and Secondary Flight Controls 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-11 5-12 5-12 5-12 5-13 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-15 5-16 5-16 5-17 5-18 5-18 5-19 5-20 5-21 5-21 5-22 5-22 5-23 5-23 5-23 5-24 5-24 5-26 5-26 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-28 5-28 5-29 5-29 5-29 5-30 5-31 5-31 5-32 5-32 5-33 5-33 5-34 5-34 5-35 5-35 5-36 5-36 Control System Linkage Cable Tension Control Cables Control Rods Control Stops Primary Stops Secondary Stops Hydraulic Control Systems Power Assist or Boost Power Control Units PCU Schematic PCU Release Unit PCU With Internal Interconnecting Valves Primary Control Surface Design And Development Flutter Mass Balance Aerodynamic Balancing Inset Hinges Horn Balance Internal Balance Panel Hinge Moment Stick Gearing Mechanical Advantage Adverse Yawing Effect In Plain Ailerons Differential Aileron Rudder Aileron Interlink Frise Ailerons Fixed Tabs Balance Tab Trim Tabs Trim Function for PCU Operated Controls Electrical Trim Actuators Secondary Control Position Indicators Primary Control Surfaces Operated By Servo Tabs Spring Servo Tab Horizontal Stabilator Anti Balance Tab Anti Balance Trim Tab Slab or All Flying Tailplane Elevons Variable Incidence Tailplane Trimming Tailplane Butterfly or V Tail Aircraft Control Locks Stick Position Stability Stick Force Gradient Stick Centred Springs Down Springs Bob Weights Artificial Feel Spring Feel Basic Q Feel System Hydraulic Q Feel Roll Control for Air Transport Aircraft

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Chapter 5 Primary and Secondary Flight Controls 5-36 5-39 5-39 5-39 5-40 5-40 5-40 5-41 5-44 5-43 5-43 5-43 5-43 Wing Mounted Speed Brake / Lift Dumpers Flight Operation Load Alleviation Function Airbrakes and High Speed Flight At High Altitude Ground Operation Fuselage Mounted Airbrakes Droop Ailerons Fly by Wire Weight Reduction Reduced Maintenance Control Response Built in Control Parameters Gust Load Alleviation

Chapter 6

Flight Controls-High Lift Devices 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-3 6-4 6-4 6-5 6-5 6-6 6-6 6-7 6-7 6-8 6-8 6-9 6-9 6-10 6-10 6-11 6-11 6-12 6-12 6-13 6-14 6-15 6-16 6-18

Lift Augmentation High Lift devices Trailing Edge Flaps Plain Flap Split Flap Slotted Flap Double Slotted Flap Zap Flap Fowler Flaps Double Slotted Fowler Flap Blown Flaps Leading Edge Devices Slots Fixed Slats Movable Slats - Controlled Slats Movable Slats - Automatic Slats Leading Edge Flaps Kruger Flaps Boundary Layer Control Effectiveness of Flaps and Slats Flap Operation and Indication Basic Flap System for a Light Aircraft Flap Controls for other than a Basic Light Aircraft Advanced Light Aircraft Air Transport Aircraft Flaps Operated by Independent Hydraulic Actuator Flaps Operated by Power Drive Unit Fly by Wire Flap and Slat System Flap and Slat Indication

Chapter 7

Landing Gear Undercarriages 7-1 7-1 7-2

Acknowledgements Introduction Requirements for a Modern Undercarriages

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Chapter 7 Landing Gear Undercarriages 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-4 7-5 7-5 7-6 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-9 7-9 7-10 7-10 7-11 7-11 7-11 7-12 7-12 7-12 7-13 7-13 7-13 7-14 7-14 7-14 7-14 7-15 7-15 7-15 7-16 7-16 7-17 7-17 7-19 7-19 7-20 7-20 7-20 7-21 7-21 7-21 7-22 7-23 7-23 7-23 7-24 7-25 7-25 7-26 7-26 Drag and Undercarriages Landing Suspension /Shock Absorbers Systems for Light Aircraft Bungee Cords / Bungee Blocks Spring Steel Torsion Bar Basic Principle of an Oleo Pneumatic Shock Absorber Gas Charge Oil Charge Unseparated Oleo Pneumatic Shock Absorber Torque Links Heavy landings Oil Charge Leaks or Losses Propeller Clearance Separated Oleo Pneumatic Shock Absorber Unloaded Landing Load Recoil Static Load Undercarriage Layout Tail Wheel Fully Castering Tail Wheel Tail Wheel Ground Looping Lockable Tail Wheel Pilot Operated Lockable Tail Wheel Load Operated Tail Wheels and Drag Tail Wheel and Ground Manoeuvring Tail Wheel and Nosing Over Nose Wheel Fully Catering Nose Wheel Steerable Nose Wheel - Light Aircraft with Fixed Undercarriages Steerable Nose Wheel - Light Aircraft with Retractable Undercarriages Shimmy Damper for Light Aircraft Hydraulic Shimmy Damper Steerable Nose Wheel Medium and Heavy Aircraft Nose Wheel Rumble Body Gear Steering Turning Circle Nose Wheel Steering Disconnect Main Gear Bays Low Winged Aircraft High Winged Turbo Props High Winged Turbine Aircraft Wheel Layout Bogies Bogie Trim and Trail Hop Dampers Retractable Main Undercarriage for Air Transport Aircraft Over Centre - Geometric Locks Up Locks Emergency Lowering Main Undercarriage Doors Large Aircraft Undercarriage Indications

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Chapter 7 Landing Gear Undercarriages 7-27 7-27 7-27 7-27 7-27 7-28 7-28 7-29 7-29 7-32 7-33 7-33 Mechanical Indicators Air / Ground Logic Micro Switches Proximity Switches Pressure Switches Undercarriage Down Safety Lock Ground Locks Retractable Undercarriages Light Aircraft Operation of a Power Pack System Light Aircraft Undercarriage Selector and Indications Skis and Bear Paws Floats

Chapter 8

Landing Gear - Wheels, Tyres and Brakes 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-6 8-6 8-7 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10 8-11 8-11 8-11 8-12 8-14 8-15 8-16 8-17 8-17 8-17 8-18 8-18 8-19 8-19 8-19 8-19 8-19 8-20

Acknowledgements Introduction to Brakes Types of Wheel Brakes Expander Type Brakes Brake Master Cylinder Simple Hydraulic Brake System Light Aircraft Fixed Disc Fixed Brake Housing Sliding Disc Heavy Duty Discs Boosted Brakes Power Brakes Braking Redundancy Anti-skid Systems Mechanical On/Off Anti skid Systems Modulating Valve Electronic Anti-skid System Semi Modulating System Fully Modulating System Touch Down Protection and Braking Efficiency Auto Brake System Rejected Take Off Multi Plate Disc Brake Retraction Pin and Automatic Wear Adjuster Sticking and Dragging Brakes Brake Wear Brake Chatter / Brake Fade Brake Temperature Recommended Taxiing Speed Brake Cooling Brake Overheat Spongy Brake Operation Wheels and Tyres Types of Wheel Hub Well Based

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Chapter 8 Landing Gear - Wheels, Tyres and Brakes 8-20 8-21 8-21 8-21 8-22 8-23 8-23 8-24 8-25 8-25 8-25 8-25 8-26 8-26 8-27 8-27 8-27 8-28 8-28 8-28 8-29 8-29 8-29 8-29 8-29 8-30 8-31 8-31 8-31 8-32 8-32 8-33 8-33 8-33 8-34 8-34 8-35 8-35 8-35 8-36 8-36 8-37 8-37 8-38 8-38 8-38 8-38 8-39 8-39 8-39 8-39 Detachable Flange Split Hub Fusible Plug Regions of a Tyre Structure of a Tyre Radial Belted Tyre Footprint Area Tubed Tyres Tubeless Tyres Vent Holes Tubeless Tyres Vent Holes Tubed Tyres Tyre Markings Balance Marker Tyre Pressure Classification Circumferentially Grooved Tyre Tread Circumferentially Grooved Tyre Wear Indication Reinforced Tread Block Tread Marstrand Tyres Chined Tyres Tyre Inflation Medium Tyre Inflation for BEM Load Tyre Stretch Dissipation Effects of Ambient Temperature on Tyre Pressure Cold Tyre Pressure Check Hot Tyre Pressure Check Flight Deck Pressure Indication Aquaplaning Reverted Rubber Aquaplaning Dynamic Aquaplaning Cross Ply and Radial Tyres Aquaplaning Speed for Ribbed Tyres Viscous Aquaplaning Action to Minimise Aquaplaning on Landing Tyre Damage Dry Braking Flat Spot Wet Braking Flat Spot Bulges and Delamination FOD Burst Tyre Cut Tyre Tread Chunking Chevron Cuts Heavy Cross Wind Landing Crown Wear Shoulder Wear Side Wall Cracking Excessive Brake Heat Contamination Of Tyre Flat Spots due to Nylon Set

WILJAM FLIGHT TRAINING


Chapter 9 Hydraulics 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-4 9-4 9-4 9-4 9-4 9-4 9-4 9-5 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-7 9-8 9-8 9-8 9-9 9-10 9-10 9-10 9-11 9-11 9-12 9-13 9-13 9-14 9-15 9-16 9-16 9-17 9-17 9-18 9-18 9-19 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-22 9-23 9-23 9-23 Acknowledgements Introduction Basic Physics of Hydraulics Fluids Energy Static Pressure Pascals Law Relationship between Force, Area and Pressure Force Area Pressure SI System Newton Acceleration Mass Force Imperial System Unit Conversion Factor - 3 Places Decimal Transmission of power Multiplication of Force Passive Hydraulic Systems Fluid Pressure into Mechanical Force and Movement Linear Actuators Single Acting Actuators Double Acting Unbalanced Actuators Double Acting Balanced Actuators Ports Selectors Rotary Selectors Two Port Rotary Selectors Four Port Rotary Selectors Linear or Spool Valve Selectors Hydraulic Lock Non Return Valves Hand Pumps Active Hydraulic Systems Pressure Generation Electrically Operated Pumps Low Pressure System Pumps Spur Gear Vane Type Pumps Engine as the Power Source Open Centred System using Open Centred Selectors Pressure Reducing Valve -PRV Open Centred System using an Off Loading or Unloading valve Closed Centred System Pressure Generation and Fluid Supply Closed Systems High Pressure Engine Driven Pumps Fixed Volume or Constant Displacement Pumps

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Chapter 9 Hydraulics Filtration High Pressure Filter Pressure Regulation Accumulators Principle of Operation Pre-charge Incorrect Pre-charge Correct Constant Pressure Pump Depressurisation / Isolation Supply Off Depressurising Normal Blocking valve Compensation Valve Condition on Start Fluids Vegetable Based Fluid Mineral Based Fluid Synthetic Based Fluid Skydrol Fluid Temperature Heat Exchangers Seals and Sealing Static Sealing Dynamic Sealing Wiper or Scraper Rings Internal Leakage External Leakage Leak Rate System Reservoir De-Aerator Fluid Contamination Boosted or Boot Strapped Reservoir Hydraulic Systems Priority Services Pressure Maintaining or Priority Valves Hydraulic Motors Flow Control Valves Power Transfer Unit Ram Air Turbine Restrictors Two Way Restrictors One way Restrictor Throttling Valve Sequence Valve Shuttle Valve Fluid Jettison Valve Pressure Reducing Valve Thermal Relief Valve Direct reading Gauges Pressure Relay Pressure Transmitters Hydraulic Fuse 9-24 9-25 9-26 9-27 9-29 9-29 9-30 9-30 9-31 9-31 9-31 9-31 9-33 9-33 9-33 9-33 9-35 9-35 9-35 9-35 9-36 9-37 9-37 9-38 9-38 9-38 9-38 9-39 9-39 9-41 9-42 9-42 9-43 9-43 9-45 9-45 9-46 9-47 9-48 9-48 9-49 9-49 9-50 9-51 9-54 9-55 9-56 9-56 9-57 9-57 9-58 9-58

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Chapter 10 Fuel Introduction Volatility Vapour Pressure Flash Point Fire Point Auto Ignition Temperature Flammability Limits Fluidity Freezing Point Aviation Gasoline 80 Grade 100Grade 100 LL Grade Chemical Stability Aviation Kerosene Aviation Kerosene Avtur Jet B Jet TS1 Grade Jet A Grade Jet A1 Grade Water Contamination Dissolved Water Free Water Fungal Contamination Water Sediment Checks Clear Bright Free Water Fuel Tank Types Rigid Tanks Flexible Tanks Integral Tanks Flapper Valve Unusable Fuel, Stack Pipe and Sump Sumps Water Drain Valves Gravity Feed Fuel Systems for a Singe Engine Light Aircraft Primer Pump Manually Operated Fuel Selector Pressure Feed Fuel Systems for a Singe Engine Light Aircraft Auxiliary Fuel Pump Fuel Pressure Indications Vapour Lock Fuel System for a Light Twin Engine Aircraft Venting of Light Aircraft Tanks Light Aircraft Fuel Fillers and Caps Light Aircraft Fuel Quantity Indications Resistance Fuel Gauging System Large Aircraft Fuel Systems Introduction Fuel Tanks 10-1 10-2 10-2 10-2 10-2 10-2 10-2 10-2 10-2 10-2 10-4 10-4 10-4 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-6 10-6 10-6 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-8 10-8 10-8 10-9 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-12 10-12 10-13 10-13 10-14 10-15 10-15 10-16 10-17 10-17 10-21 10-22 10-23 10-24 10-26 10-26 10-26

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Chapter 10 Fuel Fuel Tank Sumps Centre Tank Tank Pressurisation and Venting Vent - Surge Tanks Fuel System for a Twin Jet Engine Fuel Supply Booster Pumps Booster Pump Box Ejector Pump Scroll Type Booster Pump Collector Tank Pressure Switches Non Return Valves Thermal Relief Suction Valve Low Pressure Fuel Cock - LP Cock High Pressure Fuel Cock - HP Fuel Cock Fuel Filter Flight Deck Fuel Control Panel Fuel Temperature Gauge Auxiliary Power Unit Fuel Supply Under Wing Single Point Pressurised Refuel System Refuelling Gallery Pipes Fuel Imbalance on the Ground Defuel Capacitive Fuel Contents Measuring System Flight Deck Contents Indications Fuel Reconciliation on the Ground Fuel Jettisoning Aircraft Certified under JAR 23 Aircraft Certified under JAR 25 Fuel Trimming Refuelling and Defuelling Open Line Refuelling Pressure Refuelling from a Bowser Hydrant Refuelling Refuelling/Defuelling With Passengers Embarking, on Board or Disembarking Refuelling/Defuelling With Wide Cut Fuel CAP 74 Aircraft Fuelling Fire Prevention and Safety Measures Fuelling Areas Fuelling Zones Aerodrome Fire Service Fire Extinguishers Fire Warnings Overheated Undercarriage Assemblies Supervision of Fuelling Clear Exit Paths Staffing of Fuel Vehicles Fuelling Zone Hazards From Adjacent Aircraft Operations Operation of Radar 10-28 10-29 10-29 10-29 10-31 10-32 10-34 10-34 10-35 10-36 10-36 10-37 10-37 10-37 10-38 10-38 10-38 10-39 10-39 10-41 10-42 10-42 10-44 10-45 10-46 10-46 10-47 10-49 10-50 10-50 10-50 10-52 10-52 10-52 10-53 10-54 10-55 10-55 10-56 10-56 10-57 10-57 10-57 10-57 10-57 10-57 10-57 10-58 10-58 10-59 10-59

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Chapter 10 Fuel Bonding and Earthing Precautions During Fuelling Operations Wide Bodied Aircraft and Aircraft Equipped With Automatic Inflatable Chutes Aircraft Not Equipped With Automatic Inflatable Chutes Cabin Attendants 10-59 10-60 10-61 10-61 10-61

Chapter 11 Introduction

Ice and Rain Protection Systems 11-1 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-5 11-5 11-6 11-6 11-8 11-9 11-10 11-11 11-11 11-11 11-11

Anti Ice Systems Wing Anti Ice Systems Air Data Sensor Anti Ice Systems Windshield Anti Ice System Power Plant Anti Ice Systems Turbine Engines Propellers De-icing Systems Pneumatic De-icing System Propeller De-icing Ground De-icing and Anti-icing, Ice Protecting Fluids Rain Removal Systems Icing Conditions Airframe Ice Protection Propeller and Engine/Elevator Ice Protection Take-off in Icing Conditions Chapter 12 Pneumatic Powered Systems

Piston Engines Pressurised Cabin Cabin Height Maximum Cabin Height Differential Pressure Controlling the Cabin Pressure and Sources of Pressurisation Air Conditioning System Exhaust System Heaters Combustion Heaters Vapour Cycle Cooling System Turbine Powered Aircraft Pressurised Cabin Modes of Pressurisation Pressurisation Instruments and Operation Air Conditioning System Control and Indication

12-1 12-1 12-1 12-1 12-1 12-1 12-3 12-3 12-4 12-4 12-5 12-5 12-5 12-6 12-7 12-12

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Chapter 13 Emergency Equipment 13-1 13-1 13-1 13-2 Introduction Cockpit Escape Routes Cabin Escape Routes Emergency Exit Lights

Chapter 14

Fire Detection and Protection 14-1 14-1 14-2 14-2 14-2 14-3 14-3 14-3 14-4 14-4 14-6

Introduction Smoke Detectors Carbon Monoxide Detectors Photoelectric Smoke Detectors Visual Smoke Detectors Fire Protection Detection Methods Detection System Requirements Fire Zone Classification Fire Extinguishing Agents Fire Extinguisher Systems Chapter 15 Supplemental Oxygen Systems

Introduction Continuous Flow Oxygen System Demand Type Oxygen System Types of Oxygen Supply Passenger Oxygen Flight Crew Oxygen Portable Passenger and Flight Crew Oxygen Power Plant - Piston Engines Power Plant - Fuel Injection and Power Augmentation Power Plant - Propellers Power Plant - Gas Turbines

15-1 15-1 15-4 15-5 15-6 15-6 15-7

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