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i nt v cng ngh xDSL Cp nht lc 09h34' ngy 21/11/2005 Kt ni quay s dial-up tr nn qu chm chp, vi tc l thuyt l 56 kps nhng thc

hc t th thp hn rt nhiu. Hin nay, vi cng ngh ADSL, cc qun Net mc ln nh nm phc v cho cc nhu cu tm kim thng tin... c bit l cc nhu cu giao tip v gii tr ca gii tr. Khng nhng th, cc nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) a ra cc gi dch vu ADSL gi r phc v mi nhu cu khc nhau ca ngi dn. Vy, ADSL l g? ADSL c phi l mt nhnh trong cng ngh xDSL? Alexander Graham Bell pht minh ra in thoi vo nm 1875, t in thoi tr thnh mt vt dng khng th thiu trong i sng ca con ngi. S pht trin khng ngng ca mng in thoi thc y cc nh pht trin vin thng tham vng l lm sao cho ng dy in thoi khng ch dng truyn tn hiu thoi m cn c th c dng truyn nhiu dch v khc na, phc v nhu cu ngy cng ln ca con ngi nh TV, hi ngh truyn hnh, truy cp Internet .. Trc y, ng dy in thoi ch c th truyn 1 knh thoi bng tn 3,4 kHz. Nh p dng cc cng ngh x l s, b suy hao, gim nhiu m cng ngh xDSL c th truyn 100 knh thoi s hay 1 knh video cht lng cao trn 1 ng dy in thoi. DSL (digital subscriber line ) l mt cng ngh s dng cc phng php iu bin phc tp, chuyn cc d liu thnh cc gi truyn ti trn dy in thoi. Modem s DSL theo mt cch khc s truyn ti d liu gia hai im u cui ca ng cp ng. Tn hiu s khng i qua h thng chuyn mch in thoi, v do khng gy nhiu n tn hiu thoi. Trn thc t, bng tn thoi trn cp ng ch l 0 - 4 kHz, trong khi cng ngh DSL thng dng tn s trn 100 kHz. u im ln ca cng ngh xDSL khi ra i chnh l kh nng truyn ti c nhiu ng dng khc nhau m trc y cha thc hin c, ng thi li tn dng c mng in thoi sn c v rng khp. Mt cng ngh mi ra i c coi l hiu qu khi tn dng c cc ti nguyn, v c s h tng sn c. xDSL c phn loi nh sau: ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network (Mng s tch hp a dch v)

ISDN c coi s m u ca xDSL. ISDN ra i vo nm 1976 vi tham vng thng nht cho truyn d liu v thoi. Trong ISDN, tc giao tip c s (BRI-Basic Rate Interface) cung cp 2 knh 64kbps (knh B) dnh cho thoi hoc d liu v mt knh 16kbps (knh D) dnh cho cc thng tin bo hiu iu khin. Nhc im ca cng ngh l ch truyn dch v thoi v chuyn mch gi tc thp. N khng thch hp cho chuyn mch gi tc cao v thi gian chim gi lu di. Chnh iu ny l c im ca mng Internet hin nay. Do , ISDN khng c p dng rng ri m ch p dng cho cc gia nh hoc doanh nghip nh. Tuy nhin, vi nhng ngi s dng ISDN ti M (qu hng ca ISDN) th cng kh qun c cc li ch m ISDN em li khi ma ISDN l cng ngh m u cho tt c cc loi dch v tch hp. IDSL ISDN digital subscriber line l mt cng ngh xDSL da trn nn tng l ISDN, c m bo tc 144Kbps trn c knh B v D. HDSL - high-bit-rate digital subscriber line HDSL ra i trong phng th nghim vo nm 1986. Thc cht cc thit b thu pht HSDL l s k tha ca ISDN nhng mc phc tp hn. HDSL ra i da trn chun T1/E1 ca M/chu u. HDSL1 cho php truyn 1,544Mbps hoc 2,048Mbps trn 2 hay 3 i dy. HDSL2 ra i sau cho php dng 1 i dy truyn 1,544Mbps i xng. HDSL2 ra i mang nhiu tng ca ADSL. u th ca HDSL l loi cng ngh khng cn cc trm lp, tc l c suy hao thp hn cc loi khc trn ng truyn. Do vy HDSL c th truyn xa hn m vn m bo c cht lng tn hiu. HDSL c a dng do c cc c tnh chun on nhiu (o SNR) v t gy nhiu xuyn m. HDSL c dng bi cc nh khai thc ni ht (cc cng ty in thoi) hay cung cp cc ng tc cao gia nhiu ta nh hay cc khu cng s vi nhau VDSL - very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line VDSL l mt cng ngh xDSL cung cp ng truyn i xng trn mt i dy ng. Dng bit ti xung ca VDSL l cao nht trong tt c cc cng ngh ca xDSL, t ti 52Mbps, dng ti ln c th t 2.3 Mbps. VDSL thng ch hot ng tt trong cc mng mch vng ngn. VDSL dng cp quang truyn dn l ch yu, v ch dng cp ng pha u cui. ADSL - Asymmetrical DSL ADSL chnh l mt nhnh ca cng ngh xDSL. ADSL cung cp mt bng thng khng i xng trn mt i dy. Thut ng khng i xng y ch s khng cn bng trong dng d liu ti xung (download) v ti ln (upload). Dng d liu ti xung c bng thng ln hn bng thng dng d liu ti ln. ADSL ra i vo nm 1989 trong phng th nghim. ADSL1 cung cp 1,5 Mbps cho ng d liu ti xung v 16 kbps cho ng ng d ti ln, h tr chun MPEG-1. ADSL2 c th cung cp bng thng ti 3 Mbps cho ng xung v 16 kbps cho ng ln, h tr 2 dng MPEG-1. ADSL 3 c th cung cp 6 Mbps cho ng xung v t nht 64 kbps cho ng ln, h tr chun MPEG-2. Dch v ADSL m chng ta hay s dng hin nay theo l thuyt c th cung cp cung cp 8 Mbps cho ng xung v 2 Mbps cho ng ln, tuy nhin v nhiu l do t pha cc ISP nn cht lng dch v s dng ADSL ti cc u cui ca chng ta thng khng t c nh s qung co ban u.

RADSL (rate-adaptive digital subscriber line) RADSL l mt phin bn ca ADSL m cc modem c th kim tra ng truyn khi khi ng v p ng lc hot ng theo tc nhanh nht m ng truyn c th cung cp. RADSL cn c gi l ADSL c tc bin i.