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المصطلحات القانونيه الاكثر استعمالا

المصطلحات القانونيه الاكثر استعمالا

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رثكلا ةينوناقلا تاحلطصملا

ًلامعتسا
Commonly Used Legal Terms
اتراكنا ةعوسوم / نع ةسبتقم 2006
/ بيطخلا داؤف ناـطحق : ةمجرت
قارعلا
juror_qahtan1@yahoo.com
TER
!"#$%&'
(E)*+*T*,+
-./01&'
Acquittal
ءافعإ ، ةئربت
The formal legal determination that an accused
criminal is not guilty.
. ابنذم سيل مهتملا مرجملا نأب يمسر ينوناق رارق
Action
ءاضلا مام! "وع#
A formal complaint within the authority of a
court of law.
ةينوناق ةم$%م &ا'ت(ا نمض ةيمسر "و$)
Affidavit
مسب ةي*( +#اه)
A written statement of facts made voluntarily
and confirmed by an oath. Affidavits are used as
proof for simple matters that do not require the
live testimony of witnesses.
. مسلا ة*ساوب ,رق!و ايعو*ت ,ي-. ت /ئا%ب ةيبات$ +#ا0إ
1 يتلا ة*يسب 2ئاسمل 2يل#$ مسب ةي*(لا ,ا#اه)لا 2م3تستو
. #وه)-ل ةي% +#اه) 4-*تت
Alibi
5نأب مهتملا ءاع#ا
ر(6 نا$م ي0 نا$
ةميرجلا 7وقو ءان8!
The explanation offered by a person accused of
a crime to demonstrate that he or she was
somewhere other than where the crime took
place at the time the crime happened.
و! 5نأب نيبي ي$ل ةميرجب مهتملا &()لا 5م#ي 9ذلا :ر)لا
ةميرجلا 5ي0 ,-'% 9ذلا ;لذ ري< ام نا$م ي0 نا$ اهنأب
. اه8و#% ءان8!
Appeal
"وع#لا =نأتسي
The request by a losing party (appellant) for an
appellate court to review the decision of a trial
court or administrative agency and find instead
in favor of the appellant.
=انئتس1ا ةم$%مل > =نأتسملا ? رسا(لا =ر*لا 5م#ي 4-*
ةلا$ولا و! م$%لا ,ر#'! يتلا ةم$%ملا رارق ة3جارمل
. =نأتسملا @لا'ل 5-ي#ب #اجيإو ةيرا#Aا
Appellate court
=انئتس1ا ةم$%م
A higher court that reviews the decisions of trial
courts or administrative agencies if the losing
party appeals such a decision. Appellate court
decisions are made by a panel of judges without
a jury.
و! ما$%Bا ,ر#'! يتلا م$ا%ملا ,ارارق /ق#ت اي-ع ةم$%م
اذC 28مل رسا(لا =ر*لا =انئتسا ةلا% ي0 ةيرا#Aا ,1ا$ولا
ةنجل 2بق نم =انئتس1ا ةم$%م ,ارارق ر#'تو . رارلا
. نيف-%م ةئيC نو#ب +اضق
Assign
2Dانتي
To transfer to another person all or part of ones
property! interest! or rights. "or example! if
company A has made a contract with company
# to buy $% trucks from #! and then A reali&es
it does not need the trucks! A can assign its
rights to buy the trucks to another company.
Eلإ 5قو% و! 5%لا'م و! &() ةي$-م نم ءDج و! 2$ 2ن
Fم ! ة$ر) ,#قا3ت اذإ ، 2ا8ملا 2يبس E-ع . ر(6 &()
ءار)ل 4 ة$ر) $% ,$ر#! م8 ، 4 ة$ر) نم ,ان%ا)
2Dانتلا ! ة$ر) Fي*تست . ,ان%ا)لا Gات%ت 1 اهنأب ! ة$ر)
. "ر(! ة$ر) Eلإ ,ان%ا)لا ءار)ل اهقو% نع
#ench trial
'() (*+,-, ./012
.34* 56-7 -896
:4;<12
A trial where the judge decides the outcome and
there is no jury.
نيف-%م ةئيC #جاوت نو#ب ةجيتنلا يضالا رري Hي% ةم$ا%م
.
#reach of
contract
-=>?9 @+A
The failure of a person to meet or perform his
or her obligations under a contract if there is no
legal excuse for that failure.
اهتاماDتلا ، 5تاماDتلا DاجنIب و! ءافيAاب ام &() /اف(إ
. /اف(Aا ;لذل ينوناق رذع #وجو م#ع ةلا% ي0 #ع 4جومب
#urden of proof
.B4C?9 D,-=E
The duty to prove a fact that is in dispute and is
relevant to the issue being contested. Fules of
procedure establish which party has the burden
of proof in any particular situation. "or
example! the government has the burden to
prove that an individual committed a crimeGthe
individual is not required to prove he or she is
innocent.
/-3تتو 7اDنلا 7وضوم ي0 +#وجوم ةي% ,اب8إ 4جاو
9! ي0 ,بت ةيئارجAا #عاولاو . ن3*لا 7وضوم ةيضلاب
2يبس E-ع . ة'ا( ةلا% ةي! ي0 ةنيبلا مي#ت ;-مي =ر*
4$ترا ام ا'() ناب ةنيبلا مي#ت ةمو$%لا ;-مت ، 2ا8ملا
اهنإ ، 5نا ,اب8إ &()لا نم ابو-*م سيل انC J ةميرج
. ء9رب
Hase
.4I(J) KLMN
A general term for a lawsuit.
. .4I(J) KLM-? O(M P<QR2
Hause of action
SM9-T?9 UCV
The act or acts of one person (defendant) that
invade the legal rights of another person
(plaintiff) and entitle the plaintiff to seek a
judicial remedy with a civil lawsuit. Also
known as a claim.
/و%لا ;هتنت يتلا > 5ي-ع Eع#م ? ام &() 2ا30! و! 230
نع H%بلا ري(Kل Dيجتو > يع#ملا ? ر(6 &()ل ةينونالا
ام$ . ةين#م ةينوناق "وع#ب /% #ا#رتس1 ةيعر) ة-يسو
. 4-*لاب اضي! Eع#ي
Hivil law
ين#ملا نونالا
The body of law governing certain
relationships between people! such as marriage!
contracts! and torts (injuries)! as distinguished
from criminal law. The term civil law also
refers to the legal tradition derived from
ancient Foman law that is presently used in
most nonGWnglishGspeaking countries. Xn civil
law systems! all laws are made by legislators
and contained in comprehensive written codes
(books of statutes) rather than made by judges
through their decisions.
، GاوDلا$ سانلا نيب ةني3م ,اقLع م$%ت نيناوق ةعومجم
+#و'ملا ري< و! +#و'ملا رارضBا ، #و3لا
ري)يو . يئانجلا نونالا نع اCDيمي امم ، > رارض! ?
نم /ت)ملا ينونالا #ي-تلا Eلإ اضي! ين#ملا نونالا @-*'م
نا#-بلا مM3م ي0 ايلا% 2م3تسملا مي#لا ينامورلا نونالا
، ين#ملا نونالا ةمMن! ي0 . ةيDي-$نAا ري< ةN-لاب ة*انلا
,انو#م ي0 اCOاوت%ا متيو نوعر)م نيناولا 2$ 7ر)ي
نم اهب مايلا نم 1#ب > نيناولا ,Lجس ? ةبوت$م ةيلوم)
. مهما$%! ,ارارق 2L( نم +اضلا 2بق
Hommon law
ما3لا نونالا
The legal tradition developed in Wngland
beginning in the $$
th
century and presently used
in most WnglishGspeaking countries. Xn
common law systems! legal rules are created by
the decisions of judges.
9#ا%لا نرلا ي0 ةيا#ب ارت-$نإ ي0 ينونالا #ي-تلا رو*ت
. ةيDي-$نAاب ة*انلا نا#-بلا مM3م ي0 ايلا% 2م3تسيو . ر)ع
,ارارق نم ةينونالا ةمMنBا Eتأتت ما3لا نونالا ةمMن! ي0
. +اضلا م$%
Honstitution
روتس#لا
The fundamental law of a nation or state that
establishes the nature and limitations of the
government. The constitution may be written
(as in the Ynited Ztates) or unwritten (as in
[reat #ritain).
#و#%و ة3يب* P,QبR 8S ي 9ذلا ةلو#لا و! ةمKل يساسBا نونالا
,اي1ولا ي0 ام$ ? ابوت$م روتس#لا نو$ي #قو . ةمو$%لا
. > EمM3لا اينا*يرب ي0 ام$ ? 4وت$م ري< و! > +#%تملا
Hontract
#3لا
An agreement between two or more persons
that creates an obligation for each to do or
refrain from doing something and that is
enforceable in court.
امهنم 2$ل اماDتلا سسOت يتلا ر8$! و! ني'() نيب ةيقافتا
ي0 5يب*ت ن$مي 9ذلا ام ءي)ب مايلا نع 7انتم1ا و! ماي-ل
. ةم$%ملا
Honviction
ةنا#Aا
The judgment that a person accused of a crime
is guilty. A conviction can result from the
accuseds guilty plea or from a trial.
. 4نذم وC ةميرجب مهتملا &()لا نأب ةم$%م م$% رارق
و! 4نذملا مهتم-ل ةيئاضق "وع# نع Tتنت ن! ةنا#Uل ن$ميو
. ةم$ا%ملا ءارج نم
Hounterclaim
ي0 +#اضم "وع#
اهي0 رMنت ةيضق
ةم$%ملا
A claim by a defendant in response to a
plaintiffs claimGas when a patient sues a
physician for malpractice and the physician
counterclaims that the patient failed to pay the
bill.
5نأب يع#ملا 4-* E-ع اباوج 5ي-ع Eع#ملا 5م#ي ءاع#ا
ري(Bا F0ري ، ةسرامم ءوسل ايب* Vيرم و$)ي ام#نع
. +روتافلا #ي#ست ي0 /ف(! Vيرملا نأب +#اضم "وع#
Hriminal law
يئانجلا نونالا
\aw that declares certain behavior to be
harmful to society and establishes the
punishment for such behavior.
,ب8يو Fمتجملا ي0 رضي ام ا$و-س نأب ن-3ي 9ذلا نونالا وC
. =ر'تلا اذC 28مل ةبو3لا
]eed
#نس
A document with which an owner transfers
ownership of an object or a plot of land to
someone else.
Vرا ة3*ق و! ام ءي) ةي$-م اهبجومب ;لاملا 2و%ي ةي8و
. ر(6 &()ل
]efendant
5ي-ع Eع#ملا
The person who is sued in a civil lawsuit! or the
person accused of a crime in a criminal lawsuit.
&() وC و! ، ةين#م ةيئاضق "وع# ي0 5نم و$)م &()
. ةيئانج "وع# ي0 ةميرجب مهتم
]eposition
ةنورم ةي*( +#اه)
مسب
The testimony of a witness obtained through an
oral interview or written questions
(interrogatories) outside of court. The interview
process is also known as a deposition.
و! ةيهف) ة-بام 2L( نم اهي-ع 2و'%لا مت #Cا) +#اه)
ةعاق Gرا( > ,اباوجتسا ? ةيرير%ت ة-ئس! /ير* نع
ةي*( +#اه) اهنأب اضي! ة-باملا ةي-مع =ر3ت و . ةم$%ملا
. مسب ةنورم
]iscovery
=ا)ت$ا
The process by which parties acquire
information about the case from each other
before trial. The term also applies to the
specific techniques that the law permits for
obtaining the information! such as depositions.
"وع#لا 2و% ,امو-3م =ار*Bا 4ست$ي اهت*ساوب ةي-مع
/ب*نيو . ةم$ا%ملا ءارجإ 2بق ر(Wا امC#%ا نم ةيئاضلا
سي يتلا +#و#%م نون0 E-ع اضي! @-*'ملا
ةي*(لا ,ا#اه)لا$ ,امو-3ملا E-ع 2و'%-ل نونالا اهب @م
. مسب ةنورملا
]issent
Vرا3م 9!ر
The explicit disagreement of one or more
judges of an appellate court with the decision
passed by a majority of the judges. The judges
who disagree with the majority may or may not
write a dissenting opinion^ such an opinion is
also known as a dissent.
ةم$%مل ر8$! و! Vاق ن#ل نم ة%ير' ة0اوم م#ع
نيذلا +اضلاو . +اضلا ةيب-<! Xر#'ت رارب =انئتس1ا
. اضرا3م ايئار نوبت$ي 1 امبر و! امبر ةيب-<Bاب نوض0ري
. Vرا3م 9!ر 5نأب اضي! =ر3ي اذه$ 9!رو
Wasement
/افترا
The right to use! but not to own! someone elses
property. "or example! if person As land does
not border on a road! A may ask his or her
neighbor # for an easement to build a driveway
across #s land to the road.
اذإ ، 2ا8م . ام &() ةي$-م ، ;Lتما سيلو ، 2ام3تسا /%
! 4-*ي امبر انC ، اير* م(اتت 1 ! &()لا Vر! ,نا$
Vرا ربع رورم /ير* ةماقA اقافترا 4 5تراج ، Xراج نم
. /ير*لا Eلإ 9#Oملا 4
Wvidence
ةنيب
Xnformation offered as proof by the parties in a
trial or an administrative hearing.
ةس-ج و! ةم$ا%م ي0 =ار*Bا 2بق نم 2يل#$ م#ت ,امو-3م
. ةيرا#إ 7امتسا
Wx post facto
law
ي3جر ر8ا وذ نوناق
A law passed after the occurrence of an action!
which changes the legal consequences of the
action. The Y.Z. Honstitution forbids the
enactment of ex post facto laws. "rom \atin
meaning after the fact.
ةينونالا ,ا3بتلا ريNي 9ذلا ، 230 Hو#% #3ب ر#' نوناق
نيناوق Fير)ت ي$يرمBا روتس#لا Fنميو . ةيئاضلا "وع#-ل
#3ب ينيتLلا Eن3ملا نم ;لذ ءاجو . ةي3جر را86 ,اوذ
. ةي%لا
"elony
ةيانج ، ةميرج
A crime that is more serious than a
misdemeanor. Hommonly! statutes in the
Ynited Ztates define felonies as crimes that are
punishable by imprisonment for a year or more
or by death.
=Yر3. ت امومع . ة%نجلا نم +رو*( ر8$! يC يتلا ةميرجلا
مئارج اهن! E-ع ,ايانجلا +#%تملا ,اي1ولا ي0 ,ا3ير)تلا
. ,وملاب و! ر8$! و! ما3ل نجسلاب اهي-ع 4قا3ي
[rand jury
:4;<1/?9 .34*
K+C0?9
A group of people who hear evidence against a
person accused of a crime and determine
whether sufficient information exists to charge
the person with the crime.
&()لا #ض ,انيبلا نو3مسي نيذلا &ا()Bا نم ةعومجم
+ر0وتملا ,امو-3ملا ,نا$ اذإ امي0 2'فتو ةميرجب مهتملا
. ةميرجب &()لا ماهت1 ةي0ا$
Xndictment
ماهتا
A grand jurys formal written accusation that a
person committed a crime. The Y.Z.
Honstitution requires the government to obtain
indictments for certain serious crimes rather
than use an information.
&()لا ناب "رب$لا نيف-%ملا ةئيهل يمسر 9رير%ت ماهتا
ةمو$%لا نم ي$يرمBا روتس#لا 4-*تيو . ةميرج 4$ترا
نم 1#ب ةني3م +ري*( مئارجل ,اماهت1ا E-ع 2و'%لا
. ,امو-3م 2ام3تسا
Xnformation
,امو-3م
A written accusation that a person committed a
crime. An information differs from an
indictment because it is issued by a government
official (usually the prosecutor)! rather than by
a grand jury.
,امو-3ملا =-ت(ت و . ةميرج 4$ترا ا'() ناب يبات$ ماهتا
4ئانلا +#اع ? يمو$% =Mوم نع ر#'ت اهنB ماهت1ا نع
. "رب$لا نيف-%ملا ةئيC نم Z1#ب ، > ما3لا
Xnjunction
يئاضق راذنإ
A court order prohibiting a person from doing a
specific act or commanding the person to
discontinue acting in a certain way.
رمأي و! ##%م 23فب مايلا نم &()لا Fنمي ةم$%م رم!
. ةني3م ةير* ي0 2م3ب مايلا نع =قوتلاب &()لا
Xnterrogatories
,اباوجتسا
A set of written questions submitted to a
witness before a trial to obtain information
about the case.
2بق #Cا) E-ع ة%ور*ملا ةبوت$ملا ة-ئسBا نم ةعومجم
"وع#لا 2و% ,امو-3م E-ع 2و'%-ل ةم$ا%ملا ءارجإ
. ةيئاضلا
_udge
Vاق
A public officer who presides over a court and
decides questions of law.
. ةينونالا ,1ءاسملا رريو ةم$%م س!رتي يمو$% =Mوم
_udgment
م$% رارق
The final decision of a court resolving the
dispute and determining the rights of the
parties.
. =ار*Bا /و% رريو اعاDن 2%ي ةم$%مل يئاهن رارق
_urisdiction The right of a court to hear and determine a
ي0 رMنلا ة*-س
2'فلا و 9واع#لا
اهي0
case.
. ةيئاضق "وع# ي0 2'فلاو 7امتس1ا ي0 ةم$%ملا /%
_ury
نيف-%ملا ةئيC
A group of people who hear the evidence!
determine the facts! andGafter instruction by the
judgeGdetermine the legal outcome of a case.
Also known as petit jury to distinguish it from
grand jury.
، ,انيبلا Eلا نو3متسي نيذلا &ا()Bا نم ةعومجم
ررت ، يضالا 2بق نم ,امي-3ت #3بو /ئا%لا ي0 نو-'فيو
ةئيهب =ر3ت ام$ . ةيئاضق "وع#ل ةينونالا ة-'%ملا
. "رب$لا نيف-%ملا ةئيC نع اهل [Dيمت "رN'لا نيف-%ملا
\ien
E-ع Dج%لا /%
&() ,ا$-تمم
و! ني#ل [ءافيتسا
ينوناق ماDتلا
A claim against the property of another person
for payment of some debt or obligation that the
person owes to the claimant. "or example! if a
bank loans a person money to buy a car! the
bank may retain a lien against the car. Xf the
buyer fails to make regular payments on his or
her loan! the bank can take possession of the
car.
ماDتلا و! ام ني# #ي#ست #'ب ر(6 &() ةي$-م #ض 4-*
ام ا'() =ر'ملا Vري اذإ ZL8م . يع#م-ل 5ب ني#ملا
/%ب =ر'ملا Mفت%ي امبر ، ةب$رم اهب 9رت)ي ي$ ا#ون
ماي-ل 9رت)ملا 2)0 ةلا% ي0و . ةب$رملا #ض Dج%
=ر'ملا نا$مIب0 ، اهضرل ، 5ضرل ةمMتنم ,ا#ي#ستب
. ةب$رملا E-ع #يلا Fضو
`ajority
opinion
.4C<ab9 cde
The opinion written by the majority of judges
of an appellate court to explain their decision if
the panel is not unanimous.
:ر)ل =انئتس1ا ةم$%م +اضق ةيب-<! 5بت$ت 9ذلا 9!رلا
. 7امجAاب ,سيل يC ةنج-لا ,نا$ اذإ مCرارق
`isdemeanor
ة%نج
A crime less serious than a felony and! in the
Ynited Ztates! generally punishable by a fine or
by imprisonment for less than one year.
، +#%تملا ,اي1ولا ي0و ، ةميرجلا نم +رو*( 2قا ة%نجلا
نع 2ت +#مل سب%لاب و! ةمارNب ةماع +رو'ب اهي-ع 4قا3ي
. +#%او ةنس
`otion A written or oral request to the court for a
Eلإ م#ي ءاع#تسا
Vاق و! ةم$%م
ruling or order directing that some act be done.
و! ةم$%م رارل اب-* ةم$%م-ل م#ي يهف) و! يبات$ 4-*
. ذفني ن! 4جي ام ZLمع نأب @ضوي رمB
fpinion
cde
A written explanation of a judges decision.
. Vاق م$% رارل 4وت$م :ر)
garty
=ر*
Xn a civil case! the individual or organi&ation
suing (known as the plaintiff) or being sued
(the defendant). Xn a criminal case! the two
parties are the government (prosecution) and
the person acc%used of a crime (defendant).
ةمMنملا و! 7ا#تملا &()لا Eع#ي ، ةين#ملا "وع#لا ي0
\ب Eع#ي0 5نم و$)م 5نو$ ةلا% ي0 و! ، > يع#ملاب ?
ةمو$%لا امC نا0ر*لا ةيئانجلا "وع#لا ي0و > 5ي-ع Eع#ملا ?
Eع#ملا ? وC ةميرجب مهتملا &()لاو > ءاع#1ا ةهج ?
. > 5ي-ع
glaintiff
يع#م
Xn a civil case! the party who initiates the case
is the plaintiff. Xn a criminal case! the
government (prosecution) is the plaintiff.
ةيئاضلا "وع#لا ])ني 9ذلا =ر*لا ، ةين#ملا "وع#لا ي0
ةمو$%لا نI0 ةيئانجلا "وع#لا ي0و . يع#ملا 5نأب =ر3ي
. يع#ملا يC >ءاع#1ا ةهج?
gleading
ة30ارم
A document filed by each party at the
beginning of a lawsuit! stating each sides
descriptions of the controversy and what each
party thinks the court should do about it.
ةيئاضلا "وع#لا ةيا#ب ي0 =ر* 2$ 2بق نم م#ت ة%ئ1
امو رئا#لا =L(-ل =ر* 2$ =ا'و! اهي0 ر$ذت ةين#ملا
. XءاDإ 5ب مايلا ةم$%ملا E-ع 4جوتي امب =ر* 2$ X#ت3ي
grecedent
ةباسلا
grior cases with similar circumstances that help
the court decide the current case.
#عاست يتلاو ةهبا)م =ورM ,اذ ةباس ةيئاضق 9واع#
. ةنCارلا ةيئاضلا "وع#لاب 2'فلا ي0 ةم$%ملا
Feasonable
doubt
Xn the Ynited Ztates! the standard used to
determine the guilt or innocence of a person
2و3م ;)
accused of a crime. The prosecution must
demonstrate to the jury that the accused is
guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
4نذ نيب 2'فلا ي0 2م3تسملا راي3ملا ، +#%تملا ,اي1ولا ي0
ءاع#1ا ةهج E-ع 4جيو . ةميرجب مهتملا &()لا +ءارب و!
Eقري 1 4نذم وC مهتملا ناب نيف-%ملا ةئيهل :اضيAاب مايلا
. ;)لا 5يلإ
Ztare decisis
:2 hT7 DE (2 i(M9+2
jI(k2
The policy that directs judges to follow
precedent. Xt is a \atin phrase meaning to abide
by decided cases.
ةينيت1 +رابع اهنإ . 5باس 7ابتA +اضلا #)رت يتلا ةسايسلا
. ةموس%م 9واع#ب ماDتل1ا ين3ت
Ztatute of
limitations
jl/?9 -,-1E 5Lm()
.4mLm(=?9
A law that requires lawsuits to be filed within a
certain number of months or years after the
event that triggers the lawsuit occurs.
ة3ضب نوض< ي0 ةيئاضلا 9واع#لا ;ير%ت 4-*تي نوناق
. "وع#لا ,أ)ن! يتلا ة8#ا%لا Hو#% نم ,اونس و! ره)!
Zummary
judgment
n4o6 D08 e9+)
A judgment given by the judge before the
parties present any evidence. _udges may issue
summary judgments if there are no disputed
facts and only an issue of law must be
determined.
ةي! م#ت يتلا =ار*Bا مام! Vاق 2بق نم E*3ي م$% رارق
/ئا%لا ن$ت مل اذإ XDجوم اما$%! +اضلا ر#'ي #قو . 5نيب
اهب 2'فلا 4جي ةينوناق ةلأسم ;انC ناو ةمو'( 7وضوم
.
Testimony
+#اه)
Xnformation given by a witness under oath
during a trial! pretrial proceeding! or
administrative hearing. Xt may be oral or in the
form of affidavits or depositions. Testimony is
a form of evidence.
ءارجإ ءان8! مسلا ,%ت #Cا) 2بق نم E*3ت ,امو-3م
7امتسا ةس-ج و! ، ةم$ا%ملا ,اءارجإ 2بق ام ، ةم$ا%ملا
و! ، مسب ةي*( +#اه) 2$)ب و! ةيهف) نو$ت #قو . ةيرا#إ
. ,انيبلا 2ا$)! نم 2$) يC +#اه)لاو . مسب ةنورم +#اه)
Tort
ررض
Ynder civil law! a wrong committed by one
person against another.
#ض ام &() 5ب$تري "ذ! وC ، ين#ملا نونالا 4جومب
. ر(6
Trial
ةم$ا%م
groceedings in a court! in which the judge or
jury listens to the parties presentation of
evidence and then makes a decision based on
the law.
و! يضالا اهي0 يN'ي يتلا ةم$%ملا ي0 ةيئاضق 9واع#
اهب3ي م8 ,انيب نم =ار*Bا 5م#ت ام Eلإ نيف-%ملا ةئيC
. نونالا E-ع +D$ترم رارق ذا(تا
perdict
نيف-%ملا م$%
The jurys decision about the matters presented
for their determination during a trial.
اهي0 2'ف-ل ة%ور*ملا اياضلا ##'ب نيف-%ملا ةئيC رارق
. ةم$ا%ملا ءارجإ ءان8!
persus
-q
A \atin word meaning against. The
abbreviation for versus! v., is used with the
names of the parties to identify a lawsuit. "or
example! Hawkins v. McGee.
ين3ت ةينيت1 ةم-$ #ض ةم-$ ر'ت(مو . versus وC v .
ZL8م ةيئاضلا "وع#لا &ي()تل =ار*Bا Fم 2م3تست Hي%
. يج ;ام #ض Dن$وC ^ rawkins v. `c[ee .
sitness
#Cا)
A person who testifies! either orally or in
writing! before a court or administrative
agency.
ايهف) امإ ةيرا#إ ةلا$و و! ةم$%م مام! +#اه)لا 9#Oي &()
. ايبات$ و!

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