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noundary -layer Theory

McGRAW-I4ILL SERIES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


JACK

r. IIOT,MAN, Southern Methodist University


Co1tsu1lin.g Editor

Dr. HERMANN SCHLICHTING


Profresor J3rncrit.11~ Llrc ICl~gincrrirrgU ~ ~ i v r r ~ i t~. ~ ~ I I I I R ( .O cIrw ~ l~ ~ l, ~ nt, of ~ ~ ~ c nr Forrner 13ircctor of thc Arrodynnrninclre Vcr~rrclrsnnslnlt (:iittirrgc~~
RARRON
ISC:KERT

. Cryogenic S y s t e m
. hzlroduclion lo Heat and M a r Tran.fer AND DRAKE . Ana1y.ri.r of lien1 and Mos,r 7i-nnsfr.r
- Ifen1 attd A4ass 7ian.fer

ECKERT

E C K E K . ~ AND DRAKE

HAM, CRANE, AND RODERS HARTENRERO AND DENAVIT


rrrNzE

. Mechatlies of Machinery
. Kinen~nlicSynlhesis of I,inkages

. Turbulence
. EtlGqineering Vihralior~~

J A c o n s m AND A Y R E

~ ~ v 1 N A l.. Ettgitleering i

Cot1.1idera1iotl.r n/.Ylrc.~r, .ylrci~,ntzd Slretzgth

Dr. J. KESTIN
I'rofe~sor at ljrown Urlivrmity in Providcr~cc., ltliodc Ialand

KAYS . Co~tveclir~e Heal


LICIIIY

and Mass Trcrtzsfir

. (~'o~nbt~slior~ Ettgine' P r o c e ~ ~ e s

M A R ~ N . I-IIEL.AN PIIELAN

K i l ~ ~ t t ~ aand ~ l i c D!jtian~Lsa/ machine.^

. I)!/~lan~ics Machinery qf
. ~ l l ~ l d f l t l l e l lrfl ~ ln/fecharlim/ I)(rrigtl ~,~

RAVEN

. Arrlotnnlic Corrlrol En.gineerirtg

SOHP,N(:K

. 7'hroric.r ?f Ettgitteeri~lgExpcrir~~enlnlio~l
. Iloundary-Imyer Theory

scrrLlcrr.rrNa si~io~.r:.u . srrlnr.Eu srrtol.eu

Dyttamic Analysir of Machines

. Kinenmlic Attaly.ris o f

iffechai~i.snzs

. Mccltnr~icolEr~~gineerir~ Desigrl

New York
Diisselilorf

s ~ l i o r . ~ : .Sin~rrlnliot~ . ~ nf

Mcchnrriral Sy.clcnl.r S~IT)F(:KI;K . R~/j.igrro/inr~ Air (~ondilioni~~g ntld

New Uelhi

- Pa~iarno . Pnri~l . Siio I'nulo .

M c G R A W - H I L L BOOK COMPANY St. Louis . S a n Francisco Auckland BogotL . Johannesburg . London Madrid . Mexico . Montrenl

Singtrporo

Sydnoy

Tokyo

. . Toronto

Con tents
L i ~of 'Tnblcs t
Forc\vortl Alltllor'n I ' r r f n r r t o I.llr Sovclll 11 (I':II~~~P~I) I':[lil.i~ll l'rnnslntor's 1'1~elncot o t l l c Scvcl~t,ll (l211glisl1)ICtliI ion I'ro111 t l r r AIIIII~IV'S I'rcfncc t,o tho I " i ~ s(t( i r r l n n n ) IC(1it.ir111 Introdurtio~l xiii
XV

nvii xix sxi

A.

I'IBII~~;IIII~III~~ lrtws of n ~ o l i a ~ t a visrnrlr fluid for

rqltntiollrr of 111otio11 ntltl r o l ~ I . i l ~ r nl111lic.rl t o l l l ~ i t flon. ~~ty l n. I'IIII~:IIIII~II~~~ I,. (:vllrrnl nlrrss systclr~i t 1 n d r f n r ~ ~ l n hbotlg lr c. 'J'11r r ; ~ t c nl~irll I l ~ t i t r l r l n n l ~ is n t r n i l ~ r t ill I l o ~ v at ; I l t l rl. Ilrl:~t.i~,n I)rt\\nt.n strrsrr ittirl riitv o f ( l r f o r ~ t ~ a t ~ i o ~ ~ r. Slokm'n I ~ y ~ ) o t l i r s i n f. 131111~ viscosit.y n l l d l l ~ r r ~ ~ ~ o c l1)rrsnrlrr ~ ~ ~ i r y~~a g. 'l'lln N:rvior-Stokrs r l r l n t i o n n Iirfrrrt~c~ra

.,his I ~ o o k I w:rs sr.1 ill 1\111irj11n. 'Tllr r t l i t o r war 1'r:llrlc ,I. Crrrri nllrl (lie p r o t l r l r t i o ~ ~ ~ p r r v i s lvns s~ or
,Jolt11 1.' l l : t r l r . 1 1)rincil)lc of s i ~ ~ ~ i l r i r fro111t l l r N:i\~irr.SI.okrs P~IIII~~IIIIR it,y n. I)orivnlion o f I1rynnltl~'o 1). c. rl. c. Frirtiol~lms flow 11s " n o l r ~ l . i o ~ ~ sf" tlrc N~cvics-Stoltcn q c ~ n l i o ~ ~ s o c 'I'llc Nn\,irr-Sto1cc.s eqt~nt,iol~s illt(\rl)rntrd as vort.irit,y lr1111~1)ort I I : I ~ ~ ~ I I R (.~ '1'11<* l i t ~ l i ( , i ~ ~ g o f vrsy Inrgc visvo8it.y ('cry ulnnll ILcynoltls IIIIIII~I(V') cnsc 'I'llr lillliting rnse o f very UIII~III ~ O I I R f o r ~ ( vnr y 111rg12 I < r y ~ ~ o I tIIIIIIII)~~~) V~S ~ r Is I. h I : ~ l l ~ c ~ ~ ~ i:l~ ~i~ s tlr : ~ lo o n. l ~ c l t cn ifI procrsn o f going to I.llr I i l l l i L R -' m 1Zc:fcrrnrex

lpirsl p ~ t l ~ l i s l l rilll 1111. (:rrlll:~n lollgltngc: 1111~lrr < 1.111: fril,lc

"(:llI':N;SSCIIl(~ll'~-~~II1501<I~" ant1

C'olpyrigltt 1951 1j.v (:. Ijra1111 (vnr111.C . I ~ ~ ~ IiI I I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I\.vrIag) 'GIIII)~~, C a s~ si r ~ ~ l ~ c l l ~ f l S C l ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ k c ~ r ~ l 11. l r ~ I First. cllgIis11 c ~ l i I i n 1 1s r r o ~ ~b;fIitir)ll o f t11c b r ~ o k ) ~ l h l i s ~ ~ r ~ l ( ci p ill IS155 Srrotitl I C ~ ~ f i l ikCclilir)r~(1701~rl.lr sl~ 1Cclitio11 f I l r r book) p ~ ~ l ) l i s l i~ r d o n 1960 'I'lrirrl I C ~ ~ f i l i s lr l i t i i , ~(Sixl.11 1Crlilir111 f t l ~ n R~ ~ o Imok) p ~ ~ l ~ l i sill r t l l ~ I!)liS

of CIIAPTEII V. Exnct ~olotiona the Nnvier-Stokes e q ~ ~ a t i o n a a. Parallel flow 1. Parnllel flow t l l r o r ~ g n~straight channel and Couetto flow l 2. T h e Hagen-Poise~~ille~ e o r y flow t h r o ~ ~ g hpipe tl of a 3. The flow between two concentric rotnting cylinders 4. The n ~ ~ d d e n accelerated plane wall; Stokes's first problcm ly 5. I'low fornlat,io~r Couet,tc motion in 0. Flow in n pipe, start,ing f r o ~ nrest 7. 'The flow near a11 oscillating flat plate; Stolccs's second problem 8. A genernl class of non-steady solutions b. Other exact solr~t.ions 9. Stngr~ntion plane flow (FIie~nenz in flo~v) 9a. l'n.0-tiin~ensiondIIOII-steady stngnntion flow 10. Stagnntion in three-dimensional flow 11. Flow near a rotating dink 12. k'lo\v in convergent nnd divergent cl~nnnels 1:). C o n c l ~ ~ d i n e ~ n n r k rg Refrr~nces CIIAYL'ER V I . Very slow rnotion n. The d ~ f i r c n t i s leqr~xtions t,he rase of very slow motion for b. I'nrallel flow pnst n sphere c. The I~ydrodynnrnictheory of I~~bricnt,ion d. The llclc-Sllaupflow Rcfcrolrrs
Fort B.
Lnnninnr L o u ~ ~ d a r y lnyers

r th cl~nnnol 11 Flou in t l ~ inlrt I r ~ ~ g of n strnigl~t i. Tllr r n c t l ~ o ~ l finite diflcrcr~crs or j 13orlndory lnycr of second orcler Rcfrrrnrc~s \ l s nolnt,ion of t,l~e'w o - t l i ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ n i strncly t on:il, l X. ,\l)proxi~nntr ~ n c t l ~ o t lfor t l ~ r l ) c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c I : ~ r ~ .ql ~ i~ n t i n n s y ycr n. ,\l)!)lii.nt,io~lof t l ~ rI I I O I I I ( . I I ~ I I I I I r q ~ ~ n l t.o~ the flow 11:lnL n fI11t 11llbt,e nt m r o i t~ inc~clcnce b. The appr0xi1nat.c methocl d u e to 'TII. vo11 I<&r~n&n I<. Pol~llraosenfor twoand tli~nensionnlflours c. ('o~npnrison bct,\r.cen the npproxin~nt.e ancl exact uolutior~s 1. Flnt plate a t zero incidence 2. T~vo-rli;nensionsI st.agnation flow 3. Flow past n circr~lnr cylintler d. I't~rtl~er rxiirnplcs e. I , I I I I I ~flow with ntlvcrrrc I>rcssItr(a II~~ grr~cliont;~ r ~ ~ : t r n L i o n Ilc~frrr~~rcs C!FI.ZI"I'IPIl XI. Axially s y t n n ~ r l r i r t ~ l tltree-clit~~cr~sic,nnl ntlcl I,o~~n~l:iry layers n. I5x1rct s o l ~ ~ t i o n s 11xi11lly for ~y111111rlrirl11 I)or~n(lnry lnycrs I. I l o t a t i o ~ ~ tllc gror~ntl II(-:I~ 2. 'Tile cirrnl:u. jct 3. 'I'lle nxially s y n ~ n e t r i c \r-nke 4. Ilor~ndt~ry 1nyc.r ~ I nI body of rrvolr~t,ion I). r\plproxi~nntc e ~ l ~ ~ t i o n snxinlly s y r n ~ ~ ~ o tb oc ~ n d n r y ~ ~ c l - a s for ri ~ 11 I. .\pl)roxin~n(c o l ~ ~ t i o n s 0ountl:iry lagers on t~nclics\vhicll d o not rotate s for 2. lilow i r ~the entrnnrc of n pipe 3. Bo~lndnrylayers o n rotating 1)odics of revolut.io~~ c. Ilrl:~tionbct\veen nxinlly uy~n~nctric:nl two-tlirnc~~sionnl nnd bonodnry Inyers; Milnglrr'3 trnnsforn~ntion el. ' ~ l ~ r e c - ~ l i ~ ~ ~ r ~I)o1111(1nry ~ s i e ) ~ ~ n layers l 1. l ' h r I)o~~ntlnry 1:lycr on a yn\vccl cylinder 2. lior~rltlnrylayers on othcr I~odies I<rfrrrnrrs

CHAPTER V l l . l3011ntlary-lnycr eqr~ntion for tuo-dirnrnaionnl inrompre~sible flon; bor~nd:rrylnyer on n plntc n. Ikrivation of bortnclnry-lnyer equations for two-dimensional flow b. Tile scprr:itio~rof a 1)011ndary layer c. i\ renlnrlc on t,l~e ir~tegrntionof t l ~ c bortntlary-layer eqr~ntions d. Skin frir:tinn e. 'Tl~cI)or~nclnrylnycr nlong a flat. plate I. I%or~nclnry Inyer of I~igirerortlor 11 rfrrcnrrs

a. l)ejw~~(lrncc t,l~e of cl~nrc~ct,rrist.ics n 11o1111cl:~ry of lnycr 011 tltc I l c y ~ ~ o l d s ~ ~ n b e r nr b. "Sinlilnr" so111t~ions tile hornrdnry-layer C ~ I I R L ~ O I I ~ of r. 'l'rnnnforn~nt~ion of t.110 bonntlnry-laycr cqontions into t,ho hcnt-condr~ction
CI~II~~,~OII

(1. 'I'l~e~ n o n ~ c n t , nnd n r ~ ~ cnorgy-int.cgrnl o q ~ ~ a t i o n s t,lre l)or~ndnry for laycr I{.clcrcnt.cn 15unrt solr~tionsof the steady-stnk bountlnry-lnyrr rquations in two' 1 1 1 1 1 I tlirnensinnnl n l o t i o ~ ~
t a. I'lo\r pnst a wrdgr b. Flon in n convergent cl~annel c . F l o ~ v~ ) n u t a nylinclcr; nymmet.rical cnso ( B l n s i ~ ~ s series) (I. J301111tlnry lnyer for t.he potentin1 flow given by U ( x ) = Uo e. Flow in the mn.lte of flat, plate a t zero inridcnce 1 'Tlrc t.mo-tlimr~~sio~~nl . lnn~innr jet g. I'arallrl sl.~cnlnu Inminnr llow in

- axn

Ito lnry . I ' l l < I I . 'I'l~rrt~~til ~ ~ ~ ~ tlnycrs in Inn~innrflow ;I. I)l>riv~ltion I llc cnrrgy rquntion of I). ' I ' r ~ ~ ~ l ) c r :i~~crcasc: ~ t ~ ~ r r tllror~gl~ ndinl)nt.ic c o ~ n p r c s s i o n ~ stngnntion t r ~ n p e r n t ~ ~ r e c. 'I'l~c.ory rrf sitnil:~rityin Ireat trnnsrer rl. 1Ssnct s n l ~ ~ t i o n u t l ~ c for problcrn of t c ~ r ~ p e r n t u rlistribrrtion in n \.iscous flow re I . Cot~c.ttrflow flow r n \vill~flat \vnlla 1. I ' ~ ~ i s c ~ ~ ~ i l l t l ~ r o n g l ~rt1:11111rl c. I l o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l : r r y . l ~ ~ y c r sin~l)lifirnt.ions f. (:rnt%rnl11rol)crtics of thertnal b o i r ~ ~ ~ l n r y lnyers fIo\vs I. Fnrcrcl : I I I ( ~I I ~ I ~ I I I . ~ ~ 2. .\<Iit~l):~tic \v:~ll :j. i \ ~ ~ l ~ I)ct\\rr*n I~(-at loq trt111sfern11(1 slcin frict,ion 4. K1fc.r.t Bf I'r:~ncltl nr~rnber g. ' I ' ~ I I . ~ I I I ~ I ~ 11n~111dary lay(.rs in forced (low plntc at, zero incidence I. I';u.;rllc.l Ilo\v 1):rst a flt~t si il:~r of for I)or~ntinrylnyers L .\clrlilio~~;~l~ ~ ~ sol~ltions the cqr~ntions t l ~ c r n ~ n l :I. 'I'l~(.rn~irl 1)o1111d:1ry layers on isothcr~nalbodies of nrbitrnry shape 1. ' I ' I I ~ ~ I I I I I Ibonn(li~rylnyers on \ra11s \vitlr a n arbitrary tcn~perature distril)~~tion 5 . 'l'l~c~~nirl I>nr~nclnry layers on rotatiotrally s y n ~ ~ n e t r an11 rotating botlirs ic 13. . l l r t r s ~ ~ r c ~on rcylinders nntl o t l ~ c r ~ ~r~~t~ body s l ~ a p c s 7. 1Slti-t:t of frcr-strrnn~ ~ ~ r l ) n l c n c e t 11. 'I'l~crn~i~l 1)01111(1:1ry lnyers in r ~ a t r ~ r n l flow l<~~fl~rl~llrl~s

n.. I'l~ysi(~;ilo ~ ~ s i ~ l r r n t r ions Ii. I?rlntion hrl\\.ccn tllr vclocit.y all11 IIlr t r ~ ~ ~ p r r n f rfirltln rrr I. A(li:il)nfi(: \v:ill 2. t l r : ~ tt. r ~ ~ ~ l s(flnt. pl:itr, clpit1.c 0) fcr v. 'l71r ll:it, liInt,r 1x1,zrro i ~ ~ c i t l r t ~ c e (I. I ! O I I I I { ~ 111ycrwit11 11011-zrroprrssllrc grntlicnt :I~~ 1. Exact. s o l ~ ~ t i o n n I. I . 'l'llc L l l i ~ ~ g \ v o r l I ~ - S t c n . n r l s o I I~ S ~ C I ~ I I I : L ~ . ~ ~ I I ~~:~ I I .2. Srlf-si111i1:ir so111Iin11s 2. Ap11roxi111:1to 111rt11o(lu P. 111lrr:i(.lio11 I~c~l,\vr(*t~ \v;ivr n11rl lio1111[1:1ry sl~o(,lc l:iyrr l~~~ll~l~~lll~os

lityer brhillrl n lnovillg ~lorlnnlsllrivlc ~vnvc: 1. 1lo1111dnry 2. Flnt 11loLe nt, m r o ilrcidel~cewith vnrinblc free-8l.rcn1n vclocit.y ntld slrrface tcll~pcrn.t.t~rc l<<~fcrrlll~(~s Pnrl C. Trnnsiliol~ CITA IJ'rl~;lt X Vl. 0rigi11of I . I I ~ I ) I I I ~ I I ~ ;Io n. S ~ I I I ~ c.xl~rrimt.t~lnl r s l ~ l h L r n t ~ ~ i l ~ o ~ ~ II I II I I I ~ I I I I ~1 0 t . ~ ~ r l ) ~ if llor\ v ~ l . r 011 i~OI ~ I. 'I'r1111sitio11 11ipc flow, in 2. 'l'rn11siIi011 i l l 1110 b o ~ ~ ~ ~ liiy(*r 011 n ~ ~ l i Iio(ly dnry ql I). I'ri~~rililen tllc tlleory of st,aliiliLy o r Inll~innrIlo\vs of 1. Introtl~rc~t,ory rotllarka 2. Foundation of tllc ll~etllotlof ~III:LIItlist~crl~anccs 3. 'I'lle Orr-Som~nrrlrltlrql~ntiolr 4. T l ~ o i g c n \ ~ n l ~ ~ o c prol)loln rfrld 5. (:cnrrol propcrbics (II tllr O r r - S o ~ ) ~ r ~ ~ r crl~lnt~ion r . Itcsr~lls tile theory of ntnl)iliL,y nn tllry n p j ~ l yto tllc ~ D I I I I ( ~ I LI~~ y c tri 1 1 i i 1I:1t of Y plat*? a t zero irlcidenco 1. Sollle oltlrr i~lvcst.igntio~~s st.nl)ilit.y inlo 2. (Inlc:~ilnt,io~~bl~c of clarvr of iln~~t.rnl nl.nl)ilit.y 3. I2csr1ll.s for I.lle l l r ~ t llllitn 11. Co111j)%ris011 t,l~rt l ~ r o r y f sliiliilil y \viI,l~ of o rxprri111r111 I. OI(1rr I I I C : ~ ~ I I ~ C I I of Il I~~r ~ ~ ~ ~ s i t , i o i ~ I~ : l)y 2. \'crificnLion o f the I.llrory of nl.;~l)ilit.y r s l i r r i ~ ~ ~ r i ~ t . o. I':Ifict, of osciilntil~gfrre s t r c * n i ~ ~ t,rnnsitioll on f. C ~ I I T I I I ~ I ~ I I ~ rr11111rk I<cferer~ces CIIIZI"TICII XVI I .
n.

: I

I Z o ~ ~ ~ ~ c l : ~ r y c-o~~trc)l 1n111itl:ir - l : ~ y r r ill (Ion.

n. h l r t l ~ o ~of l)o;i~~~I:~ry-l:iyrr ls col~trol I . hl(it,io~~ tllr solid wnll of 2. ~\<-(~c*lrr:~l r t II(* Iio1111(1ary in11 o Inyvr ( l ) l c ~ \ v i ~ ~ g ) 3. SII(*I in11 4. It~jc.(.l of n clilli.rri~t,gns ir111 6 . I'rrvrt~lin11t ~ trnllsit io11 Ijy I I I C j~rovisint~f s ~ ~ i ( n s ~~ n r ~ rIs,. n ~ ~ ~ i11cr0foi1s f o ll lr t~nr I;. ( ' o t ~ l i ~ ~ g I I wnll of I ~ I). l t o ~ ~ ~ ~ ( l ~ ~ r y I-CI~~~ iOj IcI r RI I . 'l'llc~orvl iw~lrc:s~~lln I. I . I ~ ' I I I I I ~ : I I ~ ~CI O ~ II ~~ ~~ ~ O I I R II I .2. 15xnct S O ~ I I ~ ~ O I I S I.:!. , \ l i [ i r o x i ~ ~ ~.:? n r ~ ~ l i o ~ ~ s ~l l 2. l C x ~ i c ~ r i ~ ~ ~ ( ~ ~ oill :s~~l ~ c t i o ~ ~ rrsttlts ~ 2.1. I llrrrasr ill lift. 2.2. I)vl.rrnsc? i l l clrng 111jrr.tiri11 ;I dilli.rc*l~lg;ln ( I < ~ I I : IlIi.o ~ ~ ~ ~ li~yrrn) of ~ (l:~ry c,. I . 'l'lirorrti(~:~lr s ~ i l t s r I. I . '1.111. ~ I I I I ( I ; I I I I ~ I I I : I rq11:1lio113 I l .2. lCs:~vts r ~ I ~ ~ l i c > t ~ n . I .:t, . \ ~ ~ ~ i r ~ i ss oi l~~~ ~ i:o~~l~ n ~t (~ 2. I ~ ~ I ) ~ ~ ~ I I I v I I rrs111ts I:II
I ? l ~ f f ~ l ~ l ~ l l < ~ l ~ ~

Origin of t.r~rl~~rlr~)r.c IT

5.)

on i 15lTrrt cif [irrsnllre r:rclir~~L I.rnnnit.iot~l l I)ortn(lnry I:ylcr ~ I O I I K ~ I I I ( > I I I I I \v:~lls 11. t ) c t r r i ~ ~ i n n t o o t~t~ p o s i t i o ~ ~ thr. ~ , n i l oft i11s1ak1ilil.y ))rcsc:rilirtl Iiocly s l ~ ; i l ~ c il r or ~ Tor c. EITt:rt of suct,ion OII trnl~sitionin :I bor~t~tl:iry layer tl. I':fTc:ct of I)ocly forc:c*s on trnneitiol~ \vnlls I. I!ountl;iry lnyrr on ~ o l ~ v c x (rrnt.rif~rgnlliircrs) 2. The: flow of ~ ~ o n - l l o ~ ~ flr~i[ls ~ ~ m ~ o g r(strnt,ilic:it,ion) nild c:o~nprrssiI)ilit.y c. 14;ITc:cl.s drrr lo 11rt1t.I,r~~llsTt!r I. 1111 rotl~~ct,or,y rr111:trk 2. 'Clle c k c t of l ~ c a t.rn~lnfc:rit1 i ~ ~ c o ~ ~ ~ l j r r s s i l i l e t flow :I. 'I'lle elTrct o r col~~llrmsibilil,y f. St:~l~ilil.y :i I ~ o ~ i ~ ~ rInycr ill tllr p r r n r . ~ l cof I l ~ r r . o - ~ l i r i ~ c ~ n s~ o ~ s I tl ~ ~ ~ l ) ; ~ r ~ ~ ~ c ~ of lary ~ i l i ~n collcrlrl ric rot:~t.il~gy l i ~ ~ ( l c r s ~ I . Iiloa. hct\vrcl~ lnyrrs o n rollcn\rc \r:~llu 2. U o ~ t ~ ~ r l n r y :!. Stnl~ililyof t l ~ r c . r - ( l i ~ ~ ~ n ~~~O s Ii IoI ~ ~~I ;IInyrrs I I ( ~ ~I ~ 'I'llr i ~ ~ f l ~of rr o~t ~ pcl r ~0l 1 s r a i ~ ~ i t . i o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1c t ~ I . 111l o t l ~ ~ r l r ~rrll~nrlz r r.y 2. S i ~ ~ g lryli~~(lric-t~l r, 1~011gl111csn rlr111r111~ 3. l ~ i s l ~ r i l i r ~ t r ~ l r011g1111rss 11. Axially s y ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ r IIIo\vsi l ri?: I?vlrrrl~(vi

"
a. 1). c. d. o.

I XI X

'I'l~rorrt.icnln s s n ~ t ~ p l i o ~ ~Illo cnlcul:~t.ion turbr~lct~t for a of flows

Fr~~rtlnn~cnl~al eq11:11io11u I'rn11tl1.l'~ ~ i x i t ~ g - l r ~ ~ f i l l i n t,l~cnry l'nrt,l~cr nssutnl~lio118 t,l~c fnr tnrl)r~lrnt. sl~c~iring nt.r(;ss \'o~i I(krn~h.n'nsin~ilnrilyI~ypotl~mis ITt~ivr~r-x;il velocity-ditllrib~~tion Inwu 1. Voi~I(hr~r~:in's vclocil~y-distril)~~Lio~~ law 2. I'1.;111t11.l'a vcloei1.y-tlinlrib~~t~ion Inw f . IC~crl ~ r clovclo~)rnc~nl. t,l~t:orct.icnl l r of hyl~ot,l~enes Itrfrrc-~~e,rn I'nrl)ulent flow t.l~ror~gh pipru

4. Qundratr~re t,hc cnlcnlntint~of plant t r ~ r b ~ ~ lboundary layrrs for cnt 6. Apl)lic.ation or tho 111rtllo11 0. 1tc111arks tho I)cl~avionrof t l ~ c on tr~rbnlcl~t bo~rndnrylayers in t,lle prcnencc of n prcsarlre gratlicnt 7. l ' ~ ~ r l ) r ~Iro~~ntl:trg l r ~ ~ t . Inyors wit11 snction nnd il~jcctio~i 8. llortnclnry Inyrra on r r ~ ~ ~ ~ l )\vnlls l rrrt , IVI II r. I I I ~ I ) I I I C I I I I ) ; ) I I I I ~ I L I~I ~I ~ ( ' ~ H0 1 1 r~~.rofoil~;~ X ~ I I I I I I lift (1. 'Ll~rc(;.tIin~e~~ni~~~~alI I ~ JI:~ycrs I)~)III L~,~ 1. l301111tl:~ry Inycrs on botlirn or r c v o l ~ ~ t i o l ~ 2. Boundary Iaycrn on rot,nting I)odies 3. Conv~rgcnt a11t1divcrgrnt honr~dnry layers IZcfcrenccu

C!Ni\J"l'EI<

XXIII.

Turbr~lcntI~onndarylayers in cornjlressible flow

(Ill~\Pl'lCI1 XX.

a. E x p r r i ~ ~ ~ c nresillts for 811100th piprs tnl h. J<elntion hetween law of frict,ioll and voloeity distribution c. IInivcrsnl vclocit,y-di~tribut~ion for very large Reynolds numbers Iti~vs d. Ilv~ivr:rsnlresintallre law for slnootl~ pipes a t very Inrge Rcynoltls n ~ l n ~ b e r s c. IJil)cs of IIOII-circ111nr O R S - ~ ( ? C ~ ~ O ~ ~ CP I. I{ongl~~tipcmnntl cclnivnlc~~t. r o ~ ~ g l ~ ~ ~ e s s . st~ntl g. O l l ~ r r Iyl)cx of r o ~ ~ g l ~ ~ ~ r s e 11. 1"low in r i ~ r v c ~ l pipes and tliffi~scrs i. No11-slrt~rly flow 1t.1ro11gl1 pipc R j. l)r:~g . ~ ( I I I P ~ ~ ( IlI ~ y n~lclit,ion 110ly111t:rs I I t,l~c of I<rfrrcnc,vs (Illt1l'~l'lSlt XXl. ' l ' r ~ r h ~ ~ l rl)on~rclnry layrrn nt zero prcsnnre grntlier~t,;flat plate; nt rotnl.ing clink; r011~11ncss n. 'l'l~cs111oo1l1 plntc flnt I. J<rnista~~re fortn~~ln rlcdncetl f r o r ~ ~ '/7.th-po\vcr velority-Clint,ril)~~tion the law 2. Ilminl.:~nccfor~nr~ln tlodr~cetlfron~the lngorithlnic velocity-tlistribt~tiot, law 3. Iprtr!11rr r e f i n e ~ n c ~ ~ t s 4. 151l'cc~t finilc clin~ensiot~s; of borrnrlnry 1:iyers in rorncrs 5. 1lor111cl:rry Inye:rn \vit,h unct.ion rit~tlI)lowi~~g 1). 'l'hc re~tnl disk ing I. 'I'l~c"free" clink 2. '1'11~ (lid< in a. I~ortsing (,. l ' l ~ rr r ~ ~ r ~llntc gl~ I . l'llr rrsistn~~ce~ r ~ n t ~ l i \a n ~ ~ i f o r t ~rong11 plntc li for ily 2. h l r : ~ s r ~ r . c ~ on sil~glcrongl~ncsn0~rll1c11ts ~~r~~l.n 3. '1'1.n11sit fro111a n l ~ ~ o oto ~i rongl~ I I ~ ~ ~ L C O ion tl t R (I. t1rl111issiI1lc rt~r~gl~ness I<t*frrrc*nr~c.s
I

a. Getlernl rrnlarks 1. Tnrbr~lrntl ~ r a transfrr t 2. The fr~t~dan~elltal equntiotls for coinpressible flow 3. Relation betxreen the exchange coefficient,s for r n o ~ n e n t ~ ~ ~ n and heat b. Relation between velocity a~itl trlnperatnro distrit)ntion 1. The trnnsfcr of l~cnt fro~nn llaL plate 2. T l ~ c tmnsfer of hrnt fro111rough surfnces. 3. 'I'crl~peratured i s t r i b t ~ t i o ~ ~ in rornpressiblc flow c. Inflllence of Mach nunibrr; Iaxrs of friction I. Tllc flat plate a t zero incitlence 2. Variable pressure References CITAPTER XXIV. Free t , ~ ~ r b ~ ~ l e n t jcta ant1 \\,akcs flows;

a. O c ~ ~ e r rcrnnrks al b. Estirnation of the increase in width and of the decrease in velocity r. lcxlll1lples I. The smnothing out of a velocity discontinuity 2. Free jet boundary 3. Txro-tlin~ensio~~d behind n single body wake 4. The wake behind a row of bars 6. The two-di~nrnnional jet 6 . The circnlar jet 7. The two-di~nensional wall jet d. l>iff~~uion temperatrlre in free tnrbulont flow of ltcferencro

('1lAl"l'lClt XXI I. 'I'l~ri n r o n ~ ~ ~ r c n ~ti ~ l~ : h n ll r ~ o n d a i layer !vil.l~preqsurc gratlicnt h rr ~o ~ t .~


'

XXV. T)ctcr~nination profile drag of Ger~rr~il rcn~arlts Tl~e cxperiniontnl rnethotl t111et,o I3etn The experitncnlal niethod d r ~ c .Joneu to Calcr~lntionof profile drag 1,osscu in t.he flow tl~rotlglicascatles 1. General rernarku 2. lnfl~lenceof R.eynolds number 3. Effect of Mach nurr~bor Referc~~cea Bibliography
CHA1'TI':JZ a. b. c. d. c.

a. S o n ~ c ~ x ~ ~ r r i t ~ ~ r n l o l r rrsr~ll,s I). 'I'l~cc.iiIr~~ln of t \yo-tlin~rr~siotrnl~ r l ) ~ ~ l honl~dnry10 yrrs (.ion Ir t*nt I. (:r~~c.r:~l rcn~nrks 2. ' I ' I ~ I I I ~ I ( ( ~ I I I I ~ ~ i111rgr:11111c1l1c~l ~~II.'~ 3. 1l:lsit. (\c1111rl ~ ~ n in

Index of Anthon~
Srtbjcct Index Abbreviatioris List of most colntnonly uucd sy~nbols

'l':~I)lf~: Visrt~siIyvo~lvt.rsir>~l I,I f:~ctors


I( ir ' l : ~ I l c I.2: I)+.t~sify.vis(.osily. IIII~I i t l r ~ ~ l i l t\,is(.osiIj n f
l ) ~ . K l 1lt.P l

\ \ : ~ l f ' t:III(~t i t . . i

ill 1vr111s 01'

1~111-

'I':IIII~ I.:&:I<~III~III:I~ ic, vist,osiIy

,.:IIIIV 2.1 : 'I'l~i(.I(l~vsnf I l o t ~ l l f l i ~ r y o l:~,y(*r,h. I


ill 1):1t.alIt.l III~I>III~~III. lIo\v

:II Ivililil~p ~ I p ( o r Il:ll ~ ) l : l l v xrsro ~ I I ( . ~ U ~ ( ' I I I . ~ ' t ? :I(.

'I'nI)lc

5.1 : F~IIC~~OIIR i n IIIC orr11rri11g 8ol11lio11 f ~I:III~* i : ~ l l y o :III(~ x n ny111111c~lrir~:11 i l l 1 l11)\\ atngnntinl~p o i ~ ~I t l.n ~ l rcnnc fro111 I,. I l o n . : ~ r t l(~ ' 141; : ~ x i : ~ l lf y y l ~ ~ l ~ ~ ( * t r i r ; ~ l i r :ISP fro111 N. l ~ r r ) ( - s s l i ~ ~ g IS]

'I':~l)lo 5.2: \':111t(;s of Ill(:f1111r.1.in11s II(Y>IICII ( I v s r r i p l i o t ~ I I Illo\v of :I (lisl< 1,01:1tit1g for Ill(* of ~ ill :t l l t t i ( l t11 r ~ ~ n l , ~YII(~III:II~II ~\v:III :IIICI :I I I I ~ ~ C * 111, 1 . 1 1 $11 fIis1:111rvft.o111 1111. \ t : ~ l l , :IS ~III~III:II~I I$. hl. Sl~:trro\vIIIIII -1. I,. (:~,(%gg 11y [:I21

'l':~l)lc.

7. 1 : 'l'llr f t t ~ ~ ~ . l /(I/) l f~ ~ t,l~(.l ) o ~ t t ~ f l : ~ r y ill0112n 1I:1l ~ ~ l : ~ l :tI. ./.(TO~II(.~I~I~II(.I-. ic> r l:~y(>r c% r t 4 > ~ III)\\.:I~I II 1 I(;] I,.
it

' I ' : ~ l ~ l c . 10.1: I<(:sII~~s o f t111: (::II('III:II~~oIIIll(> of 1101111f1:1ry l:ly(.r for ritlr~lcv 11:1sf~11 1 nl)l)roxi~ll:~I(* 0 I11r11ry

Il:tt. jil:ll(* ill

~,I,~II

ill-

'I'lrl~l(! 10.2: Altxililrry ~IIII~~~IIIIR for 01t. :II)JII.~X~~II:I~~ (.III(.III:II~OII IIIIII~II:I~ of I)OIIIII~III.~ l:~yf>rn, nl'lrr llr)ls1ci11:LIICI l&ol11(!11 151 'I'nl)lv 10.:): ( l o ~ ~ ~ p : ~ roi fr ? o ~ ~ : t t ~ r l nl)l~roxitt~:tI.c : l l ~ l mo f IIIV I ~ o ~ t ~ ~ c l : ~ r y11:1vx- ( ~ r ~.xnc:l, v -l:~y ~llc.lr.rn for lllr c.:~sco f I ~ \ r o - t l i t ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~Rn iRo tI ~: Ii~ ~ ( I I I110\v ~ ~ I tl

,. 1 1 . 1 : l:iI111:

'1'11~ f t ~ l ~ c l i ofor~ 1,Ilc v(;l~>rity( l i s l r i l ~ ~ ~ for ~ i r;lst- r ~ ro1:1li011OVIT ~ s l i o IIIP f s1:1lio1i:1ry \v:lll, : l l l r r .J. I{.N y f l : ~ l l~ l l t t l H

:I

'l':~l)lc 12. I : I'li,ysir:tl ~~IISI:IIIIS 'I':~l)lc 12.2: l > i ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ s c o ~ ~l li r srs o~ t l~c:il,l t . : ~ ~ ~ s f t,il,: I , ( l i ~ ~ t ( ~ : ~ s i oa ( ~ :l ~~)s~ l , i r i o f i ~ f . -r, I I I ~ li r l : s \v:LII IcIII~~-~:I~II~P. ~ I I ~ I ~fro111(>~IIIS. ~ , 1). for n II;LI,: ~ l c111.zrro pl I ( ~ I I V (12.70) :IIICI ( l2.7!i) 'I':IIIIV 12.3: ' l ' l ~ e(-OIISI;IIII,ill t11c C-(~II:I~~OII for Ill(* ,I V;II~~III;II,~~II IIlf-! ( > ~ - f l i ( . io f* ~ ~ l 01' ( ~ lt(::~l, t t , ; ~ ~ ~ sifn rt,l~c~ ~ f ~ i g l ~ l ) n r)f ~ rstng11:1t,io11 o i r ~ l ,:~flc-r I&. c ~ 11 l ~ o o ~ l p 11. SIIII~~(- : { l 1 ll

'I'JIIIIP 12.4: NIIIII(~~~~~:II \YIIII(>Sf l l ~f1111clir>11 4 ) o r If(


'I':tl~lc 12.5: \ ' i l l ~ ~ ro f (,Ire f ~ l t l r t i F ( ~ ) f ~ frl ~rr ~ l ( * ~ ~ l n t in ~ ~ n ~lx : o f n IIIV~III:II o ~ t ~ ~ ( l1i1yr:r I) :~ry OII :L 11o11isoIlivr111:11 \\-:~ll; r r1). 1%. p : ~ l ( I i l ~ g :~fl S 11201 'I'nl~lf! l2.G: Cof;ffivit-~~ls f IIC:II,a ~ ~ s f ( -t ri o l,r n (I;IIII~II:I~), n ( ! r ( ~ r d i ~ ~ g 1.0 rt-k. [!):{,
:t

.I.a l ~ l t ?13. I

l~r:tl(~l ic:~IIII:IIC vcri !)4. [I)!). 121;)

ill

11:tI

IIKII ~ Y ) I I Y1V ~ I ir1 i

: 'I'l~c f ! ~ n r I , i oF'(,Y) ~~

.I.~ i l ~ 14.1: lo

fnr t11c jlrrssllrr ~ l i n l r i l ~ ~ ~ l , i n ~ ~II:II III:IIA~ I,II(: :IIOII~ tt in tlcigl10~111rI1norlf a nliot-lc \ ~ n \ ~ill tt(~~or(1:111(~ N~IIR. (l:!.S!)) :IIIII (l:l.!lO), o (~. \vit,l~ n f l r r N. (:III.IC 1241
t111* l ) i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s)io ~ ~ ~ ~l c l.r sv , v - l ~ rl y ci~~ ~ I 01~ntld ~s11:111(- f:~(.Ior r\l/rlq I r)~~ ( r s . ~ r ~ ~( sn volo(:ity ~)rolil(:aill t.11~ inil.i;ll 1(.11gl.l1on ; Ilnt. p1:ilc. :LO zrrn iltrirlv~~rc. I nil11 rltlifornl sllction, :tlcr It. Iglisr~li [401

~f1~~vc.lrllgt,Il:tnd frrqllcr1c.v P,dr/~l, of 11rlll.rnl ,\(?I rli~111rbnnr:rater111s the ill of I<c:y~~olcln~ r ~ ~ r ~Tor t.iro bo1111c1:rry t R l~rr l:rycr O I I rr Ilnl. ~rlst,c 7 . ~ ~ 0 nt. i~rritlrrlce ( Ill:tniurt ~rrolilc.). 'I'l~rory nflcr W. 'l'oll111ir11 I!)!)]; nr~rn~.ricnl cnlc.~~lnt.iona by I<.. .lorclirino~r1471 n ~ r t l1). It. I l o i ~ s l o ~ ~ . T r pnrnllcl flow. See Figs. I6.LO bot.Ir o allti 16.I 1 'I'i~blr17.1 : I)cl~c~~rclcnrc of rrilirr~lRcyriolcln I I I I I I I ~ I ~of~ vnlocil.y yrofilc~nu.iLI1 n~lotioll : on di~r~c~~~~io~iIcs$ nl~ctioir vo111ri10f : t ( . I ~ r :~.fter E, Ulriclr [24:1J 'T:ll,le 20.1: I<:~t.io Inearl to 1nnxi111u111 of vc10t.it.y i l l pipe lir,w in t,ert~rs tho expotle~~t of n of t,Ilc vclocity cliatribution, according to eqri. (20.fi) l':il)lc 20.2: (:c~rffirient, rmintnnre for ~1110otli of pi1)en i n terms of t,l~r I~eyt~olds rll111111er 'I':tldr 21.1: T<c.sist.nncefornrulri for fl;it p1ot.c corrrpr~ted frotn llrc lognrit,l~mic volority ~wofilc eclns. (21.14) nrrtl (21.15) in 'I':~l>lo 21.2: ~ ~ r l ~ ~ l i ~ s i h l e prot,r~hcrn~~cra height, of i n t.ertiis of lhe Rcy~loltls nr~rnhcr 'l':kl~lr21.3: ICx:~rr~plrs tlrc a ~ l r ~ ~ l : ~ofi o n on l ntlrrri.wiblc ro~rgl~r~cas Fig. 21.16 fro111 'Ti~l~lc : S~~nl~n:try qr~n~~t,it.ies i c l ~ 22.1 of the w l ~ occrtr i r ~ t.hc eqnnt.iona for t.lre cnlcnlnt.ion of I,IIc tlirncnsionlraa rnomrnl,~~nl t.l~irknons, of tlio di~nensionlens Rz, energy t~l~irlrrirrtn, a n d of the nlinpr fnr1,or; sre rqns. (22.1ln. 5 ) Rn, 'rnblr 22.2: Sr11t1111nry n~r~rroricnl nf cotist,a~~ts orcur irr t,l~c Ll~nt explicit cq~lnt,ionn 1,110 Tor cnlnc~lntion r n o ~ n c r ~nr~rl r ~ ~ t,l~icknc*s; cqna. (22.lli), (22.17),nntl of l ~ ~ctlrrgy Rrc (22.I!)) 'I':~lilr23.1 : The constaots 11 nrld b for the c:~,lrr~lntion tho rocfficicnt, of lient trntrafcr of fro111cqn. (23.20) nnct of t l ~ c rcco\,ery. fnct,or fror~~ (2:{.27), nft.cr H. Itcieqn. clinrdt. 1731 and J.C. 1l.ottn 1811 , Inl~lr 24.1: I'oI\-c.r 1i~1r.n for 1.11c. inc:rr:~qcin ~\.idtIi :lntl for t.lie decrenac in tllc cc?~itrc-line vrlorit,y in trrtiln of tlist.nnce 3: for proI)lr~rla frre t~trl)r~lrnt of flow
:

'I'r~lpleI1i.l

Foreword
'1'0
t h e F i r s t E n g l i s h Eclitiotr

13oiriitlnry~lngcrt.ltcory is tho cornerst.onc of our knowledgc of the flow of air :mtl ot,lrt>rfllritls of small viscosit,y under circttn~stancc?~interest in many et)gincrrof ir~g nl)l~lir:~l.ions.l ~ u s T many complex problems in serodynamics have been rlnrifictl by a st.r~tly tllc flow wit,I~in of the bortntlary layer and its effect on the gcncral flow nrou~ttl t,lrc body. Srtch prol)lcn~sinclutle t,llc variations of minimum drag antl maxinlriin lift of airplane wings with Reynolds number, wind-tunnel t,r~r\,~tlener, ; L I I ~ Io(.li~;r pnrnmctcrs. Even in Lho~c cascs wltcrc (I complete mat~hernnt,iralnnnlysis is at. ~wrsc:nt~ i~iipt~arlicrtblc, I~ortrrrlnry-laycr t,lic concrpt, 11as been cxt.morcliri:~rily fr11ilF111 ~ t s r f r ~ l . nt~tl 'rlto tlevclopn~ctlt boundnry-layer tlteory during its first fift,y ycars is a fasof c,i~~nl,ing illt~st,mt,ion t,hc birth of a new concept,, its slow growth for many ycn.rs of in tlrc hntltls of its creator and Itis nssociat.es, its bclated acceptance by otllers, and t,llc sr~I)srq~ict~t, almost expotlctrt.inl rise in the n u ~ n b e r cont.ribut,ors t,o it.% of furtller devclopnrcnt. Tl~c first decade following the classical paper of Pranclt,l in 1904 brougllt forL1r f w c r t.lln.1110 papers by Pmtrtlt,l anti his st~idents,a rate of a b o t ~ t ono pn.pcr per ycn.r. I)r~rit~g pnsL yr:w ovrr 100 p:tpcrs were prtblisltcd on various XSI)CC~,S of Llic bor~rt(l:~.ry-ln~~cr and rcl:~tctl nxpcrirncnl.s. l ? l ~ e t,hcory nn.me of 11. S(.lrlicllt.ing first. nppc:Lrs in 1930 with his iloct,oral t,hesis on tile subject of wake flow. Short,ly thercnft,cr Sclllicht,ing rlcuot,ed major effort t o t,l~c problcm of t h e stability of Intni~lnr I~onntlxry-layer flow.

Rly O I V ~interest it1 !,tic cxpcrinretltal aspcct.~ boundary-layer flow begnn in of laltc l:~l,c t.wcnl,ics. Wiblt t,ltc n.pl)onr;cncc of Scltlicltl,ing's pnpcrs it~f.cnsivc trl,!~r~rr~l~l.s were ~nntle find Lhc amplifictl tlisturbarlccs prctlict,cd by t h e theory. I'or 10 yc:Lrs t.o tJic cxprrirnc!nl.al rcsrllt,s not only failctl t o conlirm t,liin t,ltrory I)ltt s~rj)[~~rI.(!ci 1.Itc idea tllnt t,r:rnsition reslrlt,etl from t,ltc presence of trrrbrtlcncc in the I'rcc air sl.rc::~rn as described in n theory set forlh by G. I. Taylor. Then on a well-rrmctnherctl d a y in Augi~st,1940, thc predicted waves were seen in t h e flow near a flat plnt,c in a wind turlrlcl of very low turbulence, The theory of stability described in t,llc pnpcrs of Tollrnien and Scl~liclrting was soon corrfimedquantitativelyaswellasr~ltalit~~t~iv~~ German periodicals available in the United States after the war refcrred t o a series of lectures by Sctllichting on boundary-layer theory whicli had been p~lblished i n 1942. This document of 279 pages with 116 figures was not available for some time. An English translation was given Limited distribution as NACA Technical Memorandum No. 1217 in 1949. These lectures were completely rewritten t o include material previously classified, confidential, or secret from Germany and other countries.

xvi

I'orcworcI

T l ~ rcs~lltwas t . 1 1 ~ c l)onlr c ~ 483 pages nntl 206 figr~ros r publisl~ctl 1061 in the Gcrrnnrr in Iangrtagn. \Vhcn t,llis boolr bccn.mc Icnowrr t,o rcscarcll workers anti ed~lcntorsit1 t,llc Unit,oti St.ntcs, t.l~cro was nn inunctliat.c request fronl srvc~ral quarters for nn ICnglisl~t.mnslat.ion, sinro no rnrnpar:~blc book was avnilnhlc in t,ltc 1Snglisl1 Iatlg~lngr. 'I'l~ctcc:l~t~ical content. of t,llc? present. I':t~glisIretlit.io~tis dcscril)ctl i n t,l~c r ~ t ~ l ~ o r ' s n prcf:~c.e.'l'l~cc~npl~:lsis 0 1 1 t,l~o is ftlntl;rmc~l~l;rl pllysiral itlr:~srntd~c.r~,II:LII on ~ n n t l ~ c ~ r l : l t . i c . : ~ l rc~finrlnrllt,. RIt:t.l~otlsof t,Ileorc:t,icnl n l ~ : r l ~ s i s sot fort41 along wil.11 s11c:l1 qrc c~xl~~rirnont~al as arc ~tert.in(-tlt (Icfinc 1.11~regions of applic:tbilit,y of 1I1o tln.t,n t,n I~llc~orc:l~icnl rcslllt.s or t.n givr: 1i11ysic:rl it~sifillt, ~ ~ tt011: p11~:11orncnn. i ,o Ac.rot~nrtt.icnl cngirlrc:rs ant1 rcscnrcl~ sc:irr~t.istsowc debt of g r n l i t ~ ~ t lto o 1'1xd'rssor Sc:lilicl~t.ing t,liis t,irnolg review of l.hc 1)rc.scrlt stat,c of I)nr~trtlnry-lnycr for t.lleory. \Vnsl~ingtot~ C., 1)corinl)cr 1064 I). I l u g l ~I,. I ) r y t l r n

Author's Preface to the Seve~itl~ (E~lglish) d i t i o ~ ~ E


'rhe sixth (ISnglisll) r:tlif,ion of t,l~is I)oo:c ct,pl)rnrctl it1 I!)C,8; it tlin'cl~rtlvrvy litl.le from thn fifth (Gcrlnan) ctlition of I!)FB. T l ~ o first) ((!rrmn,rl) rtlit,ion of t01is I~oolcurns pt~l)lishctIin 1051. 111 t.11~ (itne i~tt~crvnl 1)ctwccn l!)BI ant1 l!)fIR nn l<ilgli~l~ t!clit.ion nl ways litllowocl n Gc.r.rrr:~n rclition. 1\11 Lri~t~rrli~Lior~a L)t!(,ri p r c p ~ ~ t ~ x l1 ' 1 ~ o f i ~ s ~ o ~ Itnvc by 1Ccst,ir1in nri n.rcon~plislrctl fnsl~ion. Whcrr J decided in 1075 t o writ,c a new rclit,ion of t.11i.qboolc I cnmc t,o t,llc conclusion t.l~nt, prc!crtli~~g t.l~o st:clncnrc of a (1c.rtnnn rdit,ioll follo\vc:tl I)y nn 1Snglisl1c:clit.iotl was n o longrr ~trn.c:tic:nltlc. rcnsotl for it wn.8 lllc 11cnvilyinc:ronscvl cost, of ~)l.int,ing. 'I'l~c Conscqncntly, I suggrst.c-cl 1.0 the bwo pr~blishing cotnlm~lics,(. llrnrlr~in I<nrlsl~rll~c : and McCrn\v-llill in New York, to protlrlcc n ncw otlit.ion only in tSlrcEnglisl~ Iangrtage. I express my t.llnnks t,o I)ot.l~I'u1)lislrers for their ronscnt,. As in t,l~c ) r c v i o rrtlit,ions, 1 nt.t,onrl)t~rtl tirrle also t.11sclcot for inc*l~~siotr ~ ~~s t.his 1.110 n~ost, ~ n ~ ) o r t ~ co~~t,ril)rrt~ictr~s among t,l~c i :~nt, from nl)r~n~I:tnt~ t,l~n.t, t:rol) n,pl~r:~t.(~(l i l l l,ltc ~ncnnt~iitlc t,llc licltl of bountlnry-layc:r t.l~c,ory, in wit.lror~t., I~owcvcr, nlt.c~.ing. l ~ o t I):lsic st,rrrctnre of nly I)oolr. I 11ol)c t.llat t,hn principal t,l~rnst t,l~e of boolc rcmni~lrtlint.net,, nnmcly t,he int,rnt. t.o rnll~lrnsizeant1 t,o present t,llcorrt,ic*alconsidrrations in a, for111 acccssil)lc t,o c.nginecrs. Tllc sr~btliLisionof tile 1)oolz into fotlr parts ( I ~ ~ l n t i a r n c n t , ~ l of ~tiot,ion n laws of viscous fluid; 1,atninn.r houndnry layers; Trnnsit,ion; 'I'r~rbr~lent Itountlary 1;~yt.r~) lras ltorn ret,airlrrl. Concerning ttlr rcrlrlilio~rsI win11 to mcnt,ion a few. Owing 1.0 t.11~ atlvrnt, c~flarge rlcclronic compr~t,r:rsit. I~ccatriepossil)lc t>otn.clclc Inany ~ ) ~ . o l ) l ~ - t r ~ s t.1lnt wr1.r c:or~sitlerccttrnsolvnble in tho past,. T l ~ c s e inclrttlc rlr~lncric:n.l solr~t~ions 1.111: of Navier-St,okes cqr~at~ions moderately large Reynol(ls numbers (Chap. IV), nnrnofor rical integration of tho boundary-layer eqr~nt~ions laminar nntl turbulrnt flows for (Cl~np.ZX),a8 well RS t , l ~ e expLicit n~unerienl int.rgr:~t.ionof tllc O r r - S o ~ l ~ ~ t ~ ~ l . r ~ l t equation of t.lle theory of stability of laminar bor~ntlarylnyrrs (Cl)ap. XVI). Another sultjcct newly t,nlcrn into nccorlnt nrc cxnct sol~rt~iolls tlle Nnvier-St,olccla of cqu:~t,ions tlrc t~on-st.c;~tly for st,ngr~nlion flow (Cl~np. ~<II(:tltcory of t.111. I : I I I I ~ I I : ~ . ~ V), Itonr1t1nt.ylngcr o f scrontl ortlor (C)hnp. V I I nntl LX). 7'110scc:tions o n l,I~t: (::~lrril:~I 01 io11 two-tlinletlsion:~I,inconiprrssiblc, t,urbrllcnt boundary Inycrs (C1in.p. S X I I), on t l ~ c st,abilit,y of Inn~inarboundary layers wit.11 compressibility anti heat-t,rnnsfc~r c:flccl.s (See. X V l I e ) , :lntl on losses in nnscn.tle llo\r,s (C:l~np. X X\') Ilavc: bee-n c*o!~~l~lrtcly revised.

xviii

Ar~t,l~or's Prefncr

t.o tho

Scvent.ll (Etiglisl~) Er1it.ion

Transliltor's Preface to the Seventh (English) Edition


The present is the fourth edition in the English language of Professor IT. Scliliohting's "Gren7,schiclit-Theorie". Once again, the new edition was prepared in c l o ~ c cooprrnt,ion wit,l~ t,hc Autthor whoni J visit,rtl acvcral t,irnc%s (.hct,t.ingen to finnlizo in tho content,^ and blle wording. I wish t.o t,lrnnlr I'rofcssoi. St:ltIiclit.ing for his I~ospit.nlit.y ant1 M ~ R s ~ R . McGrnw-Ilill for pnrt,inl financial nssistnnc:e in conncxion wit.11t.hc:sc trips. This time there was no German print,ed editmion and t,lre modifications int,rodt~crtl by the author were transmitted directly t o me.

Along with t.liis ncur mat,erinl, I feel t,hat I ought, t o niention the topics which I spcoifioally omit,t,ctl l,o inclrtde. I d o not, rliscrlss t,he effect of chemieal reactions on flow processes in bountlary laycrs a s they occur in the presence of hypersonic flow. The sarnc npplios t.o I)onndnry Inycrs in rna.gncto-fl~~itl-tlytin~~tics, low-dcnsitty flows ant1 Rows of non-Nowt,oni:~n fluids. I still t.Ironght t,liat T ought t o refraiti from giving a.n rxposit,ion of t,lir st,at,ist,icalt,l~eorjr t,ttrl)~~lenrc t,his etlit,ion, as in t,hc prcvio~ls of in OIICR, I ) r r n ~ ~ ~ c o ~ ~ ~ tt.11crcarc a\.nilnblc otlrcr, good prcscnt,nt.iorls in I,oolr form. si lnys Once again, t,I~c lists of refcrenccs have bcen expanclcd considcrahly in many rhal~t,crs. tiurnl~cr illust,rations increasctl by about G5, hut 20 oltl ones have been The of omit,t.erl; the number of pages increased hy about 70. I n spite of t,his, I hope t.hat t,he original character of t,liis book has becn retained, and t h a t it, strill can provide the reader wit,l~ bird'.?-e?/eview of t~liisimportant branch of the physics of fluids. a As I worltrd on the new manuscript I once more enjoyctl t,hc vigorous assistance that I rcccivetl from scvrral of my professional collcagues. Professor K. Gersten cont.tihutctl sect,ions on boundary layers of second orrlcr t,o the part on laminar bollndary lnycrs (Seas. VIIf ant1 I X j ) . This is a special field which lie successf~~lly worked out in recent ycnrs. l'rofcssor T. K. Fnnneloep contributed the completely reformulated sc-ct.ion on the numerical inkgration of t,hc boundary-layer erlt~at~ions included in See. I X i . In t.hc part on turbulent boundary layers, Professor E. Truckenbrodt provitlcrl me witall a new version of the largest portion of Chapter X X I I on twodimensional and rotfationally symmetric I~oundarylayers Dr. 1,. M. Mack of the California Institute of Technology was good enough to contribute a new section on t h e stability of boundary layers in supersonic flow, Sec. X V I l e . Dr. J. C. R o t t a tliorougl~ly reviewed P a r t I) on turbulent boundary layers and made many additions to it*.For the Russian litcrxtnre I rccrivstl nlurll help from Professor Milthailov. Tlie translation was once again cnt,rustctl t o Professor J. Kestin's cornpetrent pen I express my sincerc tlinnlts l o all tliose gcnt,lcmen for thcir valuable cooperation.

I owe a debt of gratitude t o Profcssor 11. E. Khalifa for his help in t.he task of proof-reading. My wife, Alicin, prepared the authors' and the subject. inclcxes ant1 compet,ently t,yped tellem under difficult circumstances. My secretary, Mrs. Giarin in Providence, and Mrs. Icreibohm in Gocttingen expertly typcd tlrc manuscript; 1 express t o them my sincere thanks for their paticncc. Both pultlishcrs, Mcssrs. G. Braun of ICarlsruhe and Messrs. McGraw-Hill of New York, spared no trouble, as on past occasions, in meeting our wishcs regnrding the protluction of tlic boolr.
Providence, Rliode Island, Augilst 1078

,J. I<estiri

I sliould also like t o rcpcat my acltnowlcdgemcnt of tlrc hclp I rcceived from scvernl professional friends whcn I worltcd on the fifth (German) edition Nat.urally, their contributions have now bcen rctaincd for the seventh edition. This is the extensive contribution on colnprcssiblc laminar bountlary layers inChapter XIIT written by Dr. F . W . Rirgcls, Professor I<. Grrsten's section on thermal boundary layers in Chapter X I 1 and Dr. J . C . Rotta's text on compressible turbulent boundary layers in Chapter X X I I I .

I rxprcss my thanks to Frau Gerda Wolf, Frau IIilde TCreibohm and Mrs. Leslie Gintin for the careful preparation of the clear copy of the nianuscript; Frau Gerda JVolf was also very llrlpful for me in thc library. Mesgrs. Rotta, Iiummel and Starlre were Irinrl c:nougli to asgist wit11 the reatling of t h e proofs
J,ast,, h r ~ not Irnst, thnnlzs arc rllte to Vcrlag Braun for their willingness t o accede t t o rny'wishrs : ~ n dfor thc pleasing apprarancc of the ltoolr

From Author's Preface to the First (Gern~an) Editiox~


Since :t,I)o~tt, tltc Ocgit~nirtgof tl~t!t:ttrrcnt ct!nt,ttr.y 11iot1t:rn rt!sr:~rt;lt in t , I t t * l i t s l t l of flrlitl clyn:rntics has :~clticvctlgrcat sut:ccsscs ant1 llas l)t:t:n n l ~ l cto ~)rovitlc:I Cllc:. oretiral clarific:tkion of obscrvt:tl ~)ltcr~on~t:na wllicll t,llc! scicncc? of rlnssirnl Ilytlrotlyn:sntics of t,llc ~)rocctlitlgc:cntnry f:tilctl t,o (lo. 1Csscrtli:~lly t.llrt:c br:tnc:ltcs of l l r ~ i t l tlyr~:lrnic,s11:~vc bccomc p:~rticnlarly well clcvelopctl tluritig t,l~c last fift,y years; t,llcy inclr~tlc l~ot~ntlary-layer tl~cory, gas tlyrlarnics, antl acrofoil Lllcory. 7'11~ present t~ook is conccrncd ~vitlttllc branch krtnwn a s 11otrr1tl:~ry-layertllcory. This is the oltlt:st 1)rancll of modern flrritl tlynarnics; it w:is fort~~tlctl 1,. I'mntltl in 1904 wllctt I I ~ : by succcedctl in showing how flows involving fluitls of very s ~ n n l viscosity, in particular l w:tt,cr ant1 air, t,ltc most imporl;:~nt, oncs from t l ~ c point of vicw of applications, c:ln 11cn~:ltlc:~tncnr~blc! rnnt~l~o~nr~t,icnI lo r~nnly.qix. 'l'llis wris r~c:lliovotl11y t.tiltirlg I.11t: t:lli:c:l.s of friction into account only in regions \<.hero they arc rsscnt,i:ll, rtamely in tho thin boltndary layer wllich exists in t,ltc irntnctliatc tlcigt~bottrl~oocl a solitl body. Titis of concopt ~ n a t l c possible to clarify many ~)llcnomona it wliicll occur in flows and a,lliclt Itatl ~n-cvionslybccn incotl~pmllcrtsit)le. Most important of all, it, ltns bcconto possiblr t o sltt)ject problems connecterl with thc occurrcnc:e of tlrag t o a tllcorctical an:tlysis. r , llte scicnco of aeronaat,ical engineering was making rapitl progress ant1 was soor1 &ble t o utilize these t,l~coretical results in pract.ical applications. I t tfitl, ft~rtliertnorc, pose many problcms wl~ichcould be solvctl with t l ~ c of the ncw bonntla.ry-1ayc:r aid theory. Arronautical engineers have long sinco matlc: tllc conccpt of a t)ountlary layer one of cverytlay use and i t is now unt.hir:kable tlo d o without it,. In other fieltls of lnaclline design in wlticl~problcn~sof flow occur, in part,icular in the design of t,url~ornacl~incry, t l ~ c o r yof bottndary layers rnatlc rnt~cllslower progress, I,trt, t,hc in motlern tinies t,ht:sc rlcw conccpt,~ Itavo come t o t,llc fore in s11c:11applic.ztions a s well.

I IIR prt:~ent 1)ooIt I I ~ SI)crn writ,tcn principally for cngir~ecrs.I t is t l ~ c olzt.comt: of a course of Icct,rrrcs which the Author tlclivcrctl in t,llc Winter Scn~cstcr 1941/42 of
7

for I.l~r scinnt,ific worltcrs of tho Aoronatlf.ical Itcscarch Institut,c in I3r:~trnscl1wcig. Tho stll)jt!t:t. mnttcr 112sbcclrt r~tili;r.ctl after tlto war i n nlarly spc(:i:~l1cct11rt:s 11cld a t t . l ~ t ! ICngitleering Univcrsit,y in 13m11nscl1wcigfor sttltlcnb of rnccl~anical engirtccring :Inti pl1ysic.s. 1)r. IT. IIallriclnal~r~ prcparccl a set of loctr~rcnotes :iftcr the first soric:s of lectures \rat1 been given. 'L'lrcsc were rcad mxd amplifier1 by t.hc h~rllior. They wt:rc stll)scq~lcr~t,ly p~rblishetf in mimeograpltctl form by the Office for Scicrltific I)octtrncnt,at.ion (Zontmlc fiir wisscnschaft~licllcs 13cricltt~swc.scn)nntl tlist.rit~nt.ntl 1.0 :t lirnit,crl circle of irrtcrcstctl scicntifir: worltcrs. Several years after t l ~ c war tho antdlor tlecitlcd c o n ~ p ~ c t ~ c l y t,o re-etlit, this oltlcr c:ompilat.ior~and t o p1111lisl1it in the fort11 of a book. 'l'llc t.inie sccrnctl ~~art,icrtlarly propitious becallsc i t appeared ripe for tllc publication of a comprel~crlsivcI)ook, and hocal~sc results of tltc research work carrietl orrl, tlt~ring last trn t.o twcrtt,y t.hc fJlc yrxm ror~nrlctloff trltc wltolc ficld.

xxii

FI,OIII ,\t~llior's t%r.f:~cr I I I C lcirst, (Cit;rnlan)1?tlit,io11

'She book is tlivitlctl i n k four main 1):trts. 'L'hc first, part contair~stwo irltrotluct,ory ch:tpters in which t,l~c fl~ntlamcnli~ls 1)ounclary-layer tl~eory cxpoundctl of arc witlrout, the use of mathematics ant1 then proccccls t o prepare tho matl~ernatical and physical jllstification for the tllcory of lanlinar bortrulary laycrs, and inclutlcs the theory of thormal bor~ndaryIaycrs. The t,llird part is concerned with the pllenomenon of transition from laminar t o t,nrbulent flow (origin of turbulence), arid the fourth pert is devoted t o t n r l ~ u l c n tflows. It is now possible t o take the vicw t h a t the theory of laminar bountlary laycrs is complete in its main outline. Tho physical relations have bcen complctcly clarifictl; the meifhods of catcrtlation have been largely worked out ant1 have, in many cascs, bccn simplified to such a n extent, t h a t they should present no difficulties t o engineers. Jn discussing turbulent flows use has been made e~sent~ially only of t,llc semi-empirical thcorics which derive from Prantit,l'~mixing length. T t is true t h a t according t o present views t.hese theories ~)ossessa number of shortcomings but not,hing superior has so far been tlevised to take their plate, nothing, t h a t is, which is useful to t h e engineer. No accourrt of the slstistical theories of tr~rbr~lcnce has been inclutlcd bccanse they have not yet attainctl a n y pract.ical significance for engineers. As irlt,imat,cd in the t.itle, the emphasis has been lait1 on thc thcorctical treatmcnt of problems. An att,ctnpl, has hccn made t.o hring these consiclcrations into a form whicll can he rasily graspctl by engineers. Only a small n r ~ m l ~ of resrrlts has hccn cr quoted from among t(he vcry volominous oxperimcntal material. They have bccn chosen for their suitability t o give a clear, physical insight. int,o the phenomena and t o provitlc tlircct rcrific:rtion of thc t.lrcory prcsentcd. Some examples have been chosen, namely those a~sociat~ctl with t,url)nlcnt flow, because they constit~ltethe fonntlation of the semi-empirical theory. An attempt, was made t o tlcmonstrat,e t h a t esscnt.ial progress is not, ~ n a d c tlrrol~gll n accumr~lation extensivc exprrirnental a of rcsriltn but ratlrer tl~rougha small n r ~ ~ l t b c r fi~ndamentalcxperiment,~ of backed by theoretical consitlerat,ions. Brar~nschweig, October 1050 IIermanrl Schlichting

Introduction
Towards the end of the 19th ccntury t,he scicncc of fluid mechanics began $0 dcvclop in two tlircctions wlticlr had pmct,ically no points in common. On t,hc onc side therc was tile science of theoretical hydrody~tamicswhich was evolvctl from Euler's equations of motion for a frictionless, non-viscous fluid and which achieved a high degree of completeness. Since, however, t h e results of this so-called classical science of hydrodynamics stood in glaring contradiction t o experimental results - in particular a s regards the very important problem of pressure losses in pipcs and channels, a s well as with regard t o the drag of a body which moves t,hrongIt a mass of fluid - i t had litt,lc practical importance. For this rcason, practical cngincers, prok~lcmsarising from the rnpicl prompted by tlic need t o solve the i ~ n p o r t ~ a n t progress in t,echnology, developed their own highly empirical scicrrce of hydraulic^. The scicncc of hydranlics was basecl on a large number of cxpcrinlent~nltlal,a :~ntl difl'ercd greatly in its mct,lrods ant1 in its objccts from the scicncc of t.llcorct,icnl hydrodynamics. A t the beginning of the present cent.ury L. Prandtl clisti~lguishedhimself by showing how t o unify these two divergent I)ranchcs of fluitl dynamics. H e achieved a high degree of correlation between theory and experiment and paved t h e way t o the remarkably successful development of fluid mechanics which has taken place over tlhe past sevent,y years. It had bcen realized even bcfore l'randtl t h a t the discrepancies between t,he results of classical hydrodynamics and experiment. were, in very many cases, due t o the fact t h a t the theory neglected fluid friclio?~. Moreover, the complete equations of motion for flows with friction (the Navier-Stolres equations) ha.d been known for a long time. However, owing t o t h e great mathematical difficulties connect,ed ~vit,ll the solution of t,llcse equatio~ls(with t h e exception of : L small 11uniber of particular cascs), tho way t o a thcorct,icnl treatment of viscous fluid motion was barred. Furthermore, in the case of the two most important flrlids, 11:~mclywater ant1 air, the viscosity is vcry small and, conseqnerttly, tho forccs due t o viscous friction are, generally speaking, very small compared with t h e remaining forces (gravity and pressure forces). F o r this reason i t was very difficrilt to comprehend t h a t t , l ~ frictional forces omitted from t h c classical theory influenced e thc motion of a fluitl t o so large a n extent. I n a pzpcr on "Fluid Motion with Very Small Friction", read bcfore the Mathcmatica.1 Congress in IIeidelberg in 1004, I,. Prandt,lt showed how i't was possible tJo analyze viscous flows precisely in cascs wlrich had great pmctica.1 importance. Wit,h

Abl~antllnngc~~ rur

II. Schlicl~ling II. and

U6rtlcr. r o l I1 p p ' 1 5 - 5 8 4 .

t h e aid of t,hcorctical corlsidcmt~iotis anti scvcrnl sinrplc oxperimenk, ho provcd t h a t the flow about n solid botly can be dividod into two regions: a very t,llitr lnycr in t,lre neighbourhood of t.11~ body (ho~~r~(la.r?j whcrc friction plays a n essetitinl part, lu.?/cr) and 1,hc remaining region ont.siclc this laycr, where frict,iorl may be ncglcctcd. On tho basis of Lliis Ilypot,l~esisI'mntlt,l sl~ccccdctlin giving a physically pcnrttrat,ing nxl)lnnattion of tlrt: i~ill)ort,n.rrcc viscous flows, achicvitrg a t t*lro of samc titnc n tnxxiinit~n tlegrcc of simplification of tllc attcntlant rnat,ltemntical rliffic~ilties.The t,heorct,ical considerations werc even tJ~cti snpport,cd l)y simplc cxpcrimcntn pcrformc:d in a small water t,onncl whiall Prn.ridL1 built, wit,h his own Ilatids. I l c thus tmok the first step towards a ro~ttiification tl~cory of and pmcticc. This boundary-layer tilcory provctl cxtrcmely frl~it~ful that, i t provitlcd an cKcctive tool for t h e tlevelopmcnt of flnicl in tlynamic~s. Since t h e 1)rgitinirlg of t.ha cnrrcnt century the new theory has been tlcvcloprcl a t n very fast r:lta lrntlcr t,llc atl(lit.ionnl st,im~tlris ol~taincdfrom t,hc reccrrtly fo~lntletl science of aerodynamics. I n a vcry short time i t hecame one of thc fo~~tldat,ion st.onrs of motlern Ilnid clynamics t,ogct,hcr with thct other very inlportant tlevclopment,s -- t . 1 1 ~acrofoil theory nncl thc sciencc of gas dynamics. In more recent t,iliics a goorl (leal of at,t,ent,ion has been devotctl to st,udies of t h e mntlirtnat,irnl just.ification of bounrlary-layer theory. According t o tllcse, hollndarylayer theory provitlcs us wit,h a first approximattion in the framework of a more general t,hcory designed t,o ca1culat.e n,sympt,ot,ic expansions of t,he solutions t o t h e coml)let,e equat,ions of motion. The l ~ r o l ~ l c ~ retlucetl t o it so-called singular perturis n bation which is then solvctl I)y t.hc mct.liod of nrat,cIrcd asymptotic expnnsions. I3ountlary-layer t.hrory t,hus providcs 11s wit,it n cIassic example of the npplication of the met,liotl or s i n g ~ ~ l a r ~)crt,rtrbnt,ion.A general presentation of pert~urbatiori rnct,horls in flnid mechanics was prepared by M. Van Dykt:t. The basis of these rnat,hotls can Ile Itraced t.o 1,. J'raritlt.I's early cot~t~ribut~ions. 'I'lic 1)onntlar.y-layer tlicory finds its applicat,ion in the ~nlcnlxt~ion t,ha skinof friction d m g wllic:h act.s on a body as i t is moved t,hronglr a fluitl: for example t h e rlr:lg cxl)cricncctl a flat p1n.t~ at,xcro itrcitlcnce, t,Ile t1m.g of a ship, of an aeroplane wing, aircraft, t ~ a c r l l ror t,rrrl)ineI)latlc. 13o1111dnry-layer , flow 11:~s peculiar property t,I~c t.ll:tt, i~ntlorccrt.airl conditions t,lle flow in t,lte imnictliat,c ncighbonrhood of a solid laycr t o separate from it,. 1111isis accomwall 1)ccomcs rcvcrsed causing the I~ountlary pnnirtl I,y a morc or lrss prorlourlcctl fonnat,ion of edtlics in tJlc wake of t,hc body. 'J'1111s t.hc prcssnrc (listrih~lt.ionis rltatigcd and differs marlrctlly from t h a t in a frict.iool(\ss strcnm. ?'hc tleviat.ion in prcssurc tlist,ribut,ion from t h e ideal is t h e carise of form drag, ant1 its cnicttlat.ion is t1111.smade possible wit11 the aid of bouriclarylaycr t.lloory. 13ortntlary-ln,ycr t,heory gives a n answer t,o t,he vcry i r n p ~ r t ~ a question nt of' w11n.t shape ~ n n s ta hotly t ~ o , given in orclrr t o avoid t.llis dct.rin~arit~nl scpn.ration. St.pnr:rt.ion c*n.nalso oc.c:ltr i t 1 l.llc i~lt.crt~:tl t.hrorrg11 R (:11nntrcI ant1 is trot, confitlet1 flow t o rst,rrtrnl Ilows past solitl 0otlic:s. I'rol~lrms conrrcct,crl wit11 t . 1 1 ~ How of fluids t.hroilg11 t,hc clrmrncls f(>rnrctl I)y t.hc I)lntlcs of t,urhomachines (rot.ary compressors ant1 t,rlrl)inos)ran also he 1,rrntrtl wit,ll tho n.itl of 11ourrtl:~ry-ln.ycr t,Jlcory. I'r~rt.llcr~nore, ~~llc~lonrcrla wllic:l~ occur at, t,llc point of rnn.xirnnm jift, of nn acrofoil and wllicll arc assoc.int,c:tl wit,ll s t . : ~ l l i t l (:;I.II1)c 11ntlcrst.oot1 only on tJlr 11n.sis of I)on~rtlary-layer ~

theory. I~irlally,problrms of llcat transfer I)ctwc-rn n solitl hody ant1 n fluit1 ( p s ) flowing past i L also bclong t o tllc class of problems in wltic41 bo~~t~tl:try-l:~yc.r 1)11c~nom r n n play n dccisivc pnrL. At, first the bo~rritlary-layer tltcory was devclopotl rnn.inly for f.lle c:~so 1:~nlin:lr of flow in a n incon~prcssil)leflltitl, RR in 1.Ilis c:~sc t . 1 1 ~ ~ ) l ) ~ t ~ o ~ n t : t ~ o I o I~j,~)oI.I~t-sis ~it::l.l for shr:~ringst.rrsscs a1rr:ttly cxist.ctl in t.hc form of Sf.oltc.s'x I:\w. ' l ' l ~ i s t,c,l,ir: W:IS sul)scqucntly tlcvclopctl in a 1:trgc 1111rnl)cr rcsonrclt 1):tpcrs :LII(I rt::1(:11vtl s1tt~11 of a stagc of pcrfoct.ion Ieltat a t prcscrtt tltc problcrn of Intninar llow c:1.11111: consitlt~rctl t o lt:lvc hccn solved in its main ol~llinc.1,:llcr the Llrcory w:ls cxl.ot~clt:tl1.0 int:l~rrl(? turl~nlcnt, incornprcssil)lc bountlary layers which are morc irnport,n.nt from ~.II(: poitlt, of vicw of practical applications. I t is true t h a t in tltc cnsc of t ~ t r l ) ~ ~ lflows .0. Iloyc~it xrolds introduced t h e fundamentnlly important conccpt of nppnrcnt, or virt,~tnl t,ltrl)nlent stresses a s far back as 1880. IIowevcr, ttllis conccpt was in it,sc.lf itisr~ffioirnt tso mn.ke tjltc theoretical analysis of turbulent flows possible. Great progress was acllicvecl wit.11 t,he int,rotlnct,ion of I.'randtl's mixinglcrtgt.l~ thcory (1025) which, t,ogol,hrr wit,li systematic cxperimcnt.s, paved the way for the theorcf,ical ttrcntmcrlt of t u r l ) ~ r I c ~ t t flows wit,lt the aid of boundary-ln.yrr t.hcory. llowcvcr, a rational t,lieory of fcllly developc(l turbnlcnt flows is st,ill rroncxist.cnt,, ant1 in vicw of t,lic cxl,rt;rnc conlplexit,y of sltcll flows i t will remain so for a consiilcmhlc time. Onc cannot even IIC ccrtain t h a t science will cvcr be successfnl i n this t,aslr. Tn modern times tho phcrrornena which occur in t h e boundary laycr of R comprcssiblc flow have becomc the subject of int.ensive investignt.ions, t h e impulse having I ~ r c n provided by the rapid incrcasc in tllc spcctl of flight of motlcrn aircmft,. I n atltlit,ion t o a velocity 1)oitntlary laycr srtc:h flows dcvclop a tllcrrnal bonntlnry 1:~ycr nrtcl its cxist~cnccpln,ys :I.!) irnport.arit part in tllc process of heat t,rartsfcr bctwceri the Iluitl and the solitl body past which i t flows. At vcry ltigh Mach numbers, the surface of Lhc solid wall bccornrs heat,etl t o a high t,cmperature owing t o the protl~~ct.iotl frictional heat ("tllcrrnnl of barrirr"). This phenomenon prcscrits a tliffic:nlt analytic problem whose ~ o l ~ t t i o r ~ is irnport.ant in n.ircmft tlcsign ant1 in t,hc ~~ritlcrsl,ar~dit~g motion or sat,cllites. of the

1 Ilc ~)1tenomenon tmnsit,ion from liltninar t o t,orbnlcnt flow wlticl~ ~ I I I I ~ : L I I I B I I of is t.aI for t,he scicnce of fluid tlynamirs was first investigated a t t,hc entl of t l ~ c I0t.11 cellt,nry, naniely by 0. 12eynoltls. I n 3914 1,. 1'm.ndtl cnrrictl olrt, his famous expcrimrnts with sphcrrs ant1 s ~ ~ c c ~ c d c ( I in showing flllat the llow it1 tlrc 1)orcntlnry1:~ycr also I)c car1 either laminar or turbulent and, furthermore, that, tltc problem of separnt,ion, ant1 hence the problcm of the cal~ulat~ion dmg, is govcrnctl by this t,ransit,ion. Y'hcoretiof rat invest,igations into t,he process of t,ransiLion from laminar t o tnrbulcnt flow are t)asctl on t.110 acceptlance of Iteynoltls's 1 1 y ~ ~ o t I 1l,liat t,hc latt,cr oc:curs ns a cono~is sccluc~rcc a n instability dcvclopcd by I,hc 1nminn.r I)onntlary layer. 1'rnntlt.l ittit.int.ctl of his thcorcl.icn.l ir~vestigntiotiof trnnsit*ion in tllc ycar 1921 ; after marly v:rin cflort.~, succcss came in the ycar 1920 wlicn W. Toll~nicn compntrcl theorct,icnlly t,hc crit,ic:aI Reynolds rrutnbor for transit,ion on a flat plate a t zero incidence. Ilowcvrr, nlorc t.lran ten years werc to pass 1)efore l'ollrnictl's t,heory coialtl ho vcr;ficd t,l~rongl~ t.hc vcry careful experin~cnLs performed by 11. 1,. 1)rytlcn ant1 11;s coworltcrs. Tho st,nl)ility tltcory is capablc of taking into account the cKcct of a ni~rnhcr parnmct,ors (pmssurc of gradient,, suction, Mach nr~mlter,transfcr of heat,) on t,mnsition. This theory has found m ~ t i y import.ant applications, among them i n t l ~ c dosign of scrofoils of' very low drag (1arninn.r ncrofoils).

Modc:rn itlvcstigalions in i d ~ cficld of fluitl dynamics in general, a s well as i n t(11c ficld of bouritlary-ln.ycr rcscarch, are characterized by a vcry close relation bc!twcen theory ant1 cxpcrimcrlt,. l'hc most important steps forwards )lave, in most cases, barn t,nltcn as a rcslllt of a smn.li r ~ u m l ~ ofr fi~ndamcnt~a,l c cxpcrimcrlt,~ bacltetl by t,hcorot,icnl considcrat,ions. A rcvicw of tJlc tlcvclopmcnt of bountlary-layer t.lleory wllich st~rcsscs t.11~ rn~rf~nal cross-fcrt.ilizstiorl bctwccn theory and cxpcrirncnt, is cor~tainctlin s r l n.rliclc writt.c.1111y A. l<ctzT. I?or about, twenty years aft,er its inception I)y T I'randtl in 1904 the bonndnry-la.ycr tllcory was being developed , . nln~ostexcll~sivclyin his own institute in Goettingen. One of t h e reasons for this st.nt,c of nffairs nlay well havc been root,ccl in the circum~t~ancc J'randtl's first that, pnbliont,ion on boundary-layer t~l~eory which appeared in 1904 was very dimcult t o understatltl. This period can be said to have ended with I'randtl's Wilbur Wright Meniorial I,ect,~lre"which was dclivcrctl in 1927 a t a meeting of the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1,ontlon. 111later years, roughly since 1930, other research worlters, partricrrlarly thosc in Grent nrit.air1 and in tllo U.S.A., also took a n active pn,rt in its tlevrlopn~cnt.Toclay, the study of boundary-layer t.heory has spread all over thc world; together with ot,hcr branches, it ~ o n s t i t ~ u t e s of t,he most import,ant pillars one of fluid mechanics.

I'art A. F~~ndamental of motior~for a viscol~s laws fluid

Outline of fluid motion with friction

Tho first survey of this I ~ m n c hof science was given by 1 Tollmien in 1931 % ' . in two s l ~ o r t articles in ~ J I Cl l a r ~ ~ l b n c l ~ lSxpcrirncnt,alpl~ysiIr" S11orl~I.vaftcr" dcr : . wartls (1936), Prnrltltl p~~l)lishcd cotnpml~cr~sivc a prcsentnt,ion it1 "Acro(1ytlamic 'J'hcory" ctlitctl I)y W . I?. Durands. lluring t.11~ intcrvcning four tlccndcs tllc volutrle of rescarch into this subject 11asgrown cnorrnonsly$. According t o a review published by 11. I,. Drydcn in 195.5, t,hc rate of publication of papers on boundary-layer theory reached one hundred per a.nn7r.ma t t h a t time. Now, some twenty years later, tliis rate has more than tripled. Lilte several other fields of research, the t,heory of bo~rntlarylayers has reac:hetl a voll~mcwl~ichis so enormous t h a t a n individual scientist., even one worlring in this ficltl, cannot be expcctetl to master all of its specializctl s~ibtlivisions.I t is, tl~rrcforc,right that, the task of describing it in a nlotlcrr~Ilanclboolt has \)ccn cnt.rustcd t,o several authorst. The hist,orical development, of 1)ountlary-layer theory has recentsly been traced by I. Tani*.

Most t.Ileoret.ica1 invcst,igat,iorls in the ficld of fluid tlynamics arc based on the concrpt of a perfect,, i. c. frictlionlcss ant1 i~~comprcssible, fluid. I n t h e motion of s n c l ~ perfect flnitl, two cont,act.ing layers cxpcritrnrc no tnngcntinl forccs (sl~caring a st,rcsses) b l ~ la c t on caclr ot,llcr wit.11 normal forccs (j)rcssums) only. This is cqr~ivalcnt, , t.o s t a l . i ~ ~ g a pcrfc-ct, fluitl olrcrs no inI.crria1 r ~ ~ i s I . a rt~ t a c tl~nf, o ~ cl~angc S I I : I ~ O .'I'IIc in t.l~cory tlcscribing !,IIc mot,ion of a pcrft:cl. Illlit1 is ~ n a t l ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ n vcry: farl y t . i c ~ l tlnvclopctl ant1 supplies in many cases a satisfactory tlcscril;t,ion of real motions, sncll a s e. g. tlie motion of surface waves or tlie formation of liquid jets in air. On the ot.her hand t h e theory of perfect fluids fails completely t o account for the drag of a body. I n this connrxion i t leads t o tllc statement t h a t a I~otlywllich moves uniformly t,llrongh a fluit1 which cxt.ends t,o infinity expcrienccv no drag (tl'Alcmbcrt.'s psmtlox). 'Pliis unacceptable result of thc thcory of a pcrfect Iluid can be traced t o tile fact t,hat. t.l~e inner layers of a real fluitl t,rsrls~nitt,angent,ial as well a s normal stresses, this 1:cirlg also t,l~c case ncar n solitl wall wetted by a fluid. Thesc tangcnt#ialor frict,iorl forccs 111 a rrxl Ilnitl arc conncctctl wit,l~a propertry wllich is callctl t,l~c viscosil?/ of t,I~cl111i(l. IZccairsc of tllc al)scnce of t,angct~t,i:~l forccs, on the 1)oundary bctwccn a perfect llnitl : ~ r ~ ta. solitl wnII Lhcrc cxist,s, in gcnt-r:~I,:I. tlilrrrcncc in rt~l:~l.ivc l t,:~ngrnt.i:il vrloc.it.ics, i. c. t.llcro is slip. On t,hc ot.l~cr II:I.II~~,r(::11 Il~ri(ls in t,110 cxist.cr~(:t~ it~t.trrof lnolccular att,ractions callscs t,hc flnitl t o a d l ~ c r c a solitl wall ant1 t,his gives risc t.o l,o slrraring stmsscs. 1,hc exist,cncc of t:rngonlial (slrcarirrg) sl,rcsst:s nr~tll,l~c condiliols 01 ,to lip II(::I.I.

A. I ~ c ~ z , Wogc r ~ r l t ll ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I IrR~ ~ l~~ .dcrv~lr6lnlltlg~for.~cllllng, Ziolo, A . W C ~ t IiI I I r ~ ZciLschr. VDI 91, (1949)2fi3. . .

" 1,. J'rallrlI,l, Tho gor~crnlion vortiron ill fluirlsofatn.zII viscosit,y (15td1\I1ilbrlr Wright Memorial of

Jfir(llr~, 1!J27).J . Jtoy. Aoro. Soc. 31, 721-741 (1!)27). : (!/. tJlr biljliogr.zl~l~y 11. 780. on : I,. l'r:~t~tll,l, I c 111ecl1a.11irsV ~ R C O I I Sfluiils. Arrocly~~an~ii~ (\I1.I?. I)urat~cl, '~I ol' tl1oory rtl.), \'ol. 3, 34 208, l%crIin,1935. 6 11. S1:l1lirh~ing. So111etlrvcloprncn(.sof I~oundnry-layer rcsearci~in the past t,hirty years (The 'l.l~irll L ~ t l c l ~ r ~ l c r Met~lorin.lJ,rcture, I!)T1!)). J . ]toy. Aero. Soc. 64, 03- 80 (l%U). Srr nl?lo: 11. Srlilicl~l Rccrrtt progress in hor~ndn.ry-lnycr ing, rcse:,rch (The 37Lli Wright. Brothers I I I ~ I 1~t 1 1 r 1 ,! 7 ) \ : I . J t t i r i : ~ l 1 427 440 (1!)74). * I . 'I':\t~i. Ilislory of I~o~~r~rlnry-lilyor rmrnrc.11.A n ~ ~ r i Itrv. rrf I z l l ~ i r IMet*hnnirs 87- 11t (1077). nl 9,
-

solitl walls cor~st.itut,e the essential tliffcrcriccs bcl,wccn a perfect and a real fltritl. Cert,ain fluids urlrich arc of great, practicn.l imporl,n~lce, r ~ c as water ant1 air, havc s l~ vcry smnll coefficients of viscosity. I n many instsr~ccs. l ~ c t mottion of s11c11llvcid.~ ol sn~nll viscosity a.grccs vcry well wit.11 t,llat of a pnrfcct Iltritl, bccausc in most cases tile shearing stressc?~ vcry small. For this reason t,hc cxist,cncc of viscosit,y is corrlplctcly arc nrglcct.ed in l,hc t,heory of perfect fluids, ma.inly bcca.11set,llis irltrodnccs a far-reacl~ing ' ext.cnsivc niathesimplificatiott of tllc equations of mot,ion, a s a result of ~naticalt,I~coryI~ecomcspossil~lc.Tt, is, I ~ o ~ v c v ci l m fact t,Ilnt, r ,sp ss the & ,

even in fluitls wit,lt vcry srnall viscosit,ics, unliltc in 1)crfc:ct. fluiels, t.lrc rontlit.iorl of no slip near n, solill I~orlndaryprevails. 'l'l~isc:ot~dil~iorr rlo slip int,rotlrrros in many of (::~sos very I;rrgc tlisc:rcl)arrcics in t,lrc laws of ~noLiorlof perfect an(\ ronl fluitls. 111pnrt.iclrlar, tllc vcry largc tliscrcpnl~cjrI)ctwcc~r Llro valr~o drag it1 a rral ant1 a pnrkct, of' Iltti(1 Ir:rs its 1~lrysit:nlorigin in t,lrc contlil,ion o f no slip nc,:lr :L wall. 'I'lris 11oolct1r:rls wil,lr 1.Irc rnot,ior~ l l r l i t l s of'sm:~II of visrosil,y, I)(-r:~rrsr t.lrc grc:~L of I ~ : ~ c t , i citnport.ance of' tllc problcln. 1)nrirtg 1,llc cotlrsc of tlrc st2rrtlyi t will l~cconlc al clear how this p:trt,ly consistent arltl p:r,rt.ly tlivcrgcnt I)cl~aviour pcrfrct ant1 real of fltritls can l)c cxpl:tinotl.

n propertry of tho fluid and depcntls t o n great exl.t!nt on it,s t r m pcrnt,rlrc. It is n rnoasrrro of tlro i)i.~co.vit~y irI1o Il~ii(l. OF '1'11~ I:LW of' fri(:tior~givrtr by ccltr. ( I .2) is Iznow~r:LS Nrlidotc's 1rr.v~of frictio~t.ICqn. (1.2) cntl bc rrg:rrel(vl :~.s t,llc c1rlinil.iotr of visc:osit.jy. It. is, Ilowevcr, ncc:cssary t o st.ross tflrnt tlrc cxnrnplc cot~sicl(:rc:d irr I'ig. 1.1 (:o~rstitrrt.rs p : ~ r t , i ~ ~ ~ lsinrplc case of flttitl ~not,ion. gnn(~r:lliz:~l,it,r~ :L arly A of this si111111(~ is cotrt~:r.in~:~ISt,olc(:s's I:I\v of frict,ion (cf. (!II:L~.I I ) . 'lq1t(* (1it11c~11sic)ns e:rs(: in I o f visrosi1,y c:all IIC tlotlrrc:c:tl wit,hol~t, diFlicrrll.y from cqn. (1.2)-I-.'1'110 sl~c:nritrgs1,rc~ss is ~ncnsurcdin N/m2 =I J'n nrld tltc vcloc:it,y grr~tlicnt~ tlu/tl?y in ~ o I .c l I ( s ~ r ( ~ ( *

Tlrr rlunntit.y p is

h. Viscosity

'I'II~: I I : L ~ , I I ~ of' v i ~ r o s i t ~ y 11cst I)c visr~nlizcdwith tire nit1 of t,ltc following cxC can l~rrin~nrrt,: Consit1c:r t l ~ c n o t ~ i o n a fltritl l)cl,\vccrt two vrry long pn.rallnl ~)latcs, ~ of one of wlrinlr is at, rrst, tflrc otlrer moving wit,l~ constant velocitry pnrallcl t,o it.self, a s n, sl~o\r,rr Fig. 1 . l . 1,ct t,lro clist.arlcohctwcc~r plates bc h,, tlrc prrssnre l)cing const,nrrt in Olrc

wlrcro tlrc sqlrarc 1~r;~(:Icct~s I I S C ( ~ t,o (lcrrol,~ arc 111ri1.s. '1'11~ :rl)ov~ not. 1,Irc: o ~ ~ l or, is y even the most, witlcly, employctl rlnit of viscosit,y. l'ril~lc? . I lists t,ho vnriorrs trnit,s 1 togctlrcr wit,lr their conversion factors.
.15qn. (1.2) is rcl:rt.ctl t.o IIooltc's law for all csl:ist,ic: solicl I)otly in wl~ic:l~ t,lrc rasc: shearing sCrcss is proport,ional t o tho strain

Icig. I. I. \'rIol~it~yl i s l , r i l > ~ ~ t~. iI oI ~ ~ r :b viscorrn l l r ~ i t ll)c*t~vrrn p;~rallrl I.rve) Ilrrt \vnlls (Co~lrt.t.c flolv)

I l r r c ( tlenotes lhe n~oclnlusof shear, y the clrangc in anglc bct.vrrc.cn tfwo linrs : wlriclt were origirrnlly nt right arlglcs, nntl 6 tlcnotcs tlrc clisplr~ccrncnt, (.Ire tlircc:t.ion in of a1)scissae. Wllcrcas in tlrc cnsc of a n elastic solitl tlrn s1rc:aring s1,rcss is 1)rol)orl.ional t,o the n~ngniturleof the strain,, y , expcricnrc tcaclrcs tlrnt in t l ~ c case of fluitls it is proport,ionnl t.o tllc vale of chnnrlc. of strrr.in tly/tll. If' we prrt

we s1r;~llol)tain, as bcforr,
t

' fl

a11

?I!/

In ortlnr 1.0 s ~ r p p o r tt,lre motmionit is necessary 1.0 apply a I~n~~gcnt,ial t,o t,lrn forcn ttl)prr l)lnf,o, tlro li)rcc 1)eirrg in cc~t~ilibriurn with tlrc f'ri~t~ional forces in t,lrc flrritl. It, is Itnonw from expnrirnont,~ llrnt t,ltis forcc (t.a.l~cn per unit a r m of t,lrc plal,c) is ~)rol)ort.inn:r,I t,hc vc?loc:it,y 1J of tlrc 11l11)er to plat.c, ant1 invcrsrly proport,ion:~l to l h c tlist,:r.trrc~ 'l'llc l'ricl.ion:ll forcc por r~rrit, h. area, tlcnotctl by t (Srict.ional slrcaring sl,rc~ss) t,licreCore, proj)ort.ionnl 1.0 lJ/h, for wlricl~ general we may als? ssulist.itpr~t,c is, ill tlii/tl?/. 'l'ltc: 1)r01)01.t~iotr:rIil.y fnr:l.or I)ct,wcnn t ant1 d71 tly, wlriclr we sllall d c ~ ~ o tI)y , ~ i , ,c tl(:~~ur(Is tho rralfrlrc: of 1.110 ll~ri(l. is srna.ll for. " l , l ~ i r i " fltti(ls, st~clr ival.cr or or1 11, nk :~l(:olrol, ~ t r t I 1:~rgn t,hc case of vcry visco~ls in liql~itls, srtclt a s oil or glyccrinc. 'I'l~lrs t,llc ftl~rtl:rrncnt,alrclnt,ion for flllitl frict.ion i t r t,lte form wc 1r;tvc ol)t,:~inctl

bccal~sc5 = XI. Jlo\vcvcr, t.llis analogy is not, complcf.c, I~ccarlsc t,lrc: st,rc:ssas in :r flt~itltlepcntl on one corrst,atrt., t,lrc viscosit.y ti, \vlrc~rc-:istlrosn i r r :tn isot,rol~ic csI:~sLic: solicl tlnpcntl on two.

du ~ I Y.

>

(1.2)

\Vc sllnll ro~~si.sl.c~~t.lyl l l.l~in I)oolc l.hc grnvil:ll.iri~~:il c'~~gi~lr:cril~g of r ~ ~ ~ ii ltl s : IISC i or sys1c111 ncrord:l~tcowit11 i~ltc:rt~n(io~~nl ngrccrncnt. t.l~c Y I I I I ~ I k1) :11111 I1)C \vill I),: rrst:(l 1 0 ~ ~ ( ~ I ~ J IIP. ~ : R ~ Io rcsj~ectivcrt~titso f lorre; t.lte corrcspor~tli~rg of n~a.rs Ijc tlr.l~ot,rtl t.lrr nl~lircvi;it.ions ~~ttiLs will I,y kg n n t l Ib rrspoct,ivrly. I n some tnhlcs, tllc tnlit~ \\.ill bc tl~osc? 1110 SI S J . R ~ ( ~ I I I . of

I. Ont,line of fluid lnotion wit11 friction


Table 1.l.
n.

c. Compressibility

Visco~ity conversioti factors Aljsol~lteviscosity / I

I
kp ~ e c / m ~ kp hr/ltlZ I'n see kg/m hr J Ibf sec/ft2 Ihf lir/ft2 Ilj/ft scc kg/m hr 3.5316 x 10' 127.1 x log 1 0.1724 x 10" 620.8 x 106 5.358 x 10"

kp scc/mZ 1 3,600 1.0197 x 2.8325 x 4.8824 1.7577 x 1.5175 x

I
/

kp 1ir/m2 2.7778 x 1 2.8325 x 7.8682 x 1.3502 x 4-8824 4.2153 x 10-4 10-5 10-8 10-3 10-5

Pn see 9.8067 3.5404 1 2.7778 4,7880 1.7237 1,4882

x 104

lo-' 1W5

x 10-4

10" 10-I

x 10' x 10"

Numerical values: 111t,lre case of liqnicts t h e v i ~ c o s i t ~/y , is nearly indcpct~clent, t of pressurc a n d tlccreascs a t a high raLc with increasing tcml)crat,urc. 111 tlic case of gascs, t o n first npproximat,iorl, t,hc v i ~ c o s i t ~cnrl b e tnlzcr~t o b e intlcpcntlcnt of y prcmitrc 1)11t,i t irlrrcnscs wil,l~ l,crnllcr:~,l,r~rc. 'I'Iio Itinc?~nal,ic? i ~ c o s i l , ~, , for litll~itl.q v 11 has t,llc s:l,nlt? t.ypc of t,ctnl~er:at.ilro tloj)o~~tlct~c:o/ r , I)ct.n.ttso Oltr tlottsit,y, 0,( - l ~ ~ i t ~ ~ r s as oltly ~ l i g l r t l ywith t c n ~ p o m l , ~ l rIlowcvcr, ill t,ho c a w of gn.scs, for w h i c l ~C, tlcc:ro:~..qc~ c, consitlcrsbly with incrc:~silig tc1npcr:~1,11rc,11 i ~ ~ e r c a s c s r:t.pitlly willit (,cmpcmt.urc. Table 1.2 contains s o m e numerical values of Q, p ant1 v for water a n d air. T a b l e 1.3 contains some additional lisefi~lclat,a.

l'ahle 1.3. ibf 11r/rt~ 5.6893 x 2.0482 x lo-' 5.8015 X lo-'' x 10-8 2.7778 x 1 8.6336 x 10-a

I<inc~nat.ic viscosity Trltipcrnt.nre


1,

] I d sec/fL2

Ib/ft see Liquid 6.5808 2,3723 6.7197 1+3666 3.2174 1.1583 1

x loe
[ m2/el

2.0482 7.3734 2.0885 5.8015 1 3,600 3.1081

x 10-'
x lo2
X

x 10"
X

"C
Glycerine . . . Mercury . . . . Mcrcrtry . . . . 1,nbricnting oil . 1,ubricating oil . J,ubricnt.ing oil .

lo-'

x 10--1-6115

x x 10' x 10"

0. I<incn~nt.ic viscosity v tn21scc m2/sec m2/hr cm2/scc (Stokes) ft2/sec ft2/hr b 1 2.7778 x 1 X lo-" 9.2903 x 2.5806 x 10-5

. . . . . .

tn2/11r

cm2/scc

ftysec

ft2/hr
c. Compressibility

1 x 101 1.0764 x 10' 3,600 2.9900 x 1 2.778 1-0764 x 1 0.36 1 3-3445 X lo2 9 . 2 9 0 3 ~ 1 0 ~ 9.21103 x l o z 2.5800~10 2.7778 x

3.8750 x lo4 1.0764 x 10' 3.8750 3,600 1

Compressibility is a measure of t h e change of volume of a liquitl o r g a s u n d e r t h e action of external forces. I n t h i s connexion we c a n define a moduli~s clnsticily, of R, of volume changc, by t h e equation

viscosity of wnkr utld air in terrns of tolnpcratrlrc e 2 . Dcnnit,y, viscosit.~,nnrl kinc1nnt.i~ Air a t n prensare of 0,099 MPa (14.69G lhf/in2)
-

IIcrc

A V / V o tlcnotcs

t h e rclativc changc in volume br;ougllt a b o u t by n prcssuro in-

Wntcr 'I'cmperntnre
. .

ncnsity e

Viscosity
, Pa 8oc u

"C
-20
-10 0 10 20 .40 60 80 100

kg/m3

1Cincri1nLio Den~it~y Q viscosity v x loe kg/ms r~tz/4ee1


-

Viscosity
'I Pa set

ICinelnatic viscosity l X loe mz/sec 11.2 12.1 13.0 13.9 14.8 17.1 19.2 21.7 24.4

crease Ap. T h c compressibility of liquids is v e r y small :c.g. for w a t e r E = 280,00011)f/in2 which means t,llilt & pressure increase of 1 a t m (14.7 lbf/in2) causes a relativc change : in volume of a b o u t 1/20,000, i.o. 0.006 pcr cent. O t h e r liquids show similar propertics
s o t h a t their compressibility c a n 1x3 neglected in m o s t cases, a n d flows of liquids can bc regarded a s incompressible. J n t h e case of gases, t,t~e modulus of elasticity, E , is e q u a l t o t h e initial pressure

99!3.3 999.3 997.3 991.5 982.6 971.8 959.1

1795 1304 1010 655 474 357 283

1.80 1.30 1.01 0.601 0.482 0.367 0.2!)5

1.39 1.34 , 1.29 1.25 1.21 1.12 1.06 0.99 0.94


,

16.6 16.2 16.8 17.4 17.9 19.1 20.3 21.5 22.9

p,, if t h e changes a r e isothcrmal, a s can easily be deduccd from t h e perfect-gas l a w t For a i r at NTD (st~rnosphcric pressure a n d ice-point t e m p e r a t u r e ) E 14.7 Ibf/in2, which m e a n s t h a t air is a b o u t 20,000 times m o r e compressible t h a n water. Similar

'=

conditions o b t a i n for ot,Iler gascs.

From tlic perfect gas laor it c:ln be tlcdncetl tllnt tlie clialtgc ill vol~ltnc, V, cnusctl tty a cl~nnge A of prcsnnre ilp. sntisfics tlie relatior1 (p,, -1- ;lp) ( Y, C A V) - p, V,. I i o ~ c cl p t - p, A IT/ If,,.

111ortlvr 1,o i~trswrr1,Irc ~ ~ I I C S I ~ ~ofI I\vI~t:i.lrrrit is ncccssiLry 1.0 l.aI<eint,o account O t.lrt?c:otrr~)rt~ssiI)ilit.y nfg:~st,s I 1)rol)lc.m.s f l r l i c l Ilow it is rrccc:ssnry t,o cor~siclcr ~ I of whether I,Irt* t ~ l r : r r ~ i~lcI)rr*ssrll,o l ~s I)rorlgl~t, :LIM)III. I)y 1,Irt: n~ot.iort of'I,lrcgllrtitlcarlse Jargc cllanges i r r v o l ~ ~ n tIt~ r .s l ~ c * of ~eor~sitlt~rir~gI I I I I ~ - S itr is :llso ~)ossiI~Ic e~1~i111~1,echarlgo ~ :~ l VOI to tJrc i r r tlt*t~sil.y, Owilrg 1.0 (.II(. c:otrscrv:tt.io~~ r r r r ~ swo t b ; l r i write: ( V, 0. of ~, /I V) (Po4- = Ae) If,, el,, so t.11:tt. /Ie/.,, --1-A if/ I',,, nlrd ~ Y ~ I I( I, .f,) r:111 be written as

( ~ o n s c ~ t ~ ~ tl.lic~ I ~ I y a g:r.s ~ . : L I I IIC consit1t:rrtl iltaom~,rcssiblc:wlrc?rr tllc relative ~ r Ilow of elrango ~ I Itlrnsity rt:rn:rins very snl:~ll, Ap/e0 1. As know11 from J3erno11lli's otlrtnt.ion p t ?, w Z = i:otlst (irr = . vt:loc:il.y of flow), t l ~ cchange of premure, A p , I)ro~lgIrl, :~l)orlt, t.Ir(: flow is or t,ltc ortlcr of the tlyn:lmic hentl q = 1 p 1112, so t h a t I)? crltt. ( 1 . 6 a ) I)t~t:olrrcs

<

I Ire c l c ~ n o n l . a law of fricLion for a sirrrplc flow wil,lr sllonr tlt:sc~~il)ctl SccLion r~ in I 1) o:tn I)(: ap~)lictlo t,hc ilnl)ortant,. ant1 111orc:general, (:asc of (IOW Ir1rrt>t~g11sl.r:\iglrtl t :L pipe of circular cross-sccl.ion 11aving a corist~ant tlia~nnl.cr ) I 2 R. 'l'lrc vclocil.,~ t a tllc wall is zero, l)eca~rsc atlllrsiort, a t ~ t lrcarl~c:~ tn:txirnl~rnon the axis, I'ig. 1.2. of a Tllc vcloc:iLy remains co~rst,arrt cylintlrical surfaces wlrit:ll arc conccnt.ric wil.11 t,lrc on axis, ant1 1.llc i~ltlivitlnalcylintlricnl i : ~ ~ n i n a o i t l c ~ l ovor tvl.r>ll ol.lior, t.110 vc~lot:il.yl)l.itrg pr~rclyaxinl c:vcrywlrcrc. A rnot,iotl of t,l~is t i t r t l is c:~llt*tl I Irrnri)ttrr. At. :L s~ll'Iic~ir:rrl~ly large (Iist,:trrccfrom t,l~c er~t,r:~r~c;t: si:t:t,iorr l,l~t:vt~locil~~v ~list,ril)r~I~iorr l,l~i:st:t.t ior~ :li:ross l)t:-. cotncs it~tlc~ctltlcnt Llrc coorclirlate :~long1I1c tlirc:c:l,iot~ Ilow. of of

..

cl. Tlre Ilngrn-Poisc~rillee q ~ ~ a t i nof l flow tlirougl~n pipe ~ s

Fig. 1.2. l,:~rni~~nr flo\v t.Iiro~rgll pipe n

If, t.I~t~rc~foro, sllol~ltlI)<: srn:r.Il cornl)am~l /lp/e,, \vil,ll nnitrjr t.lrcn, as seen from cqn. (I .G), wc ~nrtst. :~lso Ilavc q/IC Q I. It Ilas 1.1111s hccn proved t h a t flows of gascs car1 be t,rcat*ed as i r ~ t : o ~ t ~ ~ ~ r o s\\,it11l a , good tlcgrco of approximabiocl, if t.11~ sil~ c clynamic lrratl is stnnll c:orrrp:~rc?tlwit01 ~ J I motlulrrs of cl:~st,icit,y. C

I IIC s:Lrnc rrsrrlt, can Ijc cxprcssctl irr a cliffcrcnt way if the velocit,y of sound is itll.rotlrtc:c~rl ittl,o t,l~a ttqrrat,ion. Accortlilrg t,o 1,aplacc's ccjrl:~t.ior~ velocity of sollrrd 1.11~ is c2 = K/c),,. llt\trrc t.hc c:orrtlit.ion Ae/pO Q 1 from c:qtr. (1.6) can also be written
7

J Ilc ratio of1.11t:vt:locit,y of flnw, 70, t,o 1.hc vcloc:ity of sonl~tl, is lcntrw~l the Mach c, as nr~rnhcr
7

?')re fluid moves under t,11e i l l f \ l ~ ~of l t,l~c l ~ ~ pressure grntliont w11ic:lr act,s in till: directiorl of t,hc axis, w h c r c . ~ scctions whicl~ in are perpondicrllar 1.0 it tlrc prcsstlro may be rcgnrded a s constant. Owing t o friction intlivitlual laycrs act on caoli ot.lrcr witll a shcaring strcss which is proportional t o the vclocit,y gmdicnL (17~/i1?/. lIctloe, a fluid particle is accclcrated by thc pressure gratlicnt anti rclardcd by t h c frictional shearing st,ress. No additional forces arc present, and i r ~ part,icular inertia forccs arc absent, because along every streamline the vclocity remains constant. I n ortlcr t o establish t h e condition of equilibrium wc consider a coaxial fluid cylinder of Jcngt01 1 and radius y, Fig. 1.2. l'he condition of equilibrirlm in t,hc x-djrccl,ion rcqrlirt:~tllat t h e presslire force (pi-p,) n y2 acting on the facrs of t,l~c cylinclcr Oe r.q~l;\l t . 1 1 ~ t.o shear 2 n ?J l . t acting on t,he circ~rnlfcrcnt~i:d area, w l ~ r n r owe olrllain

,I ,IIC ~)r(-rctlingr g ~ ~ r r l cIeatls 1,othe cor1c:lnsion (.hat compressibility car1 bc ncglcetctl a nt~
it1

I,hc l.rt~:~l.rnt:~~l~ flow of gascs if of t,llc

l n accortlancc with the law of fricLion, cqtl. (1.2), we Iravc: i r ~t21re prrscnt case (1.a)

: M2 < 1 <

(approximately itlcornprcssiblc),

i . a. if 1.lrr hlacli ri~rrnl)cr stn;rll comparctl wit,ll is or, in otlrcr wortls, if t,ho flow vt:locil,y is srnall t:ornl)amtl with t l ~ c velocity of sol~ntl.I n t,hc case of air, wit,lr a vrlori1,y of sollntl o f a l ) o r ~c .=. 1100 ft,/scc, tho cllangr irr dcnsit.y is Ap/eo t 1 M2 = - 0.05 for n flow vi.loc:il.y lo --- :!:jO ftilscc. 'rl~js value can be acccpt,rtl as 1,hc orlt,sitlo litnitt wl~t:rr a g:r.srorls flow car1 I)c cotlsidorcrl int:omprcssil)lc.

I t 1 \vl1:1.t, li,llows \v(: slrall ofi,t:t~ assume tthc flr~itlt o I)c incotnprcssil)le, wllicll will rcsl,ric-1, t,l~orcs111t.sL small h l : ~ c l ~ o rulr11l)crs. Ilowcvcr. or1 sevcml occasions, ir~ p:trl it:~~l:irr ( ; I I : I , ~ ~ .X I I , X 1 I I , : t t l t I S S I I 1, onr rrsttI1,s will l)c rxt,ct~tlrcio ir~cl~r(Ic it t c~orr~prc~ssil~l~: Ilrlitls.

'J'lrr const.nn1.of i~rt.cjim.l,inn, is obt.ai11ctl from 1 . 1 1 ~ C, rontlit.iorr of l'hlts 7, - O a t ?I - It, st, t.liat (: r= 112/4, nntl finnlly .

IIO

slip a,(.111t- \v:~ll.

1. Orrl.li~rr: firtit1 motion with rrirtiotr of

e. Iprinciple of ~irnilarit~; Roynolda and Much nurnbern the

13

ILln. (1.1 I ) s t n t ~ s h i ~ t t tbc vo1111ncr;.tc of flow is propnrtiounl to tllc first Ix)wcr the 1)r""Urc (1'0p ppr onit lrngth (pl-p2)/l irnd t o 1.11.: fo~trt,ll powor of tllc ra(jills of the pipe. Lf the mran vclooity over tho cross-scctioa li = 112 is intrr)~llllsrl, eqn. (1.1 1) can bc rrwrittcn ns

"qn ( 1 - 1 1) call ~t,ili~(:(:"t l t ~ 6'. cxperimcnt.nl d c t e r n ~ j n a ' i o i ) f ~ J I C ~ viSCmit,y, Illc n.:l,llo(l corl~isl*in thc mCanarel?~cnt tllc rat,c of flow ilnd of t,llc pressurn (jmp of across a fixell portion of ~1cn(~ill:lryt ~ t b c know11 m l t u r . Thus cIlollg~l of dnt,a rite providrcl t.o dctcrtninc 11 from ecrn. 1 I .11). . (1.10) and (1.1 I ) apply exists i n reality only for --, T ~ Itype of flow to'wlrich cqns. : rclativcly small radii arid flow v~locit~ics. larger vclorities and radii t h e character For of tho mol.iorl changes complctcly: tlrc prcssurc drop ceases t o bc proportional t o t,hc first powcr of thc rncan volocit,y as inrlicstctl by eqlt. (1.12), but becomes approxiacross mately proportionnl t o the second power of zc. The velocity distrib~lt~ion a secbiori hccolncs much more ur~iforln and t.hc well-ordered laminar ]notion is replaced h y a flow in which irregular and fluctuat,ing rarlial and axial velocity compor~cntsarc supcritnposcd on tltc main mot,ion, so t h a t , consequently, irlt,cr)sivc ntixing in a radial djrcction takes placc. I n such cases Newton's law of frict.iorl, eqn. (1.2), ceases t o I)e applicable. This is the case of lzdrbtcle?tt flow, t o l)c tliscnsscd in great cl(:t,ail latcr in C l ~ a p . XX.
v
3
\

,;.

I n the present section we shall endeavour t o answcr a very fundamcntol qllcstiorl, ~ l a m c l ythat, conrcrnrd wibh the contlitions under which flows of diffcrcnt fluids about two gcomct,ricellg similar bodics, and with identical initial How clircct,ions ~lisl,litygcomnt,rically nitnilar strc!atnlincs. Such mol.iorrs which lravc gconrot,rirnlly si~nilarstrrcarnlincs arc cnllctl tb?y,atrm.icttbl?y sirnilrr.r, or .qimilnr /10111~9.Jpor t w o Ilowa nl)ont, grotrrotrici~llyaitnili~r1)otIic~a y . irbont two s ~ ~ l t o r c a ) (!:. wi1.h ~lill'(:~.(:tt(. r i ~ ( I l la, clilli~rclltvcloc:itics r~rltl tiillkrcni;- .iincirr tlirncrtsior~s,t,o bo ~irnilar,it,, is cvidcnLly .... . . Ilccessary i h a t t h e f o..I o ~ v ~ ~ ~ g ~ q ! ~ ~ ~ t ,satislic(l ;.st ?ll.gc,~-me_tr,~~~!y l shoulcl be i ~ n sirni,l.r POillt$ thC . .- . .. acting on a flrtitl psrt.iclc niust !car a fixccl ~ t i o - lcvcry instatlt t . f6FCCS . . df t.iii16, \Vc sItaIl now cdnsicter the irn~~ort,nrrt casc whcn only f'rict,ional and inert,ia forcrs are present,. IClaslic forces wl~iclimay bc d u c t o clrangcs in volrnnc will 1)c cxcllltlcd, i. c. i t will bc assrlmcd t h a t t.hc fluid is incompressible. Gmvit:r.t.iot~:ll forces will also be cxcludccl so th:~t, conscqucntly, frcc surfaces are not adtnittctl, anti in the interior of thc fluid t h e forcc of gravity is assumed t o be bal:~r~cccl 1)y buoyancy. Undcr thcsc nssnmptions the condit,ion of similarity is satisficcl only if a t all points the ratio of incrtia arlcl friction forccs is tlrc satnc. 111 a motlion pnrallel t o t.he x-axis t h c inertia force pcr unit volr~me has t h e magnit,urlc of g l)lr/l)l, whcrc u tlcnotcs tlrc componctlt of vclocity in Olrc x-(1irct:tiorr and I)/1)1 clcnot,cs the sribstantivc dcrivativc. 111tho casc of stcady flow wc can replace it b y e aslax - (lx/,It = e v al~lax,where alllax clcnotcs t,hc r:hangc in vc1ocit.y with position. 'I111us the incrtia forcc per unit, volumc is c q u i ~ l C, u aulax. J'or 1.11~ tjo friction force i t is easy t o deduce a n cxprcssion from Newton's law of friction, cqn. (1.2). Considering a flllid pnrt,iclc for which tho x-direction coinci(1es with t h c rlircct.ion of motion, Fig. 1.3, i t is found t h a t t h e resultant of shcaring forccs is equal t,o = -a~ x d y d ~ . d Hence t h e friction force per unit volumc is equal t o atlay, or by eqn. (1.2), t o p a2u/ay2. Consequently, t h e condition of similarity, i. e. t h e condition t h a t a t all corresponding points t h e ratio of t h e inertia t o t h e friction force must be constant, can be written a s : Inertin fxcc L ! =,on, t . Friction force p a2u/aya
2

a~

1. .

I'rinciplc of si~nilarity;the Reyr~olds

Mac11 n ~ ~ m b c r s

Fig, 1.3. Frictional forces acting on,a flrlid particle

Tltc t y p r of ilui(l n ~ o t ~ i o ~ i cliscussn:(l in thoI preenling Scct,ion w r . very simple b c n a s c evcry flrricl part,icle ninvccl iltr(lcr the irifl~tcnecof friotior~aland pressure S r c a s orrl.y, incrtia b r c r s laing cvcrywl~cre q ~ l riln zero. 111a divergent or convergent c (:hn~trt~(:l fl11i11 ~):~,rticlm n.rt,ocl u1)ort by inert.ia forces in atlclif.io11 t o pressure and arc frirtiorr forrrs.

I t is now necessary t o investigate how these forces are changed when t h e magnitudes which determine t h e flow arc varied. The latter includc t h e density e, t h e viscosit,y p, a representative velocity, e. g. t h e frcc stream velocity V , a n d a characteristic linear dimension of the body, c. g. the diamct,cr d of the sphcrc.

Tlte vcloc+il I L a t some point i11 tlrc velocit,y field is proportionnl t o t.110 free y strrnln velocity IT, l,hc vcloci0y gratlictlt au/ar is proportional 1.0 Vld, ant1 similarly a 2 t r / ~ yis proporlior~alt o V/d2. Ilcricc the ratio 2

1Sq1tat~ing l.Ile cxponen1.s or L, T, and F on hot,li sitlcs of t,llc cxprcssio~rwc ol>t:lin three crqna(.ions: F : )I -40: 0, :

?'herefore, t,llc condil.ion of ~irnilarit~ysat,isfictl if tlie q l ~ a n t i l ~ yV d / p f ~ nthe same is p s flows. The qo:~ntityp V d / / i , wllicll, wit11 11.1~ v , can also 11c wriOt,cn = value in bol,l~ ns V d/11, is a tlimcnsiotlloss ~lnrnl)cr \>cen.tlsci t is t.11~ mt.io of t,l~c t,wo forces. I t is known a s t.110 Ilayitnk1.c ~slr.?t~bar, Tlir~st,wo flo\vs arc similar when t,I~c R. l<t:ynoltls nlltrl her

J.liis sl~o\vs I I I there cxisl,s :L ~ t n i q t l i ~c e ~ ~ s i o r ~ l c s s , ~ L~ ~~ n ct)tnI)it~al,ioti of tics V , d , p ant1 /L, nnmoly t,lte Itcyrtolds n l ~ m b c r R.

t,l~t:

I'ont.

(111:1,1tti-

R=

I'd - I'd~ -. I' v

(1.13)

is c ( l ~ ~ a l hoth. This principle was f rst r n u n c i a t ~ t lby Osbornc Reynolds [I 21 for in ronncxion with his iuvrstigations into the flow through pipes and is known a s Rryr~olcls'sprinciple of sin~ilarity. 'rhr fact t.hat the Rcynol(ls nr~lttlit-ris tlimrnsiorllrss ran \)e a t o n r r verified clirrrlly l)y consitlrril~gt,hr climrnsiorls

e Vd - !C : r --.b2
11

.
f t h v c

.f t . -

rtg

=1

lbf sec

wliich proves t l ~ a ttlic Reynolcls number is, i n fact, cbncnsionless.

Mrtl~oclo f indiccs: Instsntl of tlte corisitlorat.ion of t,hc cotldition of dynamic sitnil:~rit~y, Reynolds's prit~c:il)lccan also bc tlctl~~ccd cnnsitlcring dimcnsioris hy by t.hc tnctllod of intliccs. .In tltis oonncxion ilse is made of t h e observation tellat,all physical laws must be of a for111which is ititlcpcntlcnt of t h e particular syst,erri of ~ l n i t scmplo,yetl. J n t,l~ccase ~rntlrr corlsitlerat.ion I,lle pltysicrtl clunnt,it,ics wllich clel,er~nir~r flow :me: t h e free st.rcam vc:locit,y, V, a rt?prescnt,at,ivo1inra.r tlimc>nthe sion of t.l~chotly, (1. a s wt~llns thc densitmy, and tlic viscosily, IL. e, no\v a.slc whcl.llrr t.l~crecxis1.s a rornl)itl:l.l.ion of t,l~rsc q~~attt,it,ir.s t , l ~ c in form

Din~ctlsint~lcss quaatities: 'I'hn rcasolring followctl in tllo precetlitlg drl.iv:~fitin of the Rcynoltls nulnher can be e ~ t ~ c n t l e o inclndc tlte casc of d i f f c r e ~ ~ t td Itrynolrls numbers in the consitlerat,ion of tlle velocit,y ficltl ant1 forccs (normn.l :~ntl tangont.i:rl) for flows wiLh geornetrica.lly sitnilar bot~nc~arics. ttlr position of :L point in (.lie Let space around t h e gcomctricnlly similar botlics bc intlica1,ctl by tllc coortlin:tI.c~s !/, 1, z; t~llentho rat,ios z/ti, yltl, z/tl arc its tlitncjlsiotlless coortlirt:~l,cs.rl'l~c vc~loc:il.y t:olttponcr~t,s arc lnatlc climensionloss by reli!rriog tllern t o the free-stream vc*loc:il,y V , thus 711 V, 111 V, w / V, and l l ~ ltorrnal and sltcarirlg strosscs, p :~ritl , cart bo mn.clcr tlirnct~c t sionlcss I)y reforring thorn t,o Lllc tlorlbfc of t,llc tlyrtatnic lieatl, i. e. t o p V Zt.hus: p/p 1'" ant1 t / p V2. Tlre previously cn~~nciat,c~d principle of dynnmical sitnilarit,y can I)c c~x1)rt~sset1 in :Ln alternative form by asscr1.ing t,llat for tile two gcomctricnlly sirnilnr sysl,cnls with. equal Reynolds numbers t h e dimcnsior~less qr~ant~it~icsY , . . ., p/p V 2 i~tld 141 t/e V z depend only on t h e dimensionless coortlinatcs x/d, y/d, z/d. If, Ilowcvcr, t,Ile two systems are geomet~ricnlly,b u t not dyrlamically, similar, i. c. if t.lleir Rcynoltls numbers are different, t,llen tltc tlimensionless quantities under cor~siderat~iorl innst, also depend on t.11echamctcristic quantities V, d , Q, 1 of the two ~ y s t c m s . 4 Applying the principle t,llat pl~ysicallaws rnust I)e independent of the syst,cn~ nnit.s, it. fi>llows of t h a t t l ~ etlimensionless qtiarif,it,ies ~ c V, . . ., p / e V2, T/Q VZ can only dcpentl on a / dimcrlsionless combinatlion of V , d , Q, and 11. which is ~ ~ n i q n being tJlo Itcyr~olds c, number R = V d e/,u. Thus we are led t-otile conclusiori t h a t for t01c two gcon~cbric:~lly similar systtcms w11ich have different Rcynolds n u ~ a b c r s ant1 whicll arc bring compared, the dimensionless quantities of the field of flow can only be f~mcl.ions of tlic tthree dimensiorlless space coordinates z/d, y/d, z/d and of t.11~R.cyriolcls number R. Tile ~)rccc(lingdirr~c~isiotral annlysin can bc ~ ~ l i l i z c t l tt~:~ltc n itrlport,:r.ttt, o a asscrt,iorl about the t.obl force excr1,cd l)y a fltlitl strealn on an immcrsotl I)ocly. 7'11c force acting on tlto bocly is tllc surface integral of all normal and ~ l l c a r i n g st,ressc:s acting o n it. If P denotes the component of the resultant force ill a n y given direction, i t is possil~lcto write a tlirncnsionless forro coefficient of t h e form P/c12 Q V2, 11111, instead of tlrc a,re:b d2 i t is cnstomary to clloose a diKcrcnt chnract,crist.ic aro:l, A , of t,he immersed body, e. g. the f r o ~ ~ ta.rea exposed L trIle body t,o tile flow tlircct<ion al y which is, in the casc of a spherc, equal tjo x d 2 / 4 . IIencc tho dirnerisionlcss force coefficient becorncs P / A e V2. J)iniensional n.nalysis lcatls t,o the conclrlsiorl t.llat for geomet.rically similar systems t.his coefficient can dcpencl only on t,lro tlirnensionless grottp formctl wi1.11 V, (1, p, and 11, i. c. on l.11c: ltcynoltln t~rttnl~cr. c-otnlionc-111, 'J'hc

c. I'rinciplc of si~nileril.~; Ilcynoltls nrlti Mach nuin1)crs 1110 of I,ho resultant forcc parallcl t o the ~lnctisturbctlinitial vrlority is referred t o a s t11e drag I), and t h e component perpencliculnr t o t h a t tlircct.ion is callctl lift, 5.Ifencc the dimensionless cocfficicnts for lift and drag become C
,

17

-A -

nnd

C, = -

if (.he tlynatnic: 11cad 4 Q V 2 is S C I C C ~ , C ~ for rcfcrcrlce instcatl of t,hc clunnt,it,y e V2. Thus tho argurncr~tleads t o the conclr~siont h a t the tlirncnsionless lift a,ntl drag coefficients for gcornetrically similar systems, i. c. for geometrically sirnilar bodies which have t l ~ esame orientatmionwith respect to t h e free-8trea.m direction, are ful~ctionsof orie variable only, n s ~ n o l ythe Reynolds nr~rnhcr:

18VSA

I) --- - ,

(I . 1 4 )

c,,=/,(R);

CD=/~(R).

(1.15)

I t is ncccssary to strcss once more t h a t this import.ant conclusion from Reyr~olds's principle of si~nilarit~y valid only if t h e assumptions undcrlying i t are satisfied, is i. c. if the forces acting iri the flow arc due t o friction and inertia only. I n the casc of colnpressible fluids, whcn elastic forccs arc important, and for motions with free sllrfaces, whcn gravitational forccs must be taken into consideration, eqrrs. (1.15) d o not apply. I n such cases i t is ncccssary t o dedrlcc diKerent similarity principles in whiclr the tlin~ensionlessFroudc nurn1)cr F = (for gravity and inertia) and the c1irnensionless Mach number M == V / c (for cornprossible flows) are inclucled.

V'J

v/G~

Fig. 1.4. Drag coefficicnt for circular cylinrlcrn

n, a

fr~nct.ion tlie Jleynoltls nl~nibcr of

T h e importance of the sirnilarit,y principle given in eqns. (1.14) and (1.15) is very great ns far a s the scicrrccs of t h ~ o r c t ~ i ca n d cxpcrirncntal flr~id sl mechanics are concerned. First, the dirncrrsior~lcsscocfficicnts, C,,, C,, arid R are irlclependent of t,hc syst,cm of unilm. Secondly, t,hcir use leads t o a considerable simplification in the cxtcnt of expcrimcntal worlc. In most cases i t is itnpossible t o tlctermit~cthe ft~nc(.ions f,(R) and /,(R) t,l~rorctit:ally,ant1 exporimcr~t,:~i ~nct~lrotls ~ l s tbe 11sot1. m S I I I I P O S tl~ali t is tlcsirccl t o tlrt.crrnino the t l r : ~ ~ ~ I I ~i t:ocfficicr~t ITI, for a spoc,ilit:tl s11:q)cof I)ocly,c. g. a spl~crc, tllcn wiLl~otlt applica1,iorr of 0l1c~ ~ r i n c i pof sirni1:~rit.y t.11~ lc i t wo111tlhc? ncccssary t o carry out drag rncasuremcnt.~ four indepcntler~t for variables, V, d , Q , a n d IL, antl (,his woultl const,itute a trcmondous programme of work. I t follows, however, Lhat t2he drag cocfficicnt for sphcros of diKcrcnt tlinmctjors with cliffcrcnt s1,rcarn vclocitics antl tliffcrcnt flr~iclsclcpcntls solcly on onc v:~ri:~l)lc, t.hc Itcynolds r~nrnl)cr.Fig. 1.4 rcprcscnt,~I,hc d m g coefficient of circular cplintlcrs a s a fr~rrct~ion the Itoynolds number antl shows the exccllcr~tagreement hetwceri of expcrimcr~tant1 Reynolds's principle of similarity. The cxperirnentnl point,s for the drag cocfficicnt, of c i r c ~ ~ l cylinders of widely differing diarnetcrs fall on a single ar curve. 'The sarnc applies t o points ohtnined for the drag cocfficicr~t spheres plotted of against t , l ~ c Iteynoltle ~ n ~ r n b in Fig. 1.5. The s~ltltlcr~ er decrease in t h e value of thc drag coefficient which occurs near R = 5 x lo5 in the case of circular cylinders and the casc of spheres will be discussed, in n ~ o r edetail, later. near R = 3 x 10"n Fig. 1.6 reproduces photographs of t h e stream$nes about circular cylinders in oil talcen b y P. JIornann [7]. They give a good idea of t h e changes in t h e ficld of flow associated with various Reynolds numbers. F o r small Reynolds numbers t h e wake is laminar, b u t a t increming Rcynolds numbers a t first very regular vortex patterns, known as Khrmhn's vortcx &recta, are formed. A t sLill higher Reynolds numbers, not shown here, tho vortex patterns become irregular and turbulent in character.

Fig. 1.5. Drag coefficient for spheres aa n fi~nctionof tho Reynolds nrunbcr Curve (1): Stokcs's theory, eqn. (6.10);curve (2): Oseen'a thcory, eqn. (0.13)

e. Principle of 8irnilnrit.y; t,he Reynolds ntld Mac11 n l ~ ~ r ~ b c r s

19

I'l:~r.l~nlrnrl (I!lR?) O II<IIIII\II ( I I I G I ) 0 NACA (1969)

Fig. 1.6. Firl~i flow of oil n h o ~n cirrl~lnr of ~t c.ylir~tlor t wrying IZrynolcln n~c~r~bnrs Homnnn a nltcr 171: Irnnnition from lnrninnr flow t,o n vortrx ntrrt-t, i l l I:1111innr fln\v. T l ~ r freqr~cnryrnngr for R = 65 t.o R 281 C:III I)c tnltrn Iron1 Fig. 2.9

\V. Jonm, J . J. Cillotta and 12. \V. \Val.


krr

[a]

111Int.er t.inlrs s n c l ~pici.nres for low R,cynoltls 1111rnl)crsu p t.o R 1)sS. 'l'nnetla. 1141.

= .

3 n c r c protll~cctl

I t is sect1 in Fig. 1.4 t,llnt, t,l~c.(IraF! corfficicnt, o f a. cirr~rlarcylitltlcr rrac:lles minirnllm of CD w 0.3 n t n I<,ey~\oltls n111n1,cr brt,wrc>t\R -- 6 x lo5 :%~ltl A rcglrlnr lo6. vortex strect, tloes not exist in this rangr of Itcynoitls ntlnll)ors. A t very high R ~ y n o l t l s nurn\)ers exceeding R w 10" ttllr d r a g coefficient itlorrases a t n considrrnl)lc rat,e, (1.4 seen from Fig. 1.7 which is bnsrd on t,lle mcasnrrmeni~s pc.rformei1 h y A. Itoshko 1131 nnd (:. W. .Jones, J . .I. (>inot,t.anntl I t . W. \.Vnllter (81. A t R = 10' t ' l ~ r tirag n oorffic-irnt, reaches n vnltlr of' Cn 0.56. According 1.0 t.he precedirlg ar~t~llors, rrg111n.rv o r t r x st.rret, c~st.nl)lishrs itself ngnin a(. R > 3.5 x lo6. 1 11e drng of R ~ ) J I P T C R hns rrcrnt,ly also 11ern invrst,ignf,rtl at, very high R.cynolds r~unlbers [I]. I t e r e too, a s wns t h e rase wit,l~h e cylil\clrr, thc tlrng coefficirnt increnses t n.pprecink~ly1)eyond its minirnrtnl at GD w 0.1 n t nbout R = 5 x lObn.t,t>nining CLI 0.2 n t Iteynoltls n l ~ r n b c r s close to R = 107. C:rit,ic,n.lrcvirws of drng mrnnurcnlrr~is n s p h r r r s RS it filn(*t,iorlof tJ1c Rry1101ds o nl~n~\)c,r t.11~ nntl Mn.c!h nnrnhcr wrre prrl)n.rrrl by A . 1%.Ilnilry n.nd ,T. Ilint~i. I n ] ns [ IV(*II a s 1)s A. I$. l$nilry an(1 I<(. I?. S h r r I l l ) ] .
r
7

I l ~ f l ~ ~ eof~rc rn ~ l ~ r r a ~ i l ~ i 'I'l~r ~lrrccvlingn r g l ~ ~ n r\vas tc:or~tlnc-tc><l t ~ r lttIICr i o lity: ~~ . ~t ~ asslllnption t.l~:~.t f l ~ ~ iwas incornl)rcssilrl(:, : ~ n t i t wns fount1 t11:1t,t l ~ d i ~ ~ l c l ~ s i o r ~ l c s s 1.11~ tl l c tlrprntlcnt qrlnnlit,ics w r r r fnr~ct.ions one tlirr~c~rlsionlrssr g u ~ n c ~ ~ t , , Rc*y~~oltls of n t.hc number, only. \V11cn Ll~c H11ic1 ro~nprrssil)lt: is t.hcy tlcj~cr~tl nrl ntltlit.ion;tI tlirnrt~sionon Iclss 11111nl,er,, l ~ filar11 nntnbcr M -- 1'1~ i c ivhicl~ can Ite rcg:~rtlrtl,a s sl1o11.11~.Stv-. 1 r.s , .. in . a s n ~ n r n s n r c t . 1 1 ~co~nl)rrssibilily t l ~ r of ol' llowi~lg n c t l i r ~ l n . IIlc case o f sr1t.11flows, ~ 111 i. c . wllcn con~t~ressibilit~y plays an rsscrllinl pnrl., t l ~ otlirnrnsior~lcss corflicicr~fs clrl)r~iclon l)ot.\~ pnrnmctrr R :l.ntl M. 1Stln:~tion( I ,151 is t11cr1 rc~l)I:~t.ccl I ~ I

C,,

= fl

; (R, M) ; C,) = 1 (R, M) .

(I.l(i)

An r s n m p l r of s r ~ r la. rrlalionsl~ipis givrn in Icig. I .S \vl~ic,hSIIOII~S :L 1110t. (11. t l t P ~ tlrng (~oel'licicnt, of sl)l~c.rc:sin t e r m s of t,lrt%Itrynolrls I I I I I I I I ) ( % R ':-- 1.' I ) / , , :1t1t1 (r, ~ t,lle hl;~clll l l ~ l n b ~ ~ r= V/C. 'J'l~c C U ~ V Cfor M M 0.3 is l~r;i(-ti(~:~ll.y coit~citI(~~lt, 11.itI1 i,liat in Fig. 1.5 for incolnl~rc-ssiblc flow w l ~ i r I)roxrcsf11:1t, 1.0 M == O.:l i , l ~ict l l l ~ ~ c ~ r l c . ~ ! l~ 111) of tile M n c l ~n u m b e r is nrgligible. 011 t ' l ~ c ot.lirr Il:~ntl at. 11igI1rrn l n r l ~~ I I I I I I I ~ ~tIlr~ I. ir~llrlenceis large. I n this conncxion i t is r~ot,r\vorlhy l,lrni, ill t.11r r:Lrlgr of ILc~g~~oltls ~~lrml)c?rs roverrtl by t,llc tlin.gram, i1.s inflc~cncc c t t ~ l r s r 1110r1~ :111tl11101.ca s t,llr Alnrl~ n~lrnl)c~r incrcnsctl. is
~2:

f. Comparison hrtween t,hc tl~eoryof perfcct 11r;itlsanti expcrin~cnt

21

f. Co~~ipnrison belwccn t l ~ ctheory of pcrfcct fluiila nt~cl rxperi~nrttt


In t,he cases of t,hc motion of water ant1 air, wllic11 arc the most i~nport.ant ones in el~girtecrirlgapplicat,ions, the Itcynoltls nurnl)crs arc vcry Inrgc l ) r m l ~ s c t l ~ c of very low viscosil.ics of tl~csc flrtids. 1.t wor~ld,t,llorcforc, apl)c:tr rcasonal)lc t,o c-?c~)ccL very good :tgrecmcnt 1)cLwccn cxperin~cnt,ancl a 1,hcory in w l ~ i c lt~ ~ c l itlllllcncc of viscosity is ncg1cc:tcd alt,ogcthcr, i. c. with the thcory of pcrfcct fluitls. I n any case it secms uscful to begin thc comparison with experiment by rcfcrcnce to t,llcory of perfcct flrlitls, if only on ncconnt of tho large num1)er of cxist,ing cxplicit mathematical solut,ions. I n fact, for ccrt,ain clnsscs of prot~lcms, st~clr wave formation and tidal n~ot.ior~, as excellent results werc obtainctl wit01 t,hc aitl of this theoryt. Most problems to bc rliscusscd in this boolr consist in I,tic st,udy of t,he motion of solid 9odics tjhrough fluids a t rcst, or of llr~itlsflowing through pipes a.nt1 channels. I n such cascs t,hc use of the theory of pcrfcct fluids is limit;cd because it,s solutions do not satisfy thc conI tlihion of no slip a t the solid surface whicll is always the case! with rcal fluids even a t very small viscosities. I n a perfcct tl~litlthcro is slip a t a yall, and this circamst,a~~ce inLrodtlccs, cvcn for slni~llviscosit,ics, sr~cllf~~ntl:~.mc:~t.al tliKcrcnccs tjllat i t I is rather surprising to find in somc cascs (e. g. in the case of vcry slender, stream-line bodies) that thc two solutiorts display a good measr~reof agreement. The greatest tliscrepancy 1)etwccn the theory of a perfcct fluid and experiment exists in the cor~sitlcrationof drag. The perfcct-fluid theory leads t o the conclusior~that when an n.rhit,mry solitl body movcs through a n infinitely extended fluid a t rcst i t expericnccs no forcc acting in t.he clircction of motion, i. e. t h a t its drag is zero (dlAlembcrt's paradox). This rcsult is in glaring cont.radiction t o observed fact, as drag is tncnsurod on all bodics, evcn if i t can bccorne vcry smaU in the case of a streamline botly in stcady flow ~ a r a l l c lto its axis.

Fig. 1.0. Frictionlcss flow about a circular cylinder

Pig. 1.10

- - -R R ..... R

- frlctionlerur 10' flow = 1.9 x

Pig. 1.10. Pre~strre distribution on a circ~tlarcylinder in the auhcrit.icnl and er~pcrcriLict~l rntlgc of 1 Reynolds nnnibers after t,he ~neasuremet~ts 0. Flncl~sbnrt[4] and A. Roahko [13]. qoo T;. e 172 of u is the stagnntion pressure of the oncorning flo\vs

Flacl,s,,nrl

= 8.7 x 10' 8.4 x 10'

) (lg3')
Itonlikn (1001)

we By way of ill~~st.ration now propose t o make some remarks concernirlg tlhe flow about a circular cylinder. Tile arrangcmerlt of st,reamlirles for a perfcct fluid is given in Fig. 1.9. It follows a t once from considerations of symmetry t h a t the resultant forcc in the direction of mot,iorl (drag) is equal t o zero. The pressure clistributiorl according to the theory of frictionless motion is given in Fig. 1.10, togcther with the resnlt,s of measurcmerlts a t three values of the Reynolds number. At the leading edge, all measured pressure distributions agree, to a certain extent, with that for a perfcct fluid. At, the trailing end, the discrepancy between theory and measurement becomcs largc because of the large drag of a circular cylinder. The pressure distributlion at, the lowest, sobcritical Reynolds numbcr R = 1.0 x 105 diffcrs no st from that given by potential theory. The measurements corresponding to the two largest Rcyrtoltls numbers, R = 6.7 x 105 and R = 8.4 x 106, are closer to the potential curve t,han t1hose performed a t t,11c lowest Reynolds number. The large variation of pressure disltril)utrionwit,l~Rcynolcls number will be discussed in detail in the next cl~apt~er. corresponding pressure-distrih~t~ion A curbe around a meridian section of o, spl~cre rcprodl~ccdin Fig. 1.11. I-lere, t,oo, measurements show large differences for is the two Reynolds nrrmbers, and, again, the smaller Reynolds numbcr lies in the range

Fig. 1.11. Pressure distribntion around n sptlere in the auhcritical and supercriticnl range of Reynolda nnmhem, aa measured by 0.Flachsbart [3]

of largc clrng cocfficicnl,~, wl~rrcastho Ir~rgcrvalue lics in l l ~ c rllrlgo of srnnll clrc~g coefficients, Pig. 1.5. 1 1this case tile r t ~ ~ z s n r cprcssltre-cli~t~ributior~ 1 d curve for tho largo Reynolds number approximat,es the theorct~caidi:rvo of frictionless flow very well over the greatest part of the circumfcrcnce. , Considerably better agrcemcnt between the t h ~ o ~ e t ~ iand measured pressure cal distribution is obtained for a streamline body in a flow parallel bo its axis [5], Fig. 1.12. Good agreement exists here over almost the whole length of the body, with the exception of a small region near its trailing end. As will be shown later this circumstance is a consequence of the gradual pressurc increash ill the downstream clirectiotl. Although, generally speaking, the theory of perfect fluids does not lead t o useful results as far as drag calculations are concerned, tllc lift can be calculated from successfully. Fig. 1.13 represent,^ the relation between the lift cocfficicnt ant1 it v ~ r y angle of irlritlcr~cc,as ~neasurctl1)y A. Bct,.~ in t l ~ c [2] caso of a Zhukovsltii :ic~rofoil

22

I. Outlir~c flrticl motion wit11 frict,ion of


Fig. I .Id. ( ! o t ~ ~ ~ ~ n rIICLU~CII isrr~i t.11t: t.hrort*tir:~lnllcl nirnanrrrl jlrrswlrr: r l i x l rill111 inn f11r n Z1111kovskii 11ri)fiIr i~r111nI 111 lifts. :lflvr 11. 1h.1~ (2)

of illfirlitosl)nll : ~ n , lr)rovitlrs n compnrisori \c,il.l~t , l ~ r o r y .111 t.hc rarjgc of inc:itlrnco illlglrs a : ; l o 0 I,(> l o 0 t,llo iigrcc?tncnt is s c c n l,o b e goo11 nntl t h c s m a l l tli~(.rcllces c::Ln bc rxplnjnrrl I)y t,111: irllll~ctlcc frict,ion. 'J'llc ~ n r n s l l r r c l of n1111 cnlrl~lnt.rtl1)rrssIIro tlist.ril)~rt.ion.s ngrcc vct.y wrll too, ns sllown in l'ig. 1.14. l'hc diucrrpnncg b r t , w e r n t . l ~ r o r yn.ntl rncnsrrrclncnt tlisplnyctl in P i p . 1.13 ant1 1 . I 4 is n conscqclcllco of tllc tlisl)lnccmot~t, :~c:t,ion of t h e I)ountlnry I i ~ y c rnntl const.it,~~t,csb o r r ~ ~ t l : ~ r ~ - l nc. f k c t n ycr of liighrr ol,tlt,r. :LS will 11c s h o w n a g a i n in S r c . IXj.

Ilelrrr~~rrn Fig. I .12. Prmsrlre distrihntion nl~ont n ~trenli~-litie body of rcvolntion: cornpnrison bctncol~ tllcory nrlrl mcnsuremc~~t. nftcr F u l ~ r l ~ l a n n ] [5

Fig. 1.13. Lift nnd drag roefficicnt of n Zlnlkovnkii profile in ptnnm flow, n8 ~neanrlred by l%etz 121

[ I J , \ $ c ~ ~ l ~ n r h , E.uj~cl.in~c~~ln flow pnsl. nllllrrrn at, vrry lliRll I t ~ ~ ~ n oI lI~ lI sI I I ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ . 15.: on the I .JI'R1 5.1, 565--575 (1!)72). [In] Il;iilcy, 11. 13.. ntld I-li:~t.L, Spllcrc tlriig cool'licir.nts for11 hrontl rnngr r,f ill:~cl~ I<ryllol~18 .J.: nlrcl n~i~nllers. AIAA ,I. 10, 1426 - 1440 (1!)72). 1 1 111 Ilnilry, A. 13.. anrl Rlnrr, I<.17.: Sllllr.ri: tlr:rg nl trnnnorlic*~pc*crln n11tl l~igllIb:y~~c,lrlsI I I I I I ~ I ~ ~ H . I i1lAt1 .J. 1.4, 1fi:iI (l!)7li). 1 1 liot.~, : UnLcrsuc1111ngri~lcr~ T o l ~ l t o m s k i s'l'rnglliirl~r.ZIPRI 6 , 17:) l7!) ( l ! ) 5). 2 A. rl~~~~ ~ (B] l~lecl~nl~nrl., Ncrlorc U~~terorl'.llur~gc~~ ldUf~\vitlcr~~.n~~rl 0.: iiller dell YOII 1i11~rl11. 1)llys. Z. 28, 461 - - 469 (1027). [4] k'lncl~sbnrt,0 . : LlTincl(lrlr:.ic ~ u C:lsbal~iilt,rr.Itel~ort,n tile ,\\'A in (.:iif.ti~~ge~~, Series. : f of lVf.11 134- 138 (1982). [ 5 ] lPullrlnnnn !:.: Ti~coretisrl~cl l c l c x l ) r r i ~ l ~ r ~ ~U ~ ~ l tl r r s r r ~ l ~ RII ~l5n1101\111otlcI1c~1. rl t ~~ c r~ tge~~ 1)iss Cot,l,il~ 1910: ,]I). k l n ~ r l ~ ~ f l ~ c l ~ i K . S tV~ 6:$--12:s~ ~ ~ 1/12). . e11 ~ ~ ~ l i (l!)l g c ~ 161 T,:I~cII, i?bw rlic l3c:xveg1111g \Vnsscrs i t 1 rngcn z y l i ~ ~ ( l r i s i ; It?i11rc11. g g . AIIII. (2.: clcs l~c~~ h .l(;, 523-442 (IR:19). (71 ITotnn1111,17.: I<i~rfluss grOSSCP Ziil~iglteitI)ei Skriimllng 11111 Zylilltlcr. I"ornclrg. Tllg..\\'on. 7 , 1 - I0 (l!)3($). I R ] Joncs. (. \\'., (!itlottn., .I. ,I., and \\'nllzo, It. W.: Aerocly~rn~~~ir. on n alal.ionnry ntlcl : Srorr.cs onr.ill:rLi~~g circrll:l.r rylindcr nt Iiigh Itey~~oltls ~ll~rnb(:rs. NACA 'Tit Jb-:3OO (I!)(;!)). [!I] Nat~lllnlln,A.: I,~~ft.~vit~crsL:ll~rl Krlgeltl bai hollcn U n t c r ~ r h n . l l g e a c l ~ ~ v i n t l i ~ 1\11.t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . Yon kci PVIII. \Viir.~~~cl.rl:l~~~iIz 2 1 (1953). 4 , 21 7 2 (101 ~ : ~ I I I I I ~I\., I 11,1111 l'(billi:r, 11.: Ubor (lit- ( : ~ C I I Z ~ C I I ~ C I I ~ ~ ~ L ~ ~11.111I I I I I I ~ Ilci 11011011 II II, ~ I Zyli~l(lcr ~cscl~wi~~ctigltcitcl~. ~ I I I in ~ Acroni~t~t,irnl AC~V C R SC~CIICCS V O I I I < ~ ~ I I Iell.) I \101. 3 , ('1'11. ~I , 185.- 206, Londo11, l9li2. [I I] J'oiort~illr, .J. : J~6rl1crcl1cs ~ ~ ~ ~ r i ~ n cstir~lc c~ l~ lI c \ s C I I I Cclcs ,Iii~~~irlcs IPS tt111rs(It: c ~ t I ~ II~ ~I:LIIS t,r+njlct,it.s diarrlc?trcs. Colnl)t,cs R.enclus 11, 901 -967 nrld 1041---1048 (1840); 12, 1 1 2 -115 (1841); in Inore clctitil: M61noirm den Savsnta Etmngrrs 9 (1846). [I21 Il.cynolcls, 0.: An r:x~~cri~~irntnl illvcstign.t,ion of t,lic cirr~rn~st~nt~c~cstli:tcl.lninr. \vl~ctl~r-r n,lliol~ tllc tnol.ion of wntrr nllnll be dircrt, or S ~ I I ~ In.tldIof , Inar of rcsistntrcoi~l ~ I S Lllc l~nrrlllcl t~ll:~.t~t~c-ln. I'liil. 'l'mnn. Roy. Soc. 174, 935-!)82 (188:l) or Scicnt ific PILJ)CPS, 51. If I131 Itoslrlco. A. : ICxpcri~nc~~tatile flow pnst IL circnlnr cylilldcr atvt'ry Iligl~ on Rcy11oIi1s1111111Irrrs. J1'M 10, R45---:!5li (1961): sre nlso: 011 wrorlyna.nlic drag of cylintlcrs .zL l~igll t,lic I<cyrtoltls nlllrrbers. I':~l)er prcsontrtl a t t.11~ .Jnpnn Itrscnrcl~Scn~innr t ~ IJS o 1Yi11tl1,ontls 0 1 1 S I r l ~ rttrps, l Unir. of Il:~\vnii,Ocl. 1!)70. I141 Tnnerln, S.: I<xperirnr~~t,nl it~rcat.igntio~~t,I~o of n-nkco I~cl~irrtl rylinrlct~airrl pln,tos :~t. low Il.oy11olt1s11111n11rrfl. I'l~ys. Soc. ,Jnpnr~11, 302 -.307 (1!)5li). ,I.
~

a. Tllc hollndary-laycr concept

25

plate, with t>hc tlimensiorls across i t considerably cxaggcratctl. I n front of the leading edge of the plate t,hc v r l o ~ i t ~ y clistribrttion is rtnifornl. With increasing distattrc from thc leading edge in t h e downst,rmm direction t h e thiclrness, cf, of t,lle retardetl layor incrrasrs continrlor~aly, nn ilicrrnsing qrtnnlitira of f l l ~ i t l I)oc*onlo t1TTc~t*lrtl. 15vitlcr1tly tho lhiclrnrss or the 1)onntl:~ry Inycr tl(~t*rc*nsc.s O c ~ c r r a s i rvigrosity. wit11 ~~

Outline of boundary-layer theory


a. Thc boundary-layer concept

Fig. 2.2. Sketch of l)orlntlnry layer on a flat plate in pnrallel flow at zero inciclcnce

---

t n tho casc o f fluitl motions for which the measured pressure distribution nearly agrcrs with the perfect-fluid thcory, such a s t h e flow past the streamline body in Fig. 1.12, or the aerofoil in Fig. 1.14, t h e influence of viscosity a t high Reynolds nrlmbers is confinetl t o a very thin layer in t h e immediate neigl~bourhooclof t h e solid wall. I f t,hc condition of no slip were not t o be sat,isfit:d in the casc of a real fluitl there wollltl 1)c no appreciable tliKcrcncc bctwccrl t h e fieltl of flow of tllc real fluitl a s comparcd with t,hnt of a pcrfcct fluitl. The fact thaL a t t,hc wnll thc fluid adlicres t o i t means, howcvcr, that, frictional forces rctarcl the motion of the fluid in a thin laycr near the wall. I n that, thin layer the velocity of tile fluid increases from zero a t thc wall (no slip) t o its full value which corresponds t o external frictionless flow. The layer under consideration is called t h e boundary layer, and the concept is duo t o L. Prantltl 1263.

On t h e other hand, even with very small viscosities (large Reynolds nrtmbcrs) t.hc frictiortal shearing strcsses T = /c au/a!j in the 1)ourldary laycr arc consitlcrnblc bccnusc of tJltc Inrgc vclocily gr~~tliont, across lllo Ilow, wllcrct~s o~tl~sitlo ~ o t l I~ol~~ltlttry layer tiley arc very small. This physical p i c t ~ ~ srtggcst~nt h a t the ficltl of flow in t.11~ rc casc of llnids of small viscosi1.y (:an I)c tlivitlctl, for l,l~o pllrposo or mal,liornnt,icnl annlysis, into two regions: ttlc t.llin bountlary laycr near the wnll, in w11ic:h rriction must be taken into account, ant1 the region outside tllr bountlary layer, whcrc the forces due t o friction are small ant1 may be n c g l ~ c t ~ c d , where, tllcrcforc, the and perfect-fluid theory offers a very good approximation. Such a division of the field of flow, as we shall see in more detail It~tcr, brings about a considerable simplification theory of the motion of fluids of low viscosity. I n fact, t,he of the ~nat,l~ematical t,heoretical study of such motions was only made possible by Prandt.1 wl~erl 11e introclucctl this concept. We now propose t o explain the basic concepts of boundary-layer theory wit11 the aitl of purcly physical ideas antl without the nsc of ~nat~hcmatics. mat,hcrn:~t.iTtle cal bor~ntlary-layer tllcory which forms tile main t.opic of this book will bc tliscr~sscel in t h e following chaptcrs.

Figurc 2.1 rcprodl~ccsa picturc of the motihn of water along a thin flat plate in which the s!,rcamlincs wcrc made visible bjr the sprinkling of particles on t h e sl~rfn.cc tltc water. The traces lcft by the particles arc proportional t o t h e velocity of of flow. Tt is scen t h a t there is a very thin laycr near t h e wall in which the velocity is' considorably smallcr t,han a t a In.rgcr distance from it.. The thickness of this holtrltlary laycr incrc,ascs along thc plate in a downstream direction. Fig. 2.2 repre~nnb tliagrammatically the vclocity distribution in such a boundary layer a t the

Tile decrlcratctl fluid pnrticles it1 thc boundary laycr (lo not, in all cnscs, rrmnirl in the thin lnycr which atlhcrcs to t h r I ~ o d y along thc whole wcttcd lcr~glhof ~ I I ( % wall. I n some cases the boundary layer increases its ttrickness considerably i r ~ t.he downstrcarn tlirection and the flow in tho bountlary laycr beconics revcrscd. 'l'his causes the decclcratcd fluid particles to be forced outwards, wllicll rnmns illat thc boundary 1:tycr is scpnrated from thc wall. Wc tltcn spcalr of boundniy-ltryer sepalation. 'J'his phenomenon is always associatrd wit11 the formatiot~of vortircs ant1 wit11 largc energy losses in the walre of the body. It o_ccur_sprjmarjlyn r a r blunt bodies, such % circular cylinders ~ n c l ~ s p 1 . 1 _ ~ - ~ ~ . such a body thcrc exists a region s Behind of strongly dccrleratrtl flow (so-calletl wake), ill whicll the pressure distribution deviates considerably from t l ~ a in a frictionless fluid, as seen from Figs.l.10 arlcl 1 11 t in the ~ r s p r c t i r e cnscs of a rylindcr and a sphere. The large tlrng of such bodics can be explau~ed the existence of this large deviation in pressure distributiorl, which by is, in turn, a conscq~~ence bonntlary-layer separation. of

2(i

T I . Ol~tlirtr I)ol~nclnry-lny~r of throry

E ~ t i n ~ n I iof~ t o ~ ~ ~ ~ d n r ~ - l n y e r 'rhc t,l~ickness f a boundary layer wltirlt n h tllickllr~s: o llas riot scpnrnlrtl can I)(! casily cst,irnnLrtl it1 t h c following way. Wl~crcasfriction forccs can be ncglcctctl with respect t.o incrt,ia forccs outaide tho bourltlary layer, owing t,o lo\v viscosit,~, h r y arc of a comparable order of magnitrldc insitlc it. 'rhc t inert,ia forcc prr 11nit volu~nc a s cxplninctl in Scct,ion l e, equal to Q 71 ~ T L / ~ For is, X . a pIat,c of lottgl.l~ t,ho gr:ttlintlt arr/a:r is proporl.ional t o ll/l, where I J tlrrlotes tltr 1 velocil,y onLsitlv tltc! I)orlntl:~ryInyrr. Ilctlrc l,hc irlcrl,in forcc is of l.hc ortlt:r I, 1J2/1. On l,hc ot,hcr 11at1tlt h e friction forcc per n r ~ i volurnc is equal t o at/all, wllirll, on the t ass~~rnpt,ion lnrninnr flow, is ccl~lnlt,o 11, a21t/i)?/2.The velocity gratlicnt al~/ay a of in tlirrcLion prrl)rnrlic~llnr t.l~c t,o wall is of t,lm ordcr Ill6 so t h a t th(: friction forcc ])or ~ t i ) i l~ o l l ~ t t l v i)~/&y ~ is lI/02. Proni t,hc cot~tlit.iorlof equality of the frictiorl :lrlcl inertia forcsrs t.ho following rc*l:ltion is ol)t.ained:

wherc s l ~ b s c r i p ~ 0 tlerlotes the value a t tlrc wall, i. e. for y = 0. Witll tllc estimate ( a u / a ~ ) ~ / d we obtain 7 , , U / d anti, inserting the value of d from cqtl. (2.11, U u we have

We cart now for111 a dirncnsionlrss sl,rcss wit,h rcTc.mrlrc l o I, l l z , ns c~xl)l:~ittc~cl in Cltnp. I, ant1 obtain

t4

82

e UZ
1

This rcsult agrees wit.11 Llle tlilncrtsiotrnl an:llysis i t 1 C11;tp. I, wllic,lt I,rc-tlic:t.c.tl~.II:II, the tlimensionless shc:lring strrss r o ~ ~ ltlrpnrld otl tho Itcynol(ls ~l~rllll,c.r tl ortly. .Ihc t4nl drag 1) on t.he p1:~l.cis rq11:11t o hlt0 whrro 11 clcnol,rs (.It(: \\.iclt.lt of 1,110 p1at.c. Ilcrlce, wit.11 t,hc aitl of ccln. (2.3) IVC ol)t,nitl
7

or, solving for t Itr I , o u n t l ; ~ r ~ - l a ytlriclcr~rss rr Ot:

Tlte I~nlnr,ric:nlf:~rt,orwltic:l~ is, so f:~r,st.il1 ~tntlct,crn~inerl will be tleduc:ctl Iatcr (C!l~:lp.VII) from t,lrc exnc:L solut,ior~ givct~by II. 13lasi11s141, and i t will turn out t.llnt i t is ct,rlal 1.0 5 , al)proxinlatcly. llrncc for lnmiarrr flow in t h e bountlary layer we have (2.1 a) 'Yhc tlinlrr~sionlc~ss \,onr\rlnry-lnyer tltirknrss, rcfcrrctf t o tlte length of the plate, 1. t)eronles. -

Tltc lnrnit~:lr frict.ionnl tlrng is t.ltrrs see11 t.o I)c ~)rol)ort,ional I1:Il2 ;t.tl(l /It2. I'rol,o ~)ort.ion:~lil,y I l l Z rnc:Llts l.It:tI. (1o11J~littg 1 ~1)1:1t(: I ~ t t g ( ,(Io(*sl l O t r tl(,t~l)lt*t c ! (lt.:tg, L o 1.1 l~ tl ancl t,llis result (:an he 11tiderst.oor1113' c.ott~idrrit~gl ~ a t.llc d o \ v ~ ~ s t , r c1)nrt. 01' t.11(? f. t :t~~~ plate nxpcricnccs n stnailer drag t,llall t.llc leacling portion hcc:~nsct.ltc I ) o u l t d : ~ r ~ layer is Lhicker towards the tarailingedge. Finally, we can write tlowll arl cxprcssioll for the climetlsionless drag cocfficicr~tin accortlnncc wit-11 cqn. (1.14) in whicl~1 . h ~ rcfcrencc aron A will be rcplnced by t.lro wettctl area 61. llcncc c q l ~ (2.4) givrs tlt:~t, .

Tlte nrlmrric:ll fartor follows from 11 Blasius's c x a r t solution, atttl is I 328, so t l l : ~ ~ , the drag of a ~ ~ l ninr parnllrl 1nmin:~rflow 1)rromc.s t wllorc R, clrrlotcs t,he Itcyrloltls nunlber rclatod t o the Icngth of the plat.c, 1. T t is wen from cqn. (2.1) tallat t<hci~oandary-layerthickness is proportional i n and t,o I . If I is ropla.cetl t)y the variable tlist,ance z from the leading edge of the plate, i t is seen t,ltat d incre:lses pr~portionxt~ely to On tho other hand tho relative boul~(~ary-Iaycr t,I~ickncss ( l e c r e m s with increasing Reytlnlds number as I I ~ R O/i so t h a t in t,ho lirnil~irlgcase of frictior~lessflow, with R -+ oo, tllc boundary-layer t.lrickness vanishes.

4;

ii.

We are now in a position t o estimate the shearing stress zo on t h e wall, and c o n s r q ~ ~ c n t l y , t,ot,ni drag. Accorcling t o Newrton's law of friction (1.2) we have t.hr

Tltc followir~g tlt~~nrricnl rxamplc will serve t,o il11tst~~rt.c: l)rec:c*clingc:st,i~rt:~ : t.hr t.iolt Laminar flow, stSipulntctlhere, is obt:~it~rtl,s is known r'ronl exprritnctlt,, for Itcya nol(1s numbers CJllv not cxceccling :~l)out,6 x 10Ql.o 10% lpor 1nrgc.r I<cyltoltl~ n u n ~ b c r s I~oundnry t.11~ lnycr 1)ccon1cs I,~lrbr~lcnt.. sl~nll \I'c now rnlc111:~t.o I~o~ttltl:~r)~tht: layer t,llickncss for the flow of air (11 = 0.144 x 10-Vt2/sc,c) a t t.lle c.ncl of n plat(: of length 1 = 3 f t a t a velocity U = 48 fklscc. Tltis gives R, == ( I l / v : 10"nnd from eqn. (2.2)
6 1 - 103

.--

= 0.005;

7-

0.18

ill

A lllorr rigororls tlrfiniliott of I)o~lrtclnry-Iayrr thicknrsn in given s t the cnct of lhia section.

Thc drag coefficient froni eqn. (2.6) is C,, . 0.0013 i . (:. cxrcc:tli~tgly srrlall n,Itcrl cornparetl wit11 t h a t for a circular cylindrr, Fig. 1.4, bcc:ausc t,l~c dmg rocffic:icnf, for a cylin(1cr also includes pressure forces.

28

TI. Or11,linoof bor~ndnry-layer thoory

b. Srparation antl vortex fortnn(.ion

20

Dalinition of I~nnndnry-layerthickness: Thc clefinition of tllc bourltlary-laycr t.lriclrncss is t o a ccrt,ain extent arbitrary 1)ccausc transitsion from t,hc velocity in t,llc borlntlary t,o t h a t o~~t.sitlc t,:~.ltcsplncc asympt,obically. This is, I I O W ~ Vof ~ , it C no pract,icn.l import,ancc, I~ccnusc t,hc vclocil~yin thc bor~ntlnry laycr at.t,:iins :I. vnl~lc wl~ic:his vrry c:losc t,o f.ho cxt,crt~n.l vclorit,y n.lrcatly nt, a snrnll tlist.ancc from 1.11~ wnll. It, is Ijossil)ln to tlc:fino Lhc I~oilnd;~~~y-I:~yc:r t~hioltrlcss l . l ~ nrlis1,:~noofrom l l l c : :IS l wnll wllorc: t,hc vclonit,y tlilTcrs I)y I pc:r ct:t~L fro111 t l ~ c oxt,crnn,l vrloci18y. \ V i l . l ~ t.11i.s dcfinit.ion the rtrtlncric:~lf:~.ct.or cqn. (2.2) has the valnc 5. [nst,ead of t,llc bonntlaryin laycr t.lri(:knc~s, nn(>trlrcrqnnnt.ity, thc dinplr~cernentthickness a,, is somct.imcs used, Fig. 2.3. I t , is dcfirletl I)y t.hc cqnnt,ion (2.6)

half frorn D t o E, and decelerated on the downstream half from E t o F. Ifcnce the pressure decreases frorn D t o E antl increases from i t o F. Wltcrl the flow is started ' u p the motion in t h e first insttarit is very nearly frict,ionlcss, ant1 remains so as Iqng as the bonr~tlnry lnycr remains thirl. O~rtsitlc I~onntl:~ry tho lrtycr tllcro is n tprr~l~s~ornlctl.io~ of prcsstrro in00 Itincl.ic energy i~long1 R, 1.110 rc:verso I.nlting pl:tc:o rilottg IC I(', so 1 IJtat IL 1)arliclc n r r i v o ~ 1' wiI,lt 1110H I L I I I ~ >vclociI,y 11s it, I t l i t 1 nl, J). A l I r c i ( l 1):~rI.iclt: 111, 1 wltich lrroves i 11 t,I~cimlnctlinlo vioi~til~y tatlo wtill in t,llc I)o~lntl:r.ry of I:~.yorrc:~rt:iitls under the influence of the same pressure field a s t h a t existing outside, I)crause the external pressure is imprcssctl on the bountlary layer. Owing tlo tlrc large friction forces in the thin boundary layer such a psrtic:lc consumcs so much of its kirtbtic

Fig. 2.4. Doundary-layerscpara-

tion ~indvortex forrnntion on a circular cylin(1er (dingra~n~natir)


S

point nf 8cl1nrnI.lo11

'rhc displnccment tl~icltncss indicates l.llc tlistancc by which t l ~ external strcamc lines arc shift,cd owing to the ionnat,iorr of t,llc I,orlndary Iaycr. I n t.he case of a plate in parallel flow ant1 a t zcro incidcncc tlrc tlisplaccmrnt tVhickrressis about & of the bountlary-layer l,hicltncss 0 givcn in cqn. (2.1 a).

b. Srpamlion ant1 vortcx forrnntion


llte bo11ntln.ry laycr near a fl:~,t plnLc in par:tllcl flow ant1 at, zcro incitlencc is ~jart,icrllarlysirnplc, Ijccausc tltc static prcssurc remains consCnnt in the whole field of Ilow. Sincc orlt,sitlc the ljo1111(1:~ry lnyrr t,hc vclocity rcn~aitrsconst,ar~t t,hc same n,pplics t.0 t.he p r c s s ~ ~ l~ecallscin t l ~ c re frictiorrlcss flow Bcrl~orrlli'scquat.ion remains valitl. F ~ ~ r t h c n n o r c , prcssnrc rcmnitls scnsibly cotrstnr~tover t.hc \vidth of t,hc tlrc \ ) o ~ ~ ~ r r l a r y a t a givcn rlist.ar~rc 1Icncc tlrc I)rossurc over thc widt.11 of the layer x. I~ountlary Iayrr has tlrc snmc mngnittrtlc ns ont.sitle t.hc bor~ndarylaycr a t the sanrc elist.ancc, ant1 t.lrc sarnc applies L cnscs of arbit,mry hotly phn.pcs whcn tJro prcssnrc o o~rt.sitlc l.hc I)o~tn(l:~ry I:~yt:r vnrics along t,lrc wall wit11 t , l ~ c Icngl.h of arc. 'l'llis fnct is cxprcsscd I)y saying t,h:~t, t,lrc cst.crnnl prcssnrr is " i ~ n ~ r c s s c t lon t,hc boundary " Inycr. Ilcncr in t.hc cnsc of tJrc ~not.ionp : ~ s ta plate l,hc prcssnrc rcmairls constant. t l ~ r o l ~ g l r ot,ltr: Lb o ~ ~ n t l n rInycr. ~~ y isi!rtinral~ly 'j'lrr ~hrnonrrnorr I,o~~rrtl:~ry of lnycrsrpnratiot ~nrt~tiot~c~tlprc~viously - - . c,ot~nc-clctlwrtll tlrr prcssurc t1istril)ution in ti16 orintlary layrr I n t,hc bountlary Inycr on a plate rro srpnmLion takrs pl:trr as no back-fldw occurs

..

111ortlcr to e~\plnitrtht. very ilnportntrt pl~rr~ornrrlon t)outrtlary-lnycr s ~ p a r a t i o n of let us rorrritlrr 1 l ~ Ilo\v :~l)orlI Ijlrrnt l)otly, r g abont, a rirrnlar rylirltlrr, a s shown r n i t 1 IClg 2 4 111 ft ic.1 inltlc~ssflow, t l ~ c f1111tlpnrl irlrs nrr : ~ r r r l r m l r t lon tllr npst,ream

energy on its pat.h from D t o E t h a t thc remaintlcr is too s ~ n a l l srlrmo~lntt.hc to "pressure hill" from E t.o F. Such a parLicle cannot move far into t,llc region of' increasing pressurc between lC antl P antl its moLio11 is, evcntnnlly, arrcst,ed. The external pressure callscs it t,lrcrl t,o move in tho opposite clircct,ion. The pllotograpl~s reproduced in Fig. 2.5 illnstrat.e the sequence of cvent.s near the downstrcarn side of a round body when ,z fluid flow is started. The prcssurc increases along t,Ile I,otly contour fronr left t,o right, the flow Ilnving been ma.tlc visil)lc by sprinltlirrg nlrtminirlln rlrrst on tho surface of thc water. Tlrc boundary layer can be casily rccognizetl by rcfcrcncc t o tlte slrorl traces. In Fig. 2.5a, Laltcn shortly aftcr the s t a r t of Lhc rnot,iorl; the rcvcrsc motmion has just bcgtln. 111 Fig. 2 . 5 b the rcvcrsc nrotion lrns pci~-t,r:.tctl a cot~sitlcrahlc distance forward :~ntll , l ~ c bountlnry Iayor lrns tllicltcnctl n.j)prcc:i:tl)ly. Fig. 2 . 5 shows how this rcvcrsc mot,iotr givcs risc t o a vortex, whoso sizc is incrc,iscd ~ still furt,l~cr Fig. 2.6tI. 'l'l~cvorLcx bccorncs scp:~mtctl in sllorlly n f L c r ~ : ~ rn.11c1 ~ I s rnovc!s tlow~~strearn tho fluitl. This circnn~stanccchangcs complctcly blrc fiolcl of flow in in tho waltc, and Lllc prcssnrc clisLrib~l(,ior~ suKcrs a rntlical cltnngc, ns cornparctl with frictio~rlcssIlow. 'L'llc final statc of nrotion can I)c irlrcrrctl from I'ig. 2.6. In t,he eddying region bclrind thc cylinder there is consitlcrable suction, as sccrl fro111 the pressure distribution curve in Fig. 1.10. This suction causes a large prcssurc drag on t.he body. 1 A t a larger distance from the body i t is possible t o discern a rcg111:lr patt,ern of vorticcs which move alternately clockwise and courrt~crclocltwise,and which is known a s a IGirmiin vortex strect [20], Fig. 2.7 (scc also Fig. 1.6). I n Fig. 2.6 a vortex moving in a clockwise direction can be seen t o be about t o detach it,sclf from the body before joining the pattern. I n a fnrtlrer pzpcr, von Icilrmhn [21] proved t h a t such vorticcs are gcncrally nrrst,nblc wit,h rcspcct to small t l i ~ t ~ ~ ~ r b apnrallcl ncrs

30

1I. Outli~rc bo~rndnry-lnyer or tlrcory

Fig 2.6. Jnslntltnnrnr~s~~lrotogrnpll of flow ~ r i t l r ronrplrte holrrlclnry lnyrr nrp:rratinrr i r r I I r r a.:~ltc: of it c.ircul:~r rylilrdcr, ~ ~ f l c r l'r~i~r~lll-'~irt.jrr~s 1271 Fig. 2.7. KhrmQ~i vortex strcct, from
A. Tirnlnc [38]

Fig. 2.8. Strmmlirrm in nvortrx strrrt (hll = 0 28). Thr fllrid i8 nt rest, nt t ~ infinity, a~itl h vortrx street move8 1pi~. . 5 ~ 2
Fig. 2.5n. I,, r , tl.
1271.

Src. nlal,

Ipip.

Fig. 2.5~1 Urvnloptnrnt. o l I)onr,dsry-In,yrrsrgnrntiotr with limr, nft.rr 1'rnrrclt.l-Tict.jcrrn 15.5

t o thr~ns~:lvc:s. 'I'lrc only nrmngnncnt wlridt sllows ncrrt.ral ctloilil,riurn is t,hat wit.11 0.281 ([Cia. 2.8). Tllc vort,ex sl.rcet rnovcs wit.11 n vcloc:it,y I L , which is slnallc\r I , \ ~ : I . I I t.Ilc no\\, vrIorii,y I I in front of t,he I ~ o d y I t cn.n l)c rcg:~rtletl s a highly idcalizctl . a pict,r~rrof t.hc rnot,ion in t.he wake of (,hc bocly. The kinetic energy cortt,ainetl in the vrlocit,y fit:ltl of tlre vort.cx street must be continually created, as the body moves t.llrongh tile fnitl. On the basis of this rcpresentrn.,tion it is possible t,o deduce a n exltrrssion for t.hc (1r:l.g from the perfect-fluid theory. I t s ~nngnit,rrtle nnit lengt,h per of tllr cylir~dric:~l hotly is given hy

Circ~tlur cylittder. 'l'hc frccluency wit,lr wl~ich vor1,irc~s r r shrcl in a I<:i.t,rrl:i~i a vortrx ~ t , r e r1)rhintl a circular cylir~dcr t was l i r ~rxt~cns~vcly t rncns~rrctl 11. Hlnnlc, I). I"ucltx I)y n.nll 1,. 1,icbcrs [ R ] . A rngr~lnr K:i.rrn;irt st.rcct is ol~srrvt~tl orlly 111 t11r mllgc: of J l c ~ ~ ~ n o lltllrnbrrs IT I ) / v f r o ~ nabout 00 1.0 5000. At. lonrrr 1~vyt1oItls \ ~ I I I ~ I ) ~ I . s tls I t-he wnkc is lnminnr nrrd has the form visible in the first two pllot.ogrnplls of lcig. 1 .(;; a t l~iglrerlteyr~oldsn u r ~ ~ b c r s t,herc is c o ~ ~ ~ p l t lt~ r b u l r ~ mixing. Mcn.sllrcb1nrr1t.s c e lt show t,lrat in t,ho regular range given nbovc, the tlirncnsionlcss frcclncr~ny,

n = e U 2 h 2.83 -- -1.12

I ; ,

hlorc rrvrrlt c.xpcvirnr~rt.nl irtvmI.igr~t.iolrs to \W. .I\ Dnrgin nnd ot.llrrs [I31 r.stnblishetl tlrle :III nc.tS1.lrr;lIin~ voltrx sll.vrt, 1 . 1 1 ~rnt io 01 (,ttrlnngil.l~tli~l:rl llir t~nr~svrl-sr to s~raritlg tllc of vorl.icl.~ l l n I l g ~r~o118itlornl)ly. s n rrs~tlt.,lr(- rrgrrlnr nrrntrgrrrrr~rl vort.irm is l.rntlsfornlrclintn t~ ~n A 1 of n t . ~ ~ ~ ~ l )a:rkc. r r l , ~~le ., .
t.ltnt. i t ,

also Izt~owt~ t.llc S ~ , I . O I I tllttl1l)rt. 1371, tlt%l)c.ntls ~ r l yon 1 I 1 ( a I < c ~ ~ . ~ ~I oI lI t Il Is~ , ~ . ~ . . as ~I:I~ o I I 'J.'Iris rrlxt.ionshij) is s h o w ~ l plotted i l l Wig. Z.!) which is btrsc~lott tnc.zsr~rrmc~nt~s 1,crforrnctl hy A. R , ~ s J ~ l r v 132.1; see also [IS]. 'l'hc c~xp~rirncrrtal point,s whic:h wprr 01)t.ai~tctlwil.11 cylir1t1cr.qo f tlilrr?rcnt8tli:~rrlot.cra11 nr~tlrtt tlill'c.rcrlt, voloc:it.ic~s I' ;rr.l.:ttrgc t~~etnsclves well or1 n sir~glccrrrvc. At the higher Rrynoltls nu~nhorst.hr Stror~llnl nurnbcr rernnins a~rproximntelycortst,n.nt.nt S = 0.21. '1'11is vtiluc. of S, ns ~ t ~ c . 1 1 fl.0111 Fig. 2.!), prevails up to a I t c y ~ ~ o l r nambcr R = 2 x 10" t,hnt, is i t 1 t,ho srtl,cr.it~ic~nl ls range (see also Fig. 1.4). A t higher Reyrloltls nnml)rrs, sn.y arolrrrtl R = 106, a, r,gt11nr vort'ex stret:t does not exist,. According to A. Itoslllro 131 1, s i ~ r ln~ rcgl~larstrrct. re-nppc.ars at, ext,rcmcly large Rcyrloltls nurnbrrs (R 1 :1 x 100) ~vhcn1.111. St.1~0111lol

32
030028 -026
-

I I. 011t.linc boundary-leycr theory of

02 L
0 22 020 01 8 016 OIL01 2
~-

V n = 3 ' 10cm Frltnbrrgcr ( I ) D = 2 + 1Rcm I)rcnrl~er 1)- 0 , d + 4 <,I11 Illbncr nticl lCl klnn ( 2 ) 1)s 26 mi
1~11111111

O 1)- 45 ctn Ilrallko (3) 1)- 91 cm

Jones e t

sl.

- -

Fig. 2.9. The Stroi~l~nl n~trnher, , for thc I<Lrni.ittvort.cx st,rcct i n t,hc flow pnst n r i r c ~ ~cylindcr 5 l~r in terms of the Rcyt~olds nr~lnber, Mcnsure~ncnt.s R. performed hy A. Roshko 131. 321.11. S. Ribner, 13. 14;tkitls nnd K . I<.Nelly [30]. E. 1'. llelf end L. F. G. Simmons [28] ns \vcll na (2. M. Jones et 81. ' (181?f (.'l~np.I ) . 111 t,l~c range R 3 X 10Vo 3 k 10"(811pcrcriticnl rogit~~c very Ion. tlrllg. wit,h Fig 1.4) the 1<hrmA11 vortex st.reet,is no loger regular. It is ol~lyat R > 4 x loRt,hat.n reg~~lnr pst.terr1 ~ O T I I I Rngeitl; its St.ro111lnInumber iu now higher at. S = 0.26 t,o 0.30 compnrcd \vit,l~ 5 % 0-20 nt. R - 10Vo 3 x 105

number assumrs values around S = 0.27 I n this connexion the paper by P W Bearmarl 1.7~1 may also be consult,ed. When t,hc diameters of the cylinders are small and the velocities arc moderate, tlic resulting fr~quencies in the acoustic range. For lie example, the farnilinr "aeolian tones" emitetl by telegraph wires are the result of t,liese phcnornena At a velocity of V = 10 mlsec (30.48 ftlsec) and a wire of 2 mm (0.079 in) in tliarneter, t,he frequency becomes n = 0.21 (10/0.002) = 1050 sec-', and the corresponding ltcynolds number R a 1200.
Flnt plnte s t zero incidence. The fact t h a t a regular vortex street est,nblislies itself, among ot,hcrs, behind slender bodies a s well a s in compressible streams has only bren cstal)lishcd recently by 11. J . IIcinemann c t al. [18]. The photograph of I'ig. 2.10 shows S I I C ~a regular vortex street behind a flat plate a t zero incidence for a Mach number M = 0.61. The diagram in Fig. 2.11 contains a plot of the Strouhal number, , S = rrdl I,', formetl wit.11 t.he plate thickness, d, in terms of the Mach number, but only for t h r s111,sonic~ mnpr M = 0.2 to 0.85. T h r dingram proves t,hnt, here too S a 0.2, 11s vais 1111- ri~s(. li)r t 1 1 ~virrulalr eylintlrr in Fig. 2.9. The corres~)ontlingReynolrls rtumbers, rrfcrrcrl to t.11~ length of the platme, in the range R = V l l v = 3 x 105 t o are 8 x 10Vn which t,lle flow is laminar. I

Fig. 2.10. Von I<hrtnltn vort.ox ~troet, l)t:I~itltl a flat plate nt zero incidcncc at n Mncll n n t n ber M = 0.61 nntl a Ttcynolcls nrtn~bcrR = V l / v = 6.5 x 105 after 13. J. Heinctnn~~n ct al. [18]. Lengt,h of plnte 1 = 00 mni, thiclcncns ratio dl1 = 0.05. 11:xpoanrc time approx. 20 nnnonec (20 x 10-"ec)

]Pig. 2.11. Stro~ll~t~l I I I I G ~ : ~ -- vt.d/lJ i l t III S terms of the Mach nrltnbcr for the vortex street bellit~dn flnt plnte nt zero incitlence, after H. J. I[einctnnnn et nl. [I81

a n earlier paper by L. Rosenhead [32a] may also be consulted. The reader may also be int,crested t o look up the text of a remnrlr made b# 1,. Prandtl on the occasion of a lecture by I<. Friedrichs (,,Bemerlrung iiber die ideale Striimung u1n einen Korper bei verscl~windender Zahigkeit" Lectures on aerodynadics and allied subjects, Aachen 1929, Springer, Berlin 1930, pp. 51, 52).
Scpnrntion. The borrndnry-laycr tl~cory suceccds in this nianncr, i.c. wit11 t,ho nit1 of the explanation of thc phenomenon of separation, in td~rowingligllt on t,hc occurrence of prcssurc or form tlrag in ntlt1it.ion to viscor~rrtlrng. Tllc t1nngc.r ol' I)ol~t~(larylayer separation exists always in rcgions with a n adverse pressure gradient antl t h e likelihood of its occurrence increases in t11c case of steep pressure curves, i.e. behind bodies with blunt ends. The preceding argument explains also why t h e expcrinlent,al pressure distribution shown in Fig. 1.11 for t h c case of a sler~der st,rcan:lir~e body differs so little from t h a t predicted for frictionless flow. T h e pressure increase in the downstream direction is 11erc so gradual, t h a t there is no separation. Conseqnently, there is no apprcciablc prcssurc drag and the total drag consists mainly of viscous drag and is, therefore, small. The st,rcarnlincs i r l the bountlary layer rlcar scp:tr:ttion arc show11 tlingram~natically in Pig. 2.12. Owing to the reversal of the flow t,llcrc is a consitlerablc t l ~ i c k c n i ~ ~ g of t.11~ boundary layer, antl associal,ed wit,h it,, thern is a flow of bountlary-layer mat,orial i11t.o the outside region. At tllc point. of srpnr:~.l~io~l st,rramlinc interone

Two p.21)cr~by C. C. Lin. [22] and U . Domm [I 11 concern themselves wit11 the t,l~eory t,llc I<Armhn vort,ex street,. The formation of a vortex pair behind a flat of plnt.6 i l l cross-flow at, right, angles to it has been investigated t,heoret,ically by E. Wederncycr [RUa], \\~herras1'. Sarplraya [3311] conducted t.licorcttical and experimental st11(1i(>s n ~ d n ( nrranprtl nt n I:~rgeangle ol'at,t,aclc (see Fig. 4.2); in t-his ronncxion For r

1). Scl)nralion and vortex iormntion

35

src1.s t,l~c wall a t n tlcfinitc angle, ant1 t,lrc point of s~p:iri~t,ion it,sclf is tl~:tern~irlctl 1)y tllr ro~lrlitinnt h a t t.11~ velocil,y grarlic.111.norlnnl t o the wall var~isl~cts t.htrc:
S

p o i ~ orscpnrnt.ion ~l

T'ig. 2.12. I)ingmnitnnt,ic represellt.nf,ion of flow i l l t,llc 11o1lt)tlnry layer near n point, of ~cl)nrnt.ion

I llc prccisc location of the point of st!pariit.io~lca.11 110 tlctcrr~lit~ctl 0n1y wit.h t.l~c i t l ~ of an cxncl. c:ilo~ll:~l~ion, I)y tlto i n l i ~ g r i ~ t i o r ~1.111: I,o~c~~tl:~ry-I:~.y~:r i. e. of' t:q~l:~t,io~l?i.
7

Scparal.ion, as tlrsc:ril)ntl for l l ~ c r:~sc: o f n t:irc~~liir ttyli~ltlcr,ciin :LISO occur in a tligl~lytlivergerlt rhxnncl, Fig. 2.13. I n f r o r ~ t the l.l~roat. 1 1 ~prcssnre tlccrcnsrs of t it1 thc dirrctiolr of flow, atltl the flow ntlllcrcs conlplclcly t.o tllc walls, a s in a f r i c t ~ i o n l c ~ ~ fll~i(I. Jlowcvcr, bcl~intlt,ho tllront t.lrc tlivcrgcncc of tho cl~nnncl so I:lrgc? t.I~:it. t.11(: is bountlary layer bccolnes scparatetl frorn both wnlls, nrld vort,iccs arc I'ormcd. TIIC stream fills now only n srnall portion of tho cross-scct.ionn1 area of t.11~ clrannc:l. llowever, separation is prevcnted if bonntlnry-layor snctiorr is npplictl n.t t,l~c wall (Ipig~. 2.14 ant1 2.16). Tllr. photogrnphs in Figs. 2.16 nnd 2.17t j)rovc t.hat tllo atlvrrst~ ~ ) I . I , S S I ~ ~ ~ : gr:dicnt t,ogct,llcr will1 fricI.ion near t.lra wall tlctcrlninc tire proccas of sc~):~r:iLiotr wllicll is intlcpontlcnt of sllch o t h r circumstance as c. g. t l ~ c curvnture of tJlc wall. 'Jllic first picture shows the mot,ion of a floitl against n wall nt right angles to i t (plant stsagnnt.ion flow). Along t,hc streatnlinc in t . h ~ - ~ ) l a ofesymmetry whic11 lm,tls ho t,lrc n st,agnat,ion point tllcrc is a cot~sitlcrablc prcssllre incrcnsc i n t,hc clircclion of flow. No sepnration, howcver, occurs, because no wall friction is prcscnt. 'I'herc is no sepnmt,ion near t h e wall, either, because here t,he flow in thc bonntlary laycr taltcs place i n the direction of clecrcasing pressrlre on both sides of t-he plnnc of symmetry. If no\\. a tl~irl wall i~ placed along thc plnnc of syrnmctry a t right anglcs t o thc first, wn.ll, Fig. 2.17, t h e ncw boundary laycr will show a pressure increase in t,hc dircct.ior1 of flow. Conscqrlrnt.Iy, scparat,ior~ now occurs nm,r 1 . 1 1 planc wall. 'L'hc incitlcnce of scpnmt.ion ~ is often rntllcr scnsitivc to srnnll cl~nr~gt?s~ slrnpc of t.he solid botly, part.ic:~~lnrI~. i r the when t h r prcssrrrc tlistribuLio11 is strongly affcct.ct1 by this charrgc in s11al)c. A very instrrrctivc exnrnplc is given in L ~ I C pit:t,l~rcsof Fig. 2.18 whicl~show pl~otogrnpl~s of the flow fioltl alto~rtn n~otlrlof :I tnot.or vefricle (t,hc Volkswa~gcrlclolivcry vnn), 123, 351. Whcn t,l~o nosc was Il:~t, giving i t an angular slrapc (a), the flow past thc: fairly s l ~ n r p corners in front car~scd largo suct,ion followed by : large prossure incrcnsc L along the sidc walls. This led to ronlplcte scpnration and t o tlle formati011 of a wido wake behind the body. T h c drag cocfficietlt of tlre velricle with this angular shape 11ad n valnc: of C , .= 0.76.Thc litrgc: sl~ct,ion ncar t h e front cnd itnd l.11~c ~ ~ : ~ r : ~ l . i o n s along t l ~ c sirlo walls were clinlinat,c:tl WIICII t,hc s11ape wa9 ol~nt~gctl a.rltlirlg 1.I1t: by rollrrrl nose shown a t (I)). Sirnult,ancortsly, tho tlrag cocfticierrl became rna.rltrtlly smaller ant1 had a value of CD = 0.42. Further rcscarch on such vchiclcs have beell performctl by 11'. H. IIucho [In] for the rase of a non-~yrnrnet~ric strcam.

Fig. 2.14. Flow wit.11 1)ortnrlnryIn.yor srlc(.iot~on upper w d l of Irigllly tlivcrgerlt cl1n1111rl

Fig. 2.1.5. Flow wit,l~honndnrylayer nuchion on 110th wall8 of highly divergent channel

Fig. 2.16. nrld 2.17.11nve I)een t,alten from Llle "Stronl~~ngrr~ I)an~pfkossrlnt~lnfcn" in by TI. Foet,t,ingcr,Mittcilltngcn tlcr Vert-inig~~oc! Ilr*.'IUUU:ICrsqelbenit,7.e.r, No. 73, 1,. Ihl (1!)39).

b. Separation and vortcx formation

37

Separatiori is also important for the lifting properties of nn aerofoil. At small incidence arlglcs (up t o about lo0) the flow does not separate on either side anti closely approximates frict8ior~lcss cot~tlit~ions. prcssurc distrih~it~ion slleh a cnsr The for ( " S ~ I I I Iflow, Vig. 2.11)n) WILR givo11 in Vig. 1.14. Will1 inoron~ingi~tcitlo~~cn ~" l,lrc\rc* is tlangcr of srl>arnt,iotion tPhesrlcI,io~~ of tho ncrofoil, I ) c e r ~ ~ ~ s o l ) t ~ e s s ~i~lr. e sitlo t,l~e l crcnxe bccomcs sleepcr. Por n given ai~glc incidenc~, of which is nljout l!jO, p a r a t ~ i o ~ ~ ~c Litinlly occurs. The scp:~ratioll o i ~ is tlocated fairly closely behind the lcadirig cdge. p ~ Tl~c wr-kc, Fig. 2.19b, shows a large "(lead-water" nrca. The friclionless, lift-creating flow patter-n has I)ccornc dislurbcd, ancl thc drag has become very largo. The ,heginning of scpnrat.ion n c ~ r l y coincidcs with t<heoccurrence of maximum lift of the acrofoil. Str~acturaloerodynomics. Flow around land-bnsed bluff bodies, suc11 as structures ant1 b~~ildings,consiclcral~ly is more complex t h a n flow arountl streamlined botlies and aircraft. The principal cause of complication is the presence of the grountl a ~ i t l the shear created in the turbulent wind as a consequence. The interaction between the incitlent shcar flow and the stsruct,ureproduces coexisting static and tlynamic loads [8, 9, 101. Tlie fluctuating forces produced by vortex formation and shedding can induce oscillat,ions in thc structures nt. l.heir natural frcqllencics.

flow with IGg. 2.16. Frrc stagnation flow \vitl~o~~tarpn- Fig. 2.17. 1)rcrlrrated 8Lag11:~tiorl sc~~arntion, pllotogrnphed by Focttingcr ns ration, au pliotogrnphrtl by Fotttingrr

fa1 Anaubr nose

The flow patterns observed on a tlctachcd rectangrllnr building is shown sahrlnalically in Fig. 2.20. I n front of the builtling t,l~ere appears a bound vortrx w11ic.h arises from the interaction of the boundary layer in t,he sheared flow (d V/dz > 0) ant1 the ground. There is, furthermore, strong vortex shedding from the sharp corllcrs of the building and a complex wake is created behind it. So far no theoretical mctliotls have been developed t o cope with this extremely complicated flow pattern. It is, therefore, necessary t o rcsort t o wind-tunnel studies with the aid of adeqrlately scalctl models.

(b) Round nose

I
( I

I
0.92

no separation

IFig. 2.18. I'low n.l,orrl, n ~ n ~ ( lof l a noto or vrl~inlc(Volltsw:i.gc:n t1i:livrry vrm). nftrr 15. Morller c 1231. n) Angulrrr 11oso will1 8rpnrntcd flow nlorlg td~owhole of the aidc wall rind lnrge drag cocfficicr~t(C,, = 0.70); h) 1tor111d iionc wit11 11" ~cpnrntionnntl small clrng cocmcic~lt(CD = 0.42)

bound

Pig. 2.20b

Fig. 2.20. Overall view of flow pat,tern (schematic) around a rcotnl~gular st.rocture [MI. Side view with a) foreward hound vortex in the stagnation zonr and ~cperntod roof l>otlntlnry layer; h ) ~lpwit~tl and fcce vortex ~hcrlt~i~rg tho from t hn willdward rornrr of thr roof

%'o conclude t l ~ i section, we ~vislrt,o tlisc~iss partsicrlla.rlytellitig example of s n enectively it is possible to reduce the drag of a body in n st,rearn wlret~t.lrc sel)arntioll of the boundary layer is cotnpletely elirninatrtl ant1 wherl, in ntltlit,iol~, I ~ o t itsrlf the l~ is given a shape wlrich is contlucivc to low rcsist.nncr. Pig 2.21 illr~strnt.cs c.i~(:rt, tllr R fnvvrnble sllnpe (strenmlinc body) on drag: it syintrteLrlc ncrofoil nlltl a rirc-ltlar c:ylintlcr (thin wire) have brrn drnwr~ hrrc to n relative sc3:~lowllicl~ rtssrtrc:s c:clrlnl t I r n g in sl,rcnms of cclnnl velocit,~. 'l'lre cyliritlcr Iras a tlrag coc>fficicnt(I % 1 wit,lr rc?s~c,ct, :, to it,s fro~lt~nl (scr also Fig. 1.4).0 1 1 t.hc otlicr I~nnrl, (Irag cocfficit:trt,ofI II(, ;I(.I.,,arcn {.I\(: foil, rcfcrrctl to iLs cross-seclionnl nrcn, lras the very low vnlllc* of , - 0.00(;. 'I'll!: : f cxt.rclnrly low tll.ng of tllc ncrofoil is nclricvetl ns n rcscllt, of n c n r t ~ f r ~r.llosc.t~ ll~ ,)l.olil,, wlliclt assures l l ~ a the bor~ndnryInycr rcrnnins lnrnirrar ovcr nlmost t,llc \vllolc of its t wett.ed Irngth (Inlninnr nt:rofoil). Tfit,llis conncxion, Chap. XVf l nt~tl, c!s~)rc.i:tll~, Icig. 17.14, slrorlltl Ije oons~rlt.cd.

Y?\

c.

Turhl~lertt llnw in n pipe arid

ill

n bo~~ritlnry layer

Fig. 2.21. Acrofoil and circular cylinder drawn in such relation to each other as to produce t.he serrle drag in pnrallcl flows (parallel to axis of svrnmetry of a~rofoil)

liig. 2 . 2 2 ~

. . - 1 0 6 to 107, Fig. 17.14. c i r c u h r cr/linder: Drag cocfficirt~tcn = 1.0 s t R d - 104to 109; Fig. 1.4. TIIIIU ttlo ratio of the chord of tho norofoil,1, to tho clin~nctrr. d, t.t~r ryIil~tIt.ris Ild 1 010.006 -- 167

l'ig. 2.22"
I

Iiig. 2.22.

'1'11~ I?,,) ~lolds

hlensnretrrctrt,s sllo\v tl1n.t t.lre t.ypc of tnol,iot~ tl~ro~lglr rirctllnr pipr \vhich \\.as n calc~~lal.cd Section l(1, and in wlricli 1 . 1 1 ~ vclocily tlislril)trt.iotr w:~s ~~:r,rnbolic, in exists only a t low ancl n~odcrnteReynoltls numbers. T l ~ c fact t h a t in tllc laminar motion tinder disoussion fluitl Inminno slide over cach other, and tlri~ttllcrc: aro no rndial vc1ocit.y rori~potrrnt.s, t.hnt I.l~e so prcsstrre ilrop is proportiotr:~l t,o t)lrc firs1 power of t.he rrlcnrt flow vclocit.y, const.it1ntrsnn esscrit.ia1 c:linrnct.rristic: of t,llis ~ . y p c of flow. T l ~ i s clrarnrt.rrist,ic the motion c:nn bc mntlc clearly visil,lo 1)s i n l r o t l r ~ c i ~ ~ g a clyc into the st.rmm anrl by tliscl~nrgingi t tllrorlglr a t , l ~ i r rt,rll)c, Fig. 2.22. ~ l t t,lrc , motlernt,e Rrytiolds ~ i u n ~ h e r s associntc-d wit,l~In~nit~:rr flow t.lre tlyc is visit~lr i l l tfhr form o i a clearly tlefinetl t,l~rcad ext,cnding ovcr the wllolc Irngtlt of t,hc pil~,., Fig. 2.22a. 13y incrcr~singt.lte flow velocity it, is pnssil~lc1.0 r m c l ~ stage .vlretl t.hc a Ruid pnrtic!les cease t o inovc alor~g st,m.iglrt linrs ant1 t.lrc rcgr~lnrityo tlrc mot.ior~ C brrnks do\vn. l'lrc colourcd Lltrencl bcc:o~nc~ rnixecl wit,\) i,lw fll~itl,its s l t a r ~ ) o~rt.li~~c? becotnrs blr~rrcd ant1 cvc-nt.11a.ll.y wlrolc oross-srrlio~l tllc I)c.rotnrs colorlrrtl, Pig. 2.221). On t.lrr n,xinl nlotion t,hcrc are now s l l ~ ~ r ~ . i ~ n j ) o s o t l irrc~gr1l:trratli:ll f l ~ ~ c t . r l : ~ t . i o ~ ~ s wI1irl1 clli.c.t the rnixir~g.Suclr a flow pnt.tern is cnllccl l11,*ule~r!. 'l'lrr t l j ~ e x l ~ c r i ~ l i r n t c was first carried out by 0. R e g r ~ o l ~ l1291, wlro ns~ert~ninctl s tllnt, tire taansitsic.n honl tlrc laminar t o Lllc t~trrhrl!c~lt t,ypc of motion ttaltcs pl:rcc a t a tlcfinit.~ v:t.lnr o f t11,. I<.cynoltls r ~ ~ l m l ) c(crit.ical Itcynoltls 111llnl)rr).7 ' 1 1 ~: ~ c t ~ l nvalr~o of llrc criiic.:~~ r l Tteynolds ~ t u m b c rclrpcntls firrtller on t,lic dct.nils of t , h ~ cxt)crirncrrl,nl :trmngcmr~~t., in p:~rt.ic:~tlar t.hc amollnt of disl.~lrl)n.nr!,s u f i ~ o t lby bllo fluitl Ijcforo c:~rt.c-ri~i~ on t h e pipe. Wit.11 a n nrrangem~rit, wirirh is as f'rcc from dis1rlrl)ancrs as possil,lc rrific.:~i Rcynoltls nr~mbers( i i d / ~ ) , , exceeding 10"nn ,~ I)c att.ainrrl (ii, = dc~iot,cs tJrc meall velocity nverc~gedovcr t l ~ c cross-sectionnl a.rca). M'i(.l~a slrnrp-ctlgctl nrtt.mnc~c1 . 1 1 ~ c:rit,icnl Iteynoltls ~ u ~ m h becomes a.pproximnf.rly cr

t l v ~ ~ x ~ w ~ . t ~ uFlow i l l ent. \v:tbr mnclr vigihlc by t.hr il1jrc.tio11 n (lye, nftrr \Ir. of I ) I I ~ 1R 121; a ) Int~,innrflow. R 1150: 1)) t11rb111r11t !low,

(ct)crll
=

R,,,

2300

(pipr) .
t

,I his v x l t ~ r~ . ; I I I 1)c rcgnrtletl as t,llc lowrr lintit. Ihr 1,11(y

rit.ic:nl 1tc:ynoltls

rir~~l~l)t\l.

R - 2520

I)c.low \vl~irlrever1 st,rotig dist,urbrttrcrs (lo not, rntlsc t,llc flon. to I,c.c,omc* l,~~rl)rtlnrr~..

I n t,hc trtrl~rtlontregion t,hc pressure tlrop becomes approximately p r ~ p o r t ~ i o n a l t,o t,hc sclllarc of tlre ~ n e a nflow velocity. 111 this case a consiclerably larger pressure tliffcrencc is reqrrirctl in ordcr t,o pnss a fixctl quantit,y of fluid t.hrol~gIr the pipc, ns corrlparocl wit.11 Iarninar flow. l'his follows from t,ho fact t h a t t.lro plrcnomcnotl of t.url)~llrrrt tnixing dissil)at,cs a largc qrt:u~lit,y enorgy which c:~rtscs t,hc rcsist,:tnc:c? of' 1.0 Ilow t.o incrt:asc cot~si~lcr:tl)ly. l~rrrl,llcr~norr, I.hc casr? of Lnrl)r~lcrlt, in llow t,llc volodistritlut.ion over the cross-scct,ior~al arca is rnrlch tnoro c v c ~ ~ in 1:lrninnr t,lr:trl flow. 'rhis circnmst,ance is also t,o be explailletl by turbulent mixing which causes a n cxt:hangc of m o m c n t ~ t m bctwccn the layers near t h e axis of the tube and tfhose near t,hc walls. Most pipc flows which are enco~lntererl engineering appliances occur a t in such high Reynoltls numbcrs t h a t turbrllcrlt ~notiorlprevails a s a rule. Thc laws of turbr~lentmotion through pipes will be discrlssed in detail in Chap. XX. 111 a way which is similar t o the motlion through a pipe, the flow in a bor~ndary laycr along a wall also becomes turbulent whet1 the extcrnal velocity is sufficient,ly largc. lSxpcriment,al investigations into the transition from laminar t o turbulent flow in t.he 1,oltntlnry Inyer were first carried out by J . M. Burgers [GI ant1 I3. G . vnll (lcr licgge Zijncrt 1171 as wcll as by M. IIansen [lG]. The t,ransit.iorl from laminar t o turbulent flow in t h e boundary layer becomes most clearly discernible by a sr~tltlcna.nd largc irtcrease in the boundary-layer tl~iclrncssant1 in the shearing st.ress near the wall. According t o eqn. (2.1), with 1 replaced by tohe current coortlinatc s , the dimensionless boundary-layer thickness 6/1/1'27~; becotnes constant for laminar flow, and is, a s seen from eqn. (2.la), approximately c q t ~ atlo 5. Fig. 2.23 oontains a plot of t,llis tlimcrlsiorllcss bountlary-layer thickness agairlst the IZcynoltls number IJ, z / v . At R, > 3-2 x 10" very sharp increase is clearly visil)le, arid

an itlcnt,irnl plrcnomcnon is ol~srrvctlin a plot, of wall slrrari~rgstrcss. 'l'lrr srttltlcr~ incrcast? ill t,llrsc c1r1antit.ics tlcnot,cs t01:lt t.l~cflow Il;ts cl~arlgc.tl fro111 I:lmirl:lr t,o tr~rl)ulctll.. 'I'lrc Ttcynoltls tlrtrn1)cr R, 1):lsctl on t . 1 1 ~ ol~rrcnt,I(rtlgt,lr z is rc.l:tIrtl to t,l~(: ltry~toltls1111tl11)rr -:(I,?,,?/I, 11:1sr(I I I t.l~(, ~ o r ~ ~ t ( I : ~ ~ ~ y~ l : ~ y< ~ IrI ~, O IsI s I I R,, O l tl -i~:l ( ~~ ~ ~ I t,Itt, cvln:Ll.io~~

R,, . -

I/ R*

a s sprn from rqn. (2 1 a). l l r ~ l r c o tltr rriticxl Rrynoltls r~rtrnl~rr t

Fig. 2.23. Bor~ndnry-layer tllickness plobtedr against the Reynoltls number based on'the current lcngth z along a plate in pnrnllel flow a t zero incidence, ~s measrtrccl by llanscn [I61

there corrcspontls R g crlt = 2800. Tllc bor~~ltlary Inyrr or1 :I plate is Inrrlin:cr rrcnr t.l~t: lentling edge nrttl bcconles turbulent f~lrt.llcr tlo~vrlst,rca~n. nbscissn r,,,, of t l ~ t 'I'ltc poirrt of lrnt~sit~ion IICclctcrminctl f r o n ~Llrc k t l o w ~v:~lticof R, can ~ I n t . 1 1 ~caso of n plate, a s in the prcvior~slytliscussctl pipe flow, t.ltc rrrtntcricnl vaI11o of R,,,, dcpcntls t o a ~narkctl tlegrce on tlre arnorlnt of' tlist.~trl~ancc t.110 nxt,crn:tl flow, :1t1t1 in the value R, = 3.2 x 10%slrot1lcl be regartlet1 ns a lower limit,. With oxccpt.iorl:~Ily tlist~trrbnncc-frcc cxt.crnal flow, valrtcs of R, - 10%rlrltl I~igltrr 11:~vc been :~tt.ailrrtl. A 1):~rticul:trly rernarltable phcnorncno~l connccl,ctl with the transit.iotl from laminar t o trlrbrtlt:rrt flow occrtrs i r l t,he casc of blrtnt llotlics, sl~cll s circr~lar a cylintlers or spheres. I t will be seen from Figs. 1.4 arttl 1.5 t,l~aL tlmg coef'ficierlt o f a circrtlar the cylirrtlcr or a sphcre srtffcrs a s~~tltlctr :tot1 consitlcral~ledccrcasc 1lr:rr Itcynoltls rrri~nl~crs I)/v of bout 5 X lo5 or 3 x lo5 rcs~)ccLiv(~l~. fact was first, obscrvrtl 1' . 'I'lris on spttcrcs by G . 1I:iffrl 1141. It. is a conscquerlcc of t,ransition whicl~cnttses t.lle point of separation t o movc clownstacam, l)cca~rsc, t,hc case of a turbulcrrt 1)ountlary in laycr, tJtc accelerating influence of tthc cxt.crn:ll flow oxt,cntls fur1,her due t,o t.t~rbulrrrt. mixing. ~Tcncctile point of separation wllicll lies near the cqnator for a laminar I)o~rr~tlary I:~ycr nlovcs over a corrsitlcml~lotlislnr~ccit1 t,he downstream tlircct.ior~. In t,rlrn, the tlcad arca decreases considcmbly, anti t,ltc pressure dist,ribution becomes more like t,lrat for frict,ionless motion (Fig. 1.11). The decrease in tltc rlcad-wat,cr region consitlcmbly reduces t h e prcssrlrc tlmg, and t h a t shows itself as a jump ill the crtrve G, . f(R). L. T'mnrltl [26] provctl tlre corrcct,~rcssof t,lrc prrcccling = rcasoning 11y nlo~inl~ing I , l ~ i r iwirc ring III; a ~Itort, n (I~Y(~ILII(:C f r o ~ t t I,11occlri:lt,or ill or of a sphere. This car~scs boundary laycr to bccome art,ificially tur1)rtlcrlt a t n lower the Reynolds n l ~ m b c r arrcl the tlccrcasc in t,hc tlrng cocfficicrrt taltes place carlicr Lllatr would otherwise be the case. Figs. 2.24 and 2.26 reproduce photographs of flows which have been made visible by smoke. They reprcsctlt the subcrit,ical pattern with a large value of the drag coefficient and the supercritical pattern with a small (Iced-water arca and a small value of t h e drag coefficient. The sttpercritical pat,tern was achieved with Prandt,l's tripping wire. The preceding cxporimcnt sl~owsin a convincing nlanncr t,hat t h e jrtnlp in the drag curve of a rircular cylintlcr and sphere can only be interprctcd a s a borindary-layer phcnomcnor~.Otlror bodies with a blunt or rounded slcrn. (c. g. elliptic cylil~tlcrs) display :I type of rclat.ionship bctwcen drag coefficient ant1 Rcynolcls nttlnbcr wllicl~is sr~l)sta~~li:illy sinlilnr. \Vit,lt increasing slcntlcrness the jump in tfhc ctlrvc i)ccomcs ~ ' i r o ~ r c s s i vless pronor~nccd. cl~ For a streamline body, such ns tallat shown it1 Fig. 1.12 t.h(:rc is rlo jump, I)nc:~~tsc rto :lpprrci:r.l)lc srp:r.mt,io~roccltrs; t,llr w r y gmtlrt:tl 1;rc-ssrlrc irrc!rr:lso 011 I,l~c I~;lclt

.,,,.

,,

c. T~~rhulent in n pipe nr~d a hourldnry lnycr flow in of s11c.11 1)otlics csan I)e overcome I)y t l ~ c bor~ntla.rylayer w i t , h o ~ separat.ion. AS we ~t sllall also scc Int,cr in grrat,er tlct.ail, t,l~e pressure di~tribut~ion thc ext,ernal flow in t.xrrt,s a clct~isivcinfl~~c:rlce t,hc positmionof t.lle transition point. Thc bountlnry on Ia.yrr is I n t ~ ~ i n a r t.11~ in regiotl of prcssurc deereast, i. e. rollghly from t.110 leading ntlgc? to t.hr p i n t of minimr~tn pressure, ant1 becomes t,rtrhulent, i l l most cases, from t . l ~ : ~ t point on\\,nrrl t . l ~ r i ) ~ l g l ~.o ~ region of prcsslrrc inrrcn.sc. I n this corrnexion t l r t, ~ it is iml~ort,ant statc t,hnt, scparnt,ion can only bc nvoitletl in rcgiorrs of incrensing to prcssnrc nh?n the flotv in t,hc bountlnry layer is turlrulcnt. A laminar 1)ountlary layer,

43

'hhle 2.1. Tllickness of bormdary Inyer, 6, a t t.rniling edge oF flnt plate nt zero inridencc in pnrnllel t.nrb~~lent flow
(, J
= rrcr ntrenlll vrloclty:

I = lrnqtll or pla1.e:

r = kinrn>nl.le risrasily

I
Air
v =

(1,

~ r t / ~ * c l ifi,, 100 200


2 0

1"

=.. .

U 1
10' lo7 lo7
108

rill

"1

:I
:J

150

10-e f t Z / ~ ~ v :

50 760 \VntOr
v = 11

15 25 25
R

2.0 x 4.0 x 2.0 x 8,:s x 1.25 x 2.3 x 1.35 x 3.4 x 2.3 x

0.73
O+i4
2.30

10'

2.!)0
2.68

x lo-' ft2/4cc

5 10 25
r,O

15 150
500

10' lo7
108 100

1.19 2-52 13.1


29.8

I?ig. 2.24. I i l o t v

I I : I S ~n

I ~ I ~ ~ I I n r ~~ \ ~ ~ , \ r n ~

~.~: rroll\

nL spl~rrc: n s ~ ~ h t ! r i I i ~ . : ~ l T'ig. 2.26. Flow past n ~plirre n n~~percrint, t.icnl I<c*ytlolcla r ~ t ~ r ~ ~fromr ; l > n \Virurlnl~c.rgrr \\lic.~rlnl,c.vNrr: \ ~ ( j [3!)]. Tlw nopcrcrit.ical flow pnt,tcrl~ nr.l~irin ved by tlle mounting of n thin wire r i ~ ~ g (I.rippingmire)

a s n.c shall see Int.er, can support, only n very slnnll pressure rise so t,l~at. scpnrat,iorr wonltl occur rven wit.l~ very slcndcr botlics. I n p,qrt.icular, t,his remark also applies t o the flow past nn aerofoil wit,li n pressure dist,rit)ut,iorlsilr~ilnrto t h a t in Fig. 1.14. 111 t.llis cnse scpamt~iotl most liltcly t,o ocrur on t.he sncI,ion side. A smoot,l~ is flow pattern nround n.n ncrotbil, contlr~civc ~ I I C creation of lift, is possihlr only wit.11a t,l~rhnlent t.o botlntla.ry Ia.ycr. Snrnming up it, ma.)i be st.at,rtl that, t.hc small drag of slencler botlies a s wrll &s t . 1 1 ~lift, of acrofoils are rna.tle possible t,l~~.ough cxist,enrc of n t,url)ulent, thc t)ountla,ry Inyer. y the Bour~clnr~-ln~er thickness: ( ~ c r ~ e r a l lspealc~r~g, thicknesq of a tnrbrllcnt 1,011ntlary leycr is larger than t h a t of n laminar boundary layer owing to grratcr energy losses in the former. Nenr a smooth flat plate a t zero incitlcnce the boundary layer incrcascs downstream in proportion to xoR(x = &stance from leading edge) It will 1-I(. R I I ~ W I IInter in Chap. X X I t h a t the boundary-layer tl~ieknrssvariation in (nrt)nlrnt flow is given 1,y the rqnntion
d
1

Methods for the preveatinn of separation: Sopnrnt,ion is most ly nn r~ntlcsir:~.I~lt! ~ ) l ~ r n o m c n bccnusr, it c l l t r ~ ilnrgo onorgy losscs. I'nr (.his rcnson rnc\t.llocls I ~ r ~ v o on l~ 1,(:t:11 tleviscd for the artificial prcvcntion of separation. T l ~ c sirnplest met.hotl, from t,l~c physical point of view, is t o move the wall with the stream in order t o rcdr~cehhc velocity difference between them, and hence t o remove the cause of boundary-layer formation, b u t this is very difficult to nchicvc in engineering practice. Ilowcvcr, I'rnndtl t has shown on n rolaling circ11.1ar cyli?zP.r tllat this metllod is very rfrcct.ivn. On the side where t h e wall and stream move in t h c same direction separnt.ion is cornpletely prevented. Moreover, on the side where t.11~ wall and st.renn~ move in oppositc tlircct,ions, separation is slight so t h a t on the whole i t is possible t o obt.ain a gootl experimental npproximat,ion t.o perfcct flow wit11 circulation ant1 a large lift.. Another very effective metliotl for tlic prcvcnt,iorl of scparation is ~ o ~ L ~ I ~ < I I . ! J Ltycr sudion. III this metl~otlt11c dccclcratccl fluid pnrticlcs in the bonntlary Inyrr are removed through slits in t,he wall into thc interior of the body. Wit,11 srrf'ficic.r~t.ly strong snction, sepxrat.ion can be prevented. Bo~tndnry-layersuct,ion was nsecl on a circular cylintler by L. PrantIt,l in his first. fnntl:~~nrntal invcst.igat,ion in1.o boundary-layer flow. Separation can be almost completely eliminated wit.11 suct,iot~ through a slit a t the back of t-he circ~llnrcylinder. Instrnnccs of t,he cffrct. of snc.I,ion can be seen in Figs. 2.14 and 2.16 on tile exnmplc of flows tlirougll n l~igllly divergent channel. Fig. 2.13 demonstrat,es t h a t witllout suction t.hcrc is strong separation. Fig. 2.14 shows how the flow adheres t o t.hc one sirlc on wlliclt srtction is applied, wherens from Fig. 2.16 i t is seen t h a t the flow complctcly fills the clrannel cross-sect.ionwhen t h e s ~ c t ~slits~ ~ pnt int.0 operation on botli si(Irs. I I I t . 1 1 ~ i o are latter case t,lie strea~r~lines assunlc a pat,t,crn whicl~ very sinlilar t,o l , l ~ ain liiet.j;)rllcss is t flow. In lat.cr gears sr~ct~ion sncccssfr~lly was used irt acroplanc wings to ill(-rcasc. (.11c lift. Owing t,o snc:t.ior~ the: rlppcr s r ~ r f a c : ~ t l ~ c on near t.ra.iling edge, t,l~e flo\\~ ntlllrrrs
.

= 0.37

( )
lJm,l

-'I5

= 0.37 (RI)-'l'

(2.9)

\vl~ic-llc:orrt:sl)ontls 1.0 rcln (2.2) for laminar flow. I'ahlr 2.1 gives vnlnes for tJrc 11o1111~l:r.ry-l:tyt~r i ( ~ k ~ ~ c s s tll~ o:~l(:~~laI.rtI ecln. (Z.!)) for several typical casos of air from : ~ 1 t t 1 watl~r flows.

Prnncltl-Tietjens: Hydro- nnd Aerodynnmics. Vol. 11, Tnl~lrn 11 and 9. 7,

44

11. Outline of boundary-layer theory

References

45

to t h e aerofoil at considerably larger incidence a n g l e s t h a n yonl(1 otllcrwisr b e t l r ~


rase. stalling is clrl:cyetl, nntl m u c h l n r g t r m a x i m u m - l i f t values a r e achieved [3F]. Aft,er )laving g i v e n a s h o r t out,lino of t,he f n n t l a m e n t ~ a lphysical principles of f l ~ ~ i do t i o n s w i t , l ~v e r y snlnll friot.ion, i. c. of t l ~ c o u n d a r y - l a y e r t h e o r y , w c shnll m b proncccj t o clovc!lop n m t i o n a l tllcory of t l ~ c s opl~cnorncrlnf r o l r ~ 0110 o(1111~1.ions 01' m o t i o n of V ~ S C O I I Sfluids. Thf: (icscription will b e arr:~rlgctl in t h e followir~gw a y : Wt: shall begin i n I'art A by deriving Ghc g c n c r a l Navicr-Stjokes c c i ~ ~ a t i o nrso m w h i c l ~ , f i n t u r n , w e s h a l l d e r i v e l'randtl's b o u n d a r y - l a y e r e q u a t i o n s w i t h t h e nick of t h e sirnplificstions which c a n b e inl,rotlucctl a s a cor~seclucnccof tjhe s m a l l v a l r ~ c s visof c o s i t , ~ h i s will b e followed i n T'art I3 by a t l c ~ c r i p t ~ i o n t h e metjhods f o r t h e i n t e g m T of t i o n of t h e s e cqnat.ions f o r t h e caso of l a m i n a r flow. 111 P a r t C w e s h a l l d i s c r ~ s st h e p o b l e m of t h o origin of t,nrbulcnt flow, i . o. w e shall discuss t h o process of t r a n s i t i o n from l a m i n a r t,o t , u r b u l e n t flow, t r e a t i n g it, a s a problern i n t h e stabiliLy of l a m i n a r mot,ion. F i n a l l y , Pn.rt .D will c o n t a i n t h e b o r ~ n t l a r y - l a y c r t h e o r y for complet,ely tlcvclopcrl t ~ ~ r b u l r n to t i o n s . W h e r e a s t h e t h e o r y of l a m i n a r b o u n d a r y l a y e r s c a n m I)c trrat,ctl as n d c t l ~ l c t ~ i v e q u e n c e I ~ a s c t l n t,hc Nnvicr-Stolrrs tlifTerent,i~l s o eqllationx for viscous flrritls, t h o s a r n c is not,, a t prcscnt,, possible for t u r b u l e n t flow, t)ccnusc thc: m c c l ~ a n i s mor t n r h ~ l l c n tflow i s s o c o m p l c x t . l ~ a ti t c a n n o t b e nlastercci by p u r e l y t.l~rorct,icnl mct,hods. F o r t,his reason a t,rc;~iisc n t l n r 1 ~ n l c rflow must, tlraw 11e:~vily o ~t or1 e x p r r i m e r ~ t n l result,s ant1 t,llc s r ~ l ) j c r t n s t Ijc presented i n t,hc f o r m of a s e m i m cmpiriral throry.

References

[I] Acl~enbac:h,E.: J':xperilnent,s on the flow past spheres a t very l ~ i g lIZeynolds nr~lnbers. ~ J F M 54, 505--575 (1972). 121 Ilcrger, J':., ant1 Wille, It.: Perioclic flow p h e l ~ o ~ t ~ cA~ n I I ~ : I ~ l I I . Review of lpluitl hlcch. 4 , 3133--340 (1072). (31 nerger, 15. : Ucut.iln~nrl~~g I ~ y d r o d y n : ~ l ~ ~ (:riissen~einer I < h r ~ ~ ~ h n s r h c n dcr iwl~c ~ \I'irl)rlutransr aun t l ~ t z c l m l ~ t ~ ~ ~ e sbci ~ i g c ~ ~ I<cynolds-Znl~le~~. 12, 41 --59 (1!)64). s u klcirlc~~ ZF\Y 13nl Be:~rn~an, W.: On the vortex shedclit~gfro111n rirrulnr c.ylintler i l l the c*riticnl Reynolds 1'. number range. J1:M 37, 577-585 (l!)(i!)). 141 plnsitrs, H.: Cronzschirl~tenin Flii.qnigkeitcn wit klciner 1lcih1111g. I>ins. (:iiltingen 1!)07; L. Math. u. I'h~.s.Mi, 1-37 (1908); Engl. tri~t~sl. SAC'\ Thl 1250. in 151 Ulenk. H . . I~urlis, a~itl I).. Licbcm, I,.: uber die 3lcssrlr1g van J\'irbelfrequer~zcl~. I,~lftfi~hrtf o r n r l l ~ n ~ l 38--41 (1935). 2, [O] Burgers, J. M.:'The ~ n o t i o ofi n fluid in thr houndnry lnycr nlong n plnr~es n ~ o o t l ~ ~ surface. R o c . First lnternatior~nlCongress for .\pl~liod Mcchnnics, 1)elft. 1131-- 128 (I!)24). 171 (:ll:lt~g, 1'.K.: Sep:~rntionof flow. l'ergnl~~ot~ Press. \Vnsl~ingtonI>.C., 1!)70. [R] C,rrt~~nlr, E.: z\p~~liration fluid n~rchnt~ics \r-intl engir~rcring-- t\ Yrceelnnn Scholnr J. of to Icrture. 'l'rnns. AhhllC Fl~~itln Engineering 97, Ser. I, 9--38 (1!)75): ure nlso: Lal~or:~tory sil~~rllntiol~the :~tlnosl~l~cric~ ~ n d n rInycr. t\l'\,\ .J. 9 . 174(i-1754 (1!171). of ho y 18111 Cerlnnk, .I. E.: ~\crodynnl~~ics of h~lildingn. r\n~~rlal icxv of Yluitl Birch. 8, 75-- I00 (1970). He ,!I] Crnant. J E . . and S ~ ~ C ~ I , . Z .\:\ l i n t ~ . t ~ ~ n i l ~ i t i o n of wincl io:iciitig on str~lctares. IV s n n6 Jlrctinp: I'reprint 1417, r\SCIC Sntiotinl S t r ~ ~ c t t ~1Sngineering Alreting. 13nltit11orr.hfnryral Inr~d,171--2 j .-\pril, 1971. [I01 j)nven[~ort,,\. (;.: 'rhc rclntionship of wind structure to wintl Ionding. Pror. Col~fercnrc on \ \ . i ~ ~ 15llrrts on I311ildi11~u Str~~cstr~res, tl nnd Sntiont~lI'hynirnl I,nhor:~tory. 'Trtldingtol~, Jlid(llrnrx. (:rrnt Itritnin. 26--28 ,111nr I!l(i:l. Ilcr Mnjmty's Stationt~ry0flic.r. I , o ~ ~ t l o l ~ . \'()I. I , 54 -- I I2 ( I !)t\5).
%

>

<

[ l l ] Dotnm, U.: Ein Beitrag ztlr StabilitAtstheorie der Wirbelstmssen u n b r Beriicksicl~t,igu~~g endlieher u r ~ d zeitlich wachsender Wirbelkerndurchmesser. Ing.-Arch. 22, 400 - 410 i 1954) -,. [12] I)1111u,W.: Uber den Einfluss 1aniinn.rcr und tr~rbulcnlcr St.rii~nrtng I I dau R i i l ~ l g ~ l ~ bVOII R ~ ild Wnusor ~rntlNit,rol~cl~zol. Ilclv. 11l1ys act,:^ 12. 100--228 (I!):)!)). iI:3] I111rgit1, W.\\'., nnel I<l~.rlnson, S.I<.F'.: On 1.110 p l ~ c * ~ ~ o r ~ ~ vor1.o~ ~ of n t l r ~ ~sl.rc,c~lI~r(.:~liilon.~~. I'll! 48, 607 -627 (1!)71). 1141 ISiflhl, t i . : S I IIn rA~iut:~nc:c: ~pl~i.rcu I'nir or! I I I O I I V ( ~ I I I O I I ~(:oIII~I~.(:u ~ clc:~ (IIIIIH ,. I~,I.II(IIIH l5!)7 1.55, (1!112). 114:~lI~iirnchi~~g. 11.\V.: Acroc~last.it;cl~r l'rol~lo~~~t: Hoc~l~I~n~llco~~st.r~tlctio~~cn \ \ ' i ~ ~ ( l nn i l l frrirr un~st.riic~~clng. Vt~llcnn-Verla.g, 15sscr1, H n t ~ s der 'l'echnik, I'ilrt 347, 3 -- 18 (1971;). [I51 l'rit~~bcrger, Exparirno~~tclle 11.: Urltcrst~cl~unger~der IChr~nhnschcnWirl~clnt.rnssc. an %If\Y 5 , 355-35!) (1957). [I61 Hnnscn, M.: Die Goscl~wit~digkeik~vcrteilung Gret~zschicht, der I l n g s n t ~ g e s t r i i n ~ t , ~ ~ ~ in dcr an ebencn Plntt,e. ZAMM 8, 185-I!)!) (1028); NACA 'I'M 585 (1!)30). [I71 van (lor IJrggc Zijticn, 13.C.: Mensr~rct~~ccrtst,llo velocil.y clist.ril~~ltion L l ~ c : I ~ o r ~ ~ ~ d i l r g of in lnycr nlong n plane surface. Thcsiu 1)clft 1!J24. [I81 Hrincmann, fl. J . . I,a\var:zeck, O . , nnd 13iitefincI1, 1c.A.: I<hrmBn vortices n ~ ~ t.l~eirfrcrl quenry detcrn~inatiol~ the wakes of profiles in the s31b-and t.ransonic rrgi~nc. V I I I ~ O S ~ I I I ~ in S l'r:r~~snonici~r~~ I I (:iit,t,il~gen, Sept.. 1!)75. Springrr Vcrlng, 1!)7(i, pp. 75 -- 82: s r r s l s o T ~ ( : j \ Itl). Cor~ferrl~co I'roc. No. 177. U~~ulcrtdy I I C I I O I I I C ~ I i~l l ' ~ ' I I ~ ~ I ~ I I I : L C . ~ I ~ I(1!)75). ~' IOT~ [I91 llucl~o,\Ir. H.: l<illfl~~as Vordrrw:~geniorln auf M'idcrsCar~cl.(:icrlno~~~ortl ~ t l Sritc.nder rl krnft von Jin.stcn\r.ngcn. ZFW 20, 341 -- 351 (1972). [20] von l(Lrrnhn, Th.: uber tlen Mcchanis~~~rls Widcrnt.nntlcs, den cir~be\vcgtcr l i i i r ~ ~ inr den r einrr Fliissigltrit erzetlgt. Nechr. Gcs. \Vies. (%thingen, Math. l'hys. I<lnssc RO!) - 517 (I!)] I) and 547--556 (1912); src also CoIl. Works I, 324-3338, (211 VOII I<Armhti.Th.. and J t ~ ~ h a cf1.: Uher den h l c c l ~ n n i s ~ ~ ~ I~liissigkcits- I I I ~1,11ftn-itlrrh, drs ~ l s I st.nndcs. I'hys. Z. 13. 4 9 - ~ 5 9(1!)12); see 111so Coll. Works 1. 313!)- 358. 1221 ],in. C.C.: 0 1 1 11criodic:nlly osrillnli~~g wnkrs in the Oscen o p l ~ r o x i l ~ ~ i ~ t iv . ~ ~ . i \ l ~ ~ ~ i I<. o Rlisc:~ vera:lry V o l u ~ ~St,utlies in h l n t l ~ e ~ ~ ~ nndchtechnnirs. Ao~tlcn~ic ~e, ati s Press, Ncw Yorlt, 1050, 170.- 171;. [23] hliiller. E.: I,uft\viclerst,n~~dsrnessungeli Volks\\~ngcn-1,icfcr~vngrn. u t o ~ ~ i o l ) i I t c r l ~ ~ ~ i s r : l ~ e a111 i2 Z. 5.1. 1 --4 11951). , , 123n] Sovak. 1.: Strouhal nurnl~erof l,o~lic~ their uyut.rt~~s 1!11usinn). Strojr~ii.ky ancl (in f:;~ur~l,is 26, 72---89 (1975). 12.11 U r i f l i ~0. Rl., at~tl ~, Rnmborg, S. E.: Tl~r: vortex-ntrcct wnkc3 of vilrrating ~ylil~(l~:ru. (i6, .Il'.hl 553-576 (1974). [25] i'randtl, L.: h e r I"liissigkeit~be\vcgu11g nelir kleiner I t c i l ~ ~ ~ n g . 3rd Int,c:rl~.Rlnt.l~. hci I'roc:. Cot~gr.Heiclclberg 1904, 484---491. RcpriltL~tlin: Vicr ;\l)l~iindlt~nger~ Ilyelroclgl~ntnik zur rind Acrodynornilc, Giitti~~gen, 1927; see nlso Coll. \\'arks I I . 575--584; Engl. transl. NACA TRl 4TL (1!)28). [26J l'rnn(lIl, I,.: l)cr ~~t~ft.!!~i(~(:rsL:~r~d VOII I<II~C,III. N~tcl~r. (h. \'Vim. (Ii~t,l,i~~got~, I'11,ye. hl:~t.l~. J<lns~(:,l!)l4. 177 I!)O; sire*t~lso(:oil. \Vorlts i l , 5!)7 - fioH. 1271 I'rn~~rltl. and Ilietjet~s,0.: llydro- n ~ ~ d I,., Llcrorl~rcl~al~ilt (b:i~(:eI0 1 1 I'~ILII(~I.~'R~ ~ r c s ) . I~ct Vol. I nncl 11. Ikrlin, 192!) and 16:31; 1Ct1gI. trnnnl. by 1). Ilosrl~l~cnd (Vol. I ) nnrl ,I.IJ. (irci Ilnrt.og (Vol. II), Kow JTork, 19334. 1281 IZclf, 1':. F., nntl Sirnn~ol~s, F. (:.: 'l'lic rrrqrle~~cics cdtlirs gc:~~crnlctl thr 111otionof I,. of by cirrular cyli~~tlrrs t.l~ror~gh fluid. AllC I<M 917. l,or1do11 (1!)24). n [2!+] I<rynolds,0.: An rxpc:ritt~rr~tnl ir~vcstignt.iol~ the rircuc~~st:unccs of \rhich tletertni~~c rvlicthcr the )notion of \vat.rl. shnll be tlircct or s i r ~ i ~ oi111d of thr IR\V of rrsi4tnncc i r ~ ~ ~ n m l l c l ~~n, cltn~~ncls. I'llil. l'rnnu. Iloy. Sor. 171. !):I.',- !)H2 (IXH:!); srr nlsc~Sc.ir~itifirI':~l~c~rs 51. 2, [30] R,il~ner, S., JStltins, B., and Nccly, I<. JC.: Noise research in Cnt~adn:i'l~ysioicl a l ~ t I~ioH. l aco~lstic.Proc. First Int. Congress Acro. Sci. Madrid, Pergnmon press, I,ondon, Vol. I, 393 --441 (1959). [91] Itoshko, 11.:15xperit11enl.s t l ~ c on Ilo\v past n circ.t~lnr ryli~lilrr very high I<eynoltlsI I I I I I I ~ ~ ~ . :II ,JI"R1 10, 345--350 (1901). [32] J<oshko; I\.: 0 1 1 t,l~r tlcvelopl~~r~it of turbulent wnltcs from vorlrx strrc.tu. SL\(:A1trl1. 11!)1 ( l!)54).

[:j2a] I?o~cilhrnel, Thr forn~atior~ vort,icos horn n s ~ ~ r f n c o tliscontin~iitj~. I,.: of of Proc. Itoy. Soc. A 134, 170 (I!)BI). [:iR] Jl,r~bact~, Uher die 1S11t.stehungund Iqortl~c\vcgnt)g \Yirbrlpnnres bei zylinclriscl~on 11.: dcs I<ijrl~cn~. R R .(:iitt.i~lgen 1!)14; V ~ ) ~ - ~ ~ O r ~ l : ~ l l l 185 ~(1916 ) . I)~ llg tlft [:):l~~l S:~rllkayn.'l'.:AII inviscid ~ ~ ~ o tof l ~ r . o - c l i ~ ~ ~ c ~ V O ~iLrP~ i ~ n l lo t ~ u X s11t~lrIi11~ t r n ~ ~ s i c n t for nntl asyl~~l~t,oLi(-nlly sl.cntly Ilow ovor nn incli~~rrl ~)lale. .lFM 68. 1 0 ' 3128 (1!)75). [:MI S:iclcl~,\V.%., at111(!(:~IIIII.~<, r l ' ~ ~ r l ~r.lkc:tI (111 \vnll ~ c .J. I(.: ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ I1rrnnllrr Ilr~c:lr~:~tiot~n.' : I I ~ . .I. I hlcrl~.1)iv. AS(:lC !)#, No. IChI (\, I'ror-, 1'1tprr !)445, IS!) l!)S (1!)72). (351 Sc:l~liclrt.ing.It.: Aerotlynalni~chc U~~tcmrrch~lngc~l nu 1<1~afIf:ihrzorcge11. 'l'rc1111.I ~ o ~ ) I Itcp. sc:hrilo I%~~nr~t~sol~rnc?ig, ( l!)54). I:)0- 1:10 [;I(;] S(.III.OIII<,. : \ ' e r ~ ~ ~ cI~ l ~~A I ~ ~ : ~ ~ ~ g ~ l l ,iIiIgIr. ~ I . ItI~..I ~ ~ I ~ R ( ~ I I IrYII, In 27 (I!I:K). 0 I I ~ r .I ~ ~l I III~ i.471 St.ronh:~l.V.: Ubrr tino hononrlrro Art. clnr 'I'o~~crregr~~lg. I'II~R. A1111. 111rc1 (!0~11ii(~, No\v Srricn 5. 21(i - 2 5 1 (1878). [:)R] 'I'irn~~ir, i ) l ~ r rlic ( ; r u c ~ l ~ \ r ~ i ~ ~ t l i g k r i I , q \ ~ \,VirhoIn. lng.-Ar(.l~. 205 -225 (1!)57). A,: r in r ~ r I i : i l ~ ~ ~ ~ 25. [ : $ ~1I I\\'rclr~~~r?;c.r. A I I R ~ ~ cit~cs I I I I ~ 15.: ~ ~ ~W~~IIOIII:L:LI~(~R at1 rlrn I<RII~.CII einer I'laLte. 1ng.-Arrll. .30, 187 ZOO (l!l(;l). [B!)] L\'icsrlsl)rrgrr, C.: 1)cr I,~~ft.\viderst,n~~d I<r~gcln.ZFM 5 , 140--144 (1014). von

1)criv:ltion of t h e cc111:ltions 111otion ol' of a compressi1)le viscous fluid

a. I ~ u n c l a t t t e l ~ lequations of tttolio~tatad e ~ t t l i t t ~npplietl l o f l ~ ~ i flow al ~il~ cl Mrc sh:~ll n o w ~ ) r o n r r t l1.0 tlcrivc: t . 1 1 ~ccjl~:~l,ions mot,ior~of a ro~nl)rr~ssil)lr. of visc:o~~s, Nowt.otiinr~Iluitl. I I I t l ~ c c n c f i ~ lc::~sc? t.111.cc:-tli~nc*t,niot~ill t . i o ~ 1 . ,1 1 ~flon, g of mo ~ firltl is sy)c?cifictl I)y t . 1 1 ~ vrloci(.y v c c t o r

w h e r e 16, 11, w a r c t,hc t l ~ r c c ort11ogon:~l c o n i p o n c n t , ~ 11y Ll~oprossurc p, : t . ~ ~by tllc: , tl clcnsity Q, all conceived as f u n c t i o n s of t h e c o o r d i n a t a s z,?/, z , a n d t.imo t . P o r t h o tleterminnt.ion of t81icse fivc qlln.nt.it.ics t h o r r o x i s t fivc cql~nLions: t.11~c o ~ ~ t , i n u i t , y e q u a t i o n (conservation of m a s s ) , t h o t l ~ r c ee q u a t i o n s o f m o t i o n (ronsrrvnt.ion of m o m e n t u m ) a n d t h e t,hermodynarnic c q ~ ~ a l ~ of s t a t e p -- I(@).: ion T h e e q u a t i o n of cont.inl~it,y oxpresscs t , l ~ e fnc:t t l ~ n t for a unit, volllmo t~hcrc:is a b a l a n c e b c t w e e n t h e m a s s e s e n t e r i n g ant1 leaving p e r u n i t time. ant1 t h e c l ~ a n g e in tlrnsity. I n L l ~ c cave of non-,st.cacly flow of a comprcssil)lc llr~iclt h i s contlit.io11 Irntls t o t.i~c ctlrrnt.ion :

w l ~ e r e a sfor a11 incompressible fluid, w i t h p = const*, t,11~ ~ I I : L ~ . ~ ofI Ic o n t i n ~ ~ i t . y D ~ asstimes t h e simplified form cliv I,! = 0 . (3.1 :L)

The symt)ol l)p/I)l d e n o t e s h e r e tlle s u b s t a n t i v e dcrivat.ivo w l ~ i c lconsists of t l ~ e ~ lorxl c o n t r i b u t i o n (in nor] s t e a d y n o w ) .'te/at, ant1 t.ho c o n v e c t i v e cont,ribl~t,ion(dlic t,o branslation), rr..grad p.
-

t l u Ghe Sixth Editior~t h i rhnpter has been rovisrd by t,hr Trnl~sla(.or t,l~o ~ at. Ar~l.hor'ni~~r,it,atior~. : If the e q u a t i o ~ ~ ~fste of cont,ains ternprntr~rc.zs nn wlditional varinhle, a f ~ ~ r t l ecln:rtioi~in ~or
s~lpplietfby the principle of the ronnorvat.ion of cl~crgy 1.11~o r ~ of thr lpirst I,a\v of T ~ I ( , ~ I I I o in l l~ tlynan~inl;c / . Chap. X I I .

48

111. Derivation of the eqrrat,ionn of motion of

compressible viucoou flrrid

b. Getleral stress systen~ in

e,

defor~nable body

49

The eeI~lnl,ions motiot~ore dcrivotl fro111 Nowton's Scconrl Law, wlricl~st,ates of t,hat t h e protluot of mass and accelcrntiorr is cclual t o Lhe sum of the external forces actir~gon t,lrc 1)ody. 111 fl~lid~not.ioni L is necessary t,o consider t,hc followirrg two tire classes of forcrs : forces acl.ing t~l~ror~ghorrt mass of the botly (grsvit,ational forces) antl forces arting on Lhc bor~nrlnry(pmssurc ant1 friction). If F r= Q g denot,rs t l ~ c gravit,;\t,iorl:~l force per unit vcllumo (g vcrtor of accrlcmt,ion due t,o graviLy) ant1 I' denot,es the force on the bountlary per unit volume, tthen t,hc e q ~ ~ a t i o n s motion of can I)c writ.t,on in t,ho following vcct30r form
7.7

I#. General stress syetetn in a deformable body


e I n order t o writo down expressions for the ~ u r f a c forces ncting on the b o ~ ~ n d a r j r , let, 118 imngino n ~ ~ n n l l prtrr~llcpipctl f volulno d V = !lx (I!/ tlz isolrcf,o(l ~ I I U ~ . I L I I ~ , I L I I ~ ~ ~ o from the botly of tlrc fluitl, Fig. 3.1, and let its lower loft-l~nr~tl vcrttcx coincide wit.11 the point x, y, Z. On t l ~ c two faces of nrcn dy . tlz which arc pcrl~cn(licrllar1.0 t . 1 1 ~ z-axis thcre net two resr~lt~nnt stresses (vectors = sr~rfacc forcc per l~rritarca):
1 1 ~

and pl

-4- apz d x rcspcctively ax

wit 11

I' = i X .
~lltl

+j

4-k B

Ijotly force sr~rfi~ce force

(3.3)

1 = i I', -{j P,, '

+ k Pz

(3.4)

'I'lre synrl)ol I)tr-/l)l tlcnot.c,s hcrc t,l~c~ ~ l , s t . a n t i:~ac:clcr:~t,ion s vc whicl~, lilrc tlrc sul)stant,ivc tlrrivat.ivc ol' clot~sit.y,ronsist,~ Lhc local cont,ribr~t,iorr non-stcatly flow) of (in c?tr~/at,nntl tho convrot.ivr cont,ribut.ion (tlr~c o t,ranslntiorr) drtr/dl = (w-gmd) r c ~ t

Fig. 3.1. 1)rrivation of the expressions for the s t r r ~ e tensor of nn inl~or~~ogcneorrn utrcss nystcrn arltl of its syrnnletry in tllc absence of n volurl~ctricdistribution of local rnorncnts

'I'l~nI)otly lijrcrs arc: t,o I)c rcgardctl as give11 extcrt1:~lli,rct,s, bnt, t.lre surfnee forcrs tlr~)c:nclon t,lre rate at, wlriclr t , l ~ r fluirl is strrtined \)y tlrc vrlocit,y field present in it,. l'l~o system of fhrcos dot.crmincs a slrrtc o/ stress, : ~ n t lit is now our task to intlicat,e t,lrc rclat,ionshil, I)ct,\vcen st.rcss and ri~tc!of st.min, noting t . l ~ a it can only be give11 t o~npirically. our presrnt, clcriv:ttion \vosl~:~ll Trr rcst,rict,ntt.ention toisotropic, Newto7iini~ /b?cirls for \vlrirlr it rnny I,r nssu~nedt,Ir:~t. Iris relnl ion is a linear one. All gases ant1 t lnanjr liclr~itls int.crcst it] bountlnry-1n.yrr t.lreory, in pnrt.icnlnr wat.er, belong t,o t.Iris of cl:~ss.A f l u i t l is snitl 1.0 I)(, isot,ropir wl~c:n the r.rlnt.ion 1)ct.wcrn t.he coml)oncnts of st,rcss ant1 t.lrosc: of 1.11~rat,? o l strain is t.11~ sxnrr in all dircctiorrs; i t is said t,o bo Ne\vtr,r~i:ln \vhcr~t,lris rclat.io~l linrnr, t.l1:11. whcn t,hc Ilrrid obrys Strokes's law of is is f.rict,ion. 111 t , l ~ r cnsc of isotropic, cl;~stirsolitl I~otlirs,cxpcri~nentt,racl~esI,llnt t,lrc st.nt.c of strt-ss (lt~11cnds tJrr rnngnit~~~tlc on of sttrain il.sclf, most engineering n~at.erinls obeying Jlooltc's lincnr Inw whic:l~is so~no\vlrntannlogons.l.o Stokes's law. \Vhcrens t,he rcl:~tionl,nt,\vccrr st,rcss nnrl st.r:~itr a n isotropic elastic solid involves t,wo confor st.nnt,swhic:l~cl~nrncte~.izc1 1 ~~)ropcrt,ins a given matrerial (e. g. elirst,ic rnotlnl~~s:kntl 1. of I'O~SSOII'S rat,io), t,l~e rc,l;rt,ion bct\vccri st,rrss and rat.c of s h i n in nn isot,ropic f l ~ ~ i t l irrvolvcs n, singlr ronst,:~r~t.. 1 1 ~viscosity, [ A ) ns long :LS rel:~xat.io~r (1 pl~cnornenad o not occ5rlr wit,l~irr ns we sl~:lllsro in Scr. I l l ( > . it..

(Subscript x denotes t h a t t h e stress vector acts on a n elementary plane whicll is perpendicular t o the x-direction.) Similar terms are obtained for t h e faces d z . tlz and ilx . dy whir11 are perpentlicular to the y- antl z-axes respectivrly. Ilencc tire t l ~ r e e net components of t?lresurface forre are:

ant1 t01e rc~s~llt~ant srlrfacc forrc P per unit volume is, tl~crcforc, given I)y

1 111 ortlrr to rxprcss thr vrrtor (u.gr:~cl)rr* i l l :III nrl)ilrnry s,vsl.rlrro f roorrlir~ntm,l ~ c t follolving gf*i~(>rnl r(,l:~t~ic~r~ 111; trsr(l sl1ot111I (rt,.gr:~el) - grntl I, r v 2 - 11, x r11i-I rrV, 11, 1v11rr~ -- 11, . 11, . rrv2

The quantities p,, p,, p, are vectors wl~iclrcan I)e rrsolvcd into components perpendicular t o each face, i. e., into normal stressos denotetl by a with a srlitable subscript indicating the tlirection, and into components parallel t o eacll facc, i. o. slrcsscs denoted by t.Tlrc symbol for n s l ~ t . n r i ~ ~ g will I)o ~)rovielrd stress into ~ l i c a r i n g

50

111. l)crivnt,iot~ thc cq~tntion~ moI.ior~ n cornprrcmihlo viscous fluid of of of

b. Gencrnl stress ~ y s t e ~ rn~ dcforlnnblc botly i n

51

with two snbscripta: t h e first slibscript indicates the axis t,o which the face is perpentlicular, and t h e secontl inclicat8cs the direction t o which t h e shearing stress is parallrl. Wit,l~ this notation we have
1 , = i uz 1 :

The surface force per unit volume can be cnlcrllabd from eqns. (3.G), (3.7), ant1 (3.10) and becomes

+j + k
t,,

1 , = i t,, -1- j a,, 1 k tyz 1 , = i tzr4- try k 0, . 1 j f

tn

Thn stxrss syst,on~ soen t o req~lire in nine scalar qun.nt,itics for its clcscript,iol~. ?'heso nine quantit.irs forrn a alresa tensor. The s e l of nine componer~tsof the stress t.rl~sor somct,imrs callrtl t,he st-rcss matrix : is

--fnce
(JZ

fncc
zz

fnce
ry

I ~ ~ t r o d r ~ c the expression (3.10a) irrt-o t l ~ e ing equation of motion (3.2), nrlcl resolving into components we have: 'I'llo st.ress t,nnsor and tho corresporrding matrix are symmetric, which means t.llat two shearirrg stresses with subscript8 which differ only in their order are equal. This can be tlcmonstrated with reference t,o tfhc equations of motion of a n elemcrlt of fluid. Tn gcncml, itasmotion can be sepnrntetl into a n instantaneous translation and a n inst,znt,anoor~s rotat.ion, and only t , l ~1att.or needs t o he consideretl for our purpose. c Denoting t,hc irlst,ant.aneous angular ncccleratiorl of t.11~ eloment by &(ti),, ci),, h,), we c:ln writ,c for t,l~o rot.ation nljout. t,11o y-axis t h a t
tr),

(1 1, = (t,, tl7J dz) d x - (t,, tix d7J)(1.2 = (T,, - T,,) (1 V

where t l l y is t,hc elernent,ary momcnt of inertia about, the y-axis. Now the momcnt of inertia, d I , is proportiorla1 t o the fifth power of the linear cli~nensionsof the par ~ l l e l r ~ i p ewhereas its volr~mc, l', is proportional t o their third power. On contractd, tl ing ttllc clcmont t,o a point, we notice t h a t t.hr Inft-hand sitln of t<he preceding equation vanishcs faster t,l~an rigirt,-11n.rltl tho sitlc. Ilcncc, ~~lt.irnnt.cly,

I f t h e fluid is "frictionless" all shearing stresses vanish; only the normal stresses remain in the equation, and thcy are, moreover, equal. Their negativc is clcfined a s t,he pressure a t t,he point s,y, z in the fluid:
Tzv

= Tz., = Tv* =

uz = u y = u ,

---p.

if c;,, is not, to 1,rconrc infinit~elyIargc. t \ r r ~ l o g o ~ ~ s cq~iations can be writ,t.cn for t,lre remair~ing t,wo axns, arid ~ h syrnmct.ry of t.11~ c st,rcss tensor can thus hc demorlst.ratod. TI, is rlcnr from t.ho a r g n m m t tdlnt, t,hc st.rcss tensor ivor~hlrcnsc to bc symrncl,ric if t.hc lll~itltlcvclopntl a local moment which wan propor1,ional t,o it.s voll~me,rlV. T h e In.l,t,cr mag occur, for example, in an nlcct,rost.at~icfiel(l. Owing t.o t.l,c fact t,hat,

t.110 st,rcss mnl.rix (3.8) corltains only six tliffcrcntfst,rcss componrnt,~ ant1 I)ccorncs symmct,rical wit11 rrspnct t o t,lrc principal tliagonaf:

I n such a hydrostatic stress syalem, the fluitl I)ressurc is cql~nlt.o t,hc xrit.l~rnc:tic:~l mean of the normal stresses taken with a negative sign. Sincn mcasnren~ents\r.llich lead to tho establishment of the thermodynamic eqrtation of s t a t e arc ~)erfor~neti urlder such conditions, t h e fluid being a t rest, this pressure is idcr~t~ical with the t,hermodynnrnin pressure in the eqriat.ior1 of slate. I t is corrvenicr~tto ir~trorlucc the arithmetical mean of the three normal stresses - their sum being called the trace of the stress tensor - as a iiscfi~l ~ll~rncri(:nl qu~ttrt.ikiyin tho C ~ S Oof n 7~i.~(.otis /hid in a state of mot.ion also. It is still called the pressure, but its r e l a t i o ~t,o t,l~c! ~ tl~ermoctynamic pressure requires further investigation. Altlro~~glr t11cr1 ceases t.o it, be equal t o a particular stress which is normal to the snrface, it has the propcrty of heing invariant with respect t o tfrnnsfornrat,ions of the systcrn of coordinnt.es, as i t is a n invariant of the stress tensor, being tlcfincd as

5 (az -1 a,

4- a,)

= -p

(3.12)

We shall see in See. ITIe tll~atit remains c q r ~ a lt o t l ~ c ttlrcrmotlynamic press~~rc, in t,he absence of relaxation.

c. The rntc nt \r,hich a fluid elomcnt is strninctl in flow

53

system of the I.11rcw cqrt:~t,ions 1 ) aotrt.air~s the six st,rrsscs a,, a,, a,, (3.1 Tho next t,nslc is t80 tlct,crlnir~ethe relation hetjwccn tllern and the T , t, s,,. ,, , , strairls so RS t o c11n1)Ic11st,n it~trodricc vrlocity components u ,v, w into eqn. (3.1 1). 1.11~ Before giving this rclat,ion it1 See. 111tl wo sl~nllir~vcstigat.~ syst,om of st,mins t,l~c in great,cr detail. '1'110
c. The rntc nt which a fluid ele~ncnt strnir~ed flow i~ in

It, is ronvrnirnt t o rVnrrangc the cxprcssiotls for the rcslativr veloc.ily r o ~ n p o r ~ t ~ t ~ t . :

du, dv, (110 from rclrt. (3.13) t o tllo form


(111,

(i,tlx I- i , -{- irz -1, (I?/ (12)


-

(91

,lz

--

[ (I!,)

tlv = (i,, tl:c -1- i,, tl!/ -1- i,, tlz) - 1 ( i


tl11'

t (lz)
- 1 7

-- (i,, tlx

1- h,, (I?/ -1 k, rlz) -1 - ([ tl!/

I
I

(3.14)

(1%) ,

Whrn a cont,ir~l~o~ls of fllritl is rnntlc t,o flow, every rlcmcnt in it is, gcncrally 1)odq. sl)t'n.lting, clis~,ln.cctlt.o a new posit,ion i r ~t,t~ecollrsc of time. 1)uring t.his motior~ r l c m ~ n t s flrlitl l)ccon~c of st,minctl, ant1 since t J ~ cmot,ion of t.11e flrricl is cornplet-ely tIet.rrn~inrtl l ~ r n w t,he vclocit,y vect,or rrr is given as a funct,ior~ t,ime and positpion, of tr, = ru(z,?/,z,t), them cxist Itincrnat,ic rrlnt,ions l)et,wcen the componcl~tsof t,hc r:~.tcof st.mir~ ant1 t,ltis function. 'Vile rntc n t which a n clement or flllitl is strnir~ctl tlcprn(ls on t.11~~ 1 . l b z .n~otionof t,\vo poin1.s wit.hin it. We, t,hercfore, consitlor the ~ t: t,wo ~reigl~l)onring points A nntl B whirl1 nro st~owrl Fig. 3.2. Owing to the preserlcc in of t,l~o vrlorit,y ficlcl, point A will be tlisplncctl to A' in t,ilne dl by a distat~ce = r dt ; s o sinrr, I~o\vevor,tho vclocity a t B, imngincd a t a dist,ance d r from A, is different, point H will move t,o B' displ:~rcdfrom 1%by s -1- (1.9 = (ui -1-tlrri) dt. More explicitly, r if t , l ~ compone11t.sof vrlocity !lave tho valucs IL, v, 10 a t A, then, a t the ncigl~bonring l)oint, I<, t,hc vcloc:ity componcr~t~s be givcn t80 first order by the Tnylor-series will

it Itring rasy t o verify t,hat t,l~e new symbols hnvc tllr li)llowing

I I ~ ~ Y ~ I I ~ I I ~ S

and

(3.15a)

I t is rlotrtl 1,lla.t the matrix i,j is syn~nictric.,so t h a t


Fur

--

E,,

F,,

= F,,

Ezy

Eyz

(3.15~)

rurl u~

(3.15tl)

1l:ach of tile new tortns can be giver1 a lcir~cn~nt~ic it~t,crprctxtior~, we now l~roceetl ant1 t o obt,ain it,.

'~'IIIIs, 1110 rt4;~bive motion of point. l3 witill rrspect to A is tlescribetl by t,hr following
~ n a t r i xof nine pnrt,ial d e r i v t ~ t i v eof t,he local vclocit,y field ~

Since we c:or~centmt.cour ntt,cntio~l t,llc inirncdiat,c ncigl~borlrl~ootl point, A, on of ant1 since intmest is cent.red on the motlion of R relative l,o A, wc sllall plnco point. A at tl~c origin, :~!ltl interpret dz, tly, dz as the coortlinat.cs of point 1%i r l a (::~rt,c:si;~n syst,cn~of coortlinal(:s. Tn i>hisnl:tnnrr, the cxprcssiot~s nclns. (3.14) will tlnlinr in n ficltl of rrlat,ivc velocities in which t.11~ componcn1,s tlrr, clv, tli~) lirlc?n.r I~nc:(.ions arc of I,IIc s[):~(!t: not~rtlit~nl~es.orclor L ~ri~~It~rsl~:tt~cl In o tnt~:~t~ingt,l~o of' (IiIli*rt~t~l~ icrtns in tJre ~ n a t ~ r i x . l 5 a ) ant1 in cclns. (:1.151)), wo proccetl t,o interpret t,l~c%n~ by onc. (3 onc 'I'l~e diagram in Fig. 3.3 represent,^ t,lrc field of relat.ive ve1ocit.ics when all ternis except r3?r/az val~islr on the assnn~pt~ionh a t 2u/ax > 0. Tllc rclat,ive velocity ol' t a n y point B wit11 respect t,o A is now

ant1 tho field consisLs of plancs x =- const which displace thc~nsclvcsnniforrnly wit,ll a velocit,y which is proportional L the clist,ancc tlx away from the plane x = 0. o An elementary parallelepiped with A anti R : ~ its vertices placed in stlch a vclocity t field will be distorted in extension, its face BC receding from A11 wil.11 nn inorcasing

Fig. 3.3. Tmcnl clintor1,ion of f l ~ l i t l rlenlc.111 wllcn &r/i?x > 0 wil.11 nll ol.t~crlrrnin being eqnnl to zrro; rrniforrn rxlcnnion in tlrc zdirection

ex

IGg. 3.4. 1,ocnl tlislorliorl o f llr~rtlclrnrr~~t whcn au/ay > 0 wit11 a 1 oll~rr 1 terrns bring cq11n1 to zcro; r t t ~ i l t r r t s ~ ~ o ~ ~ r ~l dcfort~~:llio~~.

vr1ocait.y. Tltr~s r e p r c s c n t ~ 2, t.he rate of rhn,galion in t.hc x-dircct,ion sr~flkrctlby tlto clctnctit,. Similarly, the atlclit,ivc terms C, = a11/'11/ant1 C, = aio/i)z drscri1)o t,hc rxt.o of rlorig:rl.io~l i r ~t,lic 11- xntl z-tlircctions, rcspcct.ively.
11, is nowr tt:l~yt o visl~nliactlrc clist.ort.ion impn.rt,etl t o a fluid clemcnl by the sititlrlt.nllt~t~tl~ lt.t*t.io~~ ,111 t , I i r t ~ of tIin,gon:~.l I t - n i c ~ ~ tmatrices (3.132) or (3.15s). ~ of , ~ '1'111. t ~ l t w i c * ~~~~l ,S ~ I I I . Ii Il l~ ~ H l.lirt:t* tlirot:t.io~~rr, tile (:Iiai~goin t . 1 1 ~Icngt,h of its 11.l1 11.11t1 t,l~rtst*i t l t s f l l~rotI~~tx:s : I I : L inI ~ ~ ~ IL ~ I vo1111nca t a rt;l:~tivc rat,e

( ~ Ir
e -

az

lrI ,

dy

{t a "

dy < ~ t )

kz :
4

r1.z dl)
--

- C I X dy P A

di

t I r dy ;iz (it-

Fig. 3.5. Local rlintortion of f l l l i ( 1 clc:~t~crt~, when E,, = E,, = ((&lay) -t ( a t ~ l a ~ ) )o > with nll otl~erterms bcing c q ~ ~ n l zrro; to distortion i n ul~npe. (Tl~c diagrntn has bern drnwn for &1/8y = au/a.r )

1.0 iirsL ortlcr in t . 1 1 ~tlrrivxt.ivcs. 1)llring t,llis tlist.ort,iorl, liowcvcr, tdre s \ l x ~ ) c 1.11~ of rlrmcnt~, clcscril)cd by t,he angles a t its vertices, remains ~lrlchengcti,sitrcc all right nrlglrs cont,inue t o I)e t.hat, way. T11us k tl~scribcsthe Ioc~rl,i n s t a n t , a ~ ~ o o ~O s I L ~ I C I Y ~ C ~I ~ I rlilrr(ntio?~of a fIui(1 elenlent. Whcn t,he fluid is incompressible, d = 0,a s must be e ~ p c c l ~ c tIn a co~nprrssil)lc l. fluid tllc cont.inuit.y equation (3.1) shows t l ~ a t

t,Ilat, is L11:1t, t.llr voll~nirt,ric tlil.il,xt,ion, t.lic rcla.t.ive cliangc in volllme, is rq11a1 tto 1,llr nrg:lt.ivc of t0ic rc:l:~Livc ra.1.c of cliangc in tho local density. ; Tho rcl;ll,ivc vc1oc:ity ficlcl presents n tljlfcmnt appearance when ono of the olr-diagonal t,erms of n~at.rix(3.13a), for example au/ay, has a niin-vanishing, say pasiCivc, valrlc. The corrt-spontling ficltl, skctchcd in Fig. 3.4, is one of pure shear stmin. A rect,anglllar clemcnt of fluid ccntrctl on 1 now distorts into a parallelogram 1 a s indicnt,ccl in the diagram. l'hc original right angle a t A changes a t a rate measured Ity tlie angle y,, = [(ai~lay) tll]/tly, t l ~ a tis a t a r a t s &lay. When both au/ay d!/

Fig. 3.6. Taral distortion of flnid el~mrnt when

5 = t ((hlaz)- ( w a y ) ) + o ;
instnntnticous rigid-body rotation

56

11 I . 1)t.rivntion of t.110rquntionrr of n ~ o l i n i iof

rotnprcasibln viscous tlnitl

c. The!

rate ~t wllir11 a Ilr~id elcnlrnt is ~Lrainctl flow in

57

aritl r?n/8z Iiavc posit,ive nonvanisliing vnlnrs, tthe right, angle a t A will distort owing t,o t,lie slipcrposit,ion of t.\ro mot,ioris, t,llc st.:~tc affairs bcing ilIrrst,ral,etl in Fig. 3.5. of 1 L is clr:ir tlint, 1.hr right n.tiglr at. A now tlist.orts a t t,wiae the mt8c

(a) A pure tmnslatiorr t1escril)ctl by the vclocit.y components I L , v, 1il of rr r. (b) A dgitl-body rotatiori describctl by t,hc components 5, 7, 5' of curl ir c. (e) A volrrrrlctric tlilatation tlcscril)eci by e tliv in, the iinmr dil:it,:~tions in the tlircct,iori or tllc axes bcing describcxd I)y d,, i, : L I I ~ E,, r(~s~)e(:t.ivoly. ((I) A tlist,ort.ion in s l i a ~ ) c drscribctl by t . l ~ rc o r n p o r ~ c ~ ~ t . (,I,(: wit11 rnixt:tl i,,~ it~clicrs.

--

tlcscril,t~tl I)y I wo of the orf-tliagollnl t,cr~ns matrix (3.15%). In general, t,hc three of . . ~ f f - ~ l i i ~ g o n ~ lEx!, - F,/,, F,, = d,,, :LII(I E,, = Fyr tlcsr.ribc t h e rate of dist,ort,ion t.rrlns of a right, nnglt: locatrd iti ;L plaric ~iornmnlt,o t,he axis the index of which does not nppt'ar ns n srll)script.. 'l'hr tlistort.ion is volume-preserving and affects only the shape of t,lic clcmcnt . (lirrr~mst,:lnrrsnro ilgain tli!fcrcrit in t,lic pzrticlrlxr case when au/ay = - av/az illrrst.r;ct,ctl in I'ig. 3.6. k'roni t . 1 1 ~prccctling considcrat,ions and from t h e fact that. tlow 2,, t) \\.e ran infsr n.t oncc t,liat, tJrc right angle a t A remains undistorted. 'I'his is also rlrar from t.hr diagram wliicll sliows t h a t t h e fluid element rotates wit,lr rcsprrt, t,o t.llr rcfkrencr A . I n , ~ l a ~ r t n n e o ~ ~this , r o t d o n occurs witjllout sly dist.ortion ant1 call I,c dcsoril)rtl as a rigitl-l)otly rot,ntion. Tlic instant,arlcons nngulnr vrlorit,y of t.l~isrot,at,ion in

Only tho last, two motions protluce a n ir~t~rinsic tlefor~nat~ion n l l r ~ i t lolcme~lt, of sr~rrourltlirig rrfc:rcncc point A , lllc first two cnusirlg a rncrc, gelicral, tlisplacerncnt, tho of its location. T1ic e l ~ m e n t ~ s nratrix (3.15a) ~onstit~rrtc componcnt.~of ;t symrllet~ric of tllc tensor known :IS t,he rale-of-slmitt lensor; it,s mat.liematjical properties arc? analogous t o tliosc of the cqlrally symmct.ric st,ress t,cnsor. It is known from tJie tlicory of elasticit$y 13, 71 or from general c:onsidcrations of t,cnsor algebra [I I ] t,lr;it wit,li every symmetric tensor it is possil)lc t.o associate tlrrco rnrlt.rrally orthogon:rl pritt,cipnl axes wlrich tlctormine tlrrce mut,nnlly ortllogorial I)rincipnl plar~cs t,Ii:~tis a privilcgctl Cartesian syst,crn of coordinat,cn. In t.llin syst,cln of coortlinatlcs, t,he stlrcss vrrt,or or t,llc inxtnt~t.t~ncor~s nrolion in tiny ono of t,Iic prinoip:~lp l n ~ ~ c s nornr:~ll,o it., tlial, is is, pnrallel t,o one of the axes. IVlrcn sr~clia special system of c ~ o r d i n a t ~ c s used, is (3.10) or (3.15a) rct.ain their diagonal t,cmis onlg. DcnoLirrg the valrrcs the n~at~rices of the respcct,ivc coniponerit.~ syrnl)ols with I);irs, \ST woultl I)e tlrnlirig wit.ll tile I)y mat,riaes

1 I t , is now rasy t.o see t h a t the component. of crlrl 17 from cqn. (3.15b), known a s t,llc vort.irit,yof't.11~ vclocit,y firlcl, reproscnt,~ angular velocity of this inst-ant.ntleo~~s t.lw rigitl-1)otlj~ rrfi:.:t ion, and t.hat,

<

lllr rnorc t-oml)lrx ease whrri (afl/a:r) $- - (au/a!y), t.lie element of fluit1 rot;it,rs nticl it.s sli:rpc? is tlist,ort,rd sin~~rlt~nnc.ously. can st,ill interpret the t,ernl We
111

I t slrould, finally, bc remembered t,hat, sucli :L t,rnrrsli)r~i~:~liot~ of c.oortlir~:~t.c.s tloc*s not affect, the sum of the diagonal terms, so t h a t

desrril)ing t 111- r ; to ~ r.ot.:~t.iori.

:I(,

wllic:l~ t . l ~ rrlt.mrtit, of Illlid part.iripatrs in


I

it

rigid-body

'I'II(: linc:irit,y of rclns. (3.13) or of the c*~~t.irclg cq~rivalnrrtc q t ~ s . (3.14) signifies t,h;it,t,I~t* most gc:noml c:ase nrisos by :I s ~ ~ l ) t ~ r ~ ) o s01' ,tllc~simple cases just tlcscribed. it io r
'I'liercli~tr, if :i.t,t.r~nt.ioli lisecl oli t,wo nrighbouring points A and B in a body of is Illtitl \vlrirh slistnins n rontinr~orrs ve1orit.y field ur(z,?y,z), Clrc motion of a n element ~ s t,wo ~)oint,s I)c ~lriiqrlnlytlccomposetl int.o four compot.nn of fltlirl s ~ ~ r r o r t n t ltilr~ e~ c nent. motions :
Iz'ig. 3.7. i'rir~cil)ialaxes for st.rrss ;iriil rat.(: of sI.r:~in

(1. ltclntiotl hetwecrl R ~ ~ C S S rntc of delornlal.ion and

59

of flltitl is strcsscd in t,llrcc nlrltually pcrpcndicrrlar tlire~t~ions, and its faccs arc displnactl instarrtarleortslg also in tlrrec niut.rtally perpentlicrllsr direotions, a s s~~ggestccl by Pigs. 3.7a ant1 I). 'l'his clocs not., of course, moan tllnt bllcre exist 110 shearing st.rrssrs in ot.Ilrr 1rl:~nrs t,llnt. t,llo sllapc of t.11~ or clcmrnt rcmr~ins~lntlistortrd. 11. Rclntion between stress and rote of deforrnatiot~ I t s110111(1, 1)crlla[rs, 1)c st.rcsscd once more t h a t t,hc cql~at,ions whicll relate tho surface forccs t.o tllc flow ficld must, be ol)tainetl 1)y a pcrccptlivc interpretation of' experimental resrtlB and t h a t our i~rt~crcst restricted to isotropic and Newtonian is flr~itls. l'hc consitlcmt,ions of tlle precctling section provided 11s with a 11scfu1mathcmatical franlcwork wlriclr allows us now to statc t,hc rcq~tircmcnt~s srtggcstcd by experimcnt.~in a sotncwhat, lnorc prerisc form. Wllcn t.11~ flr~itl is a t rcst, it dcvclops a uniform ficld of I~ydroslaticst,rcss (tlrgat.ivc prrssllrc - p) whicll is idcnt.ica1 witli the t.hermodynanric pressure. equation of s t a t c st.ill tlcternlines a pressure at, When the fluid is in mot.ion, t , l ~ c ovcry point ("princilrlc of lorn1 st,atc" 141), and it is rnnvcnicnt t o consider t,he tlcviat,oric normal strcssrs
ax1: or ( p ; =

of whirl1 conicitles with i t and on the sum of tlio three, each with a different factor Thus we rccortl, ~lircct~ly terms of t.hc spacc-clcrivat,ives, t,l~at, in of ~mo~)ortionalit,y.

a,,':-a,

I- p ;

a' -a, ,

I- p ;

(3.20)

togrtllcr wit,lt the rlnc:lrnngntl shearing strosscs. Tllc six q ~ ~ a n t . i t i r s obtjainccl so cor~st,itrct,c sytlrnlct,ri(: st,rcss tensor tllc cxist.cnrc of which is tluc t o the tnotiorl a hccnusc a t rcst. :ill it.s componcnls vanis11 irlcnt.irally. l'rom what Ilns bcen snit1 l)rfnrc it follows t.11at Ollc componcnts or this tlcviat,oric t.cnsor arc creatctl solely by t,hc compottcnls of t,11c ra1.c-or-shin t,cnsor, t.11at is t o tllc exclusion of the cornponcnt.~ , 17, m of vc.1oc:it.y as wc:ll as of the componcnts (, ?], [ of vort,icit,y. 'l'his v is rclnivnletlt. to s:r\,ing t,l~:rt . 1 1 ~inst.ntlt.:lncolts t.r:trlslat.ion [component motion (a)] t a s wrll a s tho it~st,:~.rtt,anco~l rigitl-l)otly rot,:~tion Icornl)or~c~lt motion (I))] of' :tn c,lrtnrnt of llrtitl protlrtcc no slrrfaco fnrrcs on it in atltlit.ion to the e x i ~ t ~ i ncott~g 1w~w1it.s l~ytlrost.:tl~ic of prrsstlm. 'l'hc procrtlitlg st.atct~~ctrt,, cvidcr~l.ly, rnrrrly rcprcs c l ~ tx, ~ prr(:iso 1oc::tl fortnrtlnt.ion of wltat we cxl)oct L observe whcn :I Gnitc I)otly o of Ilt~id performs n gctrcral nlot,ion wl~icll is ir~tlist~ing~rishablc from tllnt of a11 ~:q,r~ivnlnst rigill I)n(ly. We tllus cr)n(;l~l(lr t,ll:it t11c erprrssions for tho aompononts a , 0 ' . . ., T ~ , of blrc tlcviatoric st.rcss t.c,nsor can ront,airr in lhcm only the velocit,y , ,. gratlictlt,~ aulax, . . ., allllaz in a p p r ~ p r i n t ~(:ombinations which we now procccd t,o c cl~t~crniit~e. rclntiotls are l)ostnlnt.ctl t,o Oc lincar; t,hcy must rcmain unchangccl 'I'ltcsr: by :I rotatiorr of the syst.crn of coortlirlalns or by a n intcrct~ange nxcs 1.0 ensure of isot,rolry. Isotaopy also rocluirc-s t h a t a t ovcry point, in t,hc continuum, tfhc principal n.xcs of t,llo strrss t,rr~sor mrlst roinrido with the prirrcipal axes of t h e ratc-of-strait1 t,crisor, for, ot.I~(~r\visr, prrfcrr(x1 dirort,ion wolll(1 1)c int,ro~lrrccd.rlll~csimplest :I. WRY to nrllicvc otlr ninl is t,o srlect a n arlrilmrf point, in 1.1re cont,inunrn ant1 t,o itn:~girinLlr:~.t, t.lte locnl syst.crn of roordir~at~cs ?7,'2 ?, has been provisionnlly so clloscn n s t.o coincitlc \vit,ll t,hc t,llrcc common princ:ipal axes of tltc two trcnsor~. 'l'hc cornI)ot~i.ttl.s t , l ~ ( tvo1ocit.v lic*ltl in t,his syst,c:m of coordinntcs are dcnototl by ?(., ii, 111. of
s(,I.,.ss~~s ,r (Ti,

'l'!.,?rl"".llt,it,i?s ?I,,0 , : ~ n ( l r], C d o not appcnr in t i ~ c s c 4, cxprcssiorts for t . 1 1 ~~.r:l.sotls jttst explained. In each expression, the lnst term represents tllc appropriate rate of lincar dilatat,ion. t h a t is, in essence, n change in allape, ancl tho first, terrn rcllres c n b the vollrmetric clilatfation, Ulat is the rate of change in volume, in csscnct., a change in density. Thc factors 2 kl the last terms are not essential, beirrg mcrely c:onvenicnt t o facilit,ate thc interpretation, a s we shall see 1at.er. Tlrc fact<ors of ~)roport,ionality, and 1,two in all, must bc the same in cach of the three pmccding p cqnations t o sccllre isotropy. It. is easy to scc t h a t a n intcrchangc bctwecl~ any two axes, t h a t is an intercltange of any of tfhc thrce pairs of qrtant,it,ics:( I Z , : ~ )(,d , g ) , (I?,?) leaves the set of miations invariant, a s they nlitst be in a n isot.ropic mcdilltn. Moreover, t,llc prcrrding is the only ~ o r n h i n a t ~ i o l ~ ~pntin.1gmdirr~t,s wl~icll possrsscs tllc of rcquirt!tl propcrt.ies. 1f t.11~ rcatlcr cannot see t.l~isd i r ~ c t ~ l IIC may cotlsltlf. a more y, rigorous proof in n treatise on tensor algchra (or c. g. [11] p. 89).
l , o rclat.ions in cqns. (3.21) cart bc re-written t o apply ill at1 arl)itrary syst,cm h of c:oorcLinat.es b ~ r a general rotation wit11 ttrc aid of t,ltc appropriate g linear t.mnsfornlation formr~lac.We shall refrairl from p r ~ t t ~ i ndown t,hc tlrt:~.ilrtl ut,cps k~ccausc,t.Iio~tgl~ tctlions if pcrformetl tlircct.ly, tltoy arc qltitc sLr.zigllt,for\vnr~I, 'C'tlcy becomc sitnple if tcrlsor calcl~lr~s used. T l ~ e is approriate direct fortnlrlac tnay I)e follt~tlin refs. [R, 6 , 71, whereas their tonsorial cotrnt.crpn.rt.s arc givc.11 i l l rrf. 1 1 1 I. Suc*h a tl(:rivat.iorl woltltl sltow t h a t
a,' = 1tliv ,u

2 p av -ax

u"'

1cliv , 4-2 p av , ,
-f

ail

a,' - 1 < l l v r a
T, ,

2 , ~ - ;

a 1 1 1

az

= -cur = 1 -"

z.

I t is tto\\- (.1~:1rt.I~:\t isot.ropy rnri 1r1, snc:rlrrtl only if r::tcl~onr of t.hc t,llrt=c normitl ;,, (ri is IIIIIIII- llo tl(!p(:~t~lI t , l ~ ( s(:otrrpon~~nb ~:I.(,I! of' st,l.itill t.lt(! (li~.(.(:tio~r OI of'

-." -.(;;
~z

(:: ;p;)
+

);
1;

r.1

-I"(&

a 1

f. T311lkviscoait,y nnnd tlieri~iod,y~~nrnia l,resn~lro

61

where div irt has been used for hrrvity. 'J'l~crcatlcr may notpicethe regularit,y with w l ~ i r hthe indices x , y, z, t h e componrntn n, v , in, ant1 t l ~ rcoortlinntrs x , y, z arc permutcdt. Applying t,l~ese equations t,o the si~nl)lc case rcprescnt.ctl in Fig. I . I , we rccovcr eqn. (1.2) and so confirn~ t h a t t,lic precctling more gcnrrnl rrlat,ion rcctr~ces to Newt,on's law of friction in t01r casc of simple shear ant1 tlocs, t,l~orcforo, const.it,~lt,c? it,s proper genornlization. At the samr timr, we identify tt.ie factor /I. witJt the viscosity in justify the factor 2 previously of the fluid, amply discl~ssetl Scc 1h, and, incid~nt~ally, inserted ir~t,o eqns. (3.21). The physical sigr~ificnnceof the second factor, 1,requires f~lrt.Iicr tlisc~~saion,u t we 11ot.c t-l~at, plays 110 part in a n incompressible fluid when b it, div 1 1 9 = 0 ; i t then disappears From the equat,ions n.lt.oget,hcr, ant1 so is seen t o be in~port.ant for r~ompressible Ruitls only. e. Stokes's hypothesis Althongl~the problem t , l ~ a t arc about t o cliseuss has arise11 more than a we ccnt.ury and a half ago, the physical intcrpretatiort of the sccontl fact,or, 1, in eclns. (3.21) or (3.22a, b) a n d for flows in which tliv I I J does not vanish identically, is still being disputed, even t,hough tohe v a b e which should be given t o i t i n the ic,orkirtg e q t u ~ f i o ? ~not. 'I'l~is numerical VRIIIC is determined with the aid of a. hypois ~ t,l~csis :~tlvancodby G . G . St,oltcs in 1845 11.71. Without,, for Lhe niomcnt,, concerriing o~~rsclvcs wit,h the physical reasons which just.ify Stokes's h?yl/path~s~:s, first st.ate we t.liat according t.o it,, it is nerrssary to assume

t l ~ c h r n r i n gstresties rernairlir~gurirl~angrtl.Malting usr of eqrln. (3.20), wr 011tni11 ~ t l ~ rso-ralled conrtitutioe eqlantion for a11 isotropic-, Newtonian fluid

i r ~ final form, ~ ~ o t , i trh ag p reprcser~t.~ local t,l~orrnotlynarnic: it,s ~ t the [)rrns~lrrl-

Regartletl as a pure hypotl~esis,or ever1 guess, eqn. (3.23) can cortai~lly I)e :~cce~)tctl t.11~ on ground t h a t the worltir~g eclr~at.ions which result from the s ~ ~ b s t i t n t . i o ~ l of cqns. (3.26a,b) into (3.11) have been si~bject~cd an u ~ ~ u s u a l l1;~rgenumber t,o y of cxpcri~rlentnlverifications, ever1 ~ ~ n t l c r quite cxt,remc conditions, a s t,Ile reader will cor~crtlcafter having stutlicd this book. Thus, even if it shorrld not rrprescnt, t h r state of affairs exact.ly, i t certainly constiti~t.csan rxcellent approximat,iol~. Since t,hc deviatoric components are the only ones which arise in motion, t,l~cy rcprrscrit those components of sttress whiclr protluce tlissipation in all isot~hertnnl flow, t,l~crc~ c i l ~ g I further dissipatior~in a t,cmperature field t l ~ l c thermal corltl~lct,ion, t,o ( ~ I I : L ~ I XI I . F~~rt.hcrmore, . since t,hc S:~cbor1 occurs only in tilo normal c o r n p o ~ ~ r n t , ~ cr,', u,', a,' w11ic:h also c o ~ ~ t ~1.11~ i ~ it~l~crnm~lynaniicr c s s ~cqrls., (3.20), it I)ccomcs n ~~ ~rc t,It-nr t , l ~ n t .t,l~c pl~ysic:~l significnncc of 1 is connectctl wil.11 t . 1 1 ~~ n c c l ~ a n i s m tlissiof p:\t,ion \ v l ~ c ~.i1 1 ~v o l ~ ~ r n c t,hc fluid clcrncrit is cliangqd a t a finit.c rat,c as well :as t of \\.it,l~ 1 . 1 1 ~ rrl:~t.ior~ I)rl,wrrr~the tot.al st.rcss t,orlsor :tntl t.lrt:rnmotlynatnic: I I ~ ~ : H S I I I . O .

This rclat,es Ore v a l ~ ~ c the fnrtor 1 t o the visrosity, 14, of thc romprc.ssible fluid of and redt~rest h r n l ~ m b e rof propertics which rhamct~erizethe fieltl of stresscs in a flowing romprcssiblc fluid from two to onr, t h a t is t o tlir same numl)cr a s is r r q ~ ~ i r c for rcn i~icomprrssihlr fl11it1 tl S~rbst,it.nting t,l~is v:~lncir~t,o eqrls. (3.22s), we ol~t,airithe normal corni)o~icr~t,s of tlevia.t.orio st,ress :

f. Bulk viscosity nr~cltl~errnodynamicpressure


uzf = -

/L div

IIJ

2 , az , u
\ al~tlit of Stokrs's hgpotlicsis, but, confine it to the casc wllerl no shearing st.r~ssrs y :Lrr irivolvctl, 11cmusc their physical sigriifiranre arld origin is rlcar Conseql~r~itly,
6

aw

Tllc :~boycc of six erlnnl.ionacan be oontrac:tc(l to a single one it1 Cnrtrsian-hnsor riotation nL ( w i t . l ~Einflkin's .snlnmnt,ion rot~vention):

I n tlre compact tcnaorial notation wr wollld write


u'IIc~(. tllr l<ronrrkrr tlrlta
dl, -

0 for i

+ j nr~tldij

I for i --

\vo cot~sitlrra fll~itl syststn, say the s p l ~ c r c sI1ow11 irl Fig. R.8a w11iol1 is snbjectcd t o a r~~~iforrri rlorrnal stress, 3, it.6 I~ortnclary. n t ~ l ~ e a l ~ ~ofnmot,iorl Z is nI)vio~~sIy 011 I c ec c r t ~ l aallti ol)lx)sil,c!i r ~s i g ~ ll o ~,II(: I.l~rr~noclynnmic l prcssrlrc, 11. 'l':~l<itlgIrllc S I I ~ I I of t,hc t.hrrc cclt~nlions(3.21) :11111 ~rl~ilizil~g~ I I(3.20), wc: f i r t t l I~11:tl. (-( s.

at, ;I fit1it.c mt.c. 'l'lln I~rrlkvisc:ositsy w o ~ l l ~. 1 1 1 1 ~ rwnstitl~tcn scc~o~ltl t l III.o~)I,I.~.J' of :t ronllwt~ssiblc, isotropic, NcwLoniatl f l ~ r i r ltirc.(l(~tl clol.ctrn~i~lr corlst.itl l ( i v v c s < l r l : ~ i(c t l l 1,o i1.s :I.II(I ~vonltl11:tvc lo l ) t ~ I I I ~ - : I S I I ~ ( -i~ l ;~tltlil,ioti 1 4 . 11, is ( * v i ~ l t , I,II;II, l ~~l 1' : 0 inlplirs 1) - - . n
1'
,I Ilitts 1 . 1 1 ~ nc-c:cy)l.anrc of

1 0

inll)li(*s

1)

F ,
1.11t~:rss11111~1tio11 l11:11.

Sl.oltrs's Ilyl)oIl~c-sis ctlt~ivnlrt\l7o is l

nlltl ~ l ~ t . i111;~t,ollr ccluat.ior~nrrflc-c:t, t.llis f:ict, a s aIrc:i(I~poillt,c(I (1111 earlier. Now, cr t,llc clllcst,iotl I~OSCR itself its 1.0 wllat, this rc\:tt,iol~ s11oc11(1 hc in a gctlcrnl flow ficl(l.

1:i~ 3.8. Qltnsintzt.ia cottlprrssion and orroill:rlory nlobion of

n upllorical

maas o l fluid

Wllcri t-he syst.om is c o n ~ ~ r c s s eqrl;tsist~ntinally and reversibly, we again mcovtv d

t . 1 1 ~prcvions casc becauso 1.11cn ciiv rrt -> 0 : ~ s ~ m ~ ~ t o l . i Wol lnote Ll~ntin suc:h ca ~. cascs t,ho rate a t which work is performed in a t.hcrn~otlyn:trnicdlyrcvcrsihle process
per 11r1i1, vc~lt~me hccomc:~ which is t , l ~ r same a s

rP

ptliv rrr p
tl v
-- dl

(3.2Ga)

Jk

(3.26b)

in t.lie not,at.ion cr~sl,omaryin t.hermodynnmics. When div rrv is firiitc, ant1 the fluitl is compressed, cxpar~tled made t o oscillat.a,' or and -- P pcmist-9 o t ~ l yif tho coefficirrlt : ~ t ,n fuita mt,c, equalily hotwesn
11'
"

1 I :3 lL

(3.27)

valrishm itlcntically (Stokes's I ~ ~ ~ ~ o L ~ o tr ~ o r isc it docs not. If p' - l = O , L ~ I C ~ lsis); oscillatory rnot,ion of a spl~ericatsystem, Pig. .8b, would prodrlce dissipation, oven if t l ~ ctcnipcmt,ure remained constant throughout the bulk of the gas. The snrnp would be true in t,lie casc of cxpnnsion or compression a t a finite rate. Por t.his reason, tlw coefficient 14' is citllcrl t.he bulk viscosity of the fluid: i t represenh tllnt. properl,y, like t,ltc shear visconit,y IL for deformation in sllape, which is responsihlc for energy clisaipntion i r ~ flrlitl of l~rliformtcmporntr~roduring 8 cllnngc in volumo a

131~c, l ~ t ~ r t ~ i o ~ l1)rt>ssur(:~ ~ it:qt1:11l , l ~ t t y ~ ~ ; i ~ is e on(:-t~I~ir(l tl~(: of ii~v:~,ri:t~~I,01' I I O ~ I I I ; ~ ~ st1111 st,rcss(:s cvc-11 in CWPS \vI~t*ti~ : o ~ n ~ ~ r ( ~ s sc!xp:l~nsiot~l)rort:(:tls 111. :L I i t t i l v r : ~ l e , or i o t ~ 17~~~-l.llrrmorc, also c q n i v a l r ~ ~ t t.110 nssclmptiot~t.11:l.l~ o s r i l l a l ~ o~nof,iot~ it, is to t01o ~ ~ ~ ~ 01' n Inrgc sr~ht:rinal system ~ v o ~ ~IICt lrc:vcrsil~lo if it, wc.rt: i ~ o t ~ l ~ r r mRlol.c* c l t b t : \ i l t - ( I l nl. t~onsitlrral.ionsin 1.r-rtns of I8llo cot~ccpl.s l.llcrtnotlyt~:lnlic:!: s it. n l~l~litxs i ~ ~ r . t ~ r t ~ r of a 1,o siblo proccssrs in cont.incroils systcrns r:In I)o foi)(~r~tl I.II(! \ v o r k ~o1.J. X ' l ~ ~ i x ~ ~ t ~ ~ . in 181, I . I'rigoginc 1121 ant1 S. R.. tlr (:root, nntl 1'. Mn.7.11r (11. In ortlrr 00 tlet.rrminc rlntlrr wl~at, c:orltlit,iotls t.11~ \)c~lk visrosil y of;^ r:otnl,rc~ssil)l(. llltitl v:lnisl~es,ill is ncross:Lry 1.0 11:ivc: rccwilrsc to (*xj~t:rit~ltv~I~ 1.11~;~ t ~ c l ~ l t01' t l ~ or o st~at.ist~in:~.ll ~ n r m o t l y r ~ a ~ t ~ i t ~ spcrrnil 11st,o c::ilct~lntct,r;trlsport t~oc~l'firic~tlt.~ I~ wllicll I~.OIII firsL princ-il~l(:s.'I'lic tlirc:ctp mcasurclnrnt of 1)111l< viscosit.y is very tlifl'ic:t~lI. lwr1.0 f'ornl, : L I I ( ~ 110 dcfi~iit~ivc rcsr~lt~s in ~xist.encc.St,:~t.ist,icnl arc n~ct~hotls tlcnso gases for or liqlritls lmvc not yet, been tlcvclopctl 1-0 it point w l ~ i c lwonltl nllt~w11s to ~nnltca ~ romp1ct.r s t ~ n t c m r t ~ t tfhe srll~ject. It, :ippcnrs. Ilowrvcr, t,l~ntt,lle br~llr \.iscosit.y on vnnislics irlent,ic:n.lly in gases of low tlensit.y, t.llnt is nntlrr c:ontlit.iorls u.11c.n ortlg binary collisio~~s molecules noctl t o I)c t,nkcrl into account,. 111t l c ~ ~ s e ~ s r s tlrr of g; , lir~rncricalvalue of brrlk viscositp.y nn.ppc:Lrs to be very small. 'rllis nle:ins t,llnt, c:clt~s. (:<.2(ia,t))cont,ilnre t o tlcscribc tllc work in a continuous s y s t c n ~ t l ~ :~bscnco sl1cn.r in c of l,o a n c x c ~ l l c n ttlrgrce of n,pproximat.io~~ t h a t tlissipnt,ion a t constant. t.t>nll)rraancl trrre, cven i n the general case, occitrfi only t,l~ror~glll ~ intervention of 1.l1rtlrviat, r torin st.resses. 'L'Ilr~s,once again, we :trc lot1 L St.okr~'fihypot.llcsis nntl so 1.0 I'OII. o (3.26). 'l'liis conclr~sion(Ions not, cst.rrltl l,o fluids wllicll :trc c:il)nl)ln or rltl~lrrgoit~g rclaxat,io~lprocc-sses I)j: virtnc of a 1oc:nl ilcpnrturc fro111 n st,nt,e of t~hcmic:nlctlnilil)ri11111 .a]. Such rclaxntiorl processes occur, for cxanlplc, wllcrl n cllc:rnic:rl rcnctio~c (1 van titlre place, or, in gascs of corni~lcxstr~rntnre, ~vllen:L c~rnpnrnt~ively I,r:~nsli.r slow o f energy betsweeri the translntionnl nntl rotat,iorlnl tlcgrcrs of frcotlom on t.hc onc: Ilantl, nnrl t.11~ vil>ratio~lal tlegrcrs of I'rccdom on thc ot,hc:r, btcornes possil~lr. 'I'IIIIS wllen rel:txat,ioti 1)roeesses are possible, t,hc t,l~crmotlynnrnic pressure is no longer c c j ~ ~ a l one-third of tlie trace of tJle st,ress tensor. t,o I t is somrt.irnas orgrlctl Gllnt 1 . h ~ n.tlol)tio~lof Sl,olrt.s's Ilyl)ol.llc~sis. 1.l1:l.tis l . l i t \ s~zpposit,iont,Ilnt t l ~ cI~lrllrviscosit+y of Ncwt,onian Ilnitl vnr~isl~cu, tloc:s r~ol, :lrc:ortl wit,h our irlt81~it,ivc ft:c!litlg tllnt, n spl~crc:of fliritl wl~osctI~ollntlr~ry s t : i l l : ~NO t~ ~I ~( . ~ l ~ .I ;I t.l~c~rc:L ryclic? scquencc of compression s.rltl expansion, Lpig. 3.8L, wotrltl tlissi1):~l,o is no erlergy. This woulrl, intleetl, be t8he case, its is easily sccn f r o n ~t,l~cprcccditlg . argllmrnt, bccaclsc the tlissipativc part of tlic stress fieltl vanishrs 111ldcrsrtcll corltfitions. I t must, however, not be forgotjI,cn t.11at such a conclusion is valitl only if t.lre tjc~npcrat~uro the spllere of gas were to be kept const,nnt- during tlie oscillat.ion of t,l~rougl~out wllole volume. Norrnnlly t-his is impossible. Co~~sequontly, t.he an oscillat.irlg splterc of gns will soon develop n temperatarc field n.nd eriprgy will be tlissipnt,etl tlown t,l~c cxist,irlg t,cmpem.l.r~re grntlicrit,~161.

g. 7'11~ Nnvier-Stokes equatiotls

65

g. The Nnvier-Stokes equations

I t is necessary t o inclrlde here the equation of continuity which, ns scetl frorn ctytl. (:j.]), assumes t,ho following form for cornprcssible flo~v:

\Vitll t h r aid of rqns ( 3 20) the non-viscor~spressrtrr ternls can I)r srparatcd in tltc ctll~atiotlof ntotion ( 3 11) so illat they l)crolnc 'I'lle :tltovc ctl~lat,ions no1 givc n cornplcln tlt:script,iorl of t.110 ~rio(.io~r :I, cwntlo ol' ;rcssiblc llr~itl bcca.usc changcs in pressure ant1 dcnsit.y clfcct tcrnpcrature varint,ions, ant1 principles of tl~crmodynamicsmust, t,Ilt:reforr:, oncc morc ent,cr into the consit1cr:~tions.Fronl thermotlynarnics we obtain, in the first, placc, the cllaractcristio eclt~nt~ion (eqrtation of state) which combines pressure, clcrlsit.y, :inti t,err~pemt,r~rc, :lntl wllich for a perfect gas I ~ a sttlle form Jntrodrlcing t,he ronst,itntive relatioil from cqns. (3.24) we o1)tain the resultant surface force in ternis of thc velocity components, c. g , for the 2-clirertiorl we obtain wit11 the aid of eqn. (3.10a):

wit11 12 d r r ~ o t i n gh e gas constarlt arltl 7' denoting t>he t al)soltrt,c t3cmpcmt,urc.Srcontlly, if the process is not isot,hcmial, i t is fnrtllcr necessary t,o tnaltc IISC of tho cnrrgy rc111at.ionwllich draws u p a Oalancc l)c:t,wcc:n Itcat, ant1 mccl~ar~ic::tl cncrgy (First 1,:lw of'I'l~cr~notlynamir.s), wllicll furnishes a dilTerenLial ccluat,ion for t h e ten~ltcmtrtro and tlistSril)nt.ion.Tlle energy equation will be tliscussctl it1 greater tlctail in C ~ I : L XI .I . ~) Tllc final equatio~lof the system is given by the empirical viscosity law p ( Z 7 ) it.8 , tlepentlencc o n pressure being, normally, neglected. In all, if the forces X, J', Z are consitlered given, thcrc are seven eqrlatiorls for the seven v:~riablcsu, v , 7 0 , p, p , T , 11. For isothermal proccssos tltcsc rctlr~cct o five cqltatior~s(3.29a,b,c), (3.30) nntl (3.31) for tohe five rtnknowns u, v , W, p, p. Ir~com~ressible flow: The above syst.cm of equations beconles further si~nplifietl in tile case of incompressible fluids ( e = const) even if the temperature is not const,ant. First, as already shown i n cqn. (3.la), we have tliv iu r 0. Secondly, : variations are, generally speaking, small in this case, the viscosity since tVcmpcr:~ture may be taken t o be const,antt. The equation of state as wcll as the energy equation brcome superfluous as far a8 t he calculat,ioo of the fielcl of flow is concernetl. The Reltl of flow can now be considered intleprntlt*ntly horn t l ~ ccqrtntions of tllcrmorlynnniirs Tllc cquations of tnotion ( 3 29n,l),c) ant1 ( 3 30) can be slmplilietl and, if tlic accclcration terms arc w r ~ t t c n o a t fully, tllcy assume t h e following form:

and correspontlitlg exprcssior~s tlle ?Ifor and z-cornponent,~. the general case of 111 a compressiblc flow, the viscosity /A n l r ~ s tbe regarded as dependent on t,l~c spacc coordinates, bccause p varies considerably wit11 temperature (Tables 1.2 and 12.1), a n d the cllangcs in velocit,y and pressure t,oget.ller with the heat due t o friction bring about considerable tetnpcrat,urc variations. T h e temperatllre dependence of viscosiLy p('r) must. be ol)t,ai~letlfrom experiments ( c f . See. XTIla).

If thcse expressions nrc int.rotlucrtl into t h e funtlamelltal ecluxliol~s(R.11), we oljtain

Tl~pscvery wcll Icnown tliffcrential equations forin t,l~eItasis of tllr wl~olescience of fluid mechanics. They are usu:~llyreferrcd td a s t h e Navier-Stokes equations.

Ir! indicinl notation:

66

111. 1)~rivntion the eqnntions of mot,ion of a conlprr~siblo of vi3roi1~ fluid

g. Thr Nnvirr-Stokes equations

MTit11 known body forcrs there arc four ccluations for the four unknowns u., v , t u , p. I f vect,or not,atiorl is nsrtl t,hc simplifird Navicr-Stolcrs cq~iations incompresfor ~iblc flow, cqns. (3.32n,b.c), can bc sllort~cncdt o

+ vr

.:' :+ .
V,

Trrv+-

+ vz

whc-re t h e sym1)ol V 2 denotes t,he J,nplncc oprrator, V 2 -- a2/i)x2-4- a2/a?y2-1- a 2 / a z 2 . Tho nl~ovcNavier-Stokrs r q l i n t i o ~ ~ s diKer from Euler's equations of motion by t,he viscous terms / I V 2(11. 'r'hc solirtions of the above equations herome fully clrterminrtl pllysically w11cn 111 t,he case of visco~isfll~iclsthe c.ontlition of no slip on s o l d boundaries must, be satisfird, i. e., o n a wall both tlie normal ant1 tangential components of the velocitfy must, vanish:
t Iir 1)onrltlary ancl initial rontlitions arc sprcifietl

e($,

"4

av,

+vr

+ Bd ,

all

+VZ

:)=
(3.3fi.i
1 av,
r

ar v -+'+-a r

a+ +'=o. az

av

(3.3Gd)

.l ,h c equations i~nrlcrdiscnssion wcrr first tferivcd by M. Navier [9] in 1827 and

v ,

-- 0 ,

v, = 0 on solid walls

(3.35)

The stress components assume the form

I)y S. 1). I'nisson [lo] in 1831, on tthe basis of a n argument which involved the r o ~ ~ s i d r m t i oof int,ermoleci~lar forces. J,at,cr the same equations were derived n without t h e use of a n y such hypotheses by 13. de Saint Verlant [14] in 1843 and by G . G. Stoltcs [13] in 1845. 'l'heir tlcrirations were based on t h e same assumption as made here, rlamrly t h a t the normal and shearing stresses are linear functions of the rate of deformation, in conformitry with the older law of friction, due t o Newton, and t h a t t h e thermodynamic pressure is equal t o one-third of t h e sum of the normal stresses taken with a n opposite sign. Since t h e hypotliesis of linearity is evidently completely arbitrary, i t is not a priori cert,ain t h n t t h e Navier-Stokes equations give a true description of t h e r n o t i o ~of n fluitl. J t is, therefore, necessary t o verify them, and t h a t can only be ~ arhicvecl by experiment,. I n t.l~is connrxion i t should, in a n y case, be noted t h a t the enormous ma.tI~ernatical tlifficulties encountered when solving the Navier-Stokes cq~iations have so far prevented us from oI)toaining single ~ n a l y t i solution in which t h e a c ao~ivcrtivo t,crn~s int,eract in a gcrleral way wit11 t h e friction terms. However, known solnt.ions, snch RS Inminnr flow throngh a circular pipe, a s well a s boundary-layer t flows, t o bc discussed later, a.gree so well wit,ll experi~nent h a t tlie general validity of t,lic Navior-St.olrcs cqnations car1 Iiarclly 1,e doubted. Cylilic1ricnl coorclinntcs: We shall now transform the Navier-Stolces equations t,o cylindrical coordirlatcs for future reference. Jf r, +, z donot,e the radial, azimuthal, and axial coordinates, respectively, of n three-tlimc~lsionalsystem of c~ortlinat~es, ant1 v,, v,, v, d c ~ l o t et h e velocit.y components in the respective tlirect-ions, then the t,ransfor~nnt,ionof varinbles [3, 111 for t h e rase of incompressible Huid flow, eclns, (3.33) and (3.34), leads t o t.he following system of equat.ions: ~ Curvilinear coordinatee: Tt is often risrfr~l t o employ a o ~ ~ r v i l i n r a ry s i c mof coordinates which is adapted t o the shape of the body. In t,hr rnsc of two-dirr~ensior~nl flow along a curved wall, it is possiblr to srlect a coordinate syst,cm whose abscissa, x, is measured along the wnl;, the ortlinate, y, being rncn,snrrrl a t right angles to it, ld'ig. 3.9. Thus the curvilinear net consistsof c u r v ~ s wllicl~ parallel t o tlrr wall are

honrltlary layer along n c~trvetlwall Fig. 3.!). TIW-tlinlennionnl

and of stmight, lines perpendicular to t,hem. The corresponding velocit,y compol~er~ts are denotcd by 7~ and v, respectively. The radius of curvature a t positmionR: is derlotetl by R ( x ) ;it is positive for walls which are convex outwartls, ant1 nrgat,ivc whon t.hc wall is concave. Tho appropriate form of t,he comp1et.e Navicr-Stokes equation~1 has been clerivetl Ity W. Tollmien [lFi]. They arc:

111. l ) c r i v n t i o ~ ~ 1,Iir eqllntio~ls C motion of a rornprcssiblo vincoun fluid of o [!I] [I01 [Ill 1121 [I:)] Nnvicr. 174.: hI6rlloirc srlr Ics loin tlu ~ ~ i o r t v e ~ ~closn tflr~itlcs.kli.111, clo I'Aci1rl. tlc Sri. 6, lo 380---410 (1827). I'oisson, S.ll.: hl6111oiro sur les 6qrlntionn g6rl6rnlrn clr I1(.qnilibrc r t d r ~ rilr>~~vetiic:~lt, (Ips c~or1)molitlos 6l11ntiq11os t tics Iluiclcs. $1. (10 I'l':colo ~lol,y(yc~l~~l. c 1.1. I3!1-- l8li (IH:!l). I'rclgrr, CV.: J~~t,rotlltc(.iot~ I I C O ~ I I L I I ~ COF c o l ~ t , i t ~ t ~ n . RI. C~O.,I!)(;]. 1.0 I R C:illlJ l'rigogi~~c,. : I < t , ~ t ( l ~ I ~ ~ ~ I I I O ~ tlcn pl1611o11iA11ca ~ I I ~ I L ~ ~ ~ I I ~ I ~ I ~ C irr~~vt!rsil)lc;u, ) I I I I O ~ I . I ~ I ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ , I I!bl7. Stolct~~, (:.(:.: On 1110 t11c.oric.s o r itllsrl~nl frit:tior~ o r I l ~ ~ i ill ~ t l tllnLioll. 'I'I.:LIIH. ( : : I I I I ~ I ~ . I'l~il.Soc. X , 287-305 (1845). d e St,. \'erl:ttit,, 1%. Note ii jointlre 1111 mdtnoire sllr la rlynnltliqur dcs fluitlen. Coln1)trv I<cntlrrs : 17, 1240- 1244 (1843). 'I'oll~llicn,\\I.: Crcnzscl~icl~ttl,coric. 1TnntlI)nt:h clcr1Cxper.-l'l~ysik, VoI. I V, I':~rl,.1, 241 - 287 (l!J:tl).
3

[I41
[IT,]

R -- au
1,

at,

! /

ar

-I-

I -7&

l h e stless components are


1

[ I ] tlr (:root, S.lt., nnd M w u r , T.: Noli-cqnilibriuni t,hermotlynnniics. Nort,l~-llolla~ltl J'ubl. Co.. 19ii2. (21 I'iil)pl, A , : \'orleslingcr~ iiber kchniscllc hleol~nnilc.\'ol. 5, 'J7cul)r~er. Lcipzig, 1922. 1.11 H o l ~ f I,.: ZIllr I"1iinniglceilcri. Cont,riblll,ioll to: lln11tl1111cl1 P l ~ y s i k Vol. V I I ( H . Geiger , tlcr , :lrlcl J(. St.llrrl, rd.), lirrlin, 1027. ~ n~ , t'~. [4] I(estit1, J . : A C O I I I . ~ill t . l ~ c r t ~ i o d y ~ ~VoI.~ I~ iJ3lniplell, 19(M. [T,] I!cs(.il~, , J . : Il:(~rtlo tllcr~nodynanliqr~cr s 1)116no111i~1lev d ~rrdversihlcs.Ilnp. No. 66---7, Lab. (l A'rtit.l~t-r~~~iqr~c, hlcutlo~\,\!I(\(;. I(;] I,:LIII~). 11. : I l y t l r o d y r ~ ~ ~ ~6thi ( . ~ . (Inn~l~ridgc. ~ l ntl., I!lT,7; also ])over, 1045. ( 7 1 I,otrt.. A . 1':. I I . : 'l'lle ~ ~ ~ n t , l ~ e ~ ~t,Ilcory iofnctl:isticity. 41.11 cd.. C:l~ilhridge Uliiv. Press, ~:~t, c I 1052. [HI hlc.iurlrr. .I.. r~rltlTlrik. 11. (:.: 7 ~ l i c ~ r n ~ o t l y ~ ~ n n irrc?vrrsil~lrn tlrr ~ i l c I'rozessc. Co~iI,rih~lt.iorl to I ~ : I I I ( I I , I I c I I (11.1. I'I~y~ilc. Vol. 111/2 (S. I+'liiggr, ctl.), Springrr, I!)5D, 11p. 413 -523.

(lie Rry~ioItIsI I I I ~ I ~ J Cmnst be rclrtnl (lirynolcls's p r i ~ ~ ~ i ~ofl csirnil:~rit.y).'I'llis ~S ) b roncllrsion was tlrawrl by astimatirtg t.hc forces in the st,rcanrn; wr now propose to tlctlr~cei t again directly from the Navicr-Stolrcs eqltatiorls. 'rlrc Navicr-Stokes cqr1a1,ions express tSl1o coltclit.ion of c t l t ~ i l i l > r i ~ ~I~I lI t I, C I ~ I : I t h a t for c a c l ~pa.rticle t,llerc is cqrrilibrir~rnbetwccn l~oclyforcrs (woigI~(.), I I ~ ~ ; L C ~ S f o r ~ c s ~ t tjncl-ti:t. forcrs. 'J'hc sr~rf:bc!c forc:c:s co11sist.of prc?ssurr fort'cs ( I I O ~ ~ I IIi)r(:t:s) a l : ~ ~ ant1 frictiotl forrcs (sl1ea.r forccs). TZotljr forccs n.rc in~l)ort,nt~t, only i r l c::t.sc>s ~ I I C : I I tlicro is a free s~lrftlccor wllcrl l,lto tlrtlsily clisl.ril~trl.iotlis itll~orno~c:~~c:o~ts. 111 111,: ( : x s ~of a hornogcnrol~sfl~titlin tltc :l.hsenc:t? oS n Srrc s\tr(i~t!c t,Itrr(: i s c:tl~tiIiI)t.i~tt~~ I ) C ~ I V ~ ( : I I 1,110~vcigltbof'c:at:l~ p;l.r(.ivIo:LIEII it,u l~.yrlr<)d~:~tiv . ~ I I I I ~ :l'orc;~!, t11(!S:I,IIIC I)IIO ~ in w : ~ y a t rost,. Ilc:nco i l l 1.11~ 3.8 rnot,iorl of :L I~o~nogcncons Illtitl, i r ~ thc :~t~sct~t:c I'rc-(2 of:^ snrf:icc, 1)ocly forces can 11r cat~rcllctlif I)rcssttrc! is t,o.It~n IIIC:II~ tlio (Iillcr~~ncc to Octwccrt t h a t in nlot,ion a.r~tl t rcst. I n t,llc followirlg arpttnc~tt, shall rc.st,ric:t. our a wc at,tclrtion t o cases for wl~ic:l~ assttn~ptionis trtrc bccalisc t11r.y :we: t,ltc: t>rost inlt,llis port,ant oncs in n.pplicntions. Tltrls bltc Nnvicr-Stoltcs rqnations will now c:ortt,air~ only forces clue t o pressure, viscosity, and inertia. Unclor thesc asst~mptionsant1 ronvcntions i.hc Nitvier-St,olccs rcln:ttions for :In inromprcssiblc flr~itl,rcstrick:tl 10 s t c i ~ d y[low nncl in vcclor ftjrttt, si1111~lil:y o t

CHAPTER I V

General properties of the Navier-Stakes equations


Reforc p:lssing on t,o thc int,rgrat,inn of t h e Navicr-St.okrs cq~rnl.ionsin t.11~ following ch:lpt,ers, it now sncms pcrtincnt, t o discnss sornc of their general properties. In tloing so wc shsll restrict ollrsclvcs to irrcornprcssiblc viscous fluitls.

R.

J)c.rivntion nf Reynolds's principle of sin~ilnrityfrom the Nnvicr-Stokes cquntiorla

TJr~tilt,Ilc prrscnt clay no gcnc,r:~la.~tn.lyt,ic n~rt,l~otl.s I~rcotnc 11:tvr availnltlc for tlle intc-gmtion of t,hc Nnvirr-Sl.okcs~clt~at,ions. u r t l ~ c r t n o rsolrtlion~ I~ c, wl~inlla1.r vnlitl for all values of viscosity are Irnown only for sonle particular cases, c. g. for Poiseuille flow tl\rorlgh a circular pipe, or for Couctte flow bet,ween two parallcl walls, onc of which is a t mst,, the other moving along its own plane with a constant vcloc:ity (set: Fig. 1.1). For this reason t l ~ c problcm of calculatir~gthe motion of a viscous fluitl was attaclrctl by first tackling limiting cases, t h a t is, by solving prohlcrns for very large viscosit,ics, on t h e one hand, and for very small viscosities on t,hc other, I)cmrlsr in t,ltis manner t.hc matllcmatical problem is considerably simpliActl. liowevrr, tlro casr of modcrat,c viscosit,ics cannot 1)c irlt,erpolat,cd I~ct~ween 1l:ven the limit,ing cases of vcry largc ant1 very small viscosities present great mathematical tlifficulties so t h a t rescarcll into viscolls fluid motion proceedetl t o a largc cxtcnt. by experiment. I n this conncxion t,l~c Navier-Stnlrcs equations ftrrnish vcry uscSttl 11int,s wtiicl~point t o a considerable rcduct,ion in the qnantity of cxpcrimcnt.al worlr required. I t is oft,cn possible t o carry out. expcrimcnts on models, which means t h a t in t h e e ~ p e r i m c n t ~ arrangement a geometrically similar al motlcl of t,hc not11a1 body, b u t reduced in scale, is investigated in a wirttl tunnel, or ol.hcr slritahlc arrangement. This always raises the question of t h e dynamic sim,ilnril?y of flclitl mot.ions which is, evidcnt.ly, intimately connect,cd with t h e quesobt,a.inod wit,l~ motlcls can Jlc nbilizcd for t h e prediction of tion of Itow far rcsult.~ tho I>t:haviollr of t h e FIIII-scaleI)ody.
I

'J'llis clifl'crer~tinl cql~ationmust l ~ c indrpcnclent d the clloicc of t . 1 1 ~t~tli(.s t.lrc for various physical quantities, s11c:h as velocity, prcssnrc, clc., which appe:lr in it.

We now consider flows about two gcomctrically similar boclics of diKcrcrlt lincar tlimcnsions in streams of different velocitics, c. g., flows past two sptlcms in wllictl t h e densitics a n d viscosities may also bc different. Wc shall invcstigatc tllc corltlition for dynamic similaritfly with the aid of tho Navier-Sbokcs cqoat,iot~s.Evidently, dynamic similarity will prevail if wit11 a suitablc choice of t l ~ units of Icngf.h, c tirnc, ant1 force, the Navicr-Stoltes cqn. (4.1) is so t,mnsforn~ctl t h a t it, I)cco~ncs iclent.ica1 for the two flows with geomctric:ally similar botirltlarics. Now, it is [~ossil)lc: t o free oneself from (.he fortuitously selechcl r ~ n i t sif clirncnsiorllcss tlllntltitics n.rc introducetl into cqn. (4.1). This is acllievccl by snlcct.irlg ccrt,:~in sr~itnhl(: c:llar:rc:taristic mxgnitr~dcsi r l tllc flow a s our ~rrtil,s, ant1 I)y rcfcrring all othc:rs t,o t.11c:nr. ..Ll~its g., the frcc-slrcan~ , c. vcloci1,y anrltl tllc tlianlcI.cr of (,I111 spl~rrc:c:alt IJ~: st-l(:c:l.c:tl a s t h e rcspcctivc 11nit.sof vcloc:it.y nrltl Icrlgth. 1~r.tV, 1, and pl tlcnotc t l ~ c s ccltaractcristic rcfcrcnco magt:itrltlrs. II' we now introtltlcc into thc Navicr-Sl.olzcs eqn. (4.1) thc tlirrrrr~wionlrss ri~i.ios

As a1rr:ttIy oxpl~incrlin Chap. I, two fluitl nibtions are dynamically similar if, with gc?ornct,rit:allysirnilnr k)ot~ndn,ries, t.he velocity ficltls are geometrically similar, i. e., .if 1,ltc.v have gromct,ricnlly similar st~rcnrnlincs.

pressure

P = -p

PI '

This qucstiot~wits atlswcrrd in Chap. 1 for t h r case in which only inertia and visrntts fnrt*rs t:~Itc1)itrI.in tile proc,css. I t was found tllere t h a t for t h e two motions

72

I\'. C:rncr:tl prol,e~lirs tlrc Navier-Stokrs ecluat.ions of

c. The Navicr-Stoltes eqnations interproled as vortirit,~ t.rnnsporL e q r ~ n t i o ~ ~ s

73

1 ) or, c l i \ f i t l i ~ ~)g~ c)

172/18

(4.2) / ,I l ~ oIll~icl I r ~ o t , i o ~li~ n t l v rc-o~isitlcr:~t.io~l I,rt.omc similnr o i ~ l yif t l l ~ o s (,;in solntions t.xlr':Ss'.,I i l l {,(:rnls O[ (,II(: rcrsl~oclivc: t l i ~ n c ~ ~ ~ s i o ~v:iriiik~lcs nro itlc~~l,icnl. ricss 'Vliis rccltlily:s (,I1:Lt, I,ot,l~nlol,io~ls , l ~ rc,sl~c:c:t,ivc:t l i ~ n c n s i o l ~ ~ Nnvior-St,olrcs cc]r~:~.t.ions SO^ t c ess tlilTrr o ~ ~ \)y n fac't.or common t o all t.crms. 'l'l~c qnnntit,y p,/e V 2 rcprescnls tllc ly r:~t,ioof prc?ssltrc t.o 1.11c tlo~lblcof t.hc tlynanlic l ~ c a dant1 is u n i m p ~ r t ~ a n t t h e for tlynnrnic si~nilarit,yor t,hc t,wo motions I ) c c n ~ ~ s c i n c o n l ~ ~ r c s s i b lflow a clrnngc in c in 1)rcssIlrc cnrisrs n o c:h:irigc i l l v o l l ~ m c .l'hc sccond factor e V I / / L is, liowcver, vory irnl,ort,:inl, :ind m n s t nsslllne t,Ile s a m e valrlc for bot.11 motions if t h e y a r c t o I)e tlyr~n.n~ic::iIIy similar. Ilencc tlynnmic sil~lilarityis assured if for t h c t w o nlotions

(I1:gratl) ll

- I" grad P I?,

-t e " l V

"2

11'.

T l ~ r ~ s frictional terms in eqn. (4.1) vanish identically for potential flows, but ge~~erally the speaking both boundary conditione (3.36) for the velocity cannot tlrcn be satisfied sin~ulta~reor~sly. If the normal con~ponentmust ccsu~tn~u prencribed vnlucs along n bonntinry, t l ~ r n , potential in flow, 1.l1o t,iw ont.inl oon~pono~lt tl~orobyclolorr~~i~rnd I,llr\t l,l~n nlip oo~~cliI.io~~~ I I tO I ~ i~ no 110 I,III I 0 sdislicd nt Lf~oR I ~ I I I O l,i~no.Jd'or Ll~isrt!ason clno cnnnok regnril p>hnLinl ilowe a" p l ~ y s i t ; ~ d l ~ moatringfill nol~~tiona 1.110 Nnvicr-Stokon cqr~ntionn,bocnrrno tl~oy not nnt.inry tlic ~)r~:scril)rd of (lo boundary conditions. l'lrcro exist^, howcver, an i~nportantcxccption to t l ~ oprccccli~~g ~t.xtcmcnt wl~iclroccurn wl~ontho solid wall is in rnotion and when this condition tlocs not apply. The sin~plest parlicular case is that of flow ~mnta rotating cylinder wl~cnthe potential ROIIItion tloes constit,utc a meaningfnl solution to the Navicr-Stokcs cquntior~s,as explainctf i l l grcatcr detail on p. 80. The rcadcr tnny rcfor t,o two papers, one by G . 1InnieI [ 4 ] n~rdonc by. J. Aclteret [I], for fnrt.ller details. The following sect,ions will be rest,ricted to the consideration of plane (two-din\rnsional) flows because for such caocs only is it possible t,o inclicato son~e gcncral properties of Lhc NavicrStokes equations, and, on Mia oClrcr hand, plane flows roostituh by fir tho lnrgrst clans of prohlcrns of practical i~nportance.

c. The Navier-Stokes equations interpreted a s vorticity transport equatinns I n t,he case of two-tlimensional nori-stcatly flow in t.hc x,y - p l a ~ l c t,l~o vcloc:it.y vector b c c o ~ n c s

'J'his princil)lo was tlisc:ovrrctl I)y Osbornc Iteynoltls when ho i~lvrst,igxt.etlfluitl 1rlol.io1lt , l i r o ~ ~~'ipcsnn(I is, t IrrrcSorc, lznown ns t h e Reynolds prilrripla o/ si??rilnrib?/. gl~ 'I'hc r l i ~ n r t ~ s i o ~ ~ l r s s ral.io

e."
Cc

vz
v

a n d l h c s y s t e m of rquat,ions (3.32) a n d (3.33) t r n n s f o r ~ n s n t o i

(4.3)

is cnllctl t h e Itoynoltls rlrl~ii\)cr.JTere t h o ratio of t h e d y n a m i c viscosit,y 11, t o t h e clcr~si(,y tlcr~otctlb y e, = ,I./@, is t h e Itir~cmaticviscosity of t h e f l ~ ~ i tint.rotl~lccd l, cn,rlicr. S ~ ~ n i m i nn p we can s t a t e that, flows n h o u t g e o n ~ c t ~ r i r a l lsirrlilnr 1)odics g y a r e tly~~n.miaally similar whcn t h e Rcynoltls n u m b e r s f o r t11c flows a r c e q ~ l a l . T h u s Itcynoltls's similarity principle h a s been d e d ~ ~ c c once nlorc, t,his t,imc tl f r o ~ nt,he Navicr-Strokes c q ~ l a t i o n s ,having I ~ c c nprcvionsly dcrivcd first from a n c:st.irnnt,ion o r Sorccs :in(] sccontlly from dimensional analysis.

wl~iclifurnishes three equations for

u, v, artd p.

curl r r ~ , \rrl~icl~ rctlr~ccst o t.hc o n e W e now introduce t h e vector of v ~ r t i c i t ~ y , component a b o u t t , l z-axis for two-diniensional flow: ~

1,. I.'riclior~ienn flow a s LL801t~1io~~n" h e Navicr-Stokes equations of t not,i~~g, ~)arcnt.Irrt.ically, that, the .solutions for incomprcssil~lc/riclionless I t nay bo n.ort,l~ flown may also bc regarded as exact solutionn of 1.h~ Nnvier-Stokes cq~~nt,ionn, bcca~~sc s u c l ~ in rases t.ho frictional tcrnrs vanish itlont.icnlly. In t,llc case of incomprcssiblc, fricl.ion~csn flows tho vrloc.il.y vector can he rrprrscntn?tl an t,hc grntlicr~t f a potcnt.ial: o
=

I~rict,ionlessmotions a r e irrotat.ionn1 s o t h a t curl minating prcssurc from eqns. (4.4a, b ) we o b t a i n

cct

= 0 in s ~ l c l lcascs. Eli-

grad di

whrrr t.he potcnt,ial @ R R ~ ~ S ~ t,hc L:lplacc cqllat.ion IOS

,'
=0 .

or, in short,hand form

V2@=0.
We t.11~11 l ~ o n have grad

(V2 @)

-V

2 (grad @)

0, that is, V 2 w

See foot.nota on 1,. 48.

This equation is referred t o a s t h e vorlicity transport, or transfer, equatzor~ I t stat(.s t h a t t h e subshantive variation of vorticity, wl~iclt consists of tllc l o r d a r ~ t r o t ~ v r c t , ~ c c ~ l

74

TV. Gencrol proprtic~ tho Novior-Stoke8 eqrlnlionrr of

C. The Nnvirr-Stoke3 rqrrol.ionfi intcrprrtccl W vorlicit,~ I Lrnnsport rqtlnt ion3

76

terms, is cqrtal t,o tlrc rate of clissipntion of vorticity t,lrro~~glr friction. Eqn. (4.6), togclher with tlrc equat,ion of contiiruit,y (4.4c), form n system of two equations y for t,hc two v ~ l o r i t ~components ?I, anti o. Finally, it, is possible to transform t.hcsc two cqriat.ions wit,lr two ~rnknowns ir1t.o one eq~iat.iorrwit4h one ~ ~ n k n o wby introtlrtcing tJhe st,rcam fnnc,tior~t(r(x.y). n Pltt,l.it~p

I n this form the vorticit,y t r n n s p o ~ tcquntiorr contains only one unknown, 11). 'Clre left-harrd side of cqn. (4.10) contains, as was the casc with the Navicr-Stokcs equations, the inertin tormu, whcrcas t2ho right-lrhrld siclo cont,aitts tho frirtionnl tcrms. I t is a fourtll-order 1tarti:ll dilfercrrtial cquatiorl in tile strcarr~f~irrctiorr '7, I t s solution in gcneral terms is, agnin, vcry clifficult, owing ho its bcirig iron-lirrr;rr.
V. G1. Jcrrsorr 1 1 fount1 a s o l ~ ~ t i otn the vorticity transport cclllatio~~ 5 o (4.10) for the case of a sphere by numcricnl integration. The resulting pat,trcrns of s(.rcainlines for different Reynolds numbers arc seen plotted in Fig. 4.1 which also contnirls clingrnms of the distribution of vort,icit.y in t h r flow fioltl. Tltc smnllost. Itc:ynol(l~ number irrclrldcd, R = 5 in Figa. 4.1s anti 4.1~1,corresponds to thc casc w11c11tlrc viscous forces by far outweigh the inertia forccs and the resulting flow can bc described nu crecping motion, Scc. I V d ar~tl(~11nptr.r hr this casc the wholc flow fit-It1 VI. is rotatiorral and tho pattcrns of strcnmlirlcs forward and aft are nenrly ident.ic:nl. As thc ltcynolds number is incrcnscd the sphere dcvclops on its rcar a scparatcd region with back-flow and the irttensity of vorticity is progressively more concentrated near the downstream portion of the sphere, wherca.. in thc forward portioir tlrc flow becomes nearly irrot,ationnl. The flow patterns undcr consideration which have been dcdr~ccdfrorn the Nnvier-Stokes equation, allow us to rccognizc thc clrnractcristic changes which take place in the stream as the Reynolds number is made to increase, even i f a t t,he highest Reynolds number rcachcd, R =. 40 in Figa. 4.1 c and 4.1 f, tile boundary layer pattern has not yet had a chance to develop fully.

we see t,llaLtho cor~t,innil.~~ oclltation is s:tt,islictl aut~om:rt.irally. n ncltlit,ion l.lle vorLici1,y I from eclrl. (4.5) 1)c:conrcs w=+v2y,t (4.9)

Very extensive experimental inveutigations of the wake behind a circular cylinder in the range of Reynolds numbers 5 < R < 40 nre described in two papers by M. Coutanceau nnd R. Bouard [lc, ld] who coveretl both steady and unsteady flows. The development of very efficient elc~t~ronic computers in modern times has made i t possible to solve the Navicr-Stokes equations for flow past geometrically sirrrple bodies by purely numerical methods. In order to do this, tlrc differential equations are replnccd by difference equations. The numerical techniqucs used for this purpose will be explained in Sec. 1x1. Without discussing this matter here irr any ilcpt,h, we quote one irrteresting result. Figure 4.2 shows tlre flow past a rect,angular plate placed a t right anglcs t o the stream calculated by J. E. Fromrn and 1;". H. IIarlow 131. At the back of the plate there forms a vort,cx street similar to that bchintl a circular cylinder shown in Figs. 1.6 and 2.7. Figure 4.2ashowsan expcrirnentnlly detcrmined p n t t ~ r n slreamlincs, where*! Fig. 4.2b rcprcscrrts thc calculatcd ficld, both for n of Reynoltls number Vdlv = 6000. Thc agrconctrt bctwccn tflrc two patt,crrrs is rcmilrkably good, in spitc of thc fact that in this rnngo of 1tcyrroldanrtml~crsl.l1c aecluircs flow an oscillat,ory character, Fig. 1.6. Tltc earliest attcml)ts t,o ol)tain UIICII nl~rncrical sol~rt,iol~s t,lrn N:~virr-St,okc,s t,o c~clt~:ltions can I)c t.rnt:c,tl 1.0 A. 'l'ltotr~ 101 ~ 1 1 1 , ~ , c r formed such cslc~ilat.ions a circular cylindcr nt the low Rcyrrolds n~rrnl)crs -- 10 for R to 20. I,ater, the calculations wcre carried to R = 100 [ ] As the R.c:ynoltls numl)rr 2. increases, the degree of difficulty of such numcrical int.egrat,ions increases st,ccply. I n this conncxtion i t is worth consulLiiig the comprchensivc sr~mmnryby A. l'lrom and C. ,I. Apclt [7], as well the work of C. J . Apclt [I n] and I). N. tlc (2. Allerr and R. V. So~it~l~wcll nnd of If. B. ICcllcr nnt1 11. Takami L5nl. [ I I))

liiR. 4.1

R
n,

I':r.ltrrns or rlro(.iorr i r r :b visrorls llo\v 17ns11 n ~1111orc 11illi:rrtrt. 11c~y11old~I I I I I ~ O ~ S at II IT1)/v tlrrivc<l froln l . 1 1 ~vorbicily Lrnrrsport rrlrtntiorr (4.10) hy V. (:. ,lrrrson [5].

I,, r, I'nt,trrrrn of nl.rmtnlit~c:s; t i , r, f, I)ist.ril~rrt~ion $ort,ic-it,y(t,II/I' of (:onst a, cl R G , . = 8.0 no sopnmt.ion ". scpnrntion at 6 17 1 " CD 2.!1 , R 20 , I,, r . f R - 40 , TI,( 1.9 , sc.pnr:~t,iorl 4 -= 148' at,

(:,,

76

1V. (2enrrnl proprrtir~of tlir Nnvirr-Stokm rqustio~~n

r. 'I'llr litr~iti~~g of vrry small visoo~ts r r r ~ c.nw h

77

Fig. 4.2n Fig. 4.2. T'nt,tcrn of st,rcnlnlinra t)clii~~tl a rect.nt~gr~lnr pl:ito (lf/rt = 1.6) ~~liictrtl flat. nt. rigl~t, nnglr t.o thr flow at. n Itry~iolils t111111l)rr = I' ![/I) = 6000, n f k r J . I<. R Frolnrn nlld 1'. H . IIarlow [B]. (11 Iioigllt of plate. d = thickncnn of plate) tlckr~ninerlcspcrin) utroanlline ~)nttcrl~ n~ent.nlly, h) st.rrntillit~rpnltcrrl rxlr~llntrtlby t i l t nioricnl integrat,ion of tllc Nn\-ier-Stokos eqltntion for T = I lr/II 2.78 (I t.irtle froln stnrt of rnotiol~). Nun~rricnlintrgrati011 pcrforrncd 011 nn 1Ril.I 7090 rol~ll)r~ter

omission of t,llo illcrt.in t o m s is l)c-rrnissiblc li-orn tlre ~ n a t ~ l l ~ r n : ~ tpoil~t. viow . i c d of I~rcartset.l~e orrlcr of tile ccl~lnt.io~~ is not t,llercl)y rrtlnrcd, so tJla1 with t01c siml)liIictl tlilTt:rent,ial cqn. (4.11) it. is possil)lt? to sat,isf.y a s marly L~ourltlnry(:o~~tlit,iot~,q 1 s \ v i t , I ~t l ~ c 1 f111l(~111. (4.10). (:r(:cl)i~~g tnot,i<~t~s :~lso I)I- t~~~g:~rtI(xl C:III 11s uoIt~l,ions01' t,Ilo N:~vi(~r-Stol<t~x c t l ~ ~ : i t i oi l~ ~t,l~cli~ttbliw~/ l s rnss o/ vcry smnll IIc?/NoW/P II?I.?~I./)P~.Y 0). I ) ~ ~ . : L I I S ( : ( R .t.l~o ltcynoltls I I U I I I ~ ~rrprt.scnls 1.l1cr;~l.io irlcr(.ia t.o f'riction li3rec:s. C~ of Sol\~t,ions oqn. (4.1 1) for t.hc c:rc-cping rnotiotl of ;L visco~lsflrticl \rrc-rt!li)1111tl of by (:. (>. Sloltcs in the rksc of a spllorc artcl by tJ. I,arr~l)in t.ltc case of ;L circ~rl;tf cyliritlcr. Stokcs's solr~tiori (:an hc npl)liccl t o the falling of pnrt,iclrs of mist in air, o r t o t.lw rliot,io~l srnall sphCrcs i l l a vcry viscous oil, \i,lten thc \.elocit,ics arc so of s~nnllIllat incrt,in forccs can he ncglcctrtl wit11 p o t 1 accuracy. l?~lrtllcrrnore,t l ~ c h ~ ~ t l r o y r n theor?/ o/ hrhricn~iorr,i. c. t,llc 1,llrory of t,ho mot,ion or lr~l~ri(:a.l,i~~g ic oil i t , t,l~c:vcry narrow cllatl~lclI)ct\\~ccr~ jol1rr1:~1 t.lic ant1 bearing usrs t.l~is silnplilicd rtlrl:~t.ionof tnot,iorl as its st,art.ing point,. 111 I.11oIal,t,cr case it will Iro ol)scrvotl 1,11:1t, if t l ~ o vclocitics arc not very small, I,llc vnry small cle:~r:~nco lloigl~ts,n~ltll.11(: ro1:il.ivcljr I:~rgrv i s r o ~ i t ~ y t.110 oil, ~ I I S I I ~I.l~at, visco~lsforccs arc rn~rcll1:irgc.r ~.II:III of ~ : t.llc Ill(! ~ I I ( ~ I , ~ ,for(:cs. llo\vc\~(!r, ~IL nl);irI, fro111t,l~o t.licory of lul~ricittiot~,l ~ c t , (i(:ltl of :~pl)lic*:ll,ionof t , l ~ c t.llcory of creeping ~not,ion fairly insignificant. is

e.

Tllc limiting cnee of vcry srnnll viscoue forces (very lnrge Reynolds nurnbers)

cl. TIIC lilni~illgenee of very lnrge viscosity (very s r ~ ~ eRryllolds tlumber) ll

I I I VCTJ sIo\v rnotiot~sor i l l rnot.iotls \vil.I~ vcry large viscosil.y the viscorrs forccs :ire ror~sirlrml)l,y greator t.l1a11t.hc incrti:t f'vrccs beonttse the lalt,er arc of t,lle order of tllc vc!loc:ity s q ~ ~ a r r d , wllcrc:is tllc I'orrnrr are linear wit11 ~ c l o c i t ~ y . a first 'ro ar)l)roximnl.iol~ is possil)lc t,o nrglcct tllc i~rcrt,ia it, t,crms wit.11 respect t.o the viscous Irrtns SO tllat from cclrl. (4.10) we ol)t.ain
I

I'rotn itlie point of view ol' pmct,icnl applirnLior~s t * l ~ secollct c x t , r r ~ n c e cl:Lse, nan~cl,vt.llntr of very small viscous forccs i l l rqn. (4.10) compnrctl wit,h tllc inrrl.ia forcc.s, is of far greater import,ar~cc. Sincc l.llc t,wo most irnport.ant flui(ls, narncly water a.r~tlair, have vcry small visco.rit,ics, the rase 11ndcr corlsiderat,ion ocanrs, generally sprnlcing, already a t modcmtcl~vhigh ~elocit~ics. 'Cllis is the limitirrg crrss o/ I)er?/ /rrr{/c Itcynolds ~z?lm./~cr.~ m). 111 this case the [lroccss of m;~t,h(~lrl:~l,ic::~I (R -> sin~~rlificnt.ion tllc tliKcrc~~t,ial (4.10) reqr~ircsn consitlcrablc anlount of rart:. of cqn. I t is not 1)crtnissiblc simply t,o olnit (,lie viscorls t,crrns, i. c., t,lle riglrt,-h:~ntl sitlc of (:(in. (4.10). T l ~ i s woultl rntlnco the ortlcr of t,llc o q u : ~ t , i o ~ ~ four to two, :LII(I t.110 from s o l ~ ~ t i o n t,l~c of simplifictl c q u a t . i o ~ ~ coultl not be mndc to salisfy t,l~e frill bountl:lry corldit.iol~s t.11~ of originn.1c q ~ ~ n t . i o n . problem wl~icllwas ontlirlcd in t l ~ c The prccctlir~g scr~t~criccs hclollgs esscntinlly t o t l ~ e rc;~lrnof hou~cdnr?/-kr!/erlheory. We rlow proposc: to t l i s c ~ ~ s s briefly the gent-ral st.at,r~nc~lt,s wllich can t)c made nbout the solrrtions of Olle Nnvicr-St,oltes cqnal,ions for t,hc special mse of small viscous forccs a s cornpared \ifit.ll t,hc incrt,in forccs, t.l~:~t in t,11c limiting case of very Inrgr: 1tt:ynoltls is t111m1)crs. 7:lle following analogy rnny scrvc to ilh~st,ratetl16 c:llsr:~cter of tile solr~t.ior~s of t,hc Navier-Stokcs c q ~ r a t ~ i o fors t,l~c r~ litnit.ing c;~seor vt:ry small viscosil,y, i. c., tcrnperatrlrcb of vrry small friction terms, as comparetl with t,llc inertia terms T l ~ e distril)ut,ion O(r,y) abo111, a hot, I)otly in n flriid strrarr~is clcscri1)c~tl L ~ I C follow1)y ing tlilTer'rrrntial rqrlation, Cltap. XI 1 .

:I, lit~c-arc c ~ ~ l a t , i o ~ ~ is c~ol~sitlcrnbly \rrl~ic:lr Inore amcnablc t.o rnnt,l~etnatirnl t,rcaI,lnc-nt t,l~xnt,llo eor~~plrt,c ccln. (4.10). I'lows dcscril~rdI)y cqn. (4.1 1) ~~roct.t,tl wil.ll vrry srn:ill vc.loc.it,irs ant1 nro somc:t,itncs cnllctl crecpir~gmotior~.~. '1;llo

Illis is, now.

c.

'rho limiting caw nf vory ~nlnllV ~ R C O I I R l i ~ r t . ~ ~

79

Il(:rr v , c , :tntl k tlrnol,c 1.I1t: tlr~lsit.y,sl>cc:ilic Itt::rt, : ~ n dcontl~tcl,ivit.y Itl~c of llr~itl r c ! s ~ ~ ~ - l i v r0 y ; t.llc! tlilli~rcnt:c?I)ct,wco~~ loo:rl t,t:llll)onrt,r~rc: l in t.110 nntl t,llat a t :t vory 1;rrgc: tlist.:~t~(:r fro111 t 1 1 ~ I)otly, wl~orc:I,llc: l.c:tn11cr:~l,11rc:, is c:onsl,ant nntl cr(~l:rllso 7', ' / , i. c . 0 - - '/ - '/I,,,. 'I'llt: vcl06iI.~ lic:ltl w(z, 11) :rt1!1 ~ ( z11) it1 oclt~. , (4.12) is ;~.xst~rnctl 1.0 I)c k t l o w ~ ~ . t,ernpnrat~~rc: 'L'hc dixtribr~l~ion t h e I~our~tlarics Lhc botly tlcfir~etl on of b ? ~ 3 7', is prrsc:ril)ctl nrttl in l,hc sirnplcst cnsc it is constant wit11 rcspcct L '/I,, o sl)a(:t: ant1 t.imc 1)111., gcncrnlly speaking, it varies wit11 both. I'rom the pllysioal poinl. of view cclrl. (4.12) roprosents the 11c:rt 1):~lanc:c an clcn~cnt,ary v o l u t ~ ~'l'hc IcfOIhr e. Ilnntl sitlc represents t . 1 1 ~qu:~nt,it,yo f Ilrnt, c:xcl~:~~~gotl I)y c:or~vcc:tiorl, wht:reas the rigl~t-ll:rrl<l side is tJ1c ~ ~ ~ ; ~ r l of i11r:lt t : x t : I ~ : ~ t ~11yd (. t.v ~ c con(I~t(:t.ion. l ~ cfrit:I.ion:~lllcatl 'r gcneratcd in tile fluid is ncglcctctl. T 7 , > T,,t,llc: prol)lom is t h a t of dctcrrnining f ', 1.ltc tcmperatl~rcfield around a hot body which is cooled. 13y inspection it is scrn t h a t cqn. (4.12) is of the same form a s eqn. (4.6) for the vorticity w . I n fact tJicy hccomc itle~ltiral the vorticity is replaced by thc tcmpcraturc tliffercncc and t.llc if k i ~ c r n a t ~viscosity v by t,hc ratio k i p c known a s thc thcrmnl diff~~sivity. bourltlary ic 'l'hc conclit,ion 0 0 a t a large dist.ancc from thc body correspontls t o trhe condition tr, = 0 for t.hc undisturbed p,nrnllcl st.rcam also a t a large dist,nnce from t h e body. llcncc we rrlay expect t h a t thc solutions of the two equations, i. e. t.hc dist,ribntion of vorticity ant1 t h a t of t f c m p c r a t ~ ~ r c around t h e body will be similar in chnrnctcr.

remains, practically speaking, free from vortioity (scc IPig. 4.1). It, is, t.l~ercforc, to be cxpected t l ~ a in the limiting case of very small viscons forces, i. e. nt I;rrgc: t Itcynolds numbers, the solutions of the Nevicr-S(.okcs Q ( I I I : L ~ ~ ~ O I arc SO ('otlst.it.~tt.rtl IS ns 1.0 permit n s~ll~tlivision the fioltl of flow itll,o a n cxt.crn:~Irrgion \vlti(*ll is I'I.CO of frorn vort.icity, and a thin layer near Id~cI)otly togcthcr with a wakc I)(:llit~tlit.. I11 1.11~: first, region t.110 flow Inny I)o oxl>nct.ctl 1.0 s~r(,isfy I I O ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ r t , i o n x ~ of I'ri(:t,iot~lt.:i?( flow, the potc~lt~ial llow theory bcing uscd for i h cvnlnaI,ion, wl~crcnsin tllc sc~c-otr(l region vorticity is inherent, and, t.hcrcfore, the Navicr-Stoltcs cq~int.iorlsm ~ ~ shn t. ~ l s e dfor its cvnluntion. Viscous forccs are import,ar~t~, c. of 1.11~ santc ortlcr 91' i. mngt~itt~tlc inertin forces, only in t l ~ c n 9 . scc:ontl region known :is t,hc bo~~.~~~lrtr?y Irr?yrr. This concept of a boundary layer was introduced into the scicrlcc of fll~irlmechanics by L. Prantit,l a t the beginning of thc present ccntury: it has provecl t,o hc very fruitful. The subdivision of the field of flow into tho frict,ionlcss oxtcrnnl flow i~ntl the cssentinlly viscous boundary-lnycr flow p c r m i t k d thc retluction of the mnt,llcmaticnl difficnlties inllcrent in the Nnvicr-Stokes cqnntior~s o sllcl~at1 c x t r ~ l tt, f l ~ n t t it, l)ccnme possible to integrals them for a large numbcr of cnscs. Tllc tloscril)t.ion of t,l~csc methods of integration forms t.hc subjcat of the boundary-laycr t.hcory prcscntctl in the following chapters. From n nt~mcrical analysis of the available solr~t~ions the Nnvicr-St,okc~s of cq~~at.ioris is also poasiblo t o show directly t h a t in tho limiting case of very lnrgc it Reynolds numbers there exists a thin boundary laycr in which t h e influcncc of viscosit,y is conccnt,ratcd. We shall rcvcrt to this topic in Cllnp. V. The previously discussed limiting case i n which viscous forcrs heavily outweigh inertia force3 ((creeping motion, i. e., very small Reynolds number) results in a considerable mathematical simplification of the Navier-Stokes equations. B y omitting the inertia terms their order is not rcduced, b u t they become linear. 'J'hc second limiting case, when inertia forces outweigh viscous forces (boundary layer, i e. very large Reynolds nrrmbew) present8 greatrr matl~rmaticaldifficulties than creeping motion For, if we simply substitute v = 0 in t h e Navior-Stokcs equations (3.32), or in the stream-function equation (4.10), wc thereby suppress the derivatives of Lltr highest order and with the simpler equation of lowcr order i t is i~npossiblct o satisfy sirr~ultancously all botlndary conditions of the cornplrto tliKrrcntial eclont~ous. However, this does not signify t h a t the solutions of sucll nn equation, sin~l)lificd by t.he elimination of viscous terms, lose their physical meaning. Moreover, it is posxil~lc t o prove t h a t this solut,ion agrees with the &mplete solutionof the full ~ s v i c ~ : - ~ t o k e ~ cq11nt.ions nlmost. everywhere in t,he limiting case of vrry large Reynoltls n r t n ~ b ~ r s . Tho exception is confincd t,o n 1.hin lnycr ncnr the wall - t.hc bountlnry 1n.yc.r. l ' h ~ l s , t h r complete nolution of t.hc Nnvicr-Stmkcs c ~ t r a l i o n s c:nn I)e t.llorrgl~l, nrc t:o~~rcist,ing of of two soirrt~ions,thc so-cnllctl "outcr" solution which is ohtninctl wit11 t11c ;lid of Eulor's ccluctions of motion, and a so-callcd "inner" or bonndnry-1n.yc.r solnt.ion which is valid only in the thin layer adjacent to the wall. The "inner" solut,ion satisfies t h c so-called boundary-layer e q ~ ~ a t i o n s which are dctlncctl from t,l~c NavicrStokes equations by ~oortlinat~e stretching nnti pwqsagc t o tho limit R + m, n.s will be shown in Chap. VII. The o ~ l t c and inncr solutions must he malchcd t,o each other r by exploiting the condition t h a t thcrc must, exist nn overlapping rrgion in which bbth solutions are valid.

Now, tllc t~cmpcratlrre dist,ril)l~tion nronncl the body may I)c pcrccivcd i n t ~ ~ i t ~ i v r l y , 1.0 n ccrtnin cxlcnt. 111l,hc limiting ca.sc of zero velocity (fluid a t rosl) the infll~cncc of tile I~ratccl11otly will extend ~ ~ n i f o r r n l y all ~ i t i c s . on With very small velocit,ics t h e fluit1 a r o ~ ~ r lttlc hotly will still he affectfed by i t in all directions. With irlcrcnsing tl vclocit,y of flow, howcvcr, i t is clcarly seen t h a t the rcgion affected by the higher tempcreturc of t h e body shrinks more and more into a narrow zone i n t h e immetlint,c vicini1.y of the body, ant1 into n tail of hcntcd fluid bchind it., 1Pig. 4.3.

. -

Fig. 4.3. Annlogy bet,weetl trnlperntuw and vorticity di~tributionill the neighb o ~ ~ r of~R dbody plnml in a strerrrn l of fl\lid a), b) I.lndCq of rrgion or it,crrhsrd trmprrsture
flow

-.__--

n) n l lvclucitlrs - - _ _- - - - - - - - - _ _ . . _ _ for ~ r n _ _ uf Ir) fur _ vrlucitirn _ Inrge

'rllc so111t.iotl rqn. (4.1 2) nilrst-, n.s mcnt,ionkd, be of a chn.ra.cter sirnilar t.o t h a t of for vort,icit,y. At snlall velocities (viscous forces h r g e compared with inertia forces) (.here is vorticity in 1,tlc whole region of llow around the botly. On the other hnntl for' large vclocit,ics (V~SCOIIS forccs smnll compnrctl wibh ir~ctl~in forccs), we may rxprc*t,i firltl of flow in which ~ o r t ~ i c i is confined to a small Inycr along t h e surfacc ty of the I)otly and in a wake behind thc boily, whereas thc rest of the fcld of flow

80

I\'. C r n r t n l p r o p r r t i r s of the Nnvier Stolic~sr q r ~ n t i o n s

f. Mnt,lre~iinticnlillt~st,ration the procens of going t.o the l i m i t R of

-t

81

f.

M n t l t c ~ t ~ n t i c nl l c t n t r n t i o n o f t l t c process o f g o i r l g t o the l i n t i t i

R 4 oo t

P 7

Let

IU

rotinitlrr t.lie tlnmpr(l vihrntiorls of


nr-

ti

point-mass t l m r r i l ~ n t h y t,llc t l i f i r r n l i n l c r ( ~ ~ n t , i o n l

t1=x 11 12

4 k-

111.

tll

I- c,:r

I l ~ v n l l ~ c const.nnt. A z folloaw froin t.110 tnrrl.t:l~i~ip;o t11c " o ~ ~ l r rn"o I ~ ~ l , i orc111. (4.17). 111 1111 c of t ~r, o v r r l n p l ~ i n grnngr, t,lrnt. is for ~noclcr:i(cv n l t ~ r n t i l n r , t . l ~ ~ :o l ~ ~ l i on~nclnn. (4.17) : ~ n ( l(4.21) of n i ~n ni~~nl. ngrc!c*. 'l'lit~s\I.(; tnr~sl,I~nvc. lii11 zr(t*) = l i t n r o (1)
I*

I).

-.

-.

H e r c i r r donolrn the vihrnlirtg ntnsn, c (.lie spring c:or~ntntlt., k I.l)c. tl:~nil)ing f:~c.lo~.. t.I~t:Irng(.ll r roordinnt.~ ntct~mcrcclfrom t , l ~ jiosit,io~l r i l ~ ~ i l i l ) r i i r nnrl I ~.III.i ~ n r '. '11c. i n i t i a l ron(lilions arc r of ~n. t 1 ILRRIIII~~C~ t,o be r - O at 1 - 0 . (4.14)
In ~ l i n l o g y wit11 (.tie Nnvier-Stnlzo~ eqr~ntions for t.lie cnse \rlicn t l ~ lrr i t ~ r n i n t i c visronity, I*, very is sninll, we conflitlcr h c r r t l ~ litnitsingrnsc of v r r y stnnll mnss nr, h r r n ~ ~ this l o o rnrlnrs 1.11~e r m r nr l of t l ~ c Iiigllest or(1r.r it1 cqn. (4.13) t o brromt! very small. l'lir c o m p l r t r solrition of cqn. (4.13) u ~ ~ h j c t~ r the i n i t i n l c~orrclit.ion n t (4.14) lins I l ~form r

or, i n worcln: 'l'llc "or~t,nr" l i m i t of t.lic "innor" s o l r r t i o ~II ~ I~ , R " o ~ ~ t e rsolnlion. (:ondition (4.2:)) Icntls nt, oncc to "

1)r C~IIIRI"itrnt:r" l o the

l i n ~ i 01 tJ11' l

ntltl no t o the i n n r r solrltion .rr(t*) = A ( 1 - c x p (-- k t * ) } . (4.25)

x = A {c%xp (

--

c x p ( - k 11iri)): irr

-t

0,
1 1

(4.15) s r r o i ~ (initinl cottl

'I'l~csnnle form r n n be obt.ninrtl from I,llr r.ot111)lclr40111t icm fro111r q n . (4.15) I I r * x ~ ~ : ~ n ( l(It(. g ~ in tirut t,rrni for s ~ n a l v n l ~ t r s I ntid r c t n i ~ ~ ithegfi~.nLtcr111 only, 1Iirit is I I1111t,ling l of ~l ~

w h r r r A in n f r r e [:onstrrnt \vl~osc~111110 n n I)(,l r t r r n ~ i t i r t \villi r r f c r c t ~ c r o r c l t tlit,iott. I f we put, i n 0 i n eqti. (4.13), we nrc l r t l t o I.lw si~nplifiedrqrltrt.ion

dx ktlt w i i i r l i is of first orclcr, nnrl \rliosc solrclio~iis

e:r =0,

7'11~ t\rfo iic!11tio11~, l i c onter s o l t ~ t i o nfrotn eqn. (4.17) nrirl L l ~ c t itillcr ~ o l t i t i o nIron1 r.qt~. (4.26). togct,l~er lorrn the ,:o!!iplcte s o l ~ t t i o n n contlition t l i n t c n r l i is 1 1 8 r t l i t 1 its p r o j ~ r I.III~~C of vnli(lity. o r ht finite 1, cqn. (4.15) tends ( c tlie outer solut~ionfor 711 + 0. whcrens a t constant t* eqn. (4.15) t o t ~ t t,o tlie inner nolutiolt. 'l'lle pnrtinl solilt,io~is l~ give Illc cori~plrtc,co111posit.cn o l ~ ~ t . i o n \\.l~iclris vnlitl it, t l ~ c cnl,ire rnnge o f v n i ~ c s f t 1)y :l(lditig t h r n l t o g r t l ~ r r , c m e t n h r r i ~ i g o r t,l~ntI h r ronlli)on tcr111from eqn (4.23) ~ n n s the included only orrre, tlint, in sul~t,r:r<:lrrlfrom tile RIII . nr,c,orrli~igt o tlio prt:srription x(1) = ~ " ( 1 )

o r d choice This solrrtion is idcnt,irnl wit,h the first term of t lie a o ~ n ~ ~ lsc tl c~ t i o n l ~ tro the f e l i r i t o r ~ s of t.lw ndjrtntnble co~lutnr~b. However. this solution r n n n o t he tnntlc t.o satisfy t,lie init,iol coridit.ion (4.14); i t ~IIIIR rcprc~cntR ~ o l ~ ~ t ,for n a i o 1n.rge values o l t h r time, t ( L c o ~ ~ so111t.ion).'l'I1~8oIntion L~r" for smnll vnlrtcs of t i m e ("inner" s o l t ~ t i o n ) snlisfies n.not,hrr diflercntinl e q ~ i n t i o n\rliirlt <:an also 1 t be dnrivtxl l r o n i eqn. (4.13). 1 1 o r d r r l o nchicvc+ this, t.hr i n f l o p c r l t l r t ~ vnrinl~lr:t is "stret.cltcd" in t,hnt a now "inner" vnrinhle t* = t/irt (4.18) iv itit,rodr~ccd. this manner, cqn. (4.13) is Lra~lsformetl 111 t,o d2r (11. -- 4-k - I
tll*2
111

+ r t ( t * ) - I*

lit11

-.

x: ( l * ) =
m

TO

(t) I r t ( t * )

-- lirn .rn(l).
1

-.

t J

(4.27)

A gmpllicnl roprencntation of the complete .soIr~t,ion from eqn. (4.15) i~nhown i n F i g . 4.4 for the cnse \vhen A > 0. Curve (a) corrcspontls t o t , l ~ e oliter s o l l ~ t i n t(4.17). Cnrvcs (I)), ( r ) nntl ~ (d) reprrsent solutiotis of t l i c c o t n p l o t , ~ l i f i r r l t t i n l equation (4.13) n.itlt ?tr c l r r r m s i t ~ g t from ( h ) t o (11). I f wc now cor111):irc this r x n m p l o x\~itlrtllr Navier-St,okcs crl~~at,ions, COIICIU~O \ve l.liat. 1,Iie r . o ~ i ~ p l ccrlrt:rt ion (4.1:)) is n n : ~ I o g o ~ ~ n tc 1.0 t.lir Nnvicr-Stol;cs cq11a1.ionsfor n v i ~ o o n n Il~~icl. I\-ltrrms IIIC sirr~plili(,(l t*q~z:tt,io~~ (4.1(;), ~ : o r r c s ~ ~ o10 i ~ l s ~ 1C11Irr's r q ~ t n t i o r ~for 1111 i(lc.nl l l ~ t i d .'1'111. i11iti:lI s

rlt*

e l

0.

I n I.ho lirnit. i r r = 0, \rrc (lc:tlnc.r tlic t l i r k r c ~ ~ t iecll~irLiot~ nl t12r

l~

"
d:r (it*
-

'

0
Fig. 4.4. So111lio11s f l l ~ viOr:iIio~r cq11:1li(111 o r ( t . I:!). (a) Sol111io11 f t l ~ e i ~ i ~ ~ ) l i f irr111:~t,ir111 o s c*tl (s!. 14). 111 -- 0 : (11). (c), ((I) rr[)rrsetrt s o l ~ ~ t i u t i s o f 1 1c.o111111rt(: 1r tlil'li~rrntin1 cqtlntion (4.13) \I it11 v n r i o ~ ~ s V:I~III*~ o f i ~ r . JVhctr i r l is w r y s ~ ~ i n l st>I111io11 :1r(111irrnl~o~~n(l:tr,yl. ((I) layer 1.11:rrnrtrr

\vliicl~ gi)vrrnu II I "innr-r" ~oI111,ion. soI111io11 i o is r ~ ~ 'I'III! ~ ~


I
1.1

(I*) = A , r x p (

kt*) 1 A,.

1 n l n i ~ ~ ~ l c l ~1.0 c ~ ( l f . Profrssor I<lnns Grrnten for (I1c rosisrtl vrrnion of t,liin section.

1. I'r~l.t~cIt.l, ~ ~ s r l ~ n r ~ l 1t11t1 r t ~ r l z l i r h c , A i c l i e~ hlnt,hemntik. I,rrt,l~res d r l i v r r r d nl. (;oe(,t.ingrn U n i vrrnil.y ill t.hr \Yint.rr-Srmrnt,rr of 1!):11/:12.

conclif.ion (4.14) plnyn a part wl~ichia ~ i n ~ i l n r 1 . 1 1 ~no-slip condit.ion of a real fluid. 'Chc latter tn cnn be saLislir*tl by Ll~csolutions of 1.11~Nnvicr-Stokcs e q ~ ~ a t i o n ~ r r tnot by those of Euler'a Is c q ~ t a t i o ~ 'l'l~c aloady-varying solnt,ion is trnnlnp;rr~~n tile frictionlcsn sol~~t,ion t r n t i n l flow) ~s. In) (p wllicl~f:rils to satisfy the no-slip contlil.ion. 7 ' 1 1 ~ f~rst-vnryinp; solntion rc~trcscnt.sLhe cour~lr?rpart of t l ~ c bonntlnry-laycr ROIIIL~VII whicl~ia delcrn~incdby t.110 prcscnm of viscosit.y; i t clin'cn fron~ zero only ill a narrow zone near tho wall (borlndary layer). I t is to bo n o k d tliat the second bonndary c o ~ ~ d i t i o n slip a t tho wall) can only be sal,inficcl if t.hin bonntlary-layer solution is (no a.~lclr.tl, t,l111nmnking t.ho whole soll~biorlp l ~ y ~ i ~ areal. lly This nirnple rxarnplc cxl~ihit,sthc sarnc mat.l~rmaticalAatures M t.l~oscctisor~sscd in 1,110 prcrcding cl~u.plcr.I t is, nrrrnrly, not pcrn~iasil~lci ~ n In onlit t l ~ cV ~ R C O I I R tern18 i l l t110 s rly Navicr-Stokm c q ~ ~ a t i o n s wl~onperforming the process or going over to t.110 litnit Tor very s~nall visconit.y (vrry I;irge llcynolrln n ~ ~ r n b r r'l'his r:rn only bc: clone in tile intrgrnl solnl.ion it-~olr. ). W e sha.ll t l c n i o n s t r a t c lat,cr in grcal.cr c1cl:iil t l ~ a if, is n o t t1cc:c:ssary t.o retain l,hc t Cull Navirr-St.olrcs eqrrat,ions f o r tilo process of lintling t h e l i m i t for R -+m. F o r ll~c salte of n ~ n t h r m a t , i c a l simplilicat.ior~i l will p r o v c possible t o o m i t c e r t a i n t . r r ~ i i ~ in i t , pnrticnlarly c e r t a i n stnxll viscous tcrnls. It is, h o w e v e r , i m p o r t f a n t t o n o t e that, riot a l l viscous t r r m a c a n b c ncglrctrtl. ns t h i s worll(1 depress tfllc o r d r r of t h o NavierStolrrs rqnntiotis

C H A P T E R V

Exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations


I n g r n r r a l , t h e problcm o f finding c x a c t s o l u t i o n s o f t.he Navier-Sl.okrs rclllationa prcscnta i r ~ s u r m o u n t a b l cm n t l ~ o m a t ~ i c diflicolLic~. 'I'his is, primarily, a conal srclucncc of l h e i r being non-linear, s o t.11at trhc a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e principle o f s u p c r position, which s e r v e s so well i n t h e cnsc of frict,ionlcuu p o t e n t i a l motionu, i~ axcludctl. Ncvcrthclrzla, it, iu p o u ~ i h l o lint1 cx~rnt. O ~ I I ~ , ~ O I in rt.rI,t~in r ~ l ~ r t , i ( ! t t(:IIH(~II, O I I ~ . ~ ~ H IH l~~r I I I wlicn t h e q u a d r n t i c convccLivc f o r m s vaniuh i n a nat.ural way. Jn thin c:l~al)t.c:r wo shall d c v o t e o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t,hc cliscuu..ion of s c v e w l e x a c t solutions. I n c i d c n L ~ l l y , it, will bc, s h o w n t h a t i n t h c cnsc of smnll viscosity m a n y of tllo c x a c t solulioris havc: a boundary-layer structure which m e a n s t h a t t,he influence o f viscosity i s confined to a t h i n l a y e r itcar t h e wall.

[l] Ackcrct, J . : Ubcr exakte J5sungen dcr Stokes-Navi~rGlcicl~ungen inkomprr~nihler 1Pliis~igkciton bci vcriin~lorbn(:rr~~r,l~c~li~~~rtngc?~~. 259--271 (1952). %1\;\11' 3, [In] Apeelt. C. ,i.: 'l'hc ~ t r n t l yl r t i v of a viscous finid p.mt a circular cylindcr a t Reynolds numbers I 40 and 44. I3ritial1 AltC ItM 3175 (IWil). (Lh] Allen, D.N. 1)e G . , m ~ t iSo~~t.hwcll, 1t.V.: ltclaxation methods applied to d e t e r l i n e the n~ot,ion,in t,wo d i ~ n m ~ i o nof, a visconn flnid pnat n Bxetl cyli~ldor.Q~mrt.J . Mech. Appl. a MnLIl. 8 , 12!)-145 (1!)55). [lo] Coutnnccau, M., nnd Uo~lnrcl,R.: 15xpcrirno1tnl dckr~ninnt.ion t.lw main fent,~~rrs the of of vinro~~n in. t., ~~ flow . l wnkn of a circular cvlinder in 1111ifor111 tra~~nlation. Par1 I. Steady now. . JFM 78, 231 -256 (1977j. [Itl] ( h ~ c t a ~ ~ c e M.,. ,LIIVI au I%or~ard, Rxl~rritnrnLal It.: detcnninat,ion of thc main fcnC~~ren thc of viscol~r l r ~ will tbe w:tkc of a circulilr cylinder in rrniforin translation. Part 2. Unsbndy flow. f .1I7L\i 79, 257- 272 (15377). [2] Ihnnis, S.C.K.. and GRII-ZII C11ang: N11111criea1 o I ~ ~ t , i tfor ~ s s ) ~ stcarly flt>\v past a r i r c ~ ~ l n r oylit~tlcrat, I<cy~~olclsu m h r r s p to 100. JJ'M 42, 471 -485) (1070). ~i o [3] Yro~nln. .l.lS., nnd Il:rrlow, I'.II.: Nn~ncrionlnol~itionn of the prolrlom of vortex ntrcct d r v c l o p ~ ~ ~ cI'ltyn. of kglllids6 , !375--9RLt (l!)(iR); sw also: h i /\A $e\oclrcl Ih:printn, (:ompll~rt.. t.;rt.ionnl Fl~~icl v r ~ n ~ r ~(C.sI<. CIIII, cd.). R2 - R9 (i!)(iR) nr~cl AGIIRI) I,ccttr~re Series 34 l) ic (t071). [4] ~ ~ a l l l oG.: t)t)er die Pob~~f.i:~lst,riirrl~~ng I'liinsigltoitcn. ZAMRI 21. 12!J I:!) (1941). l. xilhcr 151 J ~ I I R O I ~ , Viscor~sflow ror~ndR RI)II(TP. nt, 1e1w ILcynoI(Is tlr~nil)t:rs( < 40). I ' r ~ c .Jloy. V.G.: Soc. 1,orltlon A 249. 346 --:!C,C, (19551). [An] l<cllcr, 11. IS., nt~cl'I':lk:u~ri, 11.: Nutr~cricsl ~t,rlclies sk;rdy visco\~sflow ahor~t, of cyli~lclrrn. N~~nlcric:nlO I I I ~ ~ O ~ I S 01. no~i-li~~c::rr R difTcrcr~t,ialerl~rnt.ions.l'roc. Atlv. S y r ~ ~ p . liniv. of nt \Vinr-onsi~~, Mntliso~~, I!)lifi (I). (:rw.~,slt:r~~, cd.), J . \Vilr.y RG Sons, New York. I!)(;(\, pp. 115 - 140. I (61 'l'llon~, A , : I'low pwt. rirc.l~lnr ryli~~clrrn~ tlow spcecls. Proc. Roy. SOD. : . 1,011tlo11 i\ I'll, 651 - I;(;!) (1!):%3). 171 'J'lmrn, A., a11tl Altrlt. (;I. .I.: 1"irld co~np~~t.ationrc~~ginrcring pl~ysic*.v a n Noin ant1 nl.rnr~tl, I,ontlot~, I!Jlil.
~

A compreliensive review o f s o l u t i o n s of the N a v i c r - S t o k e s e q r ~ a t i o n sh a s b e e n givcn b y I t . B e r k c r (41.


a. Parallel flow
Parallel flows c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m p l e c l a m of motions. A flow is called parallel if o n l y o n e velocity c o m p o n e n t ie diKercnt, f r o m zero, a l l fluid parliclcu m o v ing i n o n c direction. F o r e x a m p l e : if t h e con1poner1t.s e a n d 10 a r c zero cvcrywhcrc, i t follows at o n c e from t h e c q u a t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y t h a t i)u/az 0. which me:tns t.hat, t h o c o m p o n e n t u c a n n o t tlepend o n x. Thus f o r parallel flow w c h s v c

F u r t h e r , i t also follow^ i m n ~ c c i i a t a l yf r o m thc N a v i c r - S t o k c s cc111;~tions(3.32) f o r t.11~ ant1 z - d i r c c t ~ o ~ l s ythat. ap/r?y = 0, a n d i)p/8z 0, s o t l ~ a ttl i c p r r ~ s u r r c j w n d s d only on r. I n aclclilion, i n t h c c-clunl,ion for t h r 2-tlircc.lion all c:onvc.c.t.ivc- t,c~rtns vi~nish l l r n r r

.. -

--.

In the following a r g ~ ~ m ct.110 term "prcmnre" clcnotm UICdifimncc ~ ~ W M 1.11~ nt I I l~>t;iI I)rrxqlrrc and tlio hydrostaLic prcastlre (pnxwt~m rest). This mnma t . 1 body forccn t o ( Y L I I ~LS I thry at, ~ P , are in cqnilibriurn wit11 t,he I~ydrostnticpmmurc.

84

V . Exact. sol111,ions t.he Nnvirr-Stokrs eqt~nl,io~rs of

1. Parallel flow t l t r o ~ ~ ga straight channel nnd Col~eltcflow. A very sirrlple h solut,ion of eclnat,ion (5.2) is obtained for t,lrc case of st,oatly flow in ;I channel with t,wo parallel flat,walls, lpig. 5.1. 1,et. t,hc tlist.at~cc bctwcen the :valls be denoted by 2 h , so t.liat cqrl. (5.2) can I)c writ9tcrl
tlp -clx
/4

tI2u

aplily = O the jlrcsslrre gra\rit.ll t , l ~ c I~ol~rttlnry c:ontlition : 11, -= O for :- rk1). S i t ~ r c tlictt~t r ~ tlircclior~ flow is rorlsin.nt,. :IS scot1 froin cqn. (5.3). 'l'111rstlpltlz = const i tlrn of' :111t1 t.l1(!solt~t,ion is

, I . llc

r c s u l t i r ~vc~lot~ity ~ profile, I'ig. 5.1, is 1):~rabolic.

Anotl~er simple solution of e q n (5.3) is obtained for tho so-mlled Collett-e flow l)ctweer~ t,wo pnrnllcl flat walls, one of which is a t rest, tlre ot,her moving in its own plan? wit11 ;I velocity Fig. 6 2 \Vit11 the boundary conditions

rJ,

y=O:

u=O;

y=h:

u=U

over a porkion of tlre clr:~tlnclwitltl~ can I~ccolnc rrcgnt.ivo, t,lrat is, back-/lo117 ]nay occur near the wall wllicl~is a t rest, and it is seen f r o n ~ Fig. 6.2 t,l~ntt,his Irappens ~ ~ l l c t ~ I' < - 1. Tn this case the dragging act.ion of t8hcfast,cr layers exertetl on fluit1 1)nrt,iclcs in the ncigl~bourlrootlof the wall is insufficient t o ovcrcomc t.11~ intltrence of t,hc adverse pressure gradient. This type of Coucttc flow with a Irrcssurc gratlictrt has some importance in the hgtlrodynamic theory of l ~ h r i c a t ~ i o'J'llc flow in tltc ~t. nnrrow clcnrar~ce bctwcen journal and llenrirlg is, by a.nd large, identical wvit,lr Cor~ct~tc flow wit11 a pressure gradient ( c / . Sec. VTc).
2. The IIngrn-Poiseuille tl1eory or flow tl~rorrgha pipe. Tlre flow t.llrougl~a st,migltt, t l ~ b c ciroular nross-scc:t.ion is t,l~c of case wit,ll rol.:~t,ionn.l sylnlnct.ry wllic*h r o r r ( ~ ~ ~ ) o no l tho prcc:otlil~gcasc: of t.wo-tli~rlcnsior~:~l t.lrrol~gh:I oll:~.r~rrt!l. tt s flow 1,~t. tlro z-axis be solcct.c:tl alorlg t,lln axis oL't,lrn pipe, Pig. 1.2, : L I I ~ ?/t1onot.o 1,llo I.IL,I~:LI Ir:t, eoortlirratc nicnsl~rcd from tllc axis outwards. T l ~ cvclocit,y com1)oncnt.s irl t.llc tnrlgt?nl,inl and rntlinl directions arc zero; the velocity component pnrallcl t.o t81rc axis, denoted 11y 11, depcntls on alone, a,ncl the pressure is const#antirr every crosssect.ion. Of t h e tllrcc Navicr-St,olres equations in cylint1ricn.l coortlinatcs, cclns. (:1.:16), only t,he one for the axial tlircct,iort remains, nntl it, simplifies t o

\vhic-ll is shown in Fig. 5.2. Tn I~arLicularfor a vanishing pressure gratlicrlt we )lave

'I'his p:lrt.inllnr case is lrnowr~ns simple Couct,tc flow, or siml,lc+ sllcar flow. Tlre gcrlrral casc of (:ouct,t,c flow is isupcrposit,io~~ t.lris simple casc over the flow of bet.wec~rrtwo fl:lt, wn.IIs. 'I'l~c sllapc of t.Irc vclocit.y~profilcis tlctcm~incdby t,hc dirrroltsionlrss I)rcssurc p~.:~tlicr~t, I

For 7' > 0, i . e., for n prrssrlrc tlccreasing in t01c tiircctior~of mot,ion, the velocity is posit.ivc over tlre whole witlt,ll of tlro channel. For ncget.ive values of P tho velocity

tlro boundary condition being u = 0 for y = R. The solut,io~~ cqn. (5.6) gives the of velocity distribution
IL

(y) = - -1 dp - - 411 d z

(R2-y2)

t,o wlroro - -tlp/tlz : - (p, p a ) / l ! = ~ ( J I I S L is t.lic pressure gr:~clie~rt,, be rognrclctl a s given. Solut,ion (5.7), wlricli was obtdincd hcre a s a n oxact solution of tlrc NavicrSt,okns ecli~at,ions, agrees with t,hc soli~tionin ccln. (1.10) wliiclr was oht,;~iricdin on c-l(:~ncnt,ary w:~y.'l'lic vc?loc:it,y ovor tlic c!ross-secl,ion is tlist,rihutctl in t.hc form of a l~nr:tI~oloitl rovolr~t.ion. of 'I'lic mnxirnr~rn~c:loc:il.~ t.hn n.xis is on

1 lie nirnli vc.loc.il.y 17.

--

v,,, t h a t is,

: ~ r ~ c l vol~r~nc. of flow I~cc:omcs t.lio r:~tn

Fig. 5.3. Im~nirinr flqw t,l~ro~rgli i p ; p resi~t.nnrc cocfficicnt, A, plottcd ngninst Itcynold~number (rncasured by Hngcn), fro~n Prnntltl-l'ictjrns

R
'I'ho lariiiriar flow elc~scribcrtl t,ho al~ovc? 11y solr~l.ionoccurs in praotic:~ only ,n~ long a s t.he 1b:ynoltls 1111rnlirr .-- .id / v ((1 =- pipe cliatiic?tfc:r)has a v n l ~ ~ c R l which is less t h a n t.hc so-c:allccl critici~lJtcyrioltls n i ~ m l ~ rin, spite of t,hc f:~ctt h a t t,l~c r above formr~lac corist.it.uta : l r i cx:tct sollltion of tlrc Nnvic:r-Stn)kcs ctlu:tt,ions for arbitrary values of cIp/cln:, R, :~rrtl or Iicnc:~,of IT, R, and f r . Acsorclit~g cxpcrirncnta p, Lo

(id
1 '

( ' p )
Cril

Rcri,

= 2300

approximately. For R > R,,,

the flow pntdcrn is entirely tliPFcrcnl, and bccomca l i ~ r hulc~tt.Wc shall d i s c ~ ~ t.liis type of flow in greater detail i n Chap. XX. ss 'I'hc rcl:rtion bchwecn t,hc pressure graclicnt and thc mean velocity of flow is ~ l o r ~ n a lraI~roscntcc3 cnginccring applicat,ions by introducing a resistanc~ ly in coe//icient o/ pipr /lola, l . 'l'liis coc:fticicrit is clofincd I)y setting tho prc5stlrc gr:ulicnt proportional t,o l.lin clyn:l.mic Iit:atl, i. n., 1.0 ldic sqirarc of tlic inonri vcloc:itsy of flow, aocorclit~g o t.hc t c:tluat,io~i t

Jlcro R tlcnotes Lhc Roynolds numl)cr c a l c ~ ~ l a t cfor thc pipe d i n m c b r arid Incan d vclocity of flow. The laminar eqr~ntionfor prewilro loss in pipcs, cqri. (5.1 I ) , is in excellcnt ~ g r c c m c r l twith experimental r c s ~ ~ l for t h c laminar range, a s SCCII ts from Fig. 6.3 which rcj)rotfr~ccs cxpcrimcntnl [~oinLqm o a s ~ ~ r cby (2. 1I:i.gc:n [I()]. d From this i t is possible to infer t h a t t h e Ilagcn-I'oiscuillc parabolic vclocity distribution represents a solution of t h e Navicr-Stokes cqrrations which is in agrcemcnt with experimental results [22]. I t is also possiblc t o indicatc a n exact solt~tiori of the Navier-Stokes equations for thc case of a pipe with a circular annular crosssection 1201. T h e problem of laminar and turbulent flow through pipcs with cxccnt,ric annular crow-scctions was discusscd theoretically in ref. [38] whiclr also contains experimental results.
3. The flow between two concentric rotating cylinders. A f ~ ~ r t ~ l i c r cxamplc wliirli leads t o a simple exact solution of t h e Navier-Stokes cqr~ationsis affortlcd by thc flow bet,ween two concentric rotating cylinders, bot,11 of which nlovc a t tlifTt~cnt but steady rotational spccds. Wc shall dcnotc thc inner and outcr radii by r , , and r2 rrspcctivcly, arril similarly, t h e two angular velocities 11y w , , and w,. TIic Navicrt Stokes equations (3.36) for plane polar coordinates r e d t ~ r e o

lr~t,rotlr~eirig cxprcssion for dp/(lz from cqn. (5.9) we ol)t:~ir~ tho

wit.lr

R r

gild
11

Ed
I

- .

This qimdrnt,ic?Inw which nnsllrnra dp/dz 12% fitn t.urbulcnt flow vcry well. It is r e b i n d fin Irmiinnr flow, nlt.horlgh in Lhnt rnngo clp/dz 12. Thus lor leniirrar flow A ~ ~ I C Wto bo a mnnbnt.

- - -

with dcnobing the circi~nrfcrcntial vc1oc:it.y. The 1)oundary contlit,ions arc: u - r l r 1 1 ~ for r = rl a n d u = r, (0, for r = r2. The solution of (5.14) which satisfies tticse rrqr~irements is

- -

Eq~~ntion (6.13) doterminos tho rndinl lircwriro distril)~rl.ioti rcsrllf.i~~g fro111 tho rnot.inri.

88

V. Rxnct uolutions of tile Nnvinr-Stokcs rqr~ntions

n. Pnrallrl flow

H) !

'rho rnsr WIICII I,IIP it111rrc:ylintl(*r is tttl rrsl.. wllilr t,l~r orlt,cr rylintlcr rotnt,rs, h a s sotno pmot.in:~lsignificnt~c.c.111 this itlst,:~rlrrt,hr torql~c: t.mnsmit,t.etl by 1,Ilr orlt,er t:ylintlcr t,o t,llc flr~itll ) r c o n ~ c s

\ v l ~ r r o is t , I ~ t bheight of t h e (:.yIit~(lcr.'The ~ n o l n r r ~ t , wit,ll \vhit:h t,Ilo flrlitl a c t s o n IL fill ~.IIc! inncr cylintlcr II;IS t h r snmc mngr~it.r~tlr. n r r a t i g c ~ n c ~ ~ t ~ consitlcr:~t.iorr 'I'ht? untlcr 11:~s I~c(:tl11sct1 o ( ~ ~ n ~ i n n :for l 1 . h ~ ~ l y (lct.crnlinnt,ior~ viscoxi1.y. '1'11~a ~ i g n l n r of vclocit,y of t h e rxt.ernol cylinclcr :l,ntl t,hc r n o n ~ c t ~ t , nc.t.ing o n tho inner nylintfer a r e menslrrotl, so t,lrnt t.he viscosit,y cnn 1)r cvalnnt,ed wit,l~ t.11~ of r q n . (5.lG). :lit1 \Ve now proposr t.o int1icnt.c I.hc vrlot:it,y dist~.il)r~tions t , l ~ c in nnnl~lrlsOctwtcn t,he t.wo cylirltlnrs for t,wo pn.rticular cnsrs. I r i Cnsr I , t,he inncr rylindrr rotn,l,es wit.11 t,he orlter otlr a t 1.t,st,; in Casc 1 I , llir irl11c.rc.ylintlrr tlocs not. rrlovr, but. t h c out,er o n r rot.ntcs. I<otll flows nrr cnllrtl C!orlrt,l.c flonr. 1)rtlol.ing 1,l)r r:~tio of t.11~ t.wo rntlii b y x rl/rz, t,l~c \vitll,h of tllc n n n r ~ l r ~ s s = r z - - r l , nntl t,llc cllrrcnt rclnt.ivc m t l i i ~ s y l)y b x = r / r 2 , Fig. 5.4, wc fiticl

x r-r, - -- 5 5

--

XI

-r - r , .
5

Fig. 5.4. Vclorily (list,rib~ttint~ the nlln~~lr~n it1 l)c~t\r.c~r~~ t,\\.o,c-o~lc.c.~~tri~.. ~.ot;ttilr~~ J l i l l ~ Iln ~ ~~; lrl s ~ l l ~ > ~ l I:tlrtl with t l ~ c of cqt~s. 5 . l 5 n , b). :tit1 ( n) Cnsc I : iril~rr cyli~ltler rot.nt.ing;orct,rr cylitlticr at, rest, r o 2 - 0 h ) Case I I : i t ~ l ~cylitlclrr a t rcst, (01 = 0 ; o~tt,rr er cylitlclrr rotatirig r, - r;t11i11sor ir1111.r1.~1i11dcr. = r:t<Iiu$ o I ' , u ~ l ~cyIin,lpr r, ,r
,J ?

--.I.

2nr

r .

Ilcrc, 111 = r1(,,1 is t h r ~)cripllernlvclc>ril,y of l . l ~ c n n r r rylintlcr, nntl 112 = rzroz is i t,h:t1. for I.II(- o111c.r cylintlr~..Fig111.r5.4 ~ . r p ~ ~ r s cl~ n l two velocily ~ l i s I r i l ~ ~ ~ t .ino n s hc s i tcrrns of t h e tlinlcr1siotllrss tlist~anc(; fro1111 lie i n n r r cylintlcr

It, is sccn, therefore, tIllnt, t,he case of fric:l.iot~lrss flow i l l t,hc r~eiglll)or~rhootl a of vort,cx line constitput.cs a. solut,iorl of t.hc Navirr-Stokes cquntiorls (c/. Scc. I V b ) . In t,llis connexion i t ]nay be i n s t n ~ c t ~ i vt,o n~cnt,iotl cxnrnple of a n cxnct no)Le a11 slendy solnt.ion of t h e Nnvier-Stokcs cclrlnt,iotls, rlnmcly t h n t which tlescribcs t h e process of t1cca.y of n vortex t,hrougIr bhc act,iorl of viscosity. T h e distribr~t~ioll t . l ~ e of t,angctlt~ialvrlority component 7~ wit,lr r c s l ~ e c tto t . l ~ erntlinl tlistn~lce ant1 tirnc t r is give11 by

I1 is 11ol.t.wo1~1hy t , l ~ vclocit.,y vnrirs strotlgl~rwil.l~ IIlnt, r t,hc rnt,io x rl/rz of t,hc 1 2 ~ 0 rntlii i l l Cnsr I , \\~lierrxs ( h s r I1 it is nlrnosl i n t l c p r n c l c ~of' it. MThcnx = rl/rz + 1 , for ~t I>trl.l~ c~tscvitcl~tl t,o t h e linrnr vrlocity tlistril)l~t.ion (!oucstt.(, flo\sr, a s it, oceurrctl of 1)cI.wc~c~n flat l)lat,cs in t h r rnsc rrprc~srr~tctl Pig. 1.1 . T h e cc~nnt~ion Cnsr J l,\vo in of' yicltls tho sntilc, lin~if fi)r r1 -- 0, i. C. fn1. x = O \v11c11110 i ~ l ~ l rylintlcl is p r r s c ~ l t . n cr I (.Itis c,nsr, I,II(, Ilr~itl~.o(;tlt>s insitlt: IIlc out,cr rylintlrr a s n rigit1 I)otiy. Ilcncc il. is seen 1Iln.t ('nso I1 yicsltls n lineal vcloril~y tlislril)~~t,iotl llir t,\\'o sy1111)1.ot.ic ~ S C x -- 0 POI. C S n11t1x -- 1. 'l'l~isI ) r h n v i o ~ r ~ a l t cts rn.sy t o rintIrrst,e.r~tl ~ i why t,llc vclocit,y tIist.ribut,iol~s for 1Ilr. ot.l~er, inl.crn~etliatc vnlllrs of x tlilTc,r so lit.t,lc from n st,rniplit line. oS :I singlr (-ylintlrr rot:~t~ing a11 infinit,e fluid (r? -+ m, in ( Q ,- - - 0) t:tln. (5.15) givcs i r = r12 (ol/r. ;lntl 1.11~ t.ort111ct.rn.11~11lit~trt1 t ~ c fluid t o t.he t ) h c:ylit~tl~t~. I)c.c:on~rs A l l -- 4 rr 11 11 r I 2 ' 1 ' 1 1 ~ vc~lorit,y tlist,ril)r~I.io~~t h e flr~itlis t h o in s:lntc :IS t.11;1(. :1ror111(1 lint> v o ~ . t t ~ x S ~ I . I ~ I I ~. I- J2I n: r,",), i l l f'rialio~~lrss :I ~S Ill Ilow, o r
111 t , I ~ t ; pnrticr~I:tr(:;isr

Pig. 5.5. Vclocit.y distrib~ltio~lt vaaryir~g a times in fllo ncigl~bo~~rl~oodn vortex of filament cnl~srtlby tho action of viscosity
1; circulnlinn or l l ~ c vortox nnrncttl nt 11 nio 1 w1:c.n vircoslly Itrylnr lo ncl: -i . t I ; / ? n r.

= .

90

V. ICxnct sol~tl~iot~~ Nnvior-StOkcs c q i ~ : ~ l i o t ~ ~ of tho

a. Parallcl flow

9I

a s derived by C. W. Osecn [21] and G. 1Ia1nel [I]]. This velocity distribution is represonbd graphioally in Pig. 5.5 Here 16 dcnotcs t,he c i r c ~ ~ l a t i oof the vortex n filamolt, a t time 1 0, i. c. a t t l ~ o morncr~twhcn vi~cosit~y nssun~edt.o I)cgit~it* is . ~ c t i o ~An cxpcrimenLal investigation of this procoss was 11ntlcrt,nlta11 A . Tirnmo l. 11y [40]. K. Kirdc 1171 mndc an nnnlytio s t ~ ~ tofythe caso when the valooity distribution f in t,l~o vortcx tlilT(:r~from I.hnt irnposctl hy pot,cnt,inl t.hcory.
= 1

t.hc compleme~dczry error /u?tdion, erfc q, 11.w been t,abulatedt. The velocity distribution is rcpresontcd in Pig. 6.0, and it may bo notctl t h a t tho vclocity profilcs for varying tinies arc 'si1nilar', i. e., they car1 bc rctl~lccd the sanlo cllrvc by changing t,lrc to scalc ttlong the axis of ordinates. TIIC cornplcmcntary error f ~ ~ r ~ c twhicl~ i o r ~ appcnrs i r eqn. (5.22) has a valuo of about 0.01 at 7 -- 2.0. %.killg into accorir~t l ~ o ~ t tlcfir~ition of t,l~c: t~ltic:ltnossof the: I ~ o t ~ n t l ~Inyor, 0 , wc: ol)t.r~ir~ try 6 = 2 q a J Z x 4

4. The sudder~ly necclernted plane wall; Stokes's first problem. We r ~ o wprocccd t o calculntc somo non-steady par;rllcl flows. Sirlee the convcctivc acccleratior~terms vanis11itlcr~tic:ally,t,l~c frictior~ forcos int,rmct with t,ho local nccelcrnt.iori. Tho si~nplcst flows of this clam occur when motlion is stnrtcd i r n p r ~ l s i v a lfrom rest.. We s l ~ a l l ~ begin with t h e c,wc of t h c flow near a flat plntc which is s ~ ~ t l d c n accelcr:~t.cdfrom ly rost and n ~ o v c s it,s own plnno with a const,:~ntvclocitty [lo. in This is onc of the proI~lcmswhioli wcro solvctl by (2. St,okos in his colcbr:rtccl memoir or1 p e r ~ t l ~ ~ l u r r ~ s [3ri]t. Seloct8ing t.ho z-axis along the wall i r ~the direction of U,, we obt,air~trhc simplifiotl Navicr-SOnlccs oqt~nt.ion

JZ.

(5.23)

I t is seen t o be proportional t o the sqnnrc root of tho ~)rotIl~ot, kir~ornnLiovisc:osiOy of silt1 time. This problem was generalized by E. Decker [3] t o ir~clr~dc: more genrml rat.rs of nccclnraI.ior~a s well a s the cqses involvii~gsrict~iorior blowing or tho c f i c t of compressil)ility.

'rho prrssuro in tho wI101o space is constant,, and Ll~e bol~nclirry conclit,iol~s arc:

Tho cliIT(:rcnt.iel ccl~~at.ion (5.17) is ictcr~t.icalwith the equntior~of h e s t contlaction which clcscribcs tllc p r ~ p n g n t ~ i n r ~ of Itoat, irl tho space y > 0, whcn a t time 1 = 0 t h e wall y = 0 i s sr1dt1c11l.yI~catcd o a t,cmpcr;~t,nre t which oxccecls t h a t i n the surroundings. 'l'l~e pnrl,i:~ltliffcrcnt.ia1 oq~iat,ion(5.17) can be retlucctl t.o a n ortlinary diTcrt:irt<ialcql~:~t.ior~ t,ho sul)st.il,nt.ion 11s Y (5.19) 2 1/ If wn, i i ~ r t ~ l ~ c r , n.ssrlmc ~t = U o j ( r ] ) , (5.20)

"--3'

Fig. 5.6. Vclocity dist,ribution above a artddenly accelerated wall

wc o11I.air1t h e followi~~g onlinary tliITorcnt,ial cc.jnntion for

/ (q):
5. Flow forn~ntioni n Cmuette motion. The s11bsti111l.ion (5.10) which Icncls t,o eqn. (5.21) d m not, in general, lend to a sol~ttio~r 1.hc so-ct~llcd of lwnt condt~ctioncqttnt~ion (5.17) i r lnorc cotnplicntotl boundnry contlilions aro irn/~osccI, Sitla>cqn. (6.17) i~ linear, soll~tion~ il, (:IIII (i)r be obtained by the use or t l ~ c 1,nplncc t,mnsfor~nal,ion nntl by tnoro direct nlcl.ho~ls clcvclopc:tl in conncxion with tho study of the conclr~ctionof hcnt i n solids. Mnny r c ~ ~ l obtni~~ccl, g., kt c. for the tcmperaturc vnriation in nn infinite or semi-infinite solid, cnn be tlircctly transposed and uacd for the ~oIut,iot~ problems in viscons flow. T ~ I Ithe prcccding problem in which the of R formation of tho 1)oundary layer noar a suddenly accclcrakl wall has bwn invwtigntrcf can also be nolvcd for tllc CDSC when the wall movur in a direction parallel to ar~otlrorflat w:ill at. mt and a t a distantx, h from it. This is the problcm of flow forn~ation Couettc motion, i. c., in

71.

=.I!,, rrfc

r]

wl~c-ro

t Soe
to

Somo a11t,110m rcfrr

l.l~is prohlc.tn h q tllc 'ltnylcigh problem'; there is no jrtstificntion for t , \ ~ ti I~ w i K ~ ~ : t t i c )IICC:IIIIRP 01c: ~)robIc:tr~ 11t; 1o111t0~ ~ ldinc:~~u~c.tl ~ o l v t ~ ict 1l rcf. I:lr)]. c t~ C:LII f ly 1111tl

c. g. Shoppard. "The Probability Tnbgrnl", Rritish Atwoe. Adv. Sci.: Matln. Tsblea vol. vii (3039) and Works Project Administration "Tables of the Probability Function", New York, 1041.

a. I';irnllrl flow of how the velocity profilc varion with tirne tonding nsyn~ptotically to t l ~ e linear the diutribtrtion nlrown in Fig. 1.1. The diITcrcntinl cqriation is the same en before, cqn. (5.17), ltllt with rnotlifietl I)o~~r~clary conditions which now are:
1 t

93

< 0;

- 0:
-

11
71

lnyor ncnr tho wall. 'Tl~cinflrrcnco of vi~cosityrcnchcs the pipe ccr~t.rro ~ ~ il ry~tlle 1:rt.c.r st,:~grn of no ti of^, ant1 tho velocity profile tonds asy~~~~~LoLically pt1rol)olic tlisl.ribt~l.io~~ ste:rtly to tho for flow. The correspontling solut,ior~ an nnn~tlar for circc~l~rr cross-section was given 113. W. M ~ ~ r l l1201. er

- i I , , for

for all 11, if 0 <?I< h ; - \I . - 0 ; 71 = 0 for

'rllr s o l u t i o ~ ~ eqn. (5.17) \vhicl~ sntinfien tho bor~ndary :tnd initial r o ~ ~ c l i t i ~ r ~ sI)o of ran n t ~ t . : ~ i nin~t.llc form of a ucrio~ c o n ~ p I ~ ! n ~ c ~ ~ t n r yftln~l~ions ( ~l of error

11

'y'

x erfc

r2 n

4-

711

('0

,,-I,

,, -.I3

x crfc [ 2
7x1

(71

-1 I ) ?I# -

?I]

(5.24)
--

rrfc

rrfc (2 q1 - tl) crfc: (2 -1-

-1- 71) - rrfc (4 11,

11) 1- rrfc (4 71, .1-

71) -

. . . 4- . . .

,1,IIC n c c r l c r ~ ~ t ofi o1 I111i(l ~ 1~ ~ ovrr ~ , I I c X V I I ~ I CI C I I ~ I , I I of pipe tli~(:~~sst%(lI I I I I H ~ , ~~41rcsrlllly l~c*rc (iiu~,ir~g~~inl~ctl acrcIernt.io~~ n f111itlin t l ~ c fro111t.lic of illlet j ~ o r t i o ~ ~ a pipe in ~ I J * : L ~ I , IIOW. or a ~ ,I'II(: reclangnlar ve1ocit.y profile \ral~icl~ exists in t.hc entrance ucct.iol~is grncl~lnlly t r a n s f o r ~ ~ ~ e d as t.he fluid progresses through the pipe with x increasing, ant1 tends, ~ ~ n dt,hc influence of viscosity, cr a : to nssnnle the Hagen-l'oisc~~illcparabolic dinl.ribntion. Since I~c?rc ~ / a z t 0 tho flo\rs is not onc-rli~ncnsiond, nncl the v~locitydepends on x , nu \vrll ns on t.llo rndi~rs.Thin prof,lo~n wak rlisrusric(l by 11. Srl~licl~l.ing [DO), who gave t,llo solrlliolr for L\vo-tlin~c~~sio~~nltl1ro11~11 Ilo\v n st.r:ligl~t.h a n ~ ~ e l , by I,. Srhiller 1291, ;111dB. 1'1111nin r ant1 1241 for nxinlly symrr~rt.rir,nl flow ( r i r c ~ ~ l a r pipr): s r r nlno Seos. IX i nnd X 111.

wllerc 71, := h,/2 1/ F i (lot~~t.cn cli~nenniol~lcsn t,l~c tlistancc between t,l~ctwo wnlllr. 'Tho solut,io~~ is represellted in Iiig. 6.7. 'rllr corly profiles nre dill aplwoxi~nntelysimilar ant1 rc~nairlso, an long nn t,llr bolllldary layer l ~ n s sprcad to the stationary wall. Tllc s~lcceeding not vcloc:ity r)rofilcn :).re no l o ~ ~ g "similer" rr n11tl t c ~ ~ nsymptotirnIly to t,lre linrar distribrrt~ionof tile s k n d y st,ak. cl

Fig. 5.8. Vclocit,y profilc in n rircrrlnr pipe d ~ ~ r i ~ ~ g ncc*rlrrat,ion,art give11 by 1'. Szytnn~lski [87]; T . v //I12 -

E x a c t solrtt,ions for r ~ o n - s t r a t l y Coric.l.t,c flow werc rlcrivcd I)g .I. S t . r i n l ~ c r i r (331 r 111~: (:;t,sr ~ I I I ~ O III V ol' 1,110 \vn,lls is I L ~ , ~.(kst, ;I, s l , ( ~ ~ t l ~ I I , I I ( ~ is 111v11 I in llo\v srttI(1r11i~~ t~c.c:~>lv~.at.c:cl R gi\,c.tl, c:ot~sta~it, to vcloc:it,,y. '1'0 (lo t , l ~ i s , is Iicbvc:ssal,y 1.0 solve! t ' ( l 1 1 . il, (5.17), \vI~ic~li itlcnt,ical w i t h t h o onc-dirrlrnsior~nl Iicat conrlr~cl.ion cqrlat,ion, l)y is lncnrls of n l7otiric.r srrirs. A spccic'll CR,SC i t , t.llis class o r solr~f.iotlsis t.hal w h r n t ' l 1 ~ rno'iing wnll is srrtltlrnly st.oppctl s o t , l ~ a li,t rcprt:sct~t,st l ~ o tlecay of (h\rot,t.c flow.
1'01.

7. T h e flow n e a r at1 o s c i l l a t i ~ ~ ~ plnte; Stokes's s c c n ~ ~problenl. In t h i s src.t.ior~ Rat rl wo i ) r o p s e t,o discuss t h e flow a b o u t a n inliriito flat wall wllic:lr c x c r n t r s lincar I ~ n r ~ n o n i coscill:~t,ions para.llel t o itself ant1 whicll w a s first t r e n t r d 1)sG. SLolres (351 : ~ n t l lntcr b y 1,ortl 1i.nyleigI1 [ 2 5 ] . T,ct 1 dcnot,c t l ~ ccoortlilint,~ p n m l l r l t,o t , l ~ e (lirert.iot~ n~ot,ioti of atid 1 1.11~ o o r ( l i r l n l ~ c 1 ~ 1)erpcnclicnlnr tjo t,hc wall. O w i n g t.o t,he c~ontlit,ior~ tin slip :I(, 1,llr wnll, 1 . 1 1 ~f l ~ t i t l vrlncil.y : r t i t rnrtsl. 1,r i-t111:1110 t.11:tI.of t.lt,? of w;~Il. S I I I I I ~ ~1,11111, I lI l~ i sI I I ~ I , ~ ~i~I I givo11 1 1 ~ S~ , ~

wr l i ~ ~1 (I ll i ~ LlI11c fluid v~lo(:iLyi ~ ( ? y , is l . 1 1 s o l i ~ t ~ i oo f ccjli. (6.17), togcl,llcr \vil.lt t , l ~ o , l) ~ tl


Oor~rltlaryc:otrLLit.ion ( 5 . 2 6 ) , w l ~ i c l ~ , n l r e ; ~ d yrner~l.iot~cd, k n o w n J'roln t,lrr tlic:ory ns is of Ilc~1.trntltl~rc:t,ion. F o r 1.11~ mst? rrntlrr corrsitlcmt,io~~

6. Flow in a pipe, filarling rrolll rcst. 'Tllr nrrclcr:~l.ionof :t l l ~ ~ iinl n pipe is closrly rrlnlrtl t t,o the prccrtlir~gcxalnplcs. Snppose th:it t.11~ lllrirl in ;in, infinit,cly long pipe or c.ircr~l;~r crosnsr~c~tion nt, rcsL for t < 0. At the it~sl,ant - 0 n prcssllrc graclicnt d p i t l ~ , l ~ i c ~ l ~ is t w is ronsCant. i r l time, 1)rgins t act along it. The fluid will I~cginto rnovo r ~ n ~ l t,hr i r ~ l l ~ ~ cof vi.scouo ant1 n rr r~cc illc.rti:~.forcrs, nntl t.lx vrlorit,y profilc will al)proxcl~asyn~l)tot.irally tllr 1):rr:~l)olir distrihr11.ion in Ilag~~l~.l'~,isc~~iIlc Iloa. 'l'lrc soll~t,ionof thin prol)lr~l~ \r.l~irllIra(Is t.o n tlillrrrnti:ll rqr~ation i ~ l v o l v i ~IIrsst.1 f ~ l l ~ ( * t , i o ~ ~g i v r ~Ily I?. S%,y~nnnski ~g W:IS s ~ 1371. 'J'l~r v(-IociIly prolilr is tIri~\r.nill Fig. 5.8 lnr v:~rint~s ~IISL:LIIIS. is I I C > I . , ~ ' I \ , O ~ I , IIII:LI,in I,IIc: o:~rl,ysl,:~grsI,llc vcln,.il,y nr:ir 1I1r It I,~ axis is ;rl~lwoxin~:rtcly ro11sl.:i111, ovrr 1.h~ i ~ l i n11(1I,l~nl, r ~~s visrosily ~nnkc:sil.nelf f(bIl. in :I nnrrow

94

V. Exnct sol~ltiono t,ho Nnvicr-Slnltc.q oqr~nt,ions ol'

b. Other oxnct s o l u l i o ~ ~ s

95

If we now prescribe a c n r ~ u h r vclocity v, < 0 a t thc wall (suct.ion), wo notice that cqn. ( 5 . 2 7 ~ ) ~t is satisfied in~rnediatelyhy a flow for whicl~ = v, and t l ~ n the prc.nsttro p bcaorncs indcpnndcnt, o t of sirnnltrmco~~sly. Accorclingly, we put - (l/e) (aplaz) = tI(J/cll,, whom 11(t) donotes bile frwstrrnln vrlocity n t jr very largc dishnc:o fro111t.11~ w:rll, nncl I~cncc l ) t u i ~ ~ followir~g o 1l1c ~lilTc~rcl~l.itrl cqtlatio~lfor u ( y , 1):

Tho velocity profile u (!y,t) t l ~ u s has tilt form of a dampccl harmonic oscillaLion, thc

au 3t

l,,,

- .

amplitude of whir11 is

in whirli a fluid layer a t s distance y has a phase lag y l/;t% with respect to the motion of the wall. Fig. 5.9 rcprcscnts - - mot,ion this . for scvcral instants of 1,ime. Two fluid layers, a clistance 2 n / k = 2 n d 2 v/n apart, oscillate in p l i ~ c This distancc car1 be regarded. as a kind of wave length of the . motion: i t is somctimcs calletl the depth o/ penetration of tho viscous wave. The layer which is carried b y tho wall has a t,hidrncss of t11c order d Jqand dccrcasos for decreasing kinematic viscosity and increasing frequcncyt.
I/, c w i ? ; ,

ag

d[l. - . 1 dl

azu ay2

'

(5.28)

According to .I. 'r. Stuart m2] thorecxista an oxnct sol111,ion ofccln. (5.28) for tllo arl)iLr:iry oxlc-rr~al vclocity 'lll~isso1116ionis whcro

Sllh~titllLing l ~ c t I.wt t h r w c q ~ l ~ t i o nn k cqn. ( 5 2 9 , we a m led ID n psrtinl diffcrrntial oq11st.ion is for the unknown f~rnctiong(!/. 1 ) = g(7. 1); thin hnn 1110 forrn

and 1.l1cI)o~~n(lary roncli1,iorls arc:

Tllc following non-di~ncnsionnl varinhlcs hnvo bcer~i r l t r o d u d in the prccocling: I'ie. 5.9. Vrlocit,y elistrihut,ion in t.he neighbourhood of an oscilleting wall (Stokes's second problem)

*,

X(-IL~ .
v '

7 = 4 ,

I v,' v

Solutions of (5.32) hnve hccr~ohtaincd by J. W n h n (411 who crnploycri Lnplaoo transfe)rrnat.ions and who restricted hirnuclf to severnl apecinl forms of the furlctior~/(1). (:cncrally speaking, the following cxternnl flows, U(1). hnve been incIudw1: a ) cI:rmlwd nnrl undamywd oscillations,

h) stop-likc chnngc from one vnlr~o vcloci1.y to xnot.l~cr, of


c) linear irlcre.nuc from ono vnltlc to anoll~cr. of non-steady solutions. A general cl:iss of no11-stcnely soll~lionsof the Nnvinr-Stnltw ,scq~latiolls whir11 possean bor~ndary-lcycro11arnctr:r is ol~tainrdin the sr)ccinl m8e when t.ho velocity com~~oncnta indopcndcnt of Lho longitudin:~l arc coordinnl,c, a. ' r l ~ cs y s t c n ~ of rrlr~nt.ions(8.02). writln-n for 1)lnno flow. nasun)cs 1.11~ forrn
8. A
rlnss

In the upncial c.wc whcn the exlcrnnl flow is indcpcn(lcnt, of tin~c, /(t) - 0, cq11ation (5.32) I-~ds t the uirnple sol~ltion'(7, 7 ) = 0. This CDIIRP* tho voJoc~i1.yprolilo from oqn. (5.30) to o ' I~orornc iclot~t.ic:ril wiI.11 Ll~c nuyrnptoLic s11clio11 prolilo givc.11 I I L I A ? i~l l ~ Y I I I . (14.l;).

a!,
--. -.-

aa ---

'1

The preccding examples on one-tlimcnsional flows were very simplc, I)cca~~se tho convective acceleration which renders thc equations non-linear vnnisl~cdidontically everywhere. WG shall now proc:ccd to examine sorno exact solutiorls in wllich thcsc terms are retained, so t h a t non-linear equations will havo to t)o considcrcd. We shall, however, restrict oursclves to steady flows.
9. Stagnation in plane flow (Hiemenz flow). Tho first simple examplc of this t,ype of flow, represented in Fig. 6.10, is that lending 1x1 a sh.gnc~tion point ill plane,

Tltc ROIIIL~OII i l l ccln (5.2fin) roprcscr~t.s also t,l~c tcn~porat~lrn clintril)~ltionin Ll~c a r t l ~ r which is rn~lwel l.ilc fwri(~tlio by Iltlc*t.r~at.ion I.ho k ~ ~ l p c r a t uon t11r sclrfncc, my,fro111clay 14) d:ly o r over of rc t,l~c scnfu~ns a yf::Lr. in

1,. 0t.llrr exact volr~tiol~n


-2

97

'I'lrc bo~rnrlal~y rontlit~ions / and F arc obt,irinecl frorn 11 for v -- 0 at. t l ~ e wall, \vIrrrc> ?/ =-. 0, n.tltl 2) : po :tt the st,ngnntion point, a s \vrll a s froin 11. ==(J = n. x a t n Inrgt: : tlisl,anc-c: Sroni t,lro wall. 'l'l~rrs

l4;tl~is. (5.:!t;);~ntI(5.37) :rrc 1,110 I,\vo cliIli~t.c:t~t,i;~l c.(lr~;ttiot~s t , l ~ c IOr I'IIII(.~,~OIIS/(!I) : L I I ~ I b'(?y) \vl~icl~ tlotcrmine the velooity ant1 prcssnrc distril)rltion. Sincc F ( y ) does ~ ~ o t , :tppcar in t J ~ c first cquntiorr, it is 1)ossil)la to Ijcgin by cloLcr~nining /(?I):tn(I t,l1(!11 to proc:cctI t.o firrtl Y(y) froni t,lrr sccontl cqrr;tt.ion. 'l'l~e norr-lincnr tlifTcrcnt,inl c:qrr:tt.io~l (5.3;) c:rnnot be solved in closed terms. In ortler l,o solve it. nulnrricnll,y it. is c.011vc*nicnt. to rcniovc t.he const,nnt,s rr2 anc1 IJ by pllt.t.in~

wl~c.rct , l ~ c , ~rrin~c, w clc!lrotrs tlilkrcnl.i:~t.iot~ rosprcl, t,o 8 1 . 'l'l~ot:oc.l'lic~ic*~~lsI I ~ . no wit,l~ 01. t t*clu:~t~ion 1)cc:otnc. all itlrnl,ically cqunl 1.0 1111it.y \YC ~ I I ( , if i . c., t.wo-dirnrnsior~dIlo\r~.'I'llc: vcloc:il,y clist.ril)~~l,ion frict~io~rlcss) o l c ~ l ~ l ~ i : ~ l in ~ flow in t,11e ~ ~ r i g l ~ l ) o ~ ~ o l ~t,lrc tsl.ngnnt,ion point nt 2 rf oo l : 1 -= 0 is given by 1
-7

whcrc n tlcno1,r.s ;L cotrst,nrrl. This is a n cxa.~r~plc a. plane polent,ial flow wlricl~arof rives from thc !I-nxis ant1 impinges on a flat wall placed a t y = 0, dividrs into two strenlns on the wall and Lenvcs in bot,h directions. The viscor~s flow mnst ndlrere tjo t,he wall, wl~crcnsthe potc11tia1flow slides along it. I n pot.ent(ia.1 flow the pressure is T given by Rernolllli's cqr~nt.ion. f pa, dcnotcs the stagnnt,iorr pressure, and p is t.11~ 1wcss11rc nt. a.n arl)itr;li-y point., wc? Ilavc in pot,cnt.inl flow wit 11 111c l)o~lr~(l:iry c~nclitions

I'or viscor~s Ilow, wc: now ninkc t,hc n s s ~ l m p t ~ i o t ~ ~


?I

=x

/' (71)
=

?I

1(?I) ,
'I'llc solution of' tl~c? diITerrnt,ial c q ~ ~ n t i o n (5.3!)) w:ts first givcn in a thcsis I)y I<. i l i r rncn7, [I21 nntl latcr improved I)y 1.. Itowart11 [14]. T t is shown in Fig. 5.1 1 ( s c ~ :LISO 'l':~l~lc 5.1). 'rlrc crrrvc: d'(7) brgir~sto increase linrnrly a t k 0 nntl t.cr~tls :r,sy~nptot,icallyt o r~nit~y. approxin~at~cly = 2.4 we Ilavc (b' = 0.00, i . o. t,llc At 1 1 final va,ltle is reached there ~vit~ll accuracy of 1 per cent,. 1f we corlsitler t.11~ an correspoucling dist.ance from tShr\\fall, tlcnotjetl by y = 8, as t.11c: bonntlnry Inycr, Irc 11:lve

Po - p

Q (L ":r2

-1- F (y)1 .

111 this way t , l ~ c cqrlat,ion of cont,inrrit,y ( 4 . 4 ~ is snt,isfietl i(lc!nt,icnlly, :1r1t1 thc t.wo ) Navicr-Slnltcs cqr~at.ions plane flow (4.4n,l)) n.re snfliciont t o dctrcrminc l l ~ c of fr~nc{.ions i ( y ) and F ( y ) Substituting cqns. (5.34) an(\ (5.35) i1it.o eqtl. (4.4a.,b) \vc 01)tain t,wo o r d i n 9 . r ~ tlifTercnt.inl eqant.ions for / arrtl F:
i'z
-

i j,'
I (Z ,

cf,2

1-

3,

j"'

(5 3 6 )

aqtl

/ /'

= <

F' - 1, /" .

(5.37)

b. Otlirr cxnct no~lltiolln Table 5.1. Fenctiorra occrtrrirlg it1 thr noltrtion of plnnc nnd axinlly ~ymm~t.rionI flow with atngnntion point. Plnrre caqc from L. Hownrtl~1141; nxinlly symmetrical cnnc frorn N. Fr~eR~litlg 181 plnne
-- - .~~ . .

99

Tllo nnn-steady flow p a t t e r n wlticli results ~ q w u h o sl~pcrposit.ion of :rn nrbit

trary, timc-dependent transverso m o t i o r ~ t h c pl:~ncwas sl,~ldicdb y .l. W : ~ k o t l1.121 of 'Chc spcrial cnac of a h a n n o n i c t r a n ~ v r r s c i o t i o r ~ n was solved carlicr 1)y M. 1%.(:l:rt~rrt (1143 in Cllap. XV).
9.. Two-dimensional noo-steady ntngnation flow. The cnuc of non-stnndy, t3~vo-tlinirnsionnt flow sturlicd by N. ltott 128.1 conut.it~ltc~ n gcncr~rli~atiot~ prcc~:tIi~rg of 1110 cnnc:. We\ r:o~~niclc~r I l~c: c u e of two-di~r~cnsionnl shgnntion flow dopictat in l'ig. 5.10 nrrcl hour~tladby n wall nt 1, 70. We m u m e tllrnt tho velocity nt rr Inrgo clint.anro frc~rnl.ltc wnll i~ clit-c.c:trrl towitrcln l.hc. \r.itll, rultl thnt the wnll ilaclf pcrfortns n hnrmonic motiot~in ila own plnrto. In tho resr11t.irlgflow pnt,tc~rrr, the velocity rcmnina stcncly nt n lnrgcdiutnnce ( y +m), wl,crrnn ncnr t.ha wall it nnq~~irrannna atondy pnttcrrr of t.bc name kintl ns thnt nanr tltc oscillnt.irrg wrrll of I'ig. 5.!) (Slnkrn'~ scvnt~cl problem). According to ( 2 8 ~ 1i, ia pom~ihlnt irtt,cgrnt.c the ~rorrolcntlyNnvirr-Stokc%n L o ar~ttnt.ic,tt (4.4~1,h, a) hy m ~ ~ m i n g

nxinlly uyrnrnat,rical
. . . . . . -. .
~-~

ia
0 0.0233 0.0881 0.1867 0.3124 0.4592 0.6220 0.7967 0.9798 1.1689 1.3620 16578 1.7553 1.9538 2.1530 2,3526 25523 2.7522 2.9521 3.1521 3.3521 3.5521 3.7521 3.9521 0 0.2266 0.4145 0.6663 0.6859 0.7779 0.8467 0.8968 0.9323 0.9568 0.9732 0.9839 0.9905 0.9946 0.9970 0.9984 0.9992 0.9906 0.9998 0.9999 1~0000 1.0000 1.0000 1~0000 1.2326 1.0345 0.8463 0.6752 0.5251 0,3980 0.2938 0.21 10 0.1474 0.1000 0.0658 0.0420 0.0200 0.0156 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.O 1.2 1.4 1-6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 .0 4.2 4.4 4-6 0 0.0127 0.0487 0.1054 0-1799 0.2695 0.3717 0-4841 0-6046 0.7313 0.8627 0.9974 1.1346 1.2733 1.4131 1.5536 1-6944 1.8356 1-9769 2.1182 2-2596 2.4010 2.5423 26837 0 0.1755 0.3311 0-4669 0.5833 0,681 1 0-7614 0-8258 0.8761 0.9142 0.9422 0.9622 0.9760 0.9853 0.9912 0.9949 0.9972 0.9985 0.9992 0.9996 0.9998 0.9999 0.9999 1~0000 1.3120 1.1705 1.0298 0.8910 0.7563 0.6283 0,5097 0.4031 0.3100 0.2315 0.1676 0.1175 0.0798 0.0523 0.0331 0.0202 0-0120 0.0088 0.0037 0.0020 0.0010 0.0006 0.0003 0~001

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1-0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3-4 3.6 3-8 4-0 4.2 4.4 4.6

?I(!,)

(CI

v)

+ (,I),

in t.11~snmo

88

w~ done in eqn. (6.34). As fnr as t l ~ o prDRS111.C i~ o~rrrart~(~tl, 1,11t.

0.0090
0,0051 0.0028 0.0014 0.0007 0.0004 0.002 0.0001 0.0000 0~0000

IIerc, q = y(n/v)'l2 denotes tho dirncnsionlrua tlint,nnoe frorn t.11~ wnll iron, cclrr. (5.38), b .i tllr constnnt. nmplit,rtrln of t.hc wnll oscillntir~g itsl own plnt~c, in rrt~cl in t . 1 1 ~airc:~tlnr (11 frc?qtir.l~c:y t.l~ip of oscillation. The preceding n ~ ~ u m p t i o n s (5.40n, 11, c) nrc it~t.rod~~ccd I.ho Nnvier-Stokrn oqtrnt.iorrs into (4.4a. h, c), and the problem is reduced to uolving (.he following R Y R L C ~ I Iof e(llt~t.ionn:

ITence again, a s I,cfore, tlic laycr which is inflr~enmclby viscosity is small a t low kinematic visrositit:~a n d proportiorla1 to l'lic pressure gradient ap/ay becomes proportional to Q n i i a a n d is also very s m a l l f o r s m a l l k i n e m a t i c viscosities.

Here k = win clenotw the dimensionlrm froq~tottog t l ~ a of wnll o~c:illnt.ion. l ~ o T rlifirrr~t.inl oqltntionu (540c1) nnd (5.40~) result fmm 1110 norl-stcntly Nnvior-St<>kracqttnt,ion in t.ltc r-tlirrc:l.iorr, cqn. (4.4~). when 1110velocity cornlmnent # in roprascn(r?d i t.ho ntlm of n ~tnndy m Lc:r~n,pr ', nncl an unstendy term, g, wm done in cqn. (5.40~). I I o filncl.iorr +(7,) nntisfies the I,otrntl:rry conrli'~ tions

9 (0) = 0'(0) -- 0

nnd

4 '(m) = 1 .

I t is, further, wort.11 noting t h a t t h o dimcnsionlcns velocity distribntion u/fJ a n d t,hc b o ~ ~ n c l a r ~ - l thicltncss f r o n ~ a~cr cqn. (5.40) a r c indepcntlent of x, i. e., t h e y tlo n o t v a r y along t h e wnll.
I

A eompnriwn hcl.wecn cqns. (5.39) nncl (5.40~1)sltow~thnt 1,llin f1111~t.iot1i c l c ~ r ~ t , i e ~will1 I,(I(. i~ r~l well-ktrown solution of t.ho stcndy-nlnL0 prOlll~Ir1 ellto to Hiomcrrz. 'j'lto ft~rtc:t.iorr ( r l ) Hllt,iRfiCR (,IIi. g boundnry coniIit.iono g(0) = 1 nnd g(m) = 0.

'rho t,ypc of flow rrnder considcrat.ion does n b t occur n e a r a plane wall only, b u t also in two-climcnsional flow p:rst arty cylincirical i)ocly, provideti t h a t i t h a s a b l u n t noso near 1.11~ stagnabion point. I n SIICII cnsrs t h e s o l l ~ t i o l ~ valid for a mall neighis bourliootf of t h o s t s g ~ i n t ~ i point, if t , l ~ portion of t h e curved surface can h c replacctl o~l c b y it4 t a n g c r ~ tplanc n c a r t11t: sL:~gn:~t,ion ~ point.

It is w , n from eqns. (5.40d) and (5.400) that in 'his cnso the strndy component, is i r ~ d r p ~ n d ~ ~ ~ t of the st~pcrimpoaednon-stcndy component. The dihrcnt.inl aq~rnt.ion(5.40~) t.lrc r r ~ r r - ~ l ~ ~ d ~ for contribution g of tho z-component of tho velocity can he cnsily ~olvccl,I ~ r c n \ t a ~ f t ~ n r l . i ~ ~ ~ t,l~c + ( v ) , Tnblc? 6.1, is known. Igurt,l~er details conccn~ingthin problrnr call bc fot~tld (2nn]. The it1 rcnder mny also consult the papers by M. Glauert, 1141 in Clrnp. XV, and J. Wnhon, (651 in (:Ilnp.

xv.

10. Stagststinn in three-dimensional flow. I n :I similar way it is possible t o o l ~ t a i n an cx:~c:t, sol~~t.iorr the Navicr-Stoltcs cqnations for the three-clirncnsiorlal case of of flow wit.11 st,a.gnat,ion, i. c., for t.hc axisy~nmct~rical casc. A fll~ids t r c a n ~ irr~l)i~rges 011 a wall at, right, nllglcs t,o it and flows away mdially in all tlircct-ions. Srrch :I casc occrirs i l l t . 1 1 ~~ ~ r i ~ l ~ l ) o r ~ r l ~ os t c a g ~ ~ : ~ t . i o ~ ~ f a 1)otly of revolr~t.ionin :I flow of a o . l l>oi~il. o I)arnllrI to it,s :[xis.

wl~orc is a consta.nt. Tt is scnn a.t on(:c t,I~ntSIICII a s0111t.io11 s:ttisfi(~st.II(' ( ~ ( ~ I I : I ~ of ~ I ~ o ront.inrrit y. 1)enot.ing once nlorc t l ~ c st,:~gnnt.ior~ I)rc.ssllrc: I)y I , ( , , wo l i ~ l ( lt I)(: ~)rc.ssllrp in itlcal flow : Po - 7J -4p(1J2 1- IQ2) -- 4 @ n 2 ( r 21 4 z 2 ) .

--

111 1 . 1 1 ~ r:lsc of visc.orls flow we assllmc: t . 1 1 ~following li)r111of t.11c. s o l ~ ~ t Sor o ~ ~ ~ ~ i (.IlP vrloc.i(.,v nnd prcssllrc clist~ril)ut.ions

It, can be easily verifird t h a t :L solr~tionof Ll~cform (5.4:1)s:itisfic~stllc: c q ~ ~ a t i o ~ l of c-onti~~uity idcnticnlly, wl~crcast.lic cclr~atior~s niot,ion I t t : ~ r l 1.0 t.l~nfi>llowing t\ro of rclt~ntionsfor / ( z ) ant1 F ( z ) :
]pig. 5 11

\'rlorily tlistribrltionof planr nr~ti rotnt,ionalIysyrnri~rtrical flow nt n ~tag11nLio11 point

j'2-

2jJ"
2jJ'

= .2+

"Jl1l1
"J".
:111tl

= )a2Pf-

(5.45) (5.46)
arc

'l'l~cI)o~ln(lary condit.ions for / ( z ) ant1 F ( z ) fi~llo\rfro111rcln. ( 5 . 4 1 a).

2 = 0 :
7'0 solve tile problenl we shall use cylindrical coordinates r , 4, z, and we s l ~ a l l assunrc tlrat, t.hc wall is a t z = 0, the stagnatiorl point is a t the origin and t h a t t h e flow is in tlre direct,ion of the negative z-axis. We shall denote t h e radial ancl axial cornpo~lentsin frictionless flow by IJ ancl 11' respectively, whereas those in viscous flow will be tlcnc~tedby u := v ( r , z ) , anrl 7u = w ( r , z ) .I n accordance wit11 eqn. ( 3 . 3 6 ) . t,hc N:~virr-St,okcs rclrrntion for rotnt,ional symmetry can be written as

/--/'=:O,

F==();

z=--m:

/'::,&.

As I)cd'nrr, t.lw first of the t,\vo cql~ations / ant1 F c:ln l)o frc:ctl ol' I l l ( - c:o~~st.;r~~t.s for rr" and 11 l).v a sirnilarit,y transforrnat.ion, wl1ic.11 is idrr~tical\!,it11 tl~:rt. r ~ i t,hr I I I : I I I ~ . (.;IS(', t l~ns

'1'lrf: tiilfcrrntial rqnat.ion for

d(() sin~l)lificsto +"' -1. 2 4 - 4 ' 2 - 1


,#,'I

:- () :

asit11 t 11c: I ~ o ~ ~ n t l n r y ions corrdit

5-0:

4--+I=();

i.=oU.

d'-

1.

'J'lic solution of cqn. ( 5 . 4 7 ) was first given by F. 1lorn;~nrl 1131 i r ~ II(% Sorm o f :t I)o\r.c,r t srrics. 'I'lrc plot, of 4' = 71,/1! is givrri in Fig. 6.11 t,ogct,l~c.r wit11 t.l~(. l n ~ ~ r : ~ r ~ t l p c.:~sc.. t11r v:1111e:s 4' giv(*t~ '1':iI)lr 5.1 11:lvr I>(Y>,I (:,I<(,II fro111 1):11,e,r0~ K , l ~ ~ ~ o ~ [S]. l i ~ ~ g for in :t ~ss

.,ho no-slip condition a t the wall gives t h e following bountlary conditions: I


11. Flow taenr n rotntirag disk. A furlhor cx:~tnl)loor : t t ~ cxant solnLiorl of the Navicr-St,okcs cqrt:~t,ionsis fitrnishctl I)y t.llc: flow arortnd a flat clisl; wllich rotatcs a t ~ o ~arl, axis pcrpct~tlicrtlar o it,s plant: wit11 a nnifi,rm : t n g ~ ~ lvclocit.y, cr), in a fluid lt t ar ot.hcrwise at, rest. Tltc: I:~ynr rle:Lr tllc disk is carried by i t througll frict.ion a n d is thrown outwa.rds owing to tllc :xction of ccnt,rif~~gnl forces. This is comprtlsakd by part,iclcs whinh flow in a n axial direction taowarrls t h e disk to Le in turn carried and c:joetrcl ncr~t~rif~tgally. tho cast: is seen t o I)o ono of f111ly three-ciimcnsionsl 'I'tt~ls flow, i. c., t l ~ o r eoxist volocit,y components in tllc racli:ll dircction, r, t h e ciro~rmrrrrtttial clircct,ion, 4, anti the axial direction, z, which we shall denote rcspcctively 1 ) s 7s. 7). and tt,. An axorlornct,ric: rcprcsent.:~t.ion nT this flow field is shown in I'ig. A. 12. At. first. t . 1 calcnl:xt,ion will 1)c perlometi for thc case o f :tn infinite r o t . a t i r ~ ~ a ~ ~ c . ~ pl 11, will t,11e11 easy t o extend t l ~ e ~ r c s ~o linc:lndc :t disk or finit.o cli:trnct.cr I1 -- 2 11, I)o tt t on contlition thatf tfhe ctlge rlTcc:t is ncglcctctl.
\vr

h. Ot,hrr rxnct nc,l~~t,io~ls

103

z=O:
z=w:

u=O ,
11=0,

u=rw,

w=O,

v-0.

1 I

(6.49)

'raking int,o accorlnt rotational symmetry a s wcll : ~ s tiot.at,ion for i.ho prol)lcnl t.t~c car1 write down the Navicr-Stokes cq~lations (3.36) a s :

We shall begin I)y cst.im:~tirtgtho ttlic:knc:ss, A, or (.)lo 1%-ycrof f l l r i t l 'c::l.rrit:tl' l)y 1 . 1 1 ~ disk 1,231. It, is clear t h a t Lhc t1ticknt:ss of the Iaycr of flnitl whicll rot;btras wit,l~th(: tlislc owing to friction tlncrcaqrs with ttltc: viscosilg r~rtdthis view is c:or~firtrtc.tl wl~c:t~ (:om pared with the m s n l b of the prccoding c x a m ~ ~ l cl'ttc ecrl tri fugnl li)rc:c per 11 ",it s. volrtmo which a o b on a fluit1 p:~rticlcin tho rolatirlg Inyor a t a tlisf.anco r l o n ~ (.It(: axis is cq11:~1 p r (3. t,o lrencc for a volt~mc : m a clr . tls arltl I~cight,, t.11~ of (1, rcntrifllgnl forcc I)ocomr,s: p r cuz 6 tlr c1.v. The same olcrnc:t~tof f l ~ t i ( l is act.ctl I I ~ ) O I I I)y :I sl1c:tring stress t, pointing in thc dircction in which the flrtitl is slipping, and forming , a n angle, say 0, with the circumfcrcnt.ial velocity. T h e radial comportent of t,ltc sl~carirtgstress must now be cqual t o thc centrifugal forco, ant1 hrncc
T~

sin 0 d r (1.7 = p r
T,

co2

6 d r (1s

or sin 0

-- e r (oZfi .

On the other hand tho circumfemrttial componcnt of t h e sltcarir~gstress must I)c p r o p ~ r t ~ i o nto thc vclocit,y gradicnt o r tho circrlrnfcrct~tialvc1ocit.y a t tltc wall. This al condition givos T, eos 0 N (14 r co/O . Rlinlinating
twfrom

these two eqnat,ions we obtain

I f i t is assumed t h a t t h c dircction of slip in the flow near tllc wall is indcpenclent of tJtc rndius, tho thickness of tllc layer carried by the disk bccomcs

which is idcnticiil with tho rrsult obt,iinctl in tltc case of tho oscillating wall on 1). 94. l'rtrt,her, we ran write for the s h a r i n g stros.9 a t the wall
t,-eru~~d-erw

fvw.

Fig. 5.12. Flow in I,ho nnigllbolrrh o d of s disk rotating in s fluid s t rest Velocity c o m p o n ~ n k :u-radial, s-rircllrnlereilinl, ro-axial. A lngar nf flllirl in rarricd h y the disk nwing L the ncliun of o viscnlla lorcrs. Tho eenlrilupal lorccs in 111C t h i n layer givs ria. lo ~cconrtnry flow wllicll i s dircelcd rndinlly oalw*rrl

'rho l,orquc, whicll is equal to thc prcnlucl of shearing strcss a t tllc ~1111, arva :LIIO arm 1)ccomcs

R dcnot,ing t h e rnclius of t h e disk.


(5.48) i t is convcnicnt t o introtlrlco I n order to integrate t h e system of eqr~ntions a dimensionlrm distance from t h e wall, 5 z/d, thus putting

b. Othrr rxnct, solutions

I05

I'rrrtl~er, t h e follo\\rilig assun~ptions arc rnntle for t , l ~ r vrloc:ity romporrents nntl prcs-

Tnlilc 5.2. Vnloos of t8hefunctions nerdetl for the drsc*riptionor tllr flow of n clisk rotntirlg in n Il~lictnt rest, cnlc~rlatrrl tlrc wnll ant1 rrt n Inrgc rlistn~~cv Ilrr ~ v n l l ,11s rnlcl~ln(ctl 15. A]. nt. fro111 IIJ' Sl)nrroa nnd .I. I,. Grcgg 1321

Itlscrting tllcse cq~laLior~s eqns. (5.48) we obtnir~n syst,rln of four sinir~ltanrous into ordinary difTerrnttial eq~lat~ions t h e f~lnotionsF, G, 11, ant1 P: for

'I'l~eboundary rontlit.iotis earl be calculat,rtl from cqn. (5.49) ant1 are:

I t is sccti I'rom Fig. 6.13 t , l ~ ntho tli~tntic:~ t>lrn t lioln w:ill ovcr wl1ic.11 . 1 1 ~ t ~)c'ril~l~c.r:rl \,elocit.y is rctlucecl t.o half tJlc rlislr vclocity is do., = d&/(o . I t is t o I)c r~ot-cd I'I.OIII t.l~e solrltion t h a t when h = J v / i j is sm:lll, t-lie velocit,y components 11, ant1 v l ~ n v c ;~.pprecint)lc values only in a t(11inlayer of t , h i ( : k ~ l rl/;/0) . 7'11~ ~ l o c i co~n[)otl(:t~t1 , s~ v t~~ 1~ norlntil t.o t.11~ i s l c is, nl. :illy ral,r, srnnll a1111or the or(1cr 1/1~I ) . 'l'11(: i t ~ ( ! I i r ~ r ~ t . i o ~ ~ tl , of l,l~c rc%lat.ivc st.rc:rmlincs rlc:lr the wnll \rril.llrcspcct tto Ll~c circutnlcrc~~t.i:\l clirc.c:(.iott, if t l ~ c \\,all is imnginctl :it rest. nntl t8hc fluid is Inlten t,o rot,nt.e at, a I : l r ~ c tlist:~t~c,c: frotn t , l ~ s \\,all, berolnes

1Ilr first solution of t,hc systerli of eqns. (5.53) by a n approxi~nnt~c methotl was given I ) J ~ a m c t l ~ o d numerical intcgmtiont. They are plotted in Fig. 5.13. The starting of values of t,he solut,iori indicated in Table 5.2 were given by E. RZ. Sparrow and J. 1, Gregg 1321.
7

Alt.l~o~tpl~ calcnlat~ion is, strictly spcalting, npl)lic.able t.o a n infi nitc disk o r ~ l y , the R is largo cotnl>arccl wil.l~the thiclrness Y of t,hc layer carried wit11 ttlc disk. We sllall now t evnlnnlo t,llc turning momelit of such a disk. The corlt.ribnt.ior1 of a n annular disk c l c n ~ r t ~ t . widt,h d r on mdius r is d M = - 2 n r tlr r t,+,arid llcncc the moment of for a dislr wet,t.ed on one side becon~es
I v r nlay ut.ilize t,l-~c same rcsults fbr a finit.e tlislc, provitled tllat, its ratfirls

Fig. 5.13. VolociLy t l i n l r i l ) ~ ~ l i o n nvar n disk rot.nt,irlgin n fluid at rrsl, l l c r r tr+ / ~ ( a v / a z ) tlcr~otcsthe rircumfercntial comporlrt~t t l ~ n , of shqarir~gstress Iirom rcln ( 5 5 2 ) we obtain

111t,hn cnsc nntlnr discussior~,just ns iti td\c exn.mple involvir~gR stlagtlatrion [)oinl,, t,lte vclocit,y Geld is t,hc first, t,o I)o evnlllatcd frorn tho cqnnt.ioli of corll,inr~it~y ant1 tlhe ccluat,ions of motion parallel t o the wnll. 'J'lfc prcssurc distribution is for~nd s ~ ~ l ) s r r ~ ~ t efromy the equat.ion of motion perpendicular t.o the wall. nt.l
. -

I l ( ~ t ~ n o mornonl. for t,l~c

:\

tlislc wellt.ctl or1 I)oI.ll sitlrs I ) C C ~ I I I ~ S

'1.llis ~oltlt,ion ohlninvd in t,ho form of n power series near 1 = 0 and nn anymplotic uories wns for largo values of C which were then joined toget,her for moderato values of 1.

106
This gives

V. JCxact solutions of Ll~e Navicr-Stokm cq~~ntiona

b. Othrr exact, solr~tiona

107

,I Ihe

q11nnf.ity of flnitl flowing towartls l.hc dislr in the axial dircct,iorl is of cqrlsl

or, tlcfining a Reynolds nllmbcr based or1 thc radius ancl tip vclocity,

R = -R'o nnrl int.ro~lttcingt h c nnmerical vnlllc - 2 zG'(0) = 3.87, wc obtain finally

~napnitutlc. t is, filrther, wortlly or no(,(> J t,ltat t,hc pressure tlini:rrt~ccovcr t,hn 1:~yrr cnrrietl by the (lislr is of the orrior e r1 a), i. c., vcry srnt~11 s ~ u n l l i ~ c o ~ i l ~ i' c sI. c for v ~I prcssnm (Jist,ril)~~t~ion ~ c n t only o n l,ho clist,nrlc:o F r o t ~t,11c1 wnll, i i r ~ r l (.I~(~rt, r ~ o tlc~ ls ~ is rittli:r,l ~~rcssrtrc grntlicwt,.

A generalisctl fnrnl of t l ~ e prccetling prok~lcmhas becn stutlictl 11y M.G , Itogers ancl G . N . Lance [28] who a s s ~ ~ m e d a t the f l ~ ~ moves wit11 an nnnllIar Vl,IO(*i(,V th id

Fig. 6.14 shows n plot of this equat,ion, curve (I), a n d compares i t with mcasuremcnta 1391. For RcYnolcls numbcrs u p t o about R = 3 x LOS there is cxcellcnt agreement hnt,vecn tltoory nnd exporimcnt. A t highor Raynolds numbers the flow bccorncs torbulent, an11 tho respective casc i s considered in Chap. XXI. Curves (2) nncl (1)i n Fig. 6.14 arc ohttainnl from t h c turbulent flow thcory. Olllcr mcasuremcnts, carried o u t hy G. Kernpf [lG] and W. Schmidb [31], show tolerable ugrrwnrt~t rvitll tlirorctirnl resalts. Prior t n Lrsr a o l ~ t ~ i o nI). Riahoachinsky [2Gj. s, 1271 estal~lial~cd cmpiricnl fonnulac for the turnir~gm o ~ t ~ c oft mtnting disks wllich e werc hmcd on vcry carcful mcasurrments. Those formslae showed very good sorrcmcnt with the t h ~ o r c t ~ i c a l equations discovcred suhscqucntly. -0Tl~e quantity of liquid which is p ~ l m p c d ~ t w a r d s a result of t11c centrifuging o N nctdon o n tho one sidc of a disk of rarlins R is

C(m) = s

~ ~ n thc sccontl boilntlnry contlit,ion for tho function G(() mttat, Ito rrplnc-ctl t)y tl . In this conncxion a comparison should hc mndo with the, cast! ofrotnting flow ovrr n fixrd tlislr given in Scc. XTn. Nnmcrical ~ o l r ~ t , i o n s roLntio11 ilk t.11~ for s:nnc srnsc (s > 0) can be found in [20]. Wllcn the rotations arc in oppositc scnsps (s< 0). physically tncnningfi~l solr~tions can bc obtained for s < - 0 2 only iT1tnifc)rrn sr~ctiotl:it right, :LII~ICS to lII1e dislr is n(ltnitLc(1. The prol~lemof a rotnting disk i r ~a ho~lsingis discr~sscdit1 Chap. X X l .

Fig. 5.14. Ttlrning moment on a rohting clink; crlrvc (1) from eqn. (T,.T,f,), h m i m r ; ellrvea (2) and (3) from eqns. (21.30) and (21.33). 1 ~
bulenl

It, is part,ic:~~larly tlotcwor(,hy l3hat,the solutior~for tlrc rotatir~g dislr a s wcll a s 1.llc solutions obtainctl for the flow with stngnntion are, in the first plnco, exact solr~l~ior~s the Navicr-Stolces cquations a~rtl,in t h e sccontl, t h a t t,llcy are of n of houi~drcry-la?/rr L?yps, in f.hc scnsc discrlssrd in t11c prccctlirlg chapter. 111 t,l~c i ~ r ~ i t i r ~ g l c.:l.se of vcry small viscosity t,hese solnt.ions show t h a t tho irrflnencc of viscosit.y rxl.rt~tls over n vcry small lnycr in tile ~ ~ c i g h l ) o t ~ r l ~ o oLhc solitl wnll, 1r.11c.t.c::~~ of. t l i l l 1,llc wl~olcof 1.l1c rcmnilling region t.hc flow is, j)rnct,ic;llly spcnlting, i(lrt~t.ic~:ll t v i t , l ~ (.he corrcspontling itlcnl (pot,crlti:~I)casc. ' ~ h c s ccxarr~plcsshow I11.Lhor l . l ~ ; ~ t the b~~nnilnry In.yer has a thickness of the ortler . Tl~c one-dirncnsiot~al examplcs of flow discussed previonsly display tho samc l~onntlnry-layercharact,cr. In this conr~cx-ior~ rcatlcr mny wish to c o n a ~ ~a t pnpcr by G . I<. 13ntcltclor 121 whii:l~ the l tliscnssrs the solution of t.11~ Navier-St,olrcs cqltations for t,lrc cast of two ro-axial, rol,nt.irrg tlislrs placrtl at, n certain clistancc apart, ns well a s n paper by I<. Sl.cwnrt,sor~ 1.741. A n cxt8ension oS the preceding solutsion to tllc cnsc ol' urtiforn~s r ~ c t , i o ~ tlnc is ~ t,o J. T. Stttart. ([02] in Clln.11.X I V ) ant1 to 1; M . S11nrr.o~ .J. I,. (:t.cbgI: st^^^ 1). 3 4 . nr~tl in p 2 ] ) . 'rhe lallt8ercont.ains also an ani~lysis t,llo c:tlsc \rii,l~ of Ilon~ogcr,c:o~~s I)lowil~g. ,I hi: litnit,i~~g of vrry vigorons I~lowingIVILS ( ~ ~ S C I I S S C ~ I 11. I(. I < I I ~ ~ < CIlHj. cnsc 1)y II

iv

12. Flow in colivcrgcllt nrld divergent cl~nn~lrls. f~rrlhrr A class of rxrrct solut.iot~s l . 1 1 ~ of Nnvicr-Stolrca eqrla1ion.s ran be ol~tni~leell the ie>Ilo\\.il~g ~ J ~ :LC(.it IPC R S R I I I I I C : ~ ~, I ~ i ~ t tilie il \ V t , fitltlily of stri~ipl~t. pnasil~g lilies tllroclgl~n point, i n n l)l:i~)c connt,it.~ltt.l ~ st.rt:n~~~li~~rs I r o f : Ilo~r.. L Let, the vc1orit.y tlifrcr rro111lir~e line, wl~icl~ tn tnrntls l.llnt it, is nsstll~~c~(lI)c ;I ft111(.t.i011 ,)f t,lle to polar anglee. Tl~e rngs along wllic-11 Lllo vc1ncil.y vvaislica call t,l~rr~c * rcg;irtlctl ns tilt: soli(l l~ walls of n cor~vcrgerlt a. tlivcrgrnt rlinnt~rl. cot~tir~rtity l ~ l n t i o l~.:III I)c~:~l,i~fiecl I S S I I I I I ~ ~ ~ or 'I'hc ~t rs k)y : t.l~:rt v c l ~ r i along rvrr.~ is inversely ])ropnrl.ion:~l 1 . 1 1 ~ l i a l : ~ l ~ ~ . o t,l~r 1.llr t~~ rLy t,o c fro111 origin. Ilc.tlrt. 1.11~ rnt1i:rl vrlority 11, 1111s for111u tlm F'(g)/r,or, i f I: i 1.0 I)(* ~lii~rc~~~siot~lrnn, . q

b. Other exact s o l ~ ~ t i o n s

I on

The periphcrnl vclocit,y vanishes everywhcrc. Int,rodr~ring(his forn~ into the Navier-St,oltes cqllntiolls ~vrit.lnl~ I~oln,r ill rc~ortlinnlcs,cqn. (:!.:Mi), nntl r l i n ~ i n ; ~ l . prrnsllrc from 1 . 1 1 ~ i~~g cql~nt,iollu ill t,llo r nlltl $ clirrrtions, we obtain t.hc following ortlinnry tlilhrrnl.i:ll cq11a1.io11 I('(4): for In1rgrnt.it~g onrc, \re are Ictl to 1 . h rtlr~nt,ioll ~

F2 .t 4 F I F" -1. ( /

0.

'I'lle co~~st,:rnt, clrnotrs the rnclinl prrsstlrc gr:~.clic.nt,;tl, I.he \\,ails, Ii =- --(I/@)(i)l~/ar) I( (r"v2), where \ve llave 17 0 n nrltl+ - a . ns wc:ll ns E" 0 ford) 0. Tile so111lio11 ofrq11. (5.58) ,,.as givrn by (. lInlncl [ll],'l'lle f111lrtio11 ran I)c cxprrssrtl cxplicit.ly ns an ellil)l.ic fnnct,ion of$. ; 1.'
-7

fore-

In the paper referred to above, (:. Nanlel has set hin~selfthe problcrn of cnlcnlatir~gall three-dimensionnl flows whose strean~lincsare identical with those of a potcntinl flow. The solution consisted of ~treamlinesin the shnpe of logarithmic spirnln. Tho case of mciinl flow ronsitlercd I~err, nnd the cnae of pol.cnIinl vorlnx-flow, tlisoussc~rli l l Srr. V 3, c.onsl.it.nlr ~ n r l i . rnlrrr cxa~nplos t . l ~ gcrlcrnl sol~~tion. of i~ ,, prcccding oxnrr~plo nn oxnrl, solnlion oxl~il)il.n I he of onre n~orr? I,~~~rrrrlrrr!,-br!~rr 1.l1o cl,n,rrr/rr of 1,110 llo\v. 111 l)r~rl,i(!nl~~r, erin(! vf 11 c~onver~(:111, in t11c (:I~nnnt!l,1,110 I ~ x ~ ~ of 11 l11i11 IInyvr I~I V : L ~ L ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ 1.Iln wnll is conlir~nctl kogcthrr wit.11 the fact thnt t,hc inllncnrc of viscosity is conccnlr:ltr(l in it. Further, the calculation confirn~sthat the boundary-layer t,hickness incrcasrs as 11r.re too. Tho divergent case exhibik an additionnl pl~enomcnor~, that of bnck-flow, and, r r s l ~ l t , i ~ ~ g frorn it, sc[~nrntiol~. in nn cn*cnt,inlpropcrty of all boundnry-layer flowu and we shall tlisr~~ss' This it Intar in grcnler tlctnil on the hasis of t.11~ cqn:~l.ionnof houndnry-layer flo\v. I t s cxistrncr in fnlly confir~ned expcri~ncnt. by

4;

\Vc sllnll now briefly sltrt,ch 1.I1crh:~rnrt.cr, the soll~tionrefrailling from cliscussi11g tllc of (let,nils of t.lre derivation. The grn.ph in Fig. 5.15 shows n fntnily of vclocit,y profiles for a collvcrgc111, ancl a clivrrgcnt chnnnrl for dilTerer~t.IZ.cynoltls nnn~bersl)lot,tcd on the Imsis of the Il~~r~lerinaI raIor~l:itions pcrrorrncd by I<. Millsaps anti I<. I'oI~lI~nl~scn 'l'hc velocity tIistrit)rttion [ 191. for t.llc convcrgcnl, ancl for the clivcrgcnt chnnnel tliKcr ~ ~ ~ : ~ r l t e r l ln ~ f t o y cacl~ ot,her. I n the latt,er rnac, t l ~ e y also c1ifli.r n ~ n r l r c d for different lteynolds nn~rlbrrs. a cont~crgentchannel tho velocity l~ 111 tlist.ril)llt:ion for the I~ighrstllrynoltls 11111nher( R = 5000) r e n i a i ~ ~ s 11car1y const,ant over a large c e n t . r c - ~ ~ o r tand ~ i o ~ dccrenscs steeply L zrro near the walls; thus it exhibib in this case a clear o
"

The cases of two-di~nensionnl and axi-syn~mct.rical flow t,l~rorlgh channels wit.11 un~i~ll ~ g l r s n~ of tlivergcnce have been investigated earlier by H. Blasius [T,] frorn first princil)les, i. c., wit,h the aid of the Navier-Stokes equations. In this connexion i t was shown that laminar flow cnn snpport only a very ~ ~ r l nprOR.SIIT0 increase wit.hoot tho inridcncc of scpnrntion. The condition ll tc) for the avo~dnnccof back-flow a t the wall in a divergent tnbe of r a d i u ~R ( z ) was fo1111t1 be dR/dx < 12/R. (condition for sepnration), where R 4 d/r tlcnotes the Itcynolds nr~~nl>(:r referred 1.0 the nlcan velocity of flow through the chnrlncl antl to its dinrnctcr. In more n~odrrn t.in~csM. Abmmowitz [ l ] cxtended these cnlcnlations for divcrgcnt clmnncls, nnd (lisrovrrr(1 that the point of sepnration rnoves downst,renn) from tho char~nclentprnnco as t,hc Itcynoltls numlter is increased ant1 as the angle of divergence is dccremed.

Ill a di71CrgP711 a ~ ~t~ ~ shape of t.11~~ r l o ( . i l . ~ rll l c l c \ profilm is tn:~rkrtll~ nffrct.c~(l I lie l<r5.~1o1t1s I>y rn~mber.F:nclr of t,l~esc velocity dist.rih~~tions Inore or~rvccl:tt t.11~ is cenlcrline t.l~nn 1,llr pnrnl~oln t,llnt, rllnract~crizm flow through a channel wit11 parallel walls. The velocity rlist.~ibrttion the for lnrgrst Iteynolds nr~mbcr, curve 7, is disting~tisl~rd t,lle fact that it shows two rrgiolls of bnckby flow. '~lllls, tllc velocity vanishes n t fotrr points. Sinro t.llc wnll could plr~rcitsell nt any one of tllese poinb, it, is to envisnge 1,his vclori1.y distrib~~tion nrl inrlnded angle of 10 wit)) at, two syrnmntric regions of bnck-flow or a t nn inclndetl nngle of 6.9" but, u.it,h a single, nsymnletric rcvion of I~ark-flow. Snch anyrnn~et~ric ve1oc:it.y tlint.rit~r~t~ionn act.~~nlly nre observed, nnd the bnrk-

13. Concluding remark. T h i s e x a m p l e r o n c l ~ ~ d t,he tlisc~lssiono f c x a c t s o l u t , i o ~oi f cs 1.Ile Navier-St,okes e q n a t i o n s ant1 t h e n c x t t o p i c will d e a l wif,lt approximate s o l n t i o ~ r s . 111 t h e previous tlescript,ion a n e x a c t solution m e a n t a solution of t h e Nnvicr-Stokes e q u a t i o n s i n w h i c h a l l its t e r m s were tn.ken i r ~ t oa c c o u n t , providetl t.11at t h e y tlitl n o t vanis11 identically f o r t h c problem. I n t h e following c h a p t e r w e s l ~ a lconccrn l o ~ l r s e l v e s i t h a p p r o x i m a t e solutions of t h e N a v i e r - S t o k r s e q u a t i o n s , t,hat, is, wit11 w solut.ions which a r c obtainetl w h e n s m a l l terrns a r e r ~ e g l c c l c d n t h e differerlti:~.letlrl:~,i t,ions ttre~nselves. A s a l r e a d y mentionccl i n Chap. I V , t h e t w o limit.itrg cases of v c r y large a n d v e r y s m a l l viscosit,y a r c o r p a r t i c u l a r ixnportance. I n v c r y slow, o r socalled creeping m o t i o n , viscous forces a r e v e r y large cotnparctl w i t h inrrt.ia force-s, ant1 i l l I ) o ~ ~ n t l a r y - l n y c r rnot,ion t.hcy a r e v c r y small. Wllcrcas ill t,llc lirsl, c:~sc: i t is pc*rmissil)lc t o onlit tl~c: i r ~ e r l i at c r m s cornplcl,cly, n o s u c h siniplifia:~t.io~l 11ossiblo is i t 1 b o r ~ n t l n r y - l a y e rt h e o r y , b e c a t ~ s rif t,hc viscous t e r m s arc: s i m p l y tlisrrg:lrtltxl 1 . 1 1 ~ ~)l~ysic*nll,y rssen1,in.l rontliI.ion of' n o slip ILI.~.II(: ~ o l i t l1)ollncl:lr~yr n . ~ ~ r ~ o l , r ~ t * I . . I)(- r
I<. W. Mnnglor[OJ davelopoda genernl theory for t,hesolution of the Navier-Stokes equations laminar flow a t very high Reynolds numbers, t h a t is for flows in for the case of two-d~mensionnl which t,heeffcct of visc:osity iu included, and whir11 pousess bonndnry-lnyrr chornrtrr. In I'rnntltl's 1)onndnry-layer theory (ace a l ~ o Chnp. V11 for tlcl,nila) the contor~r (.he adid body in the U I I ~ I I I I I of is pre~cribodn ~ thedelrect. of v i ~ r o ~ i isynccon~~t,ed only in the thin lnyer ntljoining 1.11~ ~ t for wnll. I5y cont,raat, t,he new procednre is a n indirect one. Instend of the cor11,ortrof t.lle rcnl hody, lhc theory prescribes an appropriate form for tho so-called displncrmrnt, contor~rwhich s~~rronncls the body. The displncement contonr makes nn allownnre for the tlisplacemcnt rKec1, cxrrtrd on the cxLernal flow nnd on the wake. This pern~ita to detfirmine the ext,ernal, frictionlrss flow us 8b011t the displnce~nent contour; the next s t ~ consists in the c o m p ~ ~ t a t i ofr t.he flow ficltl in t,he p o ~ frictional lnyer with the aid of an asymptotic trent>mentof t,hc Navier-Stakes eqr~ntionsfor vcry large Iteynolds number8 which yields, finnlly, the real uhn.pe of the l)ocly. T l ~ r~tnnrltnble e frnt,nrc of thiu new procedure consists in the fact thnt t.hc hon~ltlnry-lnycr mlrnlntion rnll hc rnrric>tl I)eyo~~tl point. of scpnration. Thiu is in r o n t , r a ~with I'rantlt,lS~ t.11~ t ho~~ntlnry-lnyrr t.l~rvry \vl~ivl~

in : r i g . 5.15. \:rlocily cIist,ril1111io11 L convergonl antl a clivrrgr~~t rhnnnrl aft,rr (. Il:~nlrl [ l l ] nntl I<. Millsnps : nntl I<. I ' o l ~ l l ~ n n s e ~ ~ [19] Iscl,~,ir~i C I C 2 a 1 8 R~ 11~).nold~ nurnbrr R 71. r i l , Convrrprnt cl,:~~lncl I l i v e r ~ e n t cllxnnrl , (:IITVP A = 5000 1: C I I T V:~ = 684 5 R (:,,TvP: R = 1342 2 C ~ l r v e R = 1312 6:

--

c~~~~~R 3.
(:11rvr4

~ 8 1

C N I ~7: R = 5000 YC

rrrrrs In R c l a ~ n n witln p ~ r ~ l l~ v a l l s ~l rl ( P , > i s ~ ~ ~ i l l p a%o I ) o l i ~ % ~ r l n r i l v l i ~ l r i l ~ ~ ~ l i n ~ l , c' r c ? I . Fig. 5.I )

cnll bo npplirtl nt mont, nn fnr RS 1.l1rpoint, of nrpnrnt.ion otrly. F~~rt.hormore, now t.hcory Rilet.hc ccodn in nome canen evrn \vil,Ir tihe cvnI~~nt.itur t,ho cotnplox flow pntterns wlric11 exist. in t h e of rngior~of hnck-flow behintl t.l~r point, of srlmrntiotr ng woll RR t,l~nt the r r g i o ~ ~ re-ntl.arl~~netlt. in of

111 Al,rnn~owitz,M.: 0 1 1 Iirirliflo\v of :I, v i s r n ~ ~ n~ ~ iinl n tlivrrgi~~g l ~ n ~ ~ n r lM;IIII. I'iiyn. 28, ll t c, .J. . I--21 (l!l4!)). 121 I3ntolrclor, (:.I<.: Note on n clnrts or aolnt,iona of thr Nnvirr-Stokrs rqllnl.ionn rr])rmci~t,ing atandy ~~on.rotat,ionr~lly sy nllnet,rir: Ilo\v. (aut~rt,. . k11:r:h. Appl. h11blir. 4, 2!) -- 41 (1!)51 ). J I31 l3t:rkor. 15.: Eine einf~icllcVrmllgenlritiorut~gder Hnylriglr.(:rc~rzscI~i~!l~t. ZAMP 11. 148 -152 ( ~ ! i ~ o ) . 141 I!orker, It.: IntCgrntion tlcs i.qnntionn r111 ~nouvcrnent(1'1111 f l ~ ~ i d e S ~ I I I C I IiX~ ~ c o ~ ~ ~ p r r s s i h l ~ . V~ (,ontribution to: Hnndbuclr dcr Plrysilc (8.I'liigge, ed.) 1'11//2, 1-384, Rcrlin, 1!)C,:). [51 Rlani~iu,11. : I,nrni~rnro St.riimr~nji K~l.nA\en in wecl~nelnr\erI5reile. Z. Mnth. 11. I'l~ysili 6 8 , . . 226 (1!)10). (61 (:nt,lrernII, I)., nntl hltinglrr, l<. W.: The intrgration oft.lio two-di~ne~r~iocrd n i ~hor~ntlnryIn~ ~nr layer oqnntionn pas( f.l~e point. of vnninlri~~g skin friction. .JFhl 26, 10:1-182 (I!)IiO). 171 ~ c l r m nW . ( : 'l'lrc flow due to a rotnI.ing rlisk. I'roc. (:n~rrl)r.l'hil. Sor. .YO.306- 375 (1934). , : . 1701 1llorc11t,,1'. n ~ r dl'r111)r. .I. I,.: l ? r ~ o ~ ~ l c nIn.n~innirctl'rr~~ ln~~t fl~iitlovinq~lrnxit~ro~nprcnsihle r ~ ~ t , rtlrr~xrlincl~~rn c, I)orrrtx ,I. Rli.t,n~iicl~~r 433fi 459 (1!)75). 14. [HI Yriianling, N.: Verrlrtn~t,ung, \Yiir~iiaiibert~rngu~~g (;earlrwit~digkeit,svort~ilung zweinnd hni r....t. ~ n n n i o ~ ~ t ~ l c r l i .~ . ~. uncl rot,nt~ioussvn~~r~c~~~isr~l~er C(Irc~~zscl~irllt.st~riin~~~~~g. I:i~ninnrer Lunds. Utiiv. Araskr. N. I'. Afrl. 2, 6 5 , N: 4 (1940). ; [9l Gerbcm, W.: Znr ir~nLnLioriiiren, Inminnrrn Strom~ing cinor inlcon~prmsiblrnziilirn Fliissigkeit in krci~zylindrircho~r ltoliron. Z. strye\v. I'hysik 3, 267 -27 1 (1951). 1101 Hnpen, G . : Uber dio I3cncgr1np rlrs \\'nsncrn in erlgcli zylindrischeti Rohron. Pngy. Ann. 46,
9

~orcinigllng 25, 34- (i0 (1916). [12] Elienletlz. I(.: [lie (:rcnznr.hicht, nn oinern in dcirr glnicl~fiirlnigen I~liinsipkritnst.ro~n rillgot n ~ ~ r l ~ gcrndc~i tcrl TCroi~zylindcr.'I'lrccria ( i i i t t i n g e ~I~t I I . I)ingI. J'olyt.rr11. J.,726,:l2l (1111 1 ) . I 1131 l l n ~ ~ ~ n t l n ,Her JCiatlnns grower Ziilligkoit Imi [lor Slrvnrnng urn (1c11Zyli~rrlrruntl IIIII (lie F.: K ~ ~ g eXAMhl 16, 153- l(i4 (1S:Jf); I'orsclig. T1rg.-Wes. 7 , 1 -- 10 (19:50). l. r141 I[ownrth. I,.: On tlro calcitltltio~~ the stailtlp flow in the houndnry lnyer near tho surfnce of of n cylinrlor in n a t r r a n ~ .AltC lthl 1032 (1!)35). i151 von I<brmfirr. 'rh.: 0l)cr Inniinnrc ur~rlL ~ ~ r l ~ r ~ l o n t o Rrihi~ng.ZAMM I. 238-252 (1921); , NACA 'I'M l0!)2 (1940); nee also: (h11. \Yorks 11, 70 -97. (101 I<on~pf, G.: Ubor Itcil~~~ngswitlcrst~~i~~ltl roI.irrc~i(ler Scht:il)c~~. Vort,riigr I L I I dr111 (:r:I)iot. d r r ~ Hvclro- 11r1r1Aerodvr~n~nik, Innsl)rrlr:k (.!ot~gr. 1!)22; IJerlin. 1!)24, I(;!!. 1171 ~ i r d o ,I<.: ~ntern;1clrr1n~o11 dio znil.lirhe M'c:itcrent~n~irklr~ngi ~ ~ e a i r b c l ~init voriibor e W gcgobrr~erAnfn~lgnverlailung.Ing.-Art:\\. .?1,:185 - 404 (\!)W). [l8n] hfkllor, C. L.. Clinpl)le, P. J . nnd Stokcn, V. K.: On Lllo flow botwecn n r o t , n t i ~ ~ g d a an stntionnry dicrk. JI'M 31, 95-112 (1968). I181 Kuikon. H. I<.: I ' l ~ eo f i c t of nornrnl h l o n . i ~ ~ g t,ho Row rlcnr n rotnt.ing dink of illfinite on extrnt,. Jl'hl 47, 789--798 (1971). hlillnnpn, I<., nnrl I'ol~ll~nnaen. I<.: Thrrri~nldislril~~ttiorr .Teffrey-llnn~clflows I)ntn.eol~ in nonl~~rnllel plano wnIIn. ,lAS 20, 187- I!lli (195.7). hliiller, \Y.: Zunr I'rol,lo~n d r r A r r l a u f s l r i i r ~ ~ u ~ ~ I'liisuigkr-it im gerntle~i cir~or~ R,ohr rnit. ICrcinring- untl I<roinqr~rrnel~~~it,t~. 16, 227-238 (1!)3(i). ZAhlhl Oncr,~), (:.\V.: /Irk. f. Mnt,l~. ~at,roll. c l ~ Vys. 7 (l!)ll); l l y r l r o ~ i ~ r c ~ Jjripzig. l!l27. p. 82. o . ~n~~il~, l1t>i3t*~~iIlt-. l<~rt!l~rvcl~rn~ ~ f i r i ~ ~ ~sixr ~ t IcI ~~iI iI ~ ~ I s I C(Jt:u ~ Iiqnirlon tl~innIra 111I)enrlr ,I.: cx r ~ lc I V ~ I II 11.i.n ~wt,i!.q l i a ~ ~ ~ i . t(,'t)~ril)lsx ~ .rrs. Hcntl~t!,I I , !)ti1 --OC,7 nntl 1U4i - 104%(IX40); 12, 112 (1841 ); i l l 111orrdrlr~il: Mr~noircs tlcs Snvnnls IClrnngorn B (1840).
L ,

. .

[23] Prn~rdt~l, : Fiil~rer I,. tl~~rclr Striin~i~t~p;nlcl~rr. (lie 6 t,ll ed.. ROO, 1966; ICngl. trnt~nl.Illnrkir nntl Son, I,ondon, 1!)52. [241 I'i~nnin,13.: Zur l l r r e c l ~ t r l ~ ~ ~ Innritrnrrn Ei~~ln.ufst,riirnt~t~g tler j i iln Kolrr. 1)iss. (:ijt.t.i~rgr~~ 1!l47. 12.51 Itnylciglr, Lord: OII t.lir ~notiotl eolitl horlira t,Irror~gli of viscor~nliqitid. I'hil. Rlng. 21, li!)7-7 I I (I!){ I ) ; also Sci, 1'11pern L71, 2!t. 1261 Rial~orrclri~rsl~y. 15ull. d r I'lr~nt.itutArrodyn. rlc l ~ o r ~ t n h i n5,~6 -34 M o n r ~ o ~ I).: r . (1!)14); sro nlno .I. Iloy. Acro. Sor:. .79, :l40- :!I8 nl~tl377- :17!) (I!):l6). 1.271 Il~inl)oirrl~i~lflIzy, Sur In r6sistanre tlo froLt.olno~~t. ~ l i s q ~ t~ o ~ ~ r n n ~:I.IIR 1111 Ill~idcCL 11.: rlrs ,rs nt Icn 6qnnl.iona iril~cgrnlcen]q)liqn6es b co prohli.tne. (?o~r~l~t,rn , ~ ~ t2.75. s!!!I!) - !)OI (I!)6I). Il.c l~~ r27nl Itol)crta, S. M. ant1 Shipmnn, J. 8.: Computing of tho flow boLwcc~r a rot.ntiirji nud n sl~nl,io~~nr:y .ll'M 73, 53 -63 1!)70). tlink. ,281 I t ~ g t : ~ . M.(:.. nnil Innn.. (:.N.: rulrtl~iuni~lly ny~n~nnlrir: nf n r i r r , o ~ lli~irlin (I\: IIotv ~r prcnrnra r)f rill illfinite rot,nting disk. .JFM 7 , 017--fi3I (1960). [ZHx] ILot.t, N.: Unnt.mtly V ~ R C O I I Rflow in t.11~vii'init,y of n s~,ngn~it.iot~ poil~t.qtlnrt.. A p ~ h l i ~ t l ~ . l 13, 444--461 (I!lB6/6C,). I291 Sclliller, I,.: Unterniich~ingcniiher Inn~innre11nd t~lrbuleriteSt,riirn~~ng. VI>I-l'ornrlu~~~gs[left 248 (1922). [2!):r] Srl~obriri, M.T.: N i i l ~ r r n t ~ g ~ l i i e n n g c ~ ~ ~ l r Nnvicr-Stoltr~'acl~o~~ r 1)ifl'crc11l.ir1.lgIt:ir~l11111g I'iir cbi~~o zaeitlirnensionnlc st,ntionii.re IJa~riinarstrii~nur,go n u t n ~ ~ t eViakoniLiit in konvaxcn 111111 k r koriknvrn J)iff~~noren 11nd 1)iisen. ZAMP 27, 9-21 (1976). [30] Scl~lichtitlg,11.: 1,nmirrnre lCnnalci1rlni1~qt~r61nung. ZAMM 14. 368-373 (1934). [31] Srlimirlt. W.: Ein cir~fnrl~cs Mcenvnrf~~liro~r I ) r o l r ~ n o ~ n o ~X. t n . G5, 441 ---444 (1!)21). fiir ~ VJII [32] Sparrow. E.M., nnd Crcgg, .J.L.: Mms transfer, flow and heat transfer nhoiit, a rotat.irrg d i ~ k Tra~rnact~io~rn E, J. Hent 'rmrrsfrr 82, 294-302 (I!)(;O). . ASM [33] S b i n h e ~ t e r .,I . : Kine cxnkte J,iisnng tlrr instat,ion:iron Co~~ot,t,e-St,riinr~~~~g. Proo. Srirnt.ilio h e . of Ilrn~~nnrl~rvcig'l lh4-164 (l!l(ih). X Il, [34] Stewnrtaon, K.: 011 the flow bet,rveen taro rotating conxinl diskn. Proc. CnInbr. Plril. Sot. 49, 333-341 (1!)53). ~, 1351 Stokes, G. G . : On the e h r t of the interrial friction of fluids on t,he r~lotionof j)endr~lurn~. Cambr. Phil. Trene. I X , 8 (1861); Mntll. and Pliye. Papers, Cambridge, 111. 1-141 (1901). [38] St,rlart, J.T.: A uolut,ion of the Navier-St,okes nnd energy oqr~ntions illustrnting t l ~ e respotlso of akin fricbion nnd temperature of a n infinite plnte thortnon~cter t o f l ~ ~ c t r ~ a t i o ln st l ~ e i l stream velocity. Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 231. 116-1x1 lIQ55I . -,-.'.'- . [37] Szytnnnski, F.: ~ u e l ~ u e ~ o l u t i o n a cxnctes den Qqrrations do l'h;drodynntniquc de f l ~ ~ i t l e visqi~euxdnns le ens d'un tube cylindriq~ie.J. d e ~ n o t h .puree ot appliqu0e8, Serirn 9, 11, 67 (11132); nee nlso Proc. Intern. Congr. Ap )I Mecli. Rtockholm 1, 240 (1930). 1381 Tao, L.N., end Donovati, W.P.: T11rougl1-lloiv in concet~tricand excent,ric anrrr~liof fill0 clenrnnre wit11 arid withont relat,ive motion of t l ~ o boundaries. 'I'rnns. AShfR 77, 12!)1-- 1301 iIOFiK\. - - ,[39] Theodorsen, TI)., ant1 Regier, A.: Experiment8 on drag of revolving diacs, cylinders, nnd streamline rods nt high speeds. NACA Rep. 793 (1044). (401 Timine, A.: Uber die Ue~cl~windigkeitRvcrteili~n~: in Wirholn. Trig.-Arcli. 2.5, 208-226(1%7). [41] W I ~ ~ R O I I ,A solution of t l l ~ J.: Navier-Stokes equntior~e illtintrntinp the roaponao of n Inlninttr bonnrinry layer to n given cl~ango tlio extcr~rnlalrcanr velocit.y. Ounrt. J . Mool~.Ap11l. in Mat,l~. 3302-325 (1958). If, ~, [42] Wnteon, J.: Tho two-dimc~isionnl larni~rnr flow rlenr tlie utngnntio~~ oint of n r y l i ~ ~ t l\rhicll rr I r u nn nrbitrnry trnnaverno n ~ o l i o s .~ I I I L ~. . .MooL. App1. ~ f 1 1 1 ~ 1 . 11, 176.- llHl ( IIfiII). I ~
\

b. I'arallcl flow I),w(,a slll~ere

I 13

This systern of eqrlatiotis must be supplemcntcd with the same bo~rrltlary cotltlit,io,ls :IS the fill1 Navier-Strokes equations, namely those exprcssirlg the abscr~cc of slip i r ~ the fluit1 a t the walls, i. e. the vanishing of t l ~ e normal ant1 t a n g ~ n t ~ i a l n ~ p o n c n t , ~ co of velocity : ll,, = 0 , ,? ! = -- 0 :I t< \v:1 I I . s (6.5) Art irnportnrlt c:l~n.ractcrist,ic crccpitlg motion can bc ol~tairtctla t once f'ro~~t( I I I . of ~: (6.1), when the divergence of both sidcs is formet1 and when i t is ~ ~ o t ~ i ct,lrat t,lle ctl oper:tt8ions tliv and V 2 011 t,110 right-l~n.r~(l may 1jc pc:rforr~irtlin t,hc rcvt5rso ortl(%t;. side ,.l~tts,wit,Ir cqn. (0.2) we have I

Very slow motion


a . The clifirential equntiono for the case of very elow motion

l I l {,lliq 1 ~ ~ 1 ~ 1 1 jvl. , l, l~r~, l ~ l l ~ ~ 1list*11ss 1 ~ 10 p SOIII(- :1~1~~roxit11:11.(? so111I.ions f t , l ~ ( , o xavierr i l ~ , l t a O I ~ I I I L I , I O I I H \ v I I I ~ I I I t~rtj\ * t t I i t i 111 1,111, ~~ li111lt.111g I S O \ ~ I I C I I 1.111, \,~S~:OIIS ~:I furccs re

consiclerably grcatcr tl~n,n incrtia forrps. Since tltr incrt,ia forces arc proportional the t o tho square of the velocity whercas thc viscot~s forces are only proportio~ialto its first power, i t is easy t o appreciat,e t h a t a flow for which viscorts forcrs arc dominant. tttorr g c ~ l c n ~ l\VIIPII , trhtr l~~ is obtained when t,ltc vclocit.y is very stnnll, or, sl~rnlring Reyrtolds number is very small. Wllcn t,hc inertia terms are simply omitted from the equations of motion the resulting solut,ions are valid approximately for R 6 1. This fact can also be deduced from the dimensionless form of t.11~ Navier-Stoltes equations, eqns. (4.2). whcrc the inertia terms arc secn t o be mtrlt,iplied by a factor R = e V 1/p compared with the viscous terms. I n t,liis connexion we may rcmarlr t h a t in each pnrtictilar case i t is necessary t o examine in detail the quantities with wt~ichthis Reynolds number is t o be formed. However, apart from some special cases, motions a t very low Reynolds nllmbers, sometrimes also called oeepittg motiotl,.~,(lo not occur too often in practical applicationsi I t is seen from eqns. (3 34) t h a t when the inert,ia terms are ncglrrtctl tile incompressible Navirr-St,oltrs equations assume the form

.,lle strratn f~lnct,iot~ plar~ccreeping rnot.ion is t,hus a bipot,rnt.inl (Ijil~nrlllollic,) I of


fttnction. In t,lic remaining scct,ions of this eltapt,er we propose t,o discuss tllrcc ex:~tn~)lcs of creeping motion: 1 . Parallel flow past a sphere; 2. 'I'l~e l~ydrotlynnmict,lleory of I~tt~rirnt,ion; Thc Iiele-Shaw flow. 3.

'I'llc pressure fioltl in crccping motion s:~tisfics pot,o~t,ial the cqrlatior~: t r l t l the 1)rcssurc p(x,?/,z) is a poLent.ia1 function. 'rhc equations for two-dimensionc~l crceping motion become parl,ic~tIn.rly sirn~jlc in form urit,ll the introtlnction of t h e stream f~tnction 71) tlnfirictl Ity ?L = ar/~/if!/ at111 ?I = - ay~/r3x. As cxplair~ctlin Cl1n.p. I V, :trttl as sccrl from cqns. ((i.:%), wllcr~Ijrt,sstlt.c: is t:Ii~ninl~I~t!~I ~ tl~l ~ t ?lil.sl, I,\vo o t l t ~ t ~ t ~ i o t l ~ ,stret~111' I I I I c I . ~III,IS(, s:~l.isl:~ l'ro , 1,111? J ~~~ (.It(! rcluation V",l = 0 . 1

b. I'arnllel flow past a spl~ere --- - . -.


-

div or, in cxtnrttlrd fortn

111

=0

(6.2)

az

'I'hc oltlcst known solrlLion for a creeping nrot.io11 was given by (:. (. St.olrcs : who in~csl~igatctl case of pamllol flow past, a splrcre [17]. Wc shall tlo\v tl(~sc-ril)t~ l,hc? t,hc rcsnlt of his calrltlations witl~otltgoing into t<lre~n:~l,llcrnat~icnI tlct,:~.ils01' t.lto tl1cor.y. Wc shall I)nsc our tlcscription nn l.hnt given Ijy 1,. 1'rrtntlt.l (121. '1'11t. sol~~t.ion of ( ~ [ I I H . (6.3) ~ , I I ( I(0.4) f111, 1.110 (.II.XI> 01' $1, sl)ltvr~! rtl,(Iit~s( , t , l ~ ( : ( , I % I I ~ , ~ 01' i v I ~ i t , l lt . 0 . 01' I (* inc:itlcs wit11 tltc origin, ant1 w11icl1is 11l:~cctll l a pamllcl st.ro;r~n ~tnili)t.rt~ I O C ~ L ~ i of VC I/,, Fig. 6.1, alortg the 3:-axis can t)c rcprcsrntctl by t,ltc following rqrlat ions for t,llc. pressttre arlcl vcloc:it,y cornl)orrcnl,s:

In t.110 cnnc o R ~pltcrefalling in air ( v C 160 x 10 ft2/soc)wc obtaitl C. g. R = l i d / v -- 1, when t.11~ dinlnetet d 0.04 in :( 0.00333 ft.) and t8hevelocity V = 0.048 ft/sec.
1-

114

VI. Vcry slow motion

b. Parallel flow pnst

spl~rrc

116

where r2 = z2 y2 4- z2 has been introdr~ccrlfor the sake of brcvit,y. Tt, is easy t o verify t,hnt these expressions satisfy eqns. (6.3) and (6.4) and t h a t t.ho velocity vanin11esa t all pointa on the surfnco of t,ho sphere. The pressure on t,he s11rfnc.ebecomes

'rho mnximrl~nant1 n ~ i n i m r ~ r n prrssrlrc occurs nt points P, nntl I'2, respectively, of thrir valnrs bring 3 11 uw (G 7 1)) 1)1.2- pcn - -1--ji
-

A coniparisot~ het~ween Stolzcs's erjl~ation nntl rxpcritncnt was givan in Vig. 1.6 from which it is seen t h a t is applics only t o rases w l ~ c rR < 1 . The pnt,tern of ~ strcamlinos in front of anti behind the sphere must be the snrnc, as by rcvc,rsing t,he tlirectiou of frce flow, i. e., by changing the sign of vclocity c o n ~ p o r ~ e rint cqns. ~ s (6.3) and (6.4) t.11~ y s t o n ~is transformet1 into it,self. The st,reamlincs in viscons s flow past. a sphcro are s l ~ o w nin Fig. 0.2. Tltcy were tlrnwn ns they woultl nl)pear to a n observer in front of w l ~ o m the sphere is dragged with n constant, vclocity U,. 'I'he sltrt,ch contains also velocit,y prolilcs a t scvcral cross-s~ct~ions. is seen f,l~nt It tho sphere drags with i t a vrry witlr layer of flnitl w l ~ i v lr~ t , r ~ ~ tover : i l ) o ~ ~ tn e x Is o , tliitrnclor on I)ot,l~sitlns. At, vory high Itryrtoltls nurnl)ors t l ~ i s 1~orln~l:iry l:~y(:r L)ccornes very thin.

Tile prcssrlrc distribr~t,ion along a 1ncridin.11 t,hr sl)hcre as well as alor~g axis of the of al)scissar, r , is S ~ I O W I Iin Fig. 6.1. '1'11e: shrnring-stress di~t~ributiotl the spllere over can also be cnln~l~,Lctl t h e n.l,ovo formr~lac.If, is for~ntl h a t t,he sllenring st,ress from t has it,s largoat value nt poirll /I wl~crc = ij ,IL fJ,/I1 :LII(I is r~(11nl t,hc pressrlre t to riso nt PI or prrssurc tlccrrase nt /',. Tntrgmting t,ho pressure distribr~t.ion ant1 the sttraring sl,rrss over the surfacr of tho sphrre we obt,nin t,ho t,ot,nl tlrng

Ipig. 6.2. Sl.rcanilincs nnd vrloci1.y di.st.ribrttinr~ it1 Stokm' snlt1t.ior1 for n spllcrr i l l pa r;lllc.l flo\v

[Pig. 6 . 3 . S1.rc:itnlir1rs i l l llir flow

'This is f,ltc vcry wcll known rTloko.~ cr/uation for thc: tlrag of n sl)l~rrt:.I t , can I 1 v shown t,Ilat. o l ~ c t.llirtl of f.hc t1r:t.g is tlrro t,o t,he prossure ,list,ril)litio~~~ ~.II:L~,t.11~o n ~ : ~ i ~ ~ i r ~ g n ~ d r t.wo t,l~irtls nrr t111ot.o t.11~ cxistctico of shcnr. I t is fr~rl,llar rcrnnrk:~l)lc t,11:lt t,l~c ctr:~g is ~ x o ~ ) ~ r t , ito ~t.hc lfirst, powcr of vclocity. If a t1ra.g cocfficiet~tis fornled i)y o ~n rc*krrillg f,llc tlr;la 1.0 t,lrc tlyrl:~mic l~c:t.rl Q 11,2,nritl t.11~ rront.:~l arca., :IS is dotlc: in tllc c.:rsct of Iligl~cr I ~ C ~ I I O I ( I S ~ n ~ n I ) ( ~ r s ,if we pr~t. r or

ORCVII'.~ inraprovcrnt-~~t:AII ~ I T I I ) ~ ~ V I ! I T I ( - I of', St,ol<c:s'ss<,It~t,iot~I S giv(!t~ 1j.y I~ WI C. Mr.Oseen [l I], who took the incrt,ia terms in the Navicr-Sf.okcs equations pa.rt,ly info :~cconnt. I l r a.ssr~n~ctl talle vrlocit,y c o m p o r ~ r t ~ t s Ita t~c~l,rrsc~trt,c~tl t11n.t :IS t.11,: S I I I I I o f :L (~onsI,;~nl :III(I $1, p ( * r l ~ ~ r l ) ~~~ O ,~iIo 'l'l~!tx ,t I I~ ~ .
( 3 ; ~ ~ ~

1)

C,)x RZ ( ;@ Up?) ,
24

a;hc,rc*i s ' , 11' all(\ 711' nrr t,l~o ~)crl,rirl):l i.c.~.nls,r r l t l :IS s11~l1, n ; ~ 1r.it 11 ~ . c ~ st.0 ~ ~ ~ ( (.ion : st ll l ( . l ~ f'rcr st,rca~n e vclocity (1,. I t is to rlotecl, I~owevcr, tllat, t,l~is r~ot, r ~ irl l 1,11c is t irnnlrrliatr neighl~onrhootlof t,hc spherr. With t.hc n s s r ~ r ~ l ~ ~(0.1 o)t ~ i ~ i I 1.111- illrrt.ia t.crms i t 1 t,hr Na,vier-Stdokt>s rqns. (3.32) nro tlrc.o~nl)osedin two ,pro~~l)s,g . : r.

c, =

R- ;

R=

Umd
v

(loo

allr

, U,

av'

-ax , . . .

and

"Iaz

a~' ,

,avr
IL

-ax , . . .

116
, 3

VI. Vrry slo\v t~lotion are very large ill a tmnsverse direction with rcspoct. t,o the mot,ion so tllat, t,hr problem is one in two tlinlensionst. In ortlcr t,o ol)t,ain a stready-st.atse problern Ict 11s assrime t,hat t,lle hlork is a t rest and t,liat thc plarlc gi~icle forrctl t,o nlovc witSlta ronstal~t. is vctloci0y lI wit,l~ rctspoct i,o it.. 'l'hc x-nxis is nssllinrtl i l l I.II(: tlirccl,io~i n ~ o l i o t :111tl ol' ~, tho y-axis is at, right. anglns t,o t . 1 1 ~plane of t.l~o grlitlo. 'l'llr: I~rigllt~ of t , l ~ wrclgr h(n:) r I)c~l,wcc-~~ a l)Io(:lt I L I I ~ I I 1 l 1 t * ~ ~ l i ( l ti~: I I H H I I I I I I : ~ ~ IN: vt!~.yH I I I I I I I I . O I I I I ) I I I . ( Y ~ \ v i l l i 1111. t,l~t 1.0 lrngtll 1 of t l ~ r 1)lork.

I 11c sccontl group is ~lrglnctrtla s it, is small ot' the sccorltl ortlrr rornparcll wit.ll the first group. 'l'hrls we obt,nin t.llo following cqllat.iot~sof rnot,ion fro111 the NxvierSt,oltcs cq~rat.io~ls :

I I I C 1101111tla.ry c,o~~rlit.iol~s t.110 sarrlc as for t.llo Navir~.-Si~olirs arc ncll~;ltiot~s, 1)1t(, t.11~ Osccrl rclu;ltions are linear as wn.s t.llc caso ~rrit.l~ Stoltrs rqua.t.ions. t.hr
1
P

I he pat,t,c,rn of st,rr:~rrllir~rs now 1 1 0 lo~lgc:rt.11~ is sanlcx i l l f r o ~ ~ t , : L I I ( ~ I ~ c l ~ i ~ ~ l l ol' t , l ~ c -sphere. 'I'l~iscan be recognized if' rcfcrerlcc is tnatle t o rclns. ((i.12),I)rm.r~st: w r if (:II:III~C 1 ~sign of t,llr vclorit.ios and of the: pressilre, t,h(: cq~~nt,ions not t,mns1.1 do fortl~i111,o trl~crnsclves, wl~crcast,l~t: St,olics cclr~:~t.iorls (6.3) tlitl. 'l'hc st.rc:a.inlitlt:s ol' t.lln Osrcn cqrtat,ions arc plot,tcd in Fig. 6.3, and t,llo observer is again assun~ctlt o I)c a,t rrst wit,ll respect. t,o Clle flow a t a large disttance frorn t,lle sphere; it is itrlagi~~rtl tO~at,f,l~c p l ~ c r c dra.ggctl wiLh a constant, vclocit,y 11,. 'rhc Row in front of tall(: s is sl)ltrrc>is vcry silnilxr t,o t h a t given by St,okcs, but, beltintl the sphere the st.rearnli~~cls arc closer t,ogc?t,llcr whicll mc:llis t h a t tJlo vclocit,y is larger t,han irl t.he forrncr case. I'~rrt.ltcrrnorc~, I)ohilltl t , l ~ c sphere sornc ~)nrticlcsfollow it.s mot.iorl as is, in Ik(-l., ol)srrvc:tl rxpr*rilnrnt,ally at, large T<.cynoltls rliimbers.
1

Fig. 0.4. I.t~I~ric:~tiot~ in n 1)raring:a) lilo\v it) rvctlgc hrt.\vcrr~ l i t l r .I)loclc nncl planr. grlido ~ sr~rf:tcr; 1'rcsstlt.t: tlinLril)~ll.io~~ blovk, I)) ovcr 011 1.67
7

h~

l'llis lnoLion is a ~ n o r c gcnernl cxarnple of that, corlsiclrrrtl in Sv.c:t.iol~\I 1 , i. (,. o f t,lle illot,ion betwceu two parallel flat walls wit.11 a pressure grarlirtlt,. 'l'hc rsscnt,i:tl tliffcrcnre consist,^ in t,hc fact t h a t herc the two walls arc inclined at. :LII nnglc t,o each otJ~er. For this rcasorl the convective accelcration 7~ au/ax is evidcllt~l,y tliffcrcnt. from zero. An est.imat,ion of t h c viscous and inertria l'orcns shows immctli;~t.clyt,l~at,, in spite of t,hat, in all cases of pract,ical importancs, tile viscous forces arc prctlominant.. Tllc largest viscor~s tcrm in the equatpionof nlot,ion for t,llc x-direc:t,ior~ rc111nl is t o / L i)2u/r7y2.JIencc we can make the following cst.imat,c: Inertia force Viocous force

- p u au/ar -----

p U2/l

- ~ i a ~ u / a y ' C U[h2 -,

- Q Ul
18

.(

):

The inertia forces can b r r~eglcctcdwith rcspcct t o the viscolts forrrs if t11(,r ( ~ I r r ( ~ ( 1 Ttry noltls nutnl)rr c. Tile hyclrodynnniic tl~eoryof Itrbricntior~

R*=
or, by way of nrlr~lericalexample:

r' ( : ) ' a 1 ,

(6 14)

I llc p l ~ r n o l n r n : whicll t,akc place in oil I~ll)ricat,ctlbcnrir~gs nffortl nnot.l~:r ~ rs:~ntplcof flow in \vhicll viscous forces are predoininnnt,. I'ronl t.11~ pmct.ical point of virw tllrsr phcr~orncna are vcry iml)ort,nnt. At, high velocit.ics t,llc rlcaranc.r I)ct.\vrc-rl t.wo mncllinc elcrnmta wllicll : ~ r cit1 rrlat,ive mot.io~l (r. g . journal :~rld 1)rnring) is fillcltl 11y all oil st,rcarn i r ~which cxt:l-cmcly large pl,essnrc dill'crcnccs may I)r crcnt,rtl. As ;L collscqrrcllcr, t , l ~ r rc!volvirlg jourr1a.l is lift.rtl somcwhat 1)jr tl~c. oil fi1n1 ant1 n~ct,allic: cont.ac:l, Itct.\vcrn t,hc moving part.s is pmvent,ctl. 'l'l~cessent,iaI Ic;lt.hrr~s 1,llis t.ypr of mot,iorl can be rrr~clrrst,oocl t,l~c.cxanil)lr of a s l i t l t I)loclc of on or slil)l)rr rnovit~go n :I plan(. g ~ ~ i r srlrlkrc, Fig. 6.4, it, ])ring iln1)ortnnt. illat t.llry lc :IW i t ~ v I i t ~ ( :it. ;I srn:~ll:~r~glt~,r:1(:11 ~(l 0,L o ot,l~t-r.l ' ~ ~ s l ~ ~ l l : that, t~l ~ s In(rl i r ~ g s ~ ~ ~ ~ l ' a r r s l ~ s s ~~ i r
. I

This 1r;ltls t o a value of the Reynolds nunibcr reftrrcd t o tllr I t n g t l ~of tlic blorlt of I T / / I , =- 25,000, whtreas t h e reduced Reynol(1s rtumbrr R* 0 1.

The trvo-dimcnsionnl tl~cory \rrns first forn~r~lnkd 0. Ilrynoltls, hy Sor. (18bC,),1'1. I , urr nlso OuLwnl~ls I<lnosikrrNo. 218, p. 3'3.

r/.

l'l~il. 'Sr:~nslxog.

1 I8

VT. Very slow tnotion

r.

'l'llo Ilytlrorlynn~~~in tllmry of I~~brivntiot~

I I!)

The tliffrrcnt,ial cq~tnt.iot~s(:rrrpit~g of motmion, cqns. (6.1),can be fitrl,hrr simplifier1 for the case ~ttttlcrconsitlcration. T11c cqu:~tionfor tllc y-tlireclion can be ornittctl altoget.llcr bccn~lscthe component v is very small with respect t o u . 1711rt,hcr,irr t l ~ c cqltnt.io~l l'nr 1,110 x-(lirrct.ion i)21c/a3:2 ca.11 I)c r~cglcct,ctlwith rcspocl, 1.0 a21~/r??/2, be+ c:alrsc the formrr is sn~nllcr t.ll;l.rltllc lnt,t,cr by n h e t o r o l t,lle ortlcr (h/1)2.' 1 ' 1 1 ~ prcssnrc tlist,ribution t n ~ ~ ssnl.isfy 1,llo contlition t,hnt p .r= I),, a t bot.lt etrtls of tjllc slipl~cr. t, Comp:trc>rl wil.lt 1,hc rase or flow bct,weo~l~)nmllol slitling walls, t l ~ c pressure gr:~rlienl~ in l,llc tlirrc:I.ion of ~ n o l ~ i o ap/ax, is no longer const,ant, but the very small prcssurc n, grntlic-nt, in t . 1 1 ~ ?/-diroc:t.ioncan I)c nrglrrt.rt1. Wit,ll t.11cscsitnplificntions the tliffrrrr~t,inl rq~tnI,ions (6.3) rt:tlucc t.o

'I'IIIIS tllc mass flow is known JVIICII t.11~ shn.po of the wctlgc is given as I.llo f~lnrl.iol~: t : ) . It ( Eqn. (0.19) gives t l l ~ prcssnrc gmdient., ant1 eqtl. (6.20) i v e s tllc prcssurc tlist,ril~~tt,iol~ ovrr t Ilc slipl~cr.

wllit:Ir n.ppcar in cqn. (0.20) tlcpcntl otlly on t,l~c g~ornct~ricnl~ a l ) of'I,l~e sl c gt1.1)I > r l . \ v r ~ t ~ t,ltc slitlrr nntl I'Itn plane. 'l'llc-ir rn.l,io
c (2) = hl (x)/b2(x)

(6.23)

nntl i,hc ccl\~:~t.inn cont.innii.y in tliffcro~l~ial of form can bc rcplnccd by t l ~ e contlit,ion tll:~tt.11~ volntnc of flow in evcry scct,iot~ mrtst be constnnt:

wllicl~ I l n s t,llc tlimcnsiorl of n 1cngl.lr plnys ntl imporl,a~~t, pnrt in l,lrc bllrory of I~~bricnt,ion; value for the wholc cl~ntrncl, it.8

is sometimes callctl thc cknrrrclerislic. 1hick)lesa. IVit.11 it.% ni(l, t,llc crl~latiot~ c.r)rlof' tinuity (0.21) cnn I>c contractccl t o q =; U l I , ((;.25)
frot~~ ~vllichit,s ~)llysirnl int,crprct.i~t,ion cvitlctlt. Tlre prcssrlrc can now be n.ril.t.ctl is

nntl the pressarc gratlictlt. I)econ~cs

wl~c-re = tlp/(lx dcnotcs t.l\r I,rcssllrt' gmclir,nt,, wlrinh must I)c tlet,crn~inccl s11n11 71' in n wn.y as 1.0 s ~ l ~ i a tllc con1.inuit.y crll~nlion(6.16), ntltl t,Ilc l ~ o l ~ n t l a r y fy c*orltlilions for prrsslcrc. I ttsc,rt irlg (6.18) int,o (6.10) we lirst ok)t,ait~

wl~icllsllows t h a t tOie prcssnre llns :I mnximllm or n ntiniln~itn nt n 1)lncn ~vlloro t,llc cha.nnel t,llic:ltncss is cq~lnlt o its cl~nrnoLorist.icvalrtt:, Ir. = 11. Oft,cn i t is tlrsir:~blcto mnintn.it~ 11osit~ivc n cscrss of' prcssore p - pO, R.II~Il l ~ c prcccding cqunt.ion can be 11scr1 t,o tlrrivc the co~ltlition fhr it,. Ass~tntitlg 1.h:~t p - po = 0 at, 3: -- 0 nntl l.llni, the l . l ~ i t : l z ~ ~is splncctl aL z -- z,,, we nl~tsl. I1 ~ ~ Ilnvo It (z) > II for 0

or, s o l v i ~ ~ g 71': Cot.

< z < x,,, itnplyillg

2)'

>0

h(r)<IIforx,,<x<l,irn~~lyingp'<O.
r ,

(6.28)

I l ~ r s crot~(lit,iot~s I,(> a. wc(lgc.lil~(;sl1:111(: lrn(1 wlti(.l~is twttv(*rg~~nI. l , l ~ r *tIirt~~~t.iot~ it1 or flow :~ntlwl~i(:Itnclnrits lo(:nl I~nt,lt1)11sil,ivc at)({ ncg;~t,ivc gr1111it~nI~ tl/t/~l.r. ~ I I I - f ; S II t l c p r n ~ l s o nttIlc shnpe of tile wl~olc ch;rnncl, t.l~c tlirccl'ion of I.llc prcssttrr gr:~tlit,t~l, a t n scct,ion cannot bc tlct,crmir~ctl from tlhltlz n tllc sc>ct,iott L :~lonc unlilzc: in pot,cnti:iI flow. In lrl1ecase of n wetlge will1 Ilat fnccs for wllich IL(z) -- O(n ---:P), I V I I ~ I ./L an(l rY ~ are cor~sl,n.tlt.s, Fig. 6.4, we obl.nin finnlly RCC

120

VI. Vcry ulow motion

and for the pressure distribution


p ( x ) = po

+ G,LL~-----. a-1) h2(2

2 (I-z)

(6.29)

The relations hecome somewhat simpler if the shape of the channel is described by t,he gap widths hl and h, a t inlet and exit, respect,ively, see Fig. 6.4. 'The cll:ir:lct,erist,ic witlt,h now becomes equal t o the harmonic mean

I f we compare t,his rcslllt with t . l ~ afor crccpitlg nlotioll p:lst, n sphcro in cclt~. t (6.71)), we l~ot,iceh a t in the case of t.lle slipper the pressure tlifTcretlec is grcatrr I I n~ f:rct,or t ( l l l ~ , , , )Since Ilh,,, is of thc order of 500 t.o 1000 (1 = 4, A,, =x 0.004 to 0.00s i l l ) . ~. t,lle prevailing prt:ss~~rcs seen to assume vcry large v a l ~ ~ e s -'l'hc occll~.l.c?tlc~c: are 1. of s ~ ~ high ~pressnrcs it1 slo\v viscous motion is a ~)oc.~~linr c l prol)crt,y of 1.110 t,,yl)(: of flo\v ( * ~ ~ r o t ~ t ~i lIl ~l~ ~ r ) rtil( : : ~ t ~ i o, l~ (~H:uno ~ ~ I I I Ii t:f is t~t*(!op~ix~!(l l,Itc: : I I I ~ C I Ii~~.ttt<xl ~ lo At, t ~ > . I II:II, ~~ I)c4,wccn Lhc two solitl snrfhccs is a n esscnt,inl feature of t llc flo\v. The prcsstlrc nrirl velocit,y tlistriltlltiorl, ant1 t,lle shape of st roamlir~rsfor t.hc c:lsr or a ~)ln,tlc slipper arc give11i t 1 Fig. 6.4. It, will I)c nol,icc:tl (.II:L~. I~:~c:k-llow occ:lll.s i l l t,Ilc rcgion of prcssllrc rise ncnr t h c wall a t rest,, just, a s w:is t.11~ case wiI.11 t.11~ r:h:~r~nel in Pig. 5.2, wllen t,Ilc prcs.rr~rc incrcasc~din Lllc tlircct,io~~ \vall nlot.io11. \V. Il'rocsscl of 151 calcl~lat~etl pressure distribution ant1 t,hrrlst. srlpport.rtl hy a slipl)rr of fil~ile t,hc width as well as by a spherical slipper and cor~firmcd t,hcsc calculat,iorls by c x p c r i m r ~ ~ t , . 111 many cases whcn the wiclt,h of t,he slipper is finil,c, t,11cnssulnpt,iorl mntlc earlier that, the flow is one-dimensional is iri~ufficicnt~, atltl t,hc cxist,cncc of n. con~l)one~lt, 111 ill the z-tlirec:l,ion must, bc t.altcn into a ~ c o ~ l n t ; Ilcrc z is pnrprntlio~rlnr t I I O plnr~c 1.0 of the sltct,ch i l l Fig. 6.4. 'l'hc etlrrat,iot~ ~)rcccdir~g ((i.19) n u ~ s t cqn. rlow \ I ~ Lsl~l>ljlrrncnt,etl by
h

and the condition for positive pressure excess, eqn. (6.28), now requires t h a t t,lle channel should be convergent. I n this notation, t h e pressure tlistribution is given by

and the result.ant of the pressure forces can be con~puteclby int,egration, when we ol)t,ain

with k . h,/h,. The resr~lt~ant the sllczring stresses can be c a l c ~ ~ l a t ~ c ta similar = of in l manner:
1

and the cquat,ion of continuity beco~ncs

It is int,erestirlg to note

[el t h a t the resultant pressure force possesses a maximunl for k = 2.2 approximately, when its valrle is

Tl~c corfficicnt of frict,ion F / P is propor16onal to hz/Z and can be mado very small. The coordi~lat,esof the centre of pressure, x,, can be shown t,o be equal to

For srnall angles of inclirlat.ion between block and .klidc (k w I ) , tile pressure distrih ~ ~ t i ofrom cqn. (6.29) is nearly parabolic, the charact,erist.ic thic:ltness ant1 cent,re rl of prcsssnre k)cirljT. very nearly a t z = 1 t . Pni,t,ing hm = h(4 1) we cnn find t h a t t h e prcssllrc tli[l:ronce 1)ccomcs

In Lhc cnsc of a jo11rr1a1 ant1 1tc:lrirlg l.lloro n11ls1Ito oc:c:t~~~l,ricil.y I)cl,wt:c~~~ i t 1 (.II(:III ortlt:r 1.0 c r c : ~ ta ~ ~ wctlgc of vnri:rl)lc hoigllt, whic:h is c s ~ c ~ ~ I ifi :II lt l l r ~ ~ sis. t,o , ~ l createtl. l'hc rclcvant t l ~ c o r g I)ascd on t h e prccctlitlg principles, as well ns oil exnct, , two-dimensional t,l~eory,was developed in great, dct,ail by A. Somrnerfelcl [lG], L. Guembel [6] and G. Vogelpolil 1-20,211. Figure 6.5 shoivs Lhe prcssnrc distribut.io11 in the narrow gap between jonrnal and bearing; it possesses a vcry pronounced maximum nen,r t o the narrowest section of the I~lbricntiori wctlgc. Jlenoc, a signif r:~nt, cont.ribntion to thc loatl-bearing capncity is made by t h a t portion of tOle gap wllic:h is co~l,~iergent the direct,ion of rotation of t,he journal. Thc rcsnlt,nnt of the in pressure forces in t,his dist,ribntion balances t,hc load on t . 1 1 ~ bearing. I t has also been

Nrlmrritaal rxnmplr: U = 10 mlscc; ,r = 0 04 kg/m ser: 1 = 0 1 m ; a = 2 1 = 0 2 m; h, = 0.2 mm. FI~rlrr (1/(2a-1) = 1 30 N/1n2; p , = 1.33 x 5002 0 30 Ml'n ( = :1 3 hnr). jc

122

VI. Very low tnotion

d. The Hrle-Shnw flow

12.7

ext.endc(l t,o i n c l ~ ~ dh e case of bearings witah finite width [ I , $1, when it. was f o u n d tc t h a t t h e decrease in t,llrust s r ~ p p o r t e dby sllrh a hearing is very corlsidernble d u e t o t h e sitlewisc decrease in t,he pressure. Most theoretical calculations have been conduct,cd under t,Ile xssumpt,ion of const,ant viscosity. Tn reality h e a t is evolved tshroogh friction a n d t,he t e m p e r a t u r e of t , l ~ c luhricating oil is increased. Since t h e viscosit,y of oil tlccreascs ral)itlly wit,h incrri~singt,c:tnpcrat,nre (Tal)lc 1.2), t h e t,hrust also d r c r m s r s grc:nt,ly. 111 rnorr rcc:c.lit. t,ilncs 1'. N a h m e [I01 extcr~tlcrlt,hc I ~ ~ d r o t l y n n r n i c tltrory of' lubrication t.o inclrltfe t , l ~ c cffrct, of t.ltc varint.ion of viscosit,y wit,ll t,?rnperat.rlrc ( c f . Chap. XI1).

Here R, and Uc donote, respectively, the radit~sand the peripheral relocit,y of the concentric journal (e = 0 ) and d ia the width of the gap. vortices After the onset of instability, the flow in tho gap developn rrgulnrly spaced, ccll~llnr 'l'l~e axes of t,hesc vortireu coincide \\sit11 the which n.ltcrnnhly rotat,e in opposite dirertion~. circumferential direction, ns shown achemat.irnlly in Pigu. 17.32 nnd in tlle photograp11 of Fig. 17.30. In n certain rnnge of Taylor nr~nibers,the flow in the Taylor vortice~ remainn Iaminnr. l'rnnuition t,o tr~rbr~lent ocrnrs a t value^ of the Taylor nuntbcr wl~icllc,onrriderahly oxrcrcl flow the lilnit, of rrt,ahility. Tho tl~rco rcgi~ncwof (low (ns will be rrprnl.rrl in See. XVIIf n ~ ~ irt l I'ig. i 17.04) nre characterized as follo\i.s:
41.3

<

T
T T

< 41.3 < 400 > 400

Inlninar Cor~ot,to flow; Inininnr flow witahi:nll~~lnr 'l'nylor vort.irm; t,nrb~~lcr~L Ilow.

\Vllcli the flow becomea nnat,ablc, the torqne arli11g O tho rot,at.ing cylinder inrrrancu s I . r r ~ ~ l y , n t~rca~tsc? kinetic energy nhrerl in tl~t. the uccontlnry flow ~ t r t ~he c.on~pen~at.etl work. st by The sanie flow phenomena, generally speaking, oocrlr when t l ~ e hearing is londed nnd 1,l1c gap wiclt,h vnrie~ circl~mferentinlly,bnt, t.11~dct.nila of t . 1 flow bcro~ncmore ronlplrx. At,tr~npts ~ Ilnvc lwon rnndc t,o cnlct~lnt,c tttrbl~lcntllow in a gap of n bonril~gwit,l~t.hr rritl of I'r1111tlt,l'~ tho mixing lengtl~ [Chap. XIX, eqn. (19.7)1. 'rho set of t,hese prol)lelns hnu at,t.mckeda wide circle of invr,stigntorn, utlch a8 I). P. Wilrork [19]. V. N. Co~i~l~nntirleuc~~41. E. A . Sait)el nntl N. A. 12, 3, hlnckrn 114. 151 have writton two gcncr~ila.cror~nte t,hat ront.nin ntlrnwotls litcrnt,ttrr rrfrrcnrr~.

d. Tllc Ilcle-Shnw flow


At~ot~hcr rr~nnrkn.l)lc sollti.ion of t.ho t f l ~ r c c - t l i ~ n c n s i oc i~ln ln l ~ i o n s c r r r p i n g ~l ~ of moI.ion, eqns. (0.3) a n d (6.4), can b c obt,ninctl for (.lie t:nsc of flow botr\vcc~lt w o parnllrl f l a t walls separated b y a small tlist,ance 2h. I f a cylintlrical body of n.rbit,r:~ry cross-sect,ion is inserted brtwccn t h e t w o plates a t rigllt, angles s o t.hat i t conlplclcly fills t.11~ space bctwecn t l l c ~ n ,t h e resulting pilttcrn of st,rc::~~nlines idcnticnl wit811 is 1,ltnt in potential flow a b o u t t,he anme sllapu. 11. S. Jlclo-Shnw [7] nrrc:tl t.l~iutrlct;lloil t o o b t a i n e x p ~ r i m c n t ~ n la t t e r n s of strenn~lirlcs in p o t c l ~ t i a lflow about. : ~ r l ~ i t , r a r y p botlies. It is easy t o prove t h a t t h e solr~t~ion crccpirig rnot.ion f r o ~ n~ ( ~ I I s . for (6.3) nntl (6.4) possosscs t h e salnc st,rrn.mlincs n.s t h e corrt:sporltling ~)ot.crtt~ial flow. W e select a syst.cm o f coortlinntcs wit,It its origin in 1,111: ccrtt,rc: I)t:t\vc:c~lt t,ltc? t,wo plnt.cs, a n d m a k e t h e x, y-plnnc pnrallcl t o tltc pli~t,cs, t.lle z-axis I)cing p c r p o n ( l i r ~ ~ l : ~ r L t,l~c:m. T h e body is i~sstlmctlt o I)e plncc(l in a strcnrn of volocil,y (J,, ~):II.:III(:I o 1.0 l,l~o x-axis. A t a lnrgc dist,:~ncc f'rotn t h e I)otly tllc vrlocil.y t l i s t . r i l , ~ ~ t . iis ~ ~ o ~x~r:~l,olic:, ns in 1,110 ntot,iotl in a rct~f,:~.ngnl:~r t:l~:~nrtcl l ~ i a lw:ls c:otisitlcc.ocl in St:c:t io11 V.I . w ~ I Irncc

M'ith largo velocities n.ntl higli l . r ~ n p c r n t ~ t ~ r r s viscosit,y). t . 1 1 ~ c ( l ~ ~ c e t l (low r 1X.eynoltls r ~ r ~ m l R* r ~ c from cqn. (fi.14) en11 ansllmo vnlum ncnr o r cxc:ceding 11nity. 'Vlii~means t , l ~ n ittcr1.i:~forccs bccornc c o m p n m ~ l ~ l c t witrll viscous forccs i ~ n t lt l ~ c v:~litlil.y of t.hc t,l~cxorytnny h c q ~ l c s t i o l ~ e t [ L is possil~lct.o irnprovo t.hc t,llcory, nntl t o c:xtrlitl i t l. t,o I~igllcr1teynol:ls rlnmbrrs, 1)y n st,cp-l)y-st,cp procctlnre. 'I'llo neglncLc:tl i r ~ c r t ~ i n t,crnis c:n.n Gc cxlcula.tctl f r o n ~t,llc first npproximatiort anti i ~ l t ~ r o t l ~ its c ~ l ~ c i:xl.rrr)nl forcrs s o t.Ilat, R secon(1 :~pproxi~nnt,ioll obt.nine11. 'l'l~is ~ ~ r o c c d n r c is corrt:spon(ls t,o Osrc~n'simprovctl solut,ioll for t , l ~ r llow ~tnst, sp11rl.c. SIICII : ~ l r . ~ ~ l a t ~ i o n s O1)(x:11 n c II~V prrfnrrnctl by W. l(~hlcr1. 181, w11o fonnrl L I I ; L ~ t.hc iltc?rtSi;tcorrcct.ions in t,hr cn.sr of n ~)ln,tln slipper o r rirc.t~larI)rnrit~g o n o t exccctl 10 per cent,. of I.11c: s o l ~ ~ t . i o n n t l r r d ~r t*onsitlrrn.tjon f i x values of I I t,o R * ~ 5, n11proxim:~Ccly.A c:omr)nrison bot.wocn t,l~corct.ical nntl cxprrirncttt.n,lrcst11t.sis c:or~t,ninctl :I boolc I)y (>. Vogrlpohl [22J, nntl irr in a n rnrlier pn.pcr 1211.

Tllrblllrnre. 'l'lrr tno~lri'nt.cnilcnry to incrrnsc~1l1r lonrls nnd I11~rlc.r also t l ~ i ?[~rripl~rsnl l~as Ir(1 10 n si1,11nI,ir)11 \ v l ~ i r , l l~ l ~ r in inrrti:~forrrs that, no\vntI:ty!i occur in ,rrl~)vitic,s rjf l l l r I~ll,~.icilLi~g I,cgin to 1)lny n r l in11)ortnnI pnrt i n t.l~r fill11 1)so(!t~ss. Ulldcr rcrtnin r~oti(litions, t11e \ : I I I I ~ I ~ I (yo~lt~t,l,t! t,o ~li!rolllc!I I I I U ~ :pllf! lrtltln 1.0 ~lll'~~ll~t'11i'r. I~ lIr)\v I~~~C, Lllis As rnrly n u 1!)2.7, G . I. 'l'nylos I I R I in\.rslip:rtrrl t.hr rnsr of n brnring in \ r l ~ i r l ~ jo~~rnnl IIlc rol,nt.cs~ co~~rctlt.rir:~llyt.ltr I~r~slting that 1 l ~ lrut)ricnt.ing gal) in one of ronrit:tnt I I ~ i r l i ~ ~ r s s . in so 'rllr i l ~ s ~ n 0 i l"nil 1I1c1rnnsiIio11 t I I ~ I I I I I I ~ iaC govcr~~r(l t l ~ ( l i ~ n r ~ ~ s i o 'l'nylor snt~rnI>er i~y to I ~ by r ~~lrs .

A s o l ~ ~ t . i o r ~cclrls. (6.3) nntl (6.4) c:ntt of


u = 7 1 t l y

[I(:

wril,t,c:~~L S : ~

( n:)
-

,,

124

VI.

Very slow motion t o I:~rger Reynolds numbers b y succcssivo approximnt,ion, a s mentioned prcvionsly. IIowevcr, in all cases t h e calculations become s o complicated t h a t i t is n o t practicable t o carry o u t more t h a n one s t e p i n t h e approximation. F o r this reason i t is n o t possil)lo t o reach tltc rc:gion of motlcrntc Reynolds nr~lrrbcrsf r o m this tlircctiol~. , , all int,cnts a n d purposes t h e region of moderate R e ~ n o l d sn i l m h e r ~in whic:h .lo 1,110 in(:rl,i:~ tincl viscoi~sfor(:(:s I L ~ Oof t ~ o r ~ t p ~ ~ ~I rI :I ~ II ~ ~l ~( I! ~ I ~ IlI l I~ r o ~ ~I,II(! l lia:l~l ~ l ~ J ~ l I ~ ~ ~o~ of flow 11a.sn o t been cxtcnsivcly investigntcd b y analytic means. I t is, t.hercforc, t h e more useful t o h a v e t h e possibility of integrating t h c Navicr-Stokes c q t ~ a t i o nfor t,he other limiting casc of very large Rcynolds numbers. , '1'11~swe a r c lctl t o tlre boltntlary-layer thco1.y which will form t h e subjcc.1 of t h o lollowing chapters.

of tlto t,wo-tli~nt~~tsionnl potential flow p a s t t h e g i v r n body. Tl111s ?I,, v , a n d p , satisfy t h o equat.ions

J'irst we not,ioc all OIICO from 1.11~o I u t , i ~ n s (6.39) t l ~ a 1.11~ q r ~ a t ~ i o n c o n t i n ~ l i t ya n d t c of t,he cquntion of motion in l l ~ z-tlircction a r e ~at~infietf.h e fact, t-hat t h e cqnat,ions of e T ~not.ion t h e z - a n d ?/-directions a r e also satisfied follows frorn tllc p o t e r ~ t i a character in l of ?I,, a n d v,,. T h e functions ?I,, a n d v , satisfy t h e condition of irrotationality

s o tlrat t h e pot.cntin1 cqrlnt,ions

V 27 1 ,

= 0 and

V 2v ,

= 0, where

V 2 = a2/i3z2

+
Fig. 6.6. IJcle-Shew flo~v past circ~~lnr cylinder nt R* 4, s f k r Itic.gcln [I:$]

iI2/B?p2,a r e sa1,isfied.

'I'lte first t\vo cqnnt.ions (6.3) r e d ~ ~ t,o a p / a z ce / L a2u/az2 ancl ap/a?j = /L a 2 v / a z 2 ; t.11r.y nrc, howcvt:r, sat,isfied, a s seen fro111 C(]IIS.(0.39). T h u s C ~ I I S . (0.39) reprosent a solt~t.ion t.hn ccluations for creoping mol.ion. 0 1 1 t h e ot,l~cr of Itantl Llte flow rcprcsentctl 1)y rclns. (6.39) has t h e s a m e streamlines a s potential flow al)out tlte botly, n.11~1h e t st.rcamlir~csfor all parnllcl layers z = const a r c congruent. 'The condition of n o slip at. t h e pla.1.c~ = f h is seen t,o b e satisfied b y e q n . (6.39), b u t t h e contlition z of n o slip a t t h e sr~rfacc: t,he body is n o t sat,isfied. of 'I'ltr ml.io of incrt,i:~ viscorls forces ill JTele-Shaw motion, just a s i n t h e casc t,o ~ rctlucctl Itcyr~oldsn u m b e r of t,ltc n~ot.ionof Irtl)ricat,ing oil, is g i v c : ~1)y t.11~

Referencer [I] Bauer, K.: Einfluss der endlichen Breite des (:leitlngcrs nr~fTrngfiihigkeit uncl IIeibr~ng. Forschg. 1ng.-Wes. 14, 48-02 (1943). 121 Constnntinescu. V.N.:Analynia of bearings oprmting in trtrl)ulrnt rcgin~e.'l'rn~~s. i\SI\lE, Seriaq D, J. Ilnsic Eng. 84, 130-151 (l!)(i2). [3] Constnntinescu, V.N.: On the influence of inertin forces in tnrbulent and Inn~innrxelfacting films. Trans. ASME, Series F, J. 1,llbricntion Technolo~y92, 47:1--481 (1970). [4] Constantinescu, V.N.: On gaa lubricatio~lin turbulent regin~e.Trans. ASMI':, Series 11, J. Basic Eng. 86, 475-482 (1964). [ R ] Frossel, U . lteibl~ngs~videratnltd Trngkrnft c i n ~ Gleitncli1111es ': r~nrl s encllichrr Brrile. Po~.scIig. 111g.-Wcs.13, 65--75 (1042). [GI Giintbel, L., and Everling, 13.: Ileibur~g uttd Sclin~ierut~g Mnscl~incnbnu.13crli11,1025. in1 [7] flole-Shnw, H.S.: Invest,igntio~tof thc nntr~rc surfncc renist.nncc of wntar nntl of st,ron~n of motio~~ nndcr ccrtnin ex~ierir~tcntnl contlitions. ' ~ ' ~ o I I AI.R ~ . I I Nnv. Arch. X I , 25 (IA!)H); aco also Nnture 58, 34 (1898) tint1 Proc. Roy. Innl. 16. 40 (1899). (81 Knhlert, W.: Dcr Einllusx cler l'rlgl~eit.~ltrlfle der Irydrotly~~a~~~iscl~etl bei Schtniertnittolthcorie. Uius. Brnunschweig 1947; 1ng.-Arc.11.16, 321 -342 (1948). [9] Michell, A.G.M.: Z. Mnth. 11. Phys. 52, S. 123 (1905); seealso Ostwald's IClnssiker No. 218. (101 Nnltt~~e, Beitrrigc zur I~ydrodynnn~iuclte~t F.: l'hcorio der I,agcrrcibrn~g. 1ng.-Arch. 11, 191-200 11940). --r[I I] Oseen, C. W.: Uber die Stokcs'sche Forrnel und iiher einc verwnndte Aufgnbc in der Hydrodynamik. Ark. f. Math. Astron. och Fys. 6, No. 29 (1!110). [I21 Pmndtl, I,.: The mechnnics of viscous fluids. In W. F. Ilurand: Aerodynnn~ic Theory I l l , 34-208 (1035). [I31 R,iegels, F.: Zltr Kritilc des Hele-Shnw-Vcrsucl~es. Diss. Gnttingen 1038; ZAMM 18, 05- 106 (1933). 1141 $nib&, E.A., and Mncken, N.A.: The fluid mecl~anicsof Inbricntion. Annual Review of Fluid Mech. (M. Van Dyke, ed.) 5, 185-212 (1973). [IR] Snibel, E.A., nnd Mnoken. N.A.: Non-lnmirmr bchnvior in bcnrings. Critic-nl review of tlte li(.rrnt,~~rr. l'mnx. ASMI(:, Scric~F, .I. I,~lliricntinn'I'ccl~r~oloay 174---I81 (1974). 96,
\ -

wl~c-re1, tlcnot,rs a n11amat.c:ristit: l i r ~ c a rtlilr~c.nsio~~ l.ltc hotly in t.l~cR., ?/-1tlatlc. of If R * c:sc~ettls unit,y t,hc inertia terms I)cc:o~ne considcmlilc nntl t h e motion tlcvint.rs frorn 1 . 1 1 ~sinrplc s o l t ~ l ~ i o(6.39). n

'1'11~ solt~t.iorlgiven b y cqn. (6.30) can b c itnprovctl in t h e s a m e mnnncr a s Stolcc~s'ssolu~,iorr o r a sphere o r t.hc solut,ion for very slow flow. T h e inertia t,crtns a r c f cnlcnl:t.l.otl from t11c first approsimni.ion ant1 introdtlce;l i n t o t h e cq~lat,ionsns c!xt,rrn:rl forcrs, : ~ n t l n improved solutiort results. ?'his was carricd o u t I)y F. Riegels a 1181 for t-11c casc of Tfclc-Sl~nw flow past, a circrllar rylindsr.
F o r R * > 1 t l ~ cst.rt:nmlinos in t.11~ various layers pnrallcl t o t.l~c~ v a l l scease t o l)c c o n g n ~ c n l . .T l ~ c slow p;~rt,iclesnear t,l~ct ~ v oplat,cs a r e tlefleclcd m o r e b y t,l~o 1)l.csrnc:r of (.he hotly t11n.n i,llc fast,cr particlcfi near tllc ccnt.rc. T h i s causes t'hc s t ~ r c a n ~ l i ~t.os n.pprn.r s o m c w l ~ n tblurrrtl a.rltl t,hc phcnomcnon is m o r e pronounced tr at, t.ltr rcnr of l f l ~ c botly t h a n in fronl, of it,, Fig. G.6. S o l t ~ t i o l ~ s tlrr case of cnrccping motion a r e inherently restricted t o very small in Rryrtoltls 1~1tni1)rrs111 prineiplr i t is possiblr t o extend t h e ficltl of applicat,ion

[I01 Snll~lnPrfclil, Z r ~ rl ~ ~ d r o r l ~ ~ ~ ; t l n i s'l'ltcorio (lor Scbnliern~itt~clrcib~~t~g. 11.: r.he,~ Z. Met.11.. U . I'hYsilr $0, (1!)04); also 0sta.nltl's l i l i r ~ ~ i No. r21R, 11. 108, nntl: ~ u r T I l r o r i c d c r !)7 k~ Schmlcrn~iit.c!lrribrl~)R Tochn. Pl~ycl2. 58 (1!)21): also Onl~valtl'~ Z. I<l:tss~ker No. 218. p. 181. 1171 stokes, (:.(:.: ()I\ Lhe elrcct of int,ernnl frict.io~l l l ~ ~ i tOII t l ~ niotion of prlldlllrlln~ of ls r 1"nn~. cnttllir, l>l~il, Snc. 9, l'nrt, I I, 8 - lO(\ (1851) i>r (:011. J'nllr~fl1 1 1 , 55. (181 : ~ r l o r .(2.1.: StnLilit.y of n viscous l i q ~ ~ in>nlainrrl bct,wcctl two r o t , n t i ~ ~ g (l rylil~(lclr. Phil. I rnnn. 2223, 281)-2!)3 (1923). [lo] wilcock, 1). Y.: 'l'llrl)rllcncr ill high-spcrd jot~rnnl bmriogs. 'I'rnt~s. rZSM15 72. 8% (l('50). [20] Vogelpohl, G . : Ijcitrlige zor I<cnnt,tlistlrr Oleitlagerreibu~rg. l ~ ~ - ~ o r s r l r ~ ~ ~ l (1'337). t V 380 ~ s l r d (211 Vogel~>ohl, ~ h t ~ l i r h k c i t n l ) o z i e I ) tlt!r ~(~ l cci~ll: ~ ~ r r r r i h r ~ ~ ~ g 0.: ~~ :~ t rind ~lntoro 1tril)llngsgVrnzc. Z. \'I11 91, 370 (1949). [22] \.ogelpolll, (:.: I3~t~irImsicl1rrc C:lcitlagcr. Ilcrrcl1111111~a\~rrInllrrnl < o ~ ~ a t . r ~ ~ k t . i o ~ ~ fiir nnrl Hetriel). Vol. I , Springer-\'erl;~g, 211tl. ~(1..I3crlit1, 1007.

Part B. Lanlinar bounclary layers

Boundary-layer equations for t w o - d i ~ n e n s i o ~ ~ d incon~l~rcssil,le flow; bounclary layer on a plate


n.

I ) r r i v n t i o ~ ~l I t o ~ ~ ~ ~ t l n r ~ -r l l ~ t r r i o l ~for t \ v ~ - d i ~ ~ t t - ~flowi ~ ~ ~ n l o t a y nt u ~s

IVc tlow ]wot:t:rtl Lo c:x:~rnir~e sccorltl 1itnit.ing c n s r , tr:~tnclyt.l1:1I, of v e r y stnnll 1.11~ visc:osil.y o r vcr.y l a r g e I t e y r ~ o l t l snrlm1)cr. A n i n ~ l ) o r l n . corrt~ril)ut~iono (.Ire scit:ncc: ~~t t of llrritl rnotion w a s ~ n n ~ by I,. 1'mrrtlt.l [21] in 1904 w l ~ c r ~ clnrifit:tl t,l~t: lc Irc csst~tll.i:tl i ~ i l l r ~ r ~ ~ rvc s ~ o s i t ~itr f I o \ v ~8r.L Iriglr Ibc~rnoltls r ~ r ~ n ~ b n r ~ t l slrowrtl I~o\r,t l r r of i y rrs N:~vicr-St,oltrs cclrtn(iorrs col~lcl bo siml~lifictl 1.0 yinltl npproxitrint,r s o l ~ r t , i o n sfor (I~is s c . \Ye s h a l l c x p l n i n t h r s c sirnplilicat.ions wit,h t , l ~ o rn nit1 of a n :crgn~llcnt. l ~ i r l r w [ w r s r r v e s tlrc: p l ~ y s i c a lp i c t , r ~ r co f t . 1 1 ~p l ~ r n o r n c r r o n ,nntl it, will b e rccnllctl t , l ~ : ~ltl i Ilrc 1)11ll< f t.llr flui(l ir~c?rt.i;to r r r s prctloniirr:~t.r, tlrn i ~ i f l ~ l c . ~ ~ t vo s e o ~ l s o f of : i forc(>s b e i n g V;I11is11iri~Iyt ~ i n l l . s

. 7.1.

Ilo~~r~tlnry-I;~yc.r along n wall Ilow

Il'or I,Ir(: S;II<Cof sit~rl)liciI.y w e s l ~ n l lc.o~isitloc.I,a~n-tli~~lc~r~sio~l:rI :I, l l ~ ~ i t l flo~r,01' \villr v r r y SIII~LII viseosil,y t ~ l ) o ~ :L l ,(~ylit~(It.it~;r,l of sl(~rt(It*r~ t Llo(ly (~ross-sct:lo t ~ J t 3 i K . 7. I . i , \Vit.h t,hc excel)l.ion of tsl~cimmctlial.c ~ ~ c ~ i g l r l ~ o ~ l r l ~t,Ir(: t l r ~ r f ; l c ~(.Ire vc:lot.ilic:s of o o s r, ilro of l , l ~ c ortlcr o f t.lto frcn-st.rcnrn vclorit.y, V , ;l,nd t,lrc p n t . l o r t ~of st,rc:~n~litrc.s ~ ~ t l n t,llc vcloc:itjy tlisl~ribr~t.ior~ tlcvinl.c o r ~ l yslig11t.l~ o r n t , l ~ o s c t 1 frict.ionlrss ( ~ l o l , r t ~ t , i : ~ l ) h i flow. Jlo\vcvc:r, tlct,nilrtl invt~sI,ign.t.iotrsc v r n l I,llrlL, r ~ r ~ l i l itlrl ~ l o t , c ~ ~ ~Ill.o ~ v .111(: f l t r i t l r inl tloc?s 1106 slitlc o v e r t,hc wall, i)nt, : t d l ~ e r r s1.0 it. 'l'l~c t,rnnsil.iotr liom z e r o vt.loc~il.\. tit. I.II(* I\,ILII 1.0 t r l ~ c ~ t l lt ~ r ~ ~ g t r i I . ~111,l ( : f t ( SOIIIC tIisl,nrr(-~fro111 it, t,:~l{tssl)lt~t!ci t 1 ;L v r r J r t,11i11

rq~tnt,ions t\vo.ditnrnuiot~nI for flow; ho~lndarylnyer on n plate 128 V I I . I3011nclnry-layer layer, t.hc so-cnllctl borrnclary layer. 111Lllis manncr there are two regions t o consitlcr, r v r n if 1,llo tlivision t)ct,wc.cn t,hcm is not very sharp: 1. A vcry tllir~ lnyrr i r ~the itnmct1i:~tencighbourl~oodof the body in which t,lrc vrlocit,y grn.tlicnt normal t,o t.hc wall, a?~/r?y, very largc (hni~nrlrr~?/ is Lqer). 111 t.11isrrgiol~ t,llr vrry small viscosiLy /L of 131~c r ~ i t lcxcr1,s :rtl rssc:trI,i:~linfl~rcnc.(: fl i l l so f:~.r :LS 1 . 1 1 ~ sI~c:aring sI.rcss t l ~ ( i ) ~ / i )I y I : L ~ I ) :ISSIIIIIO I:~rgt:V:LIIICH.
- 7

a. Drrivnliot~of bo~tnclnry-lnyc,r rq~tnlions flow along n Il:~tplntr for

129

2. l u t.l~o rctn:l.initlg rrgiorl no s~tclr1:tt.g~ vc:locity gratlict~k occur nrltl 1.l1ci~~flrrrrlcc ~f viscosil,,v is tlnitnporL:tt~t,. I n t.l~is rrgion t.Irc flow is frict,ior~loss arrtl pot.ont,iaI.

.I .

gcncml it, is possible t,o st,at.c {.hat the Ll~icltnessof tlrc bonndary layer int,rr;tscs wit.11viseosit,y, or, more generally, Lhat, it decreases as the Reynolds rrrimbcr incrensrs. It. W:LS SCCII fronl scvcrnl cx:lct sol~lt~ions t,lle Navicr-St,olzcs cqrrnt3iorls of I)r(*ser~tcd C11n.p.V t h a t t,ltc bonntlary-lnycr thickness is proportional to the sqriarc in rool, ol' Iti~ic:tn:tl,icvisoosit,y : 6-fi.
111

It(: 11onr1cI;rry (:ol~tIit,iol~s c : :tl)s(~~r(:c slip 11et,~(:r11 ar of 111~: fl~rici :III(I t . 1 1 ~ \v:tIl, ~ i . c. rc :-_ 0 for =- 0, ;lntl 11, -- (1 Ihr ?J ->m. 1 1

\\'llcr~ malcir~gt.l~c si~n~)lific:~Lions inl.rodrrcrti into I.lre Nnvicr-St.ol;ns eqnnt.ior~s t,o I)c it, is nssrrtnrcl t.l~at, l,l~is Lhickncss is vcsry srnall cornl)nretl wit11 a sl.ill ~~nsl)eciliotl linrnr tlimc?nsiot~, of thc k~otjy: T,, 0 1, .

<

In this way tI1(. solt~tiorlrrol)tnin~tl from t h r bonntlnry-layer ~ q n n t i o n s are xsymptoflr :~rltl:tlq)ly t o vrry 1;~rgcRrynoltls 11um1)ers.
\Va slrall now proccctl to disclrss the simplification of the Navicr-Stokes rcl~tnt,ions, l ~ t lin ortlcr t.o achieve it, we s l ~ a l lmake a n estimate of the order of a rt~:~gnit,ntlc c:~,cl~ r n ~ . 111 tlrc two-tlimensional problem shown in Fig. 7.1 we of tn slr:l.li Itcgin I)y ~ s s r l t n i t ~ g wall tio be flat : ~ n d t,11c coinciding witti tho x-dirc~t~ion, t,l~c 1,-:txis 1,eing I~crl)cn(lic~llar it,. Wo now rcwritc the Navier-Stokes cqoations ill to tli~rrr~lsionlrss I;)r.m by rchrring ;tll .;clonit,ies t o t l ~ c free-st,rcnn~ vclocit,y, V, ant1 I ) j r rcfrrrir~g :III li11r:tr tlitnnnsions 1.0 a rhar:~cterist.icIcr~gt,h, of t l ~ c L, I)otly, wltiol~ is so srlccl,cd n s t.o rnsnrc t h a t the tlimcnsionlcss rlcri~at~ive, au/i)z,clocs not, cxcocd r r l ~ i t ,in ~ tlrr rrgiotl rrntlcr cor~sitlcrat,ion. ~ 'rllc pressrlre is macle dirncnsionlnss wit11 [J 1 f 2 , nntl I i n ~ r rrfcrrctl to r,/ If. lPr~rt,I~or, cxprcssiorl is tlte

Wit.l~ t,hc :~ssrnnl~t~iol~s d o ~~rc:viouslyt.llc: tlirnrt~siot~lrss ) o ~ ~ t ~ ~ l : ~ r y - l ; ~ ~ ~nn l t,hicltr~css,dll,, for w l ~ i r l\vc sl\a.ll retain t,hc syml)ol (\, is vr:ry small wit,ll rrsprct. ~ 1,o 1111it,,y, (0 I). JVr SII:III now c:st~itr~:~t~r ortl(:r of r ~ ~ : t ~ ~ ~ i t ~oft (<::I(,II: 1,c\r111l or(I(*t, 11c: ;111lt* l,l~t: t l( il 1.0 1.0 tlrop stnall tcrrns n.tltl t.ll~ts ar:l~iovr t80 1.11~:clrsirotl sitnl)lific::ct.iort of 1.hc: rclt~:~,Iiol~s. Sitlcc iJis/ar is of t,llc order 1 , wo sec from 1 . 1 1 ~cqr~:~l,ion c.or~t,intlit,y. l ~ : ~ tr(lu:111~ of l . i'v/i)?/ is of Lhc: ortlcr I, xntl Ilenco, sinc:~ t the wall v =- 0, t , l ~ ; ~ t 1,lte I)o~rlltl:r.ry a in lttyc:r 11 is of I.II(: orflcr 0. 'I'IIIIS tli)/tl:r :~n(li?2v/8x2 : ~ r c :LISO of l , l t t > or(l(:r 0. l ~ ~ ~ t . t , l ~ c . r ij2?r/iJ.rVs l111corder 1 . (TIIc of11c:rs of rnn.gl~il,tltlc of nrc s l ~ o w ri t~ cqns. (7.1) 1.0 (7.:1) 1 1111drrt.hc intlivid~ra.lt.crn~s.) \\.'c sllall, fnrtller, assume t h a t tllc no11-stcndy :~ccclcr:~t,ion ~ / a is of t,hc! sn.tnct i) l ordcr n.s l.lle convective term 1 .au/a:r wl~ichrncnns 1.ltat vory srttltlcn nrcolcrnt.iot~s, 1 s11cl1as occur in vcry lnrgc prcssltrc waves, arc cxclr~ctctl.Zn accort1:~rlcc wit,ll orlr 11rcviotrsn.rgtlrncnt sornc of the viscoris terms must be of tllr same ordcr of rnngnit,irtlr :IS t.hc irrcr1,i:t t,erms, a t lcnst i n t,l~c immctlintc ncighl)ourl~oodof t l ~ c wall, nrltl i l l s1)il.c of t,lle srn:~llt~css (,he fact,or 1/R. JIcncc sornc of t,l~csccorld deriv:tt.ivcs of of vrloci1,y nus st t~ccornrvcry Ixrgo nnar t,llc wall. I n nt:cortl:tncc with w l ~ a tw:~ss:~itl Itrforc: this can only : ~ p p l yto az7r./r?y2 ant1 i)2~~/ay2. Since t.11~ componnrrt of vc:loci~,~ p:~,rallrlt 8 0 l.11c w:dl increases frorn zero :tt. t,ltc wall 1x1 t,llt: vnl~rc: I in t211(. frc:rst.rc::~rrr arross 1.llr 1:lycr o f t,hic:lrr~csn \ire 11;tvc: (?,

<

\vl~c~rens i)v/if?j , 016 I ant1 i)2v/if?/2 l/d. If tltcsc v:tlrtes : ~ r oinscrLct1 ittt.o c:cll~s. (7.2) atrd (7.3), it. follows from the first cq~~at,iolr molion Il~at, visco~ls of the f'orrrs i t 1 t,l~c hontltl:~rylayer can bccotnc of t.hc same ortlcr of rnngl~i(,rrtl(: tllr il~c.rt,i:t :ts ii)rc.c:s o t ~ l yif t<l~o Itrynoltls nrrrnl)er is of tShe ortlcr 1/02:

tlel~~t,c:s I<~c:yrroltls~l~lnrl)or t,l~c which is assurncd very large. Urlcier these nssilr~lpt,ions, n.ntl rt:t.;lirring 1.h~: same symbols for t.11~ dirnensionlcss cltrant,iGics a s for l,lrcir tlirnrtlsior~;rl c:orlnt,crpnrts, we lravc from t.11~ PJnvicr-S1,okcs e q ~ ~ a t ~ i ofor platlo ns flow. rclrls. (3.32) or ( 4 . 4 ) :

first, cqrlat,ion, t11:lt. of cont,inuit,y, rcrnnins unnltcretl for vcry lnrgc Ilcyrloltls ntlmbcrs. T11e srcontl ccluat,ion can now be sirnj)Iifirtl Ily ttcgl(:ct.il~gi:Zi~/r?.c.2 wit,h respect t o a2i~/ay2. From t,he t,hirtl eqrtation wc rnay infrr t,hnt i)p/al/ iu of t,I~e ordcr d. The pressure incrcnse ncross the bonndnry Inycr w l ~ i c lwoultl t)c ot~t,:r,ined ~ I)y int.cgrn,t,iny!. 1 1 ~ l t.llird c~clnirt,ion, of 1.11c is ot,tlrr 02, i. t-. very st~rn.ll. 'l'lllls 1 . 1 1 ~ ) I . ~ . S S I I I . ~ \ I

.lllc .

130 VII. Boundary-layor cquntionzl for two-dinlcnsional flow: 1)orlntlnrylnyer o n a pint0

in a diroct,ion normal to t , l ~ boundary layer is pra.ct,ically c o n ~ t ~ a n it ;mo.y hc assume t. layer whore its value is determined ed equal t,o Lhat a t t.he ont,er tdge of the I~oundary by L11e frict,ionlcss flow. 'Vho pressure is snit1 t,o be "impressetl" on the borlndary layer by the out.er flow. It, may, therefore, be regarded a s a ltnown futlction a s far as boundary-layer flow is concerned, and it dcper~ds only on the coordinate z,and on time t. At the oi~t,cr ctlge of the bountlary layer the parallel component 7 becomes r cc111n.ll o t h a t in t,lle outer flow, U(x,t). Sinco there is no large velocity gradient Itore, tile viscous t.rrms in eqn. (7.2) vanish for largo vn.luca of R, and ronserlnent,ly, for the o ~ l t ~ flow we obtain rr

In tho cast: of stently /lolo t , l ~ e nl)ove syst,cm of cqr~nt~ions sim~tlifirsto

--

witslt 1.11~I~onntlnrycontli1,ion.s !/-=0: u--0,


a--.O;
?I:-m:

71:-(J(:r).

(7.121

whore again tho symbols denote dimensional quat~t,ities. I n the case of stently flow the eqr~ationis simplifictl still f ~ ~ r l h ct 1 t h n l the i r pressure dopentis only on s. We shall rlnphasize this cirrumstnnrc by writing t h r tlrrivntivc ns d p / t l ~ , that, so
[J-

11, is necessary t,o presoril)c, in ntltiit.io~l,n vr1ocit.y prolilo nt t l ~ rit~it.ialsc,cl.iot~, 1 : say, I)y i~ltlicnt~ing l ~ e J,, t , fi~nct~ion ?r(a,,,y). Tho problcrrl is t,I~lts scbrtl t,o ~.t~tll~c-r it,sclf tto the cn1t:ulstion of tho f u r t l ~ e r change of a giver1 vc1ocil.y profile wit.11n ~ i v c , ~ ~ ~)ot~cnt~ial motion. 1,Ite mat,llemnt,ical simplificntion acltievod on llto prccctling i)n,Aosis col~sitl~:v:~l,lc :

d (J

tlx

= - -

1 dp

p dz

. .

:LS for frict.ionlrss flow. 'l'llo I~ontitlnry-lnycrt.11icIzncss is very stnnll :tntl t.hr trrtnsvrrsc velocif,y cotn1)otwt1tv is very small at, tho cdgo of t,l~c boilntlarg Ia.yer ( a / I' cT/L). 'i'1111spotcnt,ia.l t~on-\risconsflow ahont Ll~cI ~ o d ynndcr considerntion i n wl~icllthe prrpcntlirl~lar vrlocit,y component, is vanishingly smnll nrnr t.he wall offers n vrry gootl npproxin~nt~ion 1.0 tho nct,nnl cxtcrnnl flow. The pressure gmdicnt, in t.he 2-tlire~t~ion t.he boundnry in I:~ycrcan I)c oht.ninod by siii11)lg npplyirlg t,llo Bcrnor~lli erjl~at.iorl (7.5%) o tho st,ronnit line a t t , l ~ c wall i t 1 t.hc Itnown po(.ent,inl flow.

I IIC ho11ttcl:u.y oontli(.ions for t . 1 1 ~rxt.rrnnl flow :Ire nrnrly tho snnic
3

it, is I,rno t,lint,,as distinct from the rase of oreoping inot,ior~,. 1 1 ~t1011-Iit1rar t c:l~nmrtrr of t,ho Nnvirr-Stoltrs oqttatio~l 11n.sbeen prrsctrvetl, hut of t,hc t.11rreorigir~nl t~cl~rnt~io~ts li)r 11, I,, nntl p of t . 1 1 ~lwo-tlirnrnsiot~iLIIlow problrtrl, ono, I,l~c cclurlt,iot~01' rnot,iott nor~nalL tho wall, 11n.s been clroppctl con~plct,ely. o Thns tho number of 11rllinc)wrrs llns I)c,rn r c d ~ ~ r c Ijy orlo. l ' l ~ c r r rcrnnirls n s?jst,cni of t.wo s i ~ r t ~ t l l ~ : ~ .t.tll~:~.l.io~~s tl ~~col~s Sor t j I l ( * t.\vo I I ~ ~ ~ I I O W I I& S ~ , I I ( I 1 . 'Iqh<:pr(:ssIlro <;c:~sotll,o IN- : I I I 11111<tto\v1t I 1 1'11t1rtiolt :111tl (:an now be oval~~nt,etl from t.l~c pol,cnI,inl flow solr~tiotlfor 1,11(? botlw n.it.11 t l ~ c nit1 of the Rcrnonlli cqunt.ion. I?r~l.t,hcr, onn viscor~st.r.r~l~ the rrr~~:sir~iny in rtlr~ntiott of mot.ion has also b c r t ~tlroppcd. I'innlly, wc shall no1.c t.hn1, t h e rst.irnnt,ion of (.It(: I ~ o l ~ t ~ t l n r y - l : ~I y (r. ~<~ I ( ~ si lsl ~I ~ I I t't111. (7.4) sl~owcdt.ltnt d 1 (7.13) 'I'l~c lirct, l h n t 0 11; , infcrrntl frorn t . 1 1 ~t:xnnt sol~t~.iotts ~ 1 1 t - N~~\:it.~'-SIolit*s of tv!~l:~tiorls, t . l ~ c r r l ~ y is conlirn~ctl. The r~cin~rricxl rocffic:irtrt., sl.ill tr~issil~g c . c l t ~ . (7.I:{), ill will t,llrn onl. l o br cc1un.l t205 for t11r rasr of n flnt, plate a t zrro it~(.i(l('~~t.(,. I I 1, \\.II~* will nionn t . I ~ t : tlislancc front ills Icntling ctlgn. ,.11r prcc:rtling tlcrivnlions wnro rrl:~l.c:tll,o a flat. ~ ) l n l t . . 11111. l,l~t~l.o 1 1 0 t l i l l i c : ~ ~ l l ~ I is c:xt.t:t~tli~~g t21~cnto 1,llr casc of 81. c:l~rvr:tl w:~ll [2(q. \\!II(.II Illis is tlot~t-,t , is ~ I I I I I I I l i I.llat, eqr~nt~ions (7.10) t,o (7.12) cont.it~r~c Ilc apj)licnl)lr 011 c:ot~tlitiot~ t.o t,lt:~l. . i ~ t % t t>~~rvnl.nrr no(, C I I R I I ~ C ~ I ) r i ~ p t , ns \vo~tItl1)o t,11o C:I.S~ \ v i l , l ~sI1:1.r1)( ~ l g , ' ~ . tlors Iy ,1 11(* j)rcscnt n r g ~ ~ r n c n ts s ~ ~ r n catt f,hc ont8set, 0l1:~t. 1.110 v i s t ' o ~ i l .:I~ a tl 1liv.l~1 I I ~ ,
it1

Slltntnirlg I I ~ ,\vr nrt- now in ;I ~ ) o s i t i o ~ ~ t.0 writ.(: r l o w ~t.l~o ~ sitnl)lifir~tlN:~vicr\Vc ng:l,it~ Stoltrs rc,r~ntions,Irtlowrl :IS I'vrotd/l'.s br:711i~rlro~/-lrr?lrr ~r~tctrtio~ts. r n l . l ~ r ~ ~ t,o ( l i ~ ~ ~ e t ~ s iq irt ~~ ~ ~ ~ t . i:t tilrIs , o l ) t : ~ i:t ~ o : nl l (

flow ~sscnt~inlly only in n vory lllirl I:t.ycr. 1 L sltor~ltl Ijc rc-c*orrlt.tl.I~owc~vc.r, I.II:II. ;~t,lcn~pt,s been mntle L dcrivc the bonr~rlnry-1:tyort ~ t l ~ ~ a t , if'rorns hnvo o or~ N:tvirl.St,okos ocltlnl.ions it1 a purely n~:at<hrrnnt.it-nl way, t , l ~ x is \vit,l10111. IIbr :rtlol)tior~ol' l pltysicnlly ~ ) I : ~ i ~ s i(:or~ccpts1241. l~lc

pot,c~nli:~l flow I r ( . r . l ) is to I)(. t ~ r ) ~ ~ s i t l rI<tto\vtl: i f . t l t ~ l r r n ~ i ~1.l1t: sI)rc,ssilrc rrd rt~ tlistril)tll iol~t v i l l t tI1t3 :lit1 ol' r:t111. ( 7 5 ) . 1 1 1 :~tltliIion,:I snit:~l)lr ) o ~ ~ ~ ~ t l r ? r y - IIOW r r I lny n~ttsfl)r ~)rrsrril)t*tl Ihr- \vI~oIt. !/ t.c.gic~l~ ovvr .r. 1111(1tsr (-ot~sitl(-r:lt lor iotl illsli~nt. .- 0. 1
'I'll?
t . l ~ ( b

I t . is alrcbntly possible t,o clrnw sonlo i r n p o r t : ~ ~r~ t , ~ c , l l ~ s i fro111t11r l ) r t ~ t ' t . t l i ~ ~ ~ o~ or~s ~ l ~ ~ l i l ~ o r n t i .ov. swil~l~ol~t, ~ ~ S ( : I I S S ~ ,IlI~q11t>st,in11' t l ~ ItI~I ~ I I I O ~ I So l ' i ~ l t t y r n f i o ~ ~ . n , first! t ~r ol I

VII. Horl~~rl;~r,v-l;~~er t~clr~:tt.iotls t,\\o-tli~ll~~rsiol~nI bonntlnry Inyrr for flow:

011 ;I

plr1t.c

c. A remark on the inBgrat.ion of the boundary-layer equntions


71
T

133

,I .I)(: fi~.stin~l)orl,;l~lt, ;lns\vt;r is t,n t l t - l , r r n ~ i ~ ~ c c i r ( : ~ ~ ~ n s t n n 1111c1cr I,ltc rrs tJrtrst,ion r q u a t i o n s F r o m eqn. (7 11) wit.11 t h e bolrnclary contlitiorls w h i c l ~snlnc 01' 1I1r rc>t.;rrtlrtl llrritl in 1,Itt: I ) o l ~ ~ l t l n r y laycr (,an I)c t,r:lnsportctl in1.o ?/ = 0 t h e rnnin st.rc>:lln o r , ill ot,llcr wortls. !,I fir?(! w l ~ c ! ~ .p ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - t ~ f I I ~ ~ ~ l ~ C C ~ ~ ~ \ \ l I f ~ ~ l l l f , l ~ ~ ) ~ \ y l l I I I : IO C ( . I I\~ . I I ~ Ix rc-gioll wit.11 :HI :rtlvrrsc: prcssrlrc gratlionl, cxist.s nlotrg t h c ~ V I w;:ll, l h r rc,t.nrtlt.tl llr~irl~)nrt.icIt\s (.annot., in gcncrill, pcnct,mt.c t,oo far ii1t.o t.ht, rcgion o f inc:rrnsotl I)r.cssllrc n\ving 1.0 t,llrir srn:tll I t i ~ ~ c t energy. 'l'llns t.11~:I)oltntl:lry Iaycr ic is tlvllct.t.rtl sitl(.\v;~ysI'ronr t l ~ cwall, scparat,cs from il, nrrd moves int.0 t.hr 1nnil1 sl.rc.;1111, Fig. 7.2. 111gonc*r:~l tho flllitl pxrl,irlt:s I)c:l~intlt,hi: point of srpnrat,ion follow thc. Ilrcbssl1rr gt.:ltlirt~l,; t t r t l nlovc, in a tlirrt:liorl opposi1,c: t o t.11t: r x t r r n a l s11,ram.

v =- 0 wc 11;lvr a t

111 t h e irulnediat,e r~cigllbourhoodof t h e wall t h e c n r v a t n r e of t,he volocit,y profile depentls only o n t h e pressure gradient, a n d t.he c u r v a t u r e of t h e velocit.y profile a t t h e wnll changes its sign with t h e pressure gradient. P o r flow with dccrcasing pressure (acceleratetl flow, d p l d x < 0 ) we h a v e from eqn. (7.15) t h a t (a2u/ay2),,,, 0 a n d , therefore, a2u/ay2 < 0 o v e r t h e whole width of t h e lpoundary layer, Fig. 7.3. JII t h e region of pressure incroase (dccelcrntctl flow, d p / d x > 0) we fi n d (a2u/ay2) 1 0. Since, however, in a n y case a2u./ay2 < 0 at, a largc distance from t h e wall, Lllerc m u s t exist a point for which a 2 f ~ / a y = 0. l?his is a point of inflexiont of t,he v ~ l o c i t ~ y 2 1)rofilc in t h e bollntl:lry layer, Fig. 7.4.
: T

;I)

(1 ' "
r
7

3~ o ' O i

( ( y );~($1'' O
o i r of :
I

')

Fig. 7.2. Sepnration of tlin 11ot111d;trylayer. l'low past :i Imdy wit11 soparnt,ion (S = point t of s~pnrat~ion). ) ) Shape of st.rmr~llines near 11oitltof sepnrat.ion. r) \'elorit.y tlist.ril)ittio~~ near tile point of separation (PI point of in"cxin11)
7;

I l ~ r . ~ i o i n l sc.lt:~r:~.tio~~ of i:; tlofit~ctl:IS 1,I1r litnit I)et,wecrl forwar(l rind reverse flow in t.lrc. I:Iyvr in t,I~t,i~nt~~c:tli:lt.c ncigl~l)o~lrllootl t,lre wall, o r of
ai n:

()

ay v = o

=o

Fig. 7.0. Velocity distribut,ion in a borrndnry layer \vit,h pressure decrease

Fig. 7.4. Vclocit,y dislribtltion in a b o r l t ~ d a r ~ layer wit.11 pressrtrc increase; 1'1 point, of inflexion

In order t.o nnswc:r t h e qr~cst~ion whether a n d where scpnrat,ion _c$r!!_rg,-i t of l, is nc~ccssn.iy,in g c ~ l c r ; ~first t o intcgratc t h o bounclary-lnycr eqrtntions: C~cncmlly sl)c:tlting, t.llc I)orlntl;~ry-layrr cqllntions a r e only valid a s f a r a s t11c point of scl)arnt.ion. A s h o r t (list,:~ncc tlownst,rcarn from t,hc poinl, of scpnmtion l h c t)ountlnry-l:lyrr bec:otnt,s s o 1,llic:lc t.l~:lt, , l ~n s s ~ ~ r n p t , iwl~ic:llwrrc tn:~tlcin t . I ~ t !clt:riv;l.l,ion of t,11c* I c o~~s 1)o1111t1ary-ln.ynr rclu:lt,ior~sno longer apply. 111 t!l~c c?sc of 1,otlies wit,lr blunt. sl.crns_t,l~o sopnr;~.(.etl I)or~ntl:~ry Ia.yt:r displaces t,hc p o t c r ~ t ~ i a l How from tllo body b y a n npprcci;tt)lr tlist,;~rit:o ant1 t,llt: prrssnro disteribrtt,ion in~pressctlo n t h c bountlary laycr ~ n ~ t s t I)c tlc~t,crmi~~ctl c>xpcrirncnt,, I)eonrrsc t h e cxt,crnn.l flow tlcpcntls or1 t h e phcnomcn:~ I)y c~ottncc:l.c:tl wibh scp:lratiotr. 'I'hc fact t,l~at, sepamt,iorl in st,catly flow occnrs o r l y in tlccclcratcd flow (tlp/tl.~: 0) > can I)(? rnsily irlft:rrctl from a. c o n ~ i t l e m t ~ i oof t h e relxt.ion t ~ e t ~ w e ct h e prcssllrc n n gr:ltlic~rlt,tlp/tl.r nntl lfhc vcloci1,y tlisl.ril)nl,ion II.(?J) with t.llc nit1 of t h e bonntlxry-layer

It follows t.hat in Llie region of ret.nrtlct1 pol,crltial flow t.hc vclocity prolilo ill t,Ile bonntlary l n y r r always displays a point of inflexion. Sincc Lhc vcloc:it,y prolilt. ; ~ t ,t,ho point of sny)nmt.ion : ~ n dwith n 'rro l,:tngc!nt rnnst, I1:lvo r~ point. of i t ~ l l t ~ u i o t ~ , it, follows l.l~;iI. sc.l);ll:tl,ion (.:it1 only oc:c:ur wl~c:nt . l ~ c ? pol,cr~l,iitlIlow is r.c*l.:~~.tIt!tI.
c. A r e m a r k on tlic integration of tlic bnundnry-lnyer rquntinns In order to integr:lto t . 1 1 ~ boondary-layer eq~zations, whet,l~cr thc r~on-st.oady it1 case, cqns. (7.7) and (7.8), or in the shady case, cqna. (7.10) and (7.11), it is olkn convenirnl to int,rotl~lcr n stream fi~nolion yt(x, y, 1) defined by
U =

av
ay

'

. = - aax~ '
i4

(7.17) inll)ort.atlt

'I'll~velonit,y profile n.t, the point, of ~rpnrnt,iorris seen to Ilave a perpendicrllnr t.nngent a t the will sllow regions of reverswall. 'Cho ve1ocit.y profiles clownutrennl fro111tllo point of ~eparatiorl otl flow near tho wall, l'ig. 7 . 2 ~ .

Tho exisknce of a poi111 irlllcxion in tlic vclocil,y profiln in tllr bollt~diiryIxyer of Tor its stability (trnr~eitiot~ lanlinar to turhtllent. flow), Reo Chap. XVI. from

134

V J I . I%o~tnt~nry-~nycr cr(~~at.iorrs ~wo-t~i~r~et~sio~lnI for flo\v; 1rn111ldary layer

or1 R

pI:it,(:

r. The bol~ndary lnyrr along a flnt plnte


l,o know the velocit,y gmdicnt i ~ tllc \v;lll, which cat1 be ncllicved only t.lirolrg11 t

3 36

rr(lla1,ion of I.lic 1.l1ircl order 101.111~ strc::~n~ fi~nc:lion. bo~~ncl:lry 'Thr wllicllis portin](jifirc~l(i:ll c:olltlit,ionR rc.clllirn t.llo nl,n(.ll(,co r slip 111 1,Ilr \ ~1111, r Rv~/i)!/ -= iJ~lr/i):r 0 111. 1,Itctvltll. I c l ~ r11c.1.. I IIO 1 o = : l illit,inl GOtlllitiOll 1 = 0 ~)rr~~:ril)(:sve10cit.y (liuLrihl~l.io~~ i)y~/i!!/o v ~ r \v11olcrrgiotr. nt Lllc ZI = 1.l1c i f t,ilin eqnntiollfor t]lc ~(,rcanr fl~nction con~pnrccl in \viI.lr t . 1 1 ~cornplet~c Nnviel.-St.okesequations (4.\0), it, i8Reen tljat, Lllc: bonncloty-layer R . R S I ~ ~ I P ~ ~ IOI I~ ~ S retlrlccd t . 1 1 ~ VO orclrr ol tlrc cqunt,ion from foltr to Llrrco. 1. Skin friction '

inf,rgr:~tio~r tJ1e clifTcrclrt.in1cqclat.iot~s bltc bourltlnry layer. I f ' scp:~rnl.iol~ of of occllrs I)c,forc tlrc: tmiling erigo, cqn. (7.20) is vn.litl only ns far as 1,llc poilrt of srl)nrnt.io~r. I~~~rt.Irrrrnoro, . 1 1 ~Intninnr bor~lltlaryI:~,yrr if 1 t,rnnsForms inlo n f,rlrl~rtlcllt, onc, cqn. (7.20) applies oldy as far ns t.lle point of tmnsitiorl. Rchinrl tllc poir~tof t,r:~nsit,iorl t 1 t r r . c - is 1,11rl111lcr1t, fric1.io11,1,o I)c tlis(:t~ssc:tli t 1 (!11:1.p.X X 11. If srl)aml,iorr cxists, 1.11~1)rcssurc tlisttribuLioti tliffcrs coltsit1cr;tbly fronl t , l ~ : ~ t in 1,llc i(leal ca.so of frictionless, pot~enLi;tlflo\v arltl pressure, or form tlmg, rcsrllt,~. ,I ,llrts t,llc l)o~~r~tlary-lnycr tllcory cxpl;tir~st.hc facl tll:~t,in atltlit,iot~t,o sltitl fric~f,iotr, llrrrr is :tiso fort11 (lr:~g,I ) I I L ils ningrlit,t~(l(: (:;LIIIIO~, l)c (::LI(~III;~Lc:(I \vit,Il l,11(: nil1 01' ~ I I ( . l)o~lntlnry-layer t,llcory in n simple nlnnncr. A rouglr cst,in~ntc will, however, I,c given in (:ltn,p. XXV.
e. T l ~ c bo1111dnrylayer nlong n flnt lrlnte

\VlIat1 1 . 1 1 ~ I)ollntl;lry-Iayer rqust,ions arc int~rgrnt~ctl,1 1 ~~ r l o c : i l .tlislribut.ion t. ~ (:an I)c tledr~ood, ant1 t,lrr position of t,hr point of srpnmt.ion cat1 be dctcrrninotl. 'I'lris, in t,urn, perrnit,s us t.o m.lculxt,c 1.hc visro~lstlrng (skin frirt.ion) nrorlrltl t,llo st~rfnce Iry a silnplc process of int,carnt,itrg tlrr sllmring st,rrss nt t.hc ~ r n l lover t h r sllrfaco of t.llo 1)otly. 'I'l~csllrnring st.rrss at, t.he \v:lll is

TI] Ollc R I I C C ~ C ( ~ ~ I I ~ cl~nj)t,cr sllnll ~lctlllcc n11n11)crof gcncrnl ~lrol~rrt.ies wo a of 1,Ilctliffcrcntial oq~lntions tJrc bourltlar.y layor. Ilowcvrr, I)cforo cloitig ~ , I I : I ~ ,it, srrtrrs of o l ) l ) o r t ~ n ~o c:onsitl(:r n o w n spocifio cxnrnl)lc anti so 1.0 gain grcnlcr I;trnili;tril.g tc will1 (,he eq~lahiolrs.'l'hc simplest. cxarnplc of tAc npplication of t , l ~ c bountlnry-ln.ycr rq11nIions is snhrrlntl try t,hc flow nlorrg n very tJlirl flat p1:il.c. 1Ti.st~oricnll.yl,Ilis \v;is 111(: lirsl, oxnrnl)lc illl~sLr~it.it~g ~ i t ~ l ) l i ( ~ : ~of i o ~ l 1110 ( . I'r:ti~(lt.I's O O I I I I ( ~ ~ L ~ ~ - ~I.l1(-01.y; ~ :I~V(~I

L),

= 1)
1-0

to cos

4 ds ,

I'ig. 7.6. Tllr I)ol~ntlnryInyrr 1iIo11ga Il:~t. 1rlnt.c at zrro i~~ci~lr?nce

il. was clisc~rssetl t)y 11. B l i ~ s i ~ t s i l l Itis (Ioclor's t,llcsis at, (~oct.t.ingrtl.llrt 1.11~ [2] lentling edge of t.he plate L)c a t x - 0, the ~ ) l n t ebeing ~>arnllclo the r-nxis ant1 = t infinit.cly long tlownst,ream, Fig. 7.6. Wc shall corlsidrr sleatly flow wit,h ;I frccst,ron.m volocitty, [I,, wlliclr is pnmllrl to the x-axis. Tlrc vclooity of p0t~cr11,inl flow oclnnliorls is corlst,xnt in this case, and, thcrcforc, dp/dx z 0. Tho bo~lndary-lnper (7.10) t,o (7.12) I)cco~nc

ovc,r (.Ilc \vllol(: srtrfntrt~.f r o n ~ st.:~gnation t.lrn poinl, :rl, t.11(:Ir;~,tling ctlgo L I.llc t,l.:~iling o (:tlge, nssll,nillg (,lr:~t. h r c is no sspn.rnt.ion. Since cos 4 (1s .= (IT, whrrc x is rnrns~lrrtl t i1.1~0' \vril.(: p:~rn.lI(~I I.11r f~.c~c-sl~rc~:~.~r, \v(' 1,o v(?loril.y,
I

arrtl tile illt.cgrn.t,iolr,r . Iprforr, is 1.0 I)c ~ x ~ c I I ( I c ( Iovrr t,lr(\ WIIOIC \vt:l.t.r(l s11rfac:c frotn 7s 1.11(: Icntlitlg t,o 1,Irc: (,r:~ililig rtlgr. In ortlrr 1.0 c:r.l(:ulnLc t,llc! skin frict.ion it, is ncccss:lry

Since tJle syst,c~n 111ltlcr consitl(:mtioli l1:rs no prcfrrrc~l Icngt,l~il, is ronsotrnhlo t,o suppose t h a t tJle velocil.y profiles a t vnrying tlisI,:~ncc.sfrom the Icntliltg ctlgc n.rc sirnilnr 1.0 eac:I~ohher, which Incntrs LllnL Ll~cvoloc:il,y c:rrrt7c\s? L ( ! / ) for vnryillg tlisl,tul-

136 VII. lloundnry-layer erluations for two-dimensionnl flow; boundary laycr on n plnte
ces x can be made identiral by selectling suitable scale factors for u and yt. The scale fact,ors for u and y appear quite naturally a s t h e free-stream velocity, U, ant1 the bountlary-layer thickness, S(x), rcspcct~ivcly.It will be noted t h a t t h e latter increases with tho current distance x. Ilcnce t h e principle of similarity of velocity profil~sin t h e bo~rndarylayer can be written a s u/lJw = 4(?//6), where t h e funct,ioll 6) must be thc same a t all clistanccs x from the lcatling rtlgc. We can now estimatc the thickness of the boundary layer. From the exact solnt,ior~s the Navier-Stokes equations considered previously (Chap. V) i t was of foand, c. g. in t,hc case of a suddenly accelerated plat2c, t h a t (1 I/yE , where t clcnotctl tho time from t h e s t a r t of the motion. I n relation t o t h e problem under consicleration wc may s u b ~ t ~ i t ufor 1 the time which a fluid particle consumes while te travelling from the leading edge to t h e point x. For a partficlc outeide the boundary layer this is t x/lJ,, so t h a t we may p u t S v x/lJ, . We now introcluce t h e y/S so t h a t new tlimcnsionless coordinate 77

e. Tlir houndnry layrr along a flat, p1at.r

137

-1/

In this cxamplc both partial clifferential equations (7.21) anct (7.22) have bcctl transformed into a n ordinary different,ial cqr~ationfor t,hc stream funclrion by the ~imilarit~y transformation, eqns. (7.24) and (7.25). The resulting diffcrcnhial equation is non-lincar and of the third ordcr. Tllc Llrrce 1)orrnd:try conditions (7.29) arc, I.hcrcl'orc, suffic:icnt t,o ~Iet~crminc so111tion complctcly. the '1'110 nnihlyl,ic: c:vrlllr:kl,ioll of I,ho sol:rl,iort of OIIO tlifi:ro~lLinl c!tllrr~l,ior~ (7.28) is c111itc t,cdiorrs. 11. Ulssius obtained this solution in thc form OK a series expansion :~rountl71 = 0 and a n asymptotic expansion for 71 very large, t h e two forms being matched a t a soitablc valric of 7. The resulting proccdurc was described in detail, 1)y 1,. Prandtl [22]. Subscqucnt to t,hal,, I,. Bairstow [ I ] and S. Coldstcin [1:3] solvc~l thc same ccl~retionbut with the aid of a slightly modifietl procedure. Somewhat, rarlicr, C. Tocpfer [27] solvcd t h e Rlasir~s equation (7.28) numerically by thc :ipplic:at,ion of t.hr mcthod of R ~ r n g eand I < ~ r t t a .!rho snmc equation was solvcd again, this time with an increased accuracy, by I,. Howarth 1161; t h e numerical valncs of I , / ' and /" quoted in Table 7.1 have been taken from his paper. In t,his conr~rxion, t h e reader may also consult a new mcthod of integration dcvised by I). Rlcltsyri [In].

'I'hc cqlration of continuity, a s already tliscusscd in S ~ L . VIId, can be integratetl by int,rod~~c:ing stream function y~(x,y). We p u t a

'I'llc variation of the longiIf~rdinnl o m p o l ~ c ~ ~ ti l -- / ' ( q ) is sccn plott,otl in c ~/ , Fig. 7.7. (:omparing i t with the profilc near a stagnation point, Fig. 5.10, wc sce t h a t I.llc vvlocit,y profile on a flat pla18cpossrsscs a vcr-y small t:~lrvnf.~~rct J ~ c at w:dl anql t.t~rl~s r;~ll~c:r nbrr~pI.ly f~rrLlinrf r o n ~L in ortlcr t,o rcnt:h t,hc :lsyrnpt,otic valtrc. At, tltc: i wall il.sclf the curve has a point of inllcxion, since for y = 0 : a2~r/a?/2 0. =

where J ( 7 ) tlcnotcs t h e dimensionless stream function. Thus the velocity componcr~Ls become :

the primc clcnoting rliffercntiation with respect to q . Similarly, the transverse vclocitv com t ~ o n e n tis

Writing down t.hc f~lrtherterms of eqn. (7.22), and inserting, we have

Afl.cr simplification, t h e following ordinary differential equation is obtained: J J"

+ 2 /"'

= 0 (Blaains's equation).

(7.28)

Fig. 7.7. Velocit,y distribrltion in the boundary layer along n flat plate, after Blasius [2]

Fig. 7.8. The transverse velocity cornponent in the boundary layer nlong a flat ~>ht#2

As seen from eqns. (7.23), as well ns (7.26) ant1 (7,.27), the boundary conditions a r e : 'The t,ra~nsvcrsc component of t,hc vclocity in thc boundary layer, given by eqn. (7.27), is rrprcscntc:d in Fig. 7.8. I t is worth t~ot~ing t h a t a t the outer edge of here t.he bountlary layrr, i. c. for 11 +oo this romponcnt tliffers from zero; we have

Tho prohlem of a//inity or similarit!/ of velocity p r o f l r ~ be considered from n more general will po~nt view in Chnp. VJII. The more exnct theory sllowa that the region immediately behind of tlio lending eclgo m i t ~ bo excluded; RM? p. 141. t

,---

cqnntions for two-dirncnaionnl no\\,; houndary layer on a pink 138 VII. no~~ndnry-layer This means t h a t a t the outcr edge there is a flow outward which is due t o the fact t h a t the increasing boundary-layer thickness causes tho fluid t o be displaced from tohe wnll a s i t flows along it. There is no boundary-layer separation in tho present case, a s t,he pressure grndient is equal t o zero. J . St,cinllcner [25] pr~hlisllctla syst,ctnat.ic rcvicw of t,l~c soll~t.ions TJln.sius's fro equation. 111 part,ic:~llnr,hc providcd a tli~nl~ssion t~llcchnrnct.cr of the sol~rt-ionsl l of i the intcgrntion rnngc where r] < 0 in the presence of a varict,y of bountlnry conditions. I t turns out. t.hnt t,llcrc exist, three set* of so111t.ionswhich differ from each other by their nsyrnpt.otio l ~ e l ~ n v i o r 7 + -m. Apart from t01r larninnr hountlnry layer on atf a flat platme, solutions which can I I givcn a pl~ysit:allymcaningrtll irlt,crprct.nt,ion the ~ include Inminar flour between t,wo parallel streams of which the two-dimensional hnlf-jet. is a special ca.se (scc See. IXII), larninnr flow with suction or I~lowing right nt angles (see Src. X I V b ) , as well ns tho laminar bonntla.ry Iaycr formed over a wn.ll moving parallel to thc stream in the same or in the opposite direction. Skin friction: Thcskin friction can be easily clctertninrtl from the precotling t1nt.a. From q n . (7.19) we obtain for one side of t h e plate c. The bountlnry laycr along
n

nnt, plat0

1 3!)

Tahle 7.1. Tlle function / ( v ) for tho boundary layer along a flnt plate at zero incidence, after J,. Mowarth 1101

wllcrr 1) is t,hc witlth and 1 is the Icngt,h of t h e ~)lat,e. Now tho local shearing stress a t the wall is given by

wiLh /" (0) -- a 1)ccornra:

0.332 from Table 7.1. llence the ditncnsio~~lrss shearing st,rcss

(:o~~sccjrlcrttly, from cqn. (7.30), t,llr sliil~friction of one sitlc 1)ct:olnc.s


1

nntl for a. plnt,r irrttrd on I)of.h sitlrs:

It, is rrtr~:l~~l<n.l)lr f h n slti11 l'ric~t.iotlis 111.oport.ionnl t11(. powrr # of velocit,y tI1:tt. t.o whcrcns in rrc?c?l)ingrnot.io~l t.llcrc urns ~)roport,ionnli(.y f,he first, Ilowrr of vclocit,y. t,o I ~ i ~ r t ~ lf,llr: rt1m.g incrca.sos wil,Il I.llo sclrt;l.rc roof, of t,l~c ~r , Icngt.l~of t8hc 1,la.t,e. This (.:I.II l)c i~~t.c~rl)rot,c-tl :IS sl1ou7irlgt,lla.t.~,II(, (lownst.re:~rrl 1)orf.ions of the pI:~t.(: col~t.ril)~~Le 11rol)ort.io11:1t.c-ly t o t . 1 1 ~t,ot,:~Itlr:lp t01:~n1 . 1 1 ~portio~ls noa.r t.11~ Irss o Irntling rtlgr,

140 VJ1. Bo~~nclnry-layrr rquat.inns for t,~rn-tli~iic.~ixio~~nlI~oi~ndnry oli flow; layer

n plnte

e. Thc boundary lnyer nlong n flat, plate

141

because they lie in tlic region where t h c boundary laycr is thicker a n d where, consequently, the shearing sttress a t t h c wall is smnllcr. Introtlurinp, a s usual, a dimensionless tlrng coefficient by the defiriiCion
C

where q, denotes a point outside t h e boundary layer. Using tlic value f ( q ) from Tablc 7.1 we o b h i n q, - / (Q) = 1-7208 and liencc

r ---l a ; l u , F ,
l l t c clislnncc y = dl is sl~owrl n K g . 7.7. '1'11is is t11c distnncc by wlucl~l,l~c ; i strcarlilines of t h e external potential flow are displaced owing to t h e effect of friction near the wall. T h e boundary-layer thickness, 6, givcn in eqn. (7.36), over which t h e potential velocity is attained to within 1 pcr ccnt. is, i n round figures, three times ' larger t h a n t h e displacement thickness.

2 1)

whrrr A = 2 1) 1 clsnolcs tllc wcttccl surf:~ce aroa, we o b t a i ~ l from cqn. (7.33) thc forrnula :

--

..

I 1 Ircrc R, = 11, I/v d c r i o l ~ sthe RcynoItIs nurn1)er forrnctl wit,lr the Icngth of the platc: and tile frcc-strcnm velocity. This law of friction on a p1at.e first dcdnccd by I T . f2lasius, is valicl only in tlie region of laminar flow, i. e. for R, = IJ, l / v < 5 x 10" to I 0 6 . I t is rcprcscntctl in Fig. 21.2 as cltrvc ( I ) . 111 t,lic region of t.~~rl>~llcrit, mot.ion, R, > loG, t . 1 1 ~drag bccomcs considerably grcatcr than t i , i ~ tgivcn in cqrt. (7.34).

thickntss which will be used W c may a t this point cvaluate t h e momcitli~m latcr. T h e loss of morncntum in t h e boundary layer, a s comparcd wilh potential flow,
m

a2

is givcn by ,g J IL(TJ,
0

- u ) dy,

so t h a t a new thickness can be defined by


m

e~

~ ~ b , = ~ ~ u ( ~ ~ - - ~ ) d y ,
u-0

l301111dnry-lnyerthickness: 1 , is impossible to int1ic:~t.c I~or~ntlary-1;rycr 1 a l.l~ic:lzncss it1 all ~lnarnhigt~ous way, b c c a ~ ~ s c influence of vi~cosit~y the bonndary laycr t,lic in clccrcascs asyrnptot,ically out,wards. 7'110 parallel colnponcnt,, u,tetitls asymptotically t o the value [Im of t,hc potcnLia1 flow (thc function / ' ( ? I ) tends asymptotically t o 1). If i t is tlcsircd t o define thc hollndary-lnycr thickricss a s thnt distance for which IL --- 0.99 [I,, t.licn, a s scon from l':r1)lc 7.1, q 5.0. ITcr~cc t01c bont~tl:~ry-laycr t,lliclrness, a s tlcfinctl Ilcrc, bccornes

aZ

=I&
Y-0

(1 -

&) d y .

Nulncrical evaluation for t h e plate a t zero incidence gives:

A p1iysic:ally ~ne:~ningful rrlcnsurc for t.l~c 1)orlnd:~rylayer t.hiclc~iess t.11~ is rlisplnrx1hicklzes.s (TI, whit:li was n.lren.tly i~~trotlucntl ecln. (2.0), JTig. 2.3. 'l'llc tlisin placcr~lcnt,thickncss is t h a t distance by which t h e external p o h n t i a l field of flow
mp.?t,t

4 =0.664

1 / ~
-

(momentum thickncss).

(7.39)

is displaced ouLwards a s a conscquencc of thc decrease in vclocily in tho 1)ountlxry


m

layer. Tlic dccrcasc it1 volumc flow d u e to tlie influence or fricl.ion is j ((I,, --I&) cly,
l,

so t,hnt for 0, wc havc thc definition

It is necessary to remark hcre t h a t near t h e leading edge of t h e plnte t b c boundmy-layor theory acascs t o apply, sincc thcrc t h c assumption a 2 ~ ~ / 8 x 2 a2u/8y2/ is not satisfied. Tho boundary-laycr theory applics only from a ccrlain value of the Rrynoltls numbcr R = lJ, x / v onwards. Thc rclntiorlship near tho I c a t l i ~ ~ g edge can only be found from t h e full Navier-Stokes equations becnusc i t involves a singularity a t t h e leading edge itself. An a t t e m p t t o carry o u t such a ~ a l c u l a t ~ i o n was made by G. F. Carrier and C. C. Lin [5] a s well a s by B. A. Bolcy and M. B. Fricdman [3].

1<I

Willl 1r./17, from cqn. (7.26) we obtain

Experimental inveatigationa: Measuremenla to test the theory given on t h e preceding pagcs were carried out first by J. M. Burgers [4] and B. G. van dcr lleggc Zijnen [16], and subsequently by M. H a m e n [14]. Particularly carcful and cornprehensive measurements were reported later by J. Nikuradse [20]. It was found t h a t t h e formation of t h e boundary layer is greatly influenccd by t h c shape of tho leading edgc na well as by t h c very small prcssrlre gradient which m a y exist in tho

142

V I I . Hor~nclnry-lnyrr q ~ ~ n t i ifort ~ s r ~ t\vo-di~i~rr~nio~l~~l Ilon.; I)o~~nilrrr,y Inyrr on n plelo

ext.rrn:d flow. .J. Niltur;~tlsci ~ ~ t , r o ~ l ucar(!f111corrf:~1~ions ~.IICSC possi1)lc c ~ e c t s , rc(~ for when he carrintl o ~ t t his ~nnnsrlrcntcnt,son a ~)ln,t,c a sLroatn of air. 'f?Ite velocity . in tlistribl~t,iot~ thc larr~iltnr I~ounrlnry I:t):rr 11n.s I)ecn plotl.ctl frotn Niltr~ratlsc's in meast~rrmontsin Fig. 7.9 for scvc:ml tlist,:tnc:rs from t,l~c Icatling ctlgr. 'l'hc? siinil:l.rit,y

tlisr~~ssrtl Chap. XVI, Itavc tlemnr~slmt.ctl. l ~ atllc vn.llic of this 'c.rit.ic:bl' Itcynolds in t t n1t111l)rr can 1~c(.ontc considnml~lyInrgor in a n sir st.rcaltt whicll is rnatlc very free rroln tlisl.url)anc:c!. 111 tltis way it is ~)ossil)lct,o rr:~c.l~ v:ilr~c~sof I l l ) 1.0 n,l)o~lt. i',., .r/v x loG,

Cf'

of

I:ij!. 7.10. Loral rocffiricc~t 6Izi11 frivtio~~ 011 n flnt, ])l:iln at ZPIV iriri(lr~rco l l i i11con1l1rcssi fln\rp, dclcrblo minr~lfrom tlirrcl tnrnnnrct~lrntof shearillg strcss by 1,irp111atln ancl Dl~nwan
Tl~cory: Inmlnnr From cqn. (7.:11); Lllrlr!llrnl fronl eqn. (21.12)

0 0 0 ~0.0WZ
0

/nd/rect skin friction measuremen! fmm velocity profile Direct skin fiction measuremen/, x
t

- 28.6cm

(0. 181

.~

,x-56cm

00001

. ! - . I - - \ 1 1 1 1 1 1 . . I 1. 1 . 1

- + .

Fig. 7.9. Vclocity rlisf.ril)~~lio~r Inn~i~inro ~ ~ ~ ~ rlnyrr o n n IlnL pl:rt,r nt, xrrn i~~rirlrncr. in tlio h lnry nn ~ricasr~rcd Nikr~rndso by [20]

Lho velocil,y prolil(:s :it v:triows tlistanccs z from t.Irc Ir:~rling ctlge prrtliclotl 11.y t,he t l ~ e o r yis confirmotl by t.ltcse mcn.snrcmc~~t~s. c T l ~ shapc of the vclocit,~.~)rofilc a.grees eql~allywall with t(11at calcr~lat.ctlwit.11 l.lxc :~itlof the tltcory. 'rhc rrlat.ion l>ct,mrcn t.hc dinirnsiortlcss h o ~ ~ r t t l n . r y - l : i ~ r t,ltit:knoss 6 U,/v z and the Iteynolds n r ~ n ~ l forrnctl wit.h t.hc cnrrcnt Icngt.lt, z, wns alrcntly l)lot,t,ctl in I'ig. 2.19. '1'11is ~rr tlirncl~siotllcsst.ltiok~t~:ss rrnt:~insco~tst.attI, long ns 1,110 1)0111i(l:~ry is l:tn~in:rr, :IS 111.yrr nrttl il,s nll~noric:nl v:~,lr~o 11oar1y 1.It:r.L givcn i l l ccln. (7.35). A1 I:~rxc: Ilcyrtoltls is l~t~rnl)ers ziv 1,110I)onrttl;~ry I/, I:ryc:r c:r:l.sc:s to bc' Inrninar arltl tr:ir~sit.io~t t~r1)ltlrtrL 1.0 motlion takes place. 7'11is fact, m n I)c rccogrtizct\'ilr Fig. 2.1!) Itg nol.ic:ir:g l,hc tnnrkrtl ir~creascin 1,ho Lhi~kncssof t.110 b o ~ ~ n ( l : ~In.ycr n.s f,he tlisl.:~lice from l,l~c! .ry lratling etlao is increased. Arcortling t,o t . l ~ rm r a s l ~ r c m c n t ,porf'orrnctl l)y 1%.C. van tlrr ~ ITcgge Zijnen anti M. Ilanscn t.rnnsil.iort from 1;~rninar tl~rl)r~lcnt, t:rltes 1)lacc t,o flow n.t l7& z / v = 300.000. 'rltis rorrcspotttls t,o a vn.llic of t , l ~ c I<oynolcls ntlrnl)cr rc:fcrrrtl f,o (.he tlisplnccment t,l~irltnrss,I f , cll/v 950. klorr rcccnt; ~nr:~sltrcmcnt,s, IN: t.o
of
~

1/

: flat pl:ttc was also stlbjectctl to careful exL p(:rintcntaI verification. The local sllearing stress a t the wall can be determinccl intiirectJg from t h e slope of the velocit,y profilc a t the wall together with eqrt. (7.31). In rccrnt t,imcs IT. W. 1,iepmann and S. Dhawan [18] measured the shearing stdress tlirocI.ly frotn t,hc forco acting on a small porl,ion of t,ho plnto which wns nrrnngctl so t , l ~ a it could move slightly with respect t o the main plate. The results of t l ~ e i r t w r y careful measurements arc seen reprotluccd in Fig. 7.10, which shows a plot of the local coefficient of skin frictior~ cf' t o / k Q 1Jm2, against, t h e R.cynolds number R = 1 , z / v . In the range of R = 2 x 10"o , 1 , 6 x 10"both laminar and t,ltrbrrlcnt, flows arc possible. I t can be sccn t,hat direct and ir~dircctm c a s ~ ~ r c n ~ c r t t ~ s nrc in oxcrllont, agrt:erncnt, with each ol,l~or. Mcr~st~rcrnot~l,~ lnntinnr rnnga give in t,ho a sI,ril~ittg(!o11fit311:kt,io11 l%lttsius's oqn. ( 7 . X ) frn111 wIti(:h cff .?: 0 . f ~ f b i / ~ ~ ~ . of 111 the t.tlrl)r~lcnf~ range l,hcrc is a l ~ o goo(1 ngrecmcnl wit.11 I'rnttdt.1'~ tjh~:orctlif:nl forrrtr~l:~ u l ~ i c l~rrillbc tladr~ccdin Cltap. X X I , cqn. (21.12). ~

,.ltc I a n ~ i n : ~ r of fricl.ion on I law

--

Jllc conlplctc ngrccmcnt bctflwcen t,hrorcl.icnl antl ex~)crintcnt,n,lc s r ~ l t .wllioll r ~ existas for t>he velocity dist,ribnt.ion nncl t,hc shcn.ring stxcss in a 1aniinn.r I)onndn.ry lnyer on s flat plate a t zero incidence that, has heen hrougl~tinta evidcncr in Figs. 7.9 ant1 7.10 for the r m g e R > lo5 nneqrlivocally dcmot~strat~rs valitlity of t,he , the boutttlnry-ln.yer n.l~proximnt,ions from the ~)hysicnlpoint, of vicw. TII spit.(! t,Itis,

144 VTI. Bonndary lnycr eqr~ationsfor two-dimensional flow; boundary layer on a plate
cartrain ~ n a t l ~ e m n t , i c j n h a v e axpenclod m u c h effort t o c r e a t . ~ "mnthemnf,icel proof" ns R. f o r t,ho valiclity of t h e s o simplifications; i n thiw c o n r ~ e x i o nc o n s ~ l l tt h e work of 11. S c l i m i d t ant1 I<. S c h r o e d e r 1.241.

f. Ronndary layer of higher order

146

f. Boundary layer of higher ordert


Tire boundary-layer e q ~ ~ a t i o n a bccrr obt,aitierl in See. V1I a of t.liis chapter I,y a process have of cstiniating ordcra of magriit,ndc of individual terrns in the colnplete equations of motion. The boondary-layer equations can, however, also be derivctl with the aid of a more general theory. In order to obbain asymptotic expansions of tlic sollrtions of the Navier-Stokes cquat.iorrn for large Reynolds nnn~bers, t is possible to establinh n pertrtrbnt,ion scheme in which i
&

I f 1 ( r , 11). 1'1 y), for t,he sccond-order ~ollltionlJz(z, y), Yz(z, (x, 1'2(r, y). ctc. tJpto ~ o l u l i o t r ~ of t,l~e C C O I I ~order, t,erms proport,ional 10 E*, t.l~at. t . 1 ~ R in fric:t.io~ialtc-rtn~ t.lic>Nnvicr-Stoltrs in ~ql~at,ions, ren1:rin ~ ~ n a c c o t ~ ~ ~ t Te~ I I Isolc~tions first and sccciticl orclcr (:orr~npo~~tI for. , d R , or 1.0 inviscid (lows or cveti t,o pot.entinl flows when only field8 wit.li n ~rtiifnr~n onronring vclorit:y nt-c: nl.~~tliril. Ylrc solntiotis of /frat order sntisfy llic 0011ntlnryrontliI,ionn

Tho solntion of thc potent.ial-flow c q ~ ~ a t i o n s (2, y), 1'1 (1, !I) gives 1 . 1 1 ~ 111 vclooit,y 111(n.,0) at, t.hc \vall, nnrl I ~ c ~ ~ n o ~c q ~i~u t i o n ~ l l ' n lcnrls to the wall prnss\~ro

=-=

VR

is cl~onenas t,lie perturbation parameter. This leads to a so-called singular perturbation sclrenre and renulta in tlie neparat,ion of the required auymptotic expansion of tlie nolution into an out,er expansion (external flow) and an inner expansion (boundary-layer flow). With t,l~e aid of the method of rnntcl~edasymptotic expansions it thus becomes possible to derive an asyrnptotic expnnsion of tho completc solr~tion. The first term of such an asymptotic expansion is preciuely the noll~tionof the I,o~cndnrylayer oqr~ations.Moreover, the continnation of the pertnrbation calcr~lation allows 11s to comprrt,e further ternis of the expansion and ao t o extend the classical tlieory of hor~ndarylaycrs duc to Pmndtl. We thus create a boundary-layer tlieory of higher order. l'lre second t,erms of tlic expansion are of particnlar practical importance because we can look upon them as correct,ions to the clrrrrsical tl~eory which represent boundary-layer effecb of second order. Extensive presentations of boundnry-layel. tticory of higher order were prtblisl~edby M. Van Dyke [Dl, K. Gcrstcn [lo], and K. Gcrsten and J. F. Gross [12]. In addition, reference [8] contains a detailed exposition of t,he metliod of n~atchcd asymptotic expansions. The basic ideas of this metliod can bc txaced to I,. l'randtl; they have bcen made plausible with reference to a sirnplc mathematical example in Scc. 1Vf. I n what follows, we'give a brief descript,ion of tlre theory of asymptotic soll~tions large for Reynolds numbers as it applies to a two-di~nensional, incompressible flow. The main purpose of thin argrrment is to find an exknsion of Prandtl's boundary-layer thcory and to derive the bonndary-layer eqnntions of higher order. Details of the derivations can be found in the treatise of M. Van Dyke 171. The starting point is constituted by the Navicr-Stoker, equations written with reference to a curvilinear, rectangular system pf cooidinakn in See. IJIg, Fig. 3.9.AI1 lcngths are measrtred in utrita of a convenient length R", for cxarnplc the rndills of c u r v n t ~ ~ a c the stagnation point. rt Velocities arc referred to U, and the overpressnrcs are referred t o e I/&. The gconiet,ricnl sliapc is describetl by t,lic local radius of c u r v a t ~ ~ r e ,( z ) , nntl the tlitncnnionlcns c~~rvnt.nrc thc R of ~ ~ ~ r f is c e n K ( x ) = Ro/ll(z). (7.41)
Outer expansions: In order t,o solve thc systcm of equations (3.38), we assume the following

1/?

(7.40) The solutions of seco,til order satisfy t l ~ c 1)outitlnry conditions

y-t

w:

11%t V j = 0 , Z

wlrcrc d l ( r ) tleriotes tlrr~displ~rccnienttliiclznc~sdcfiticd in an an:iIogo~~s way nu l,l~al, i:r111. in (7.36); see alno eqn. (7.51). Thc solntion of tllc potcnt,inl equation leails ngnin to tlic rlistrib~~tion t.he pnrnllcl vrlnc:il.y of coniponcnts a t the wall, Uz(z, 0). and to tlie pressure
1'2

(x, 0) =

CJr ( r , 0) . 112 ( r , 0).

(7.41;)

The resnlt.it~g solotions do not, gcncrally speaking, satisfy tlrc no-slip condition a t the wnll arid for this reason they are not valid near it; they are given tlie name "outer solntions" or "outer n8ymptot.i~ expansions".
Inner expansions: In order to obtain solntions valid near the wnll, it is necessary to apply a special procednre. Instead of tlie distance, y, from thc wall, wc ititrodnce a new, strctclird coordinate N = yls. (7.47)

This so-called inner variable was so selected as to prevent tlic disappearnnce of some of the viscor~s terms in the equations of first order in the coordinate system z, N. For the sotnbions licar tlrc wall (in the bor~lrtlarylayer), we ngnin nnslllnc nsympt,ot,ic rxpnnaionu, viz. 16(2, y, F) = UI(X, N) t
F

UZ(T, 4 N)

...,

) ~ ( 7 . y . ~ ~ 7 ~ 1 ( 7 , N 1) / 2 1 ~ 2 ( ~ , 1N..., - ) p ( z , y,

= p ~ ( zN) ,

+ e pz(z, N) t . ...

asymptotic expanniotis: u ( r , y, e ) = U l ( r , y) -t
F

Ua(x, y) i- ...

v(z, y, F) = Vl(r, y) 4- s Yz(z, y) -t p ( r , y, s) = PI(Z, ?I)

. ..

~ 2 ( 5y,) -1-

.... J

S~~bstitutioti the systcrn of equations (3.38) and ordering according to powers of s, yicltls the into following systems of eqr~ations.

(7.4H)

l3ounAary-layer ~ q u n l z o m firat order: 01


(7.42)

l'hesc forms arc subsLit,llkd into eqns. (3.38) and the torms arc ordered hy the powers of s. I n this manner, we olbt,nitl a ncquencc of syst,erns of cqn~tioiis Lire first-ortlcr solrtt,ion 711 ( r , y), for

I owr thin srction In I'rofcnnor K. Ccrstcrn.

146 V I I . 1{0111itlnrj n y r r c q ~ ~ n t i o n s t ~ v o - t l i ~ ~ ~ r ~ flow; ~ )~on l~ n d n rl ? g r r o n n plnt,e I for isio l ~ n

f.

B o ~ ~ n c l a lnyer o f I ~ i g l ~ o rrt l r r ry c

147

T h c distribution of the locnl shcnring strew t o second order is

The b o ~ l n d n r y lnyer o f nccond order also rencta o n the out,cr flow. T h e pnpar b y I(. Ccmt,rn [I 1 1 cont,nin~ c n l c ~ ~ l a t i o n the dinplncemcr~t, , h i c k t l e ~ ~ second ortlrr. a of t to Examples Flnt plate n l zero incidence. 111 the cnso o f n n i ~ n p r r ~ n r n bflnt platc nt. z r r o ineilo dance, the rlisplncement t h i c l t n e ~ s in cnlct~lnted 61 wil.11 the n i d of cqn. (7.37). A c c o r t l i ~ i g o rclll. t (7.45). t,he b o r ~ r ~ t l n r y condition for t,he otlt,cr flow is

' S l ~ r r c l ~ ~ n t i o ofi s ~ first o r d r r , rclnR (7.4!)), tlo riot r o n t n i n 111r H t * y t i o l c l ~ 11111i1l)rr exlrlic.itly. I t f o l l ~ \ v n11111110 (.r, 8 ) nnc! cl(.r, ,V) 1111lstnlso IN: indrl)en(lrnt of l l ~ e ~ c ~ I I o ~ ~ ~ s I I~IIIII~I~~. 'I'liis 1)rvvrs thnt t l ~1ot.nt ion o f t IIP r point of l n ~ n i n n sepnrnt.ion is inrlepe~ldcnt f t Ilr I l r y ~ i o l r l s r o nrl1111)er.
/Joii~irlnr?l-ln!~rr cqurr1io)in o/ nrco?rrl orrlcr:

whcrcr I l ~Ir n g t l ~ t . l ~ a r of plnt,r hns I)cen e l ~ o s r n n rc~frrrncc. nn 'I'l~c. 8ol11tionof IIIP. \ v o - t l i t i ~ t ~ ~ ~ n i n t ~ t ~ I I potent.inl c q ~ ~ n t , i o n ~ h j e tcot thin 11011nd1iry o n t l i l i o n a~ ~ yields

p2 =

I'z (a. 0)

4 /r J ; i

(x,O)

h .] '

'rhc nsnocint,ed st,rmnilinm nre pnrabolnr W ~ ~ O Rfoci nre n t the o r i g i t ~ n d wliose v r r t i r e s l i e o n R n tile r-nxis. I t follows t,hnt in t,his particulnr cnne t,lic velocity Uz(x; 0) a t t.he wall vnnislics, n n d the solution o f the nyst,ern of eqnntions (7.52) a n d (7.83) ie t h e t.rivinl solrttion. \Ye r o n r l u d r , therefore, t.Iint i n the cnne of t , l ~ e flat plnt,e t h e second-order correctior~t o nkin f r i c t i o r ~vanishes. N o v e r t l ~ e l e ~ s , muat n o t drnw the co~tclrrsion t h a t the second-order drag coefficient also we flow described b y cqn. (7.57) cont,rivanishes. This is dne t o the fact t h a t tl~esecontl-ortlerexternal h u b s a rnoment,um term. This can be identified b y c a l c ~ ~ l a t i n g integml o f ~ ~ ~ o r n e n tovern the ~ul the whole p l a t e when i t w i l l be discovered that, t,liis c o n t r i b ~ ~ t . i o n eqnivnlent t o a n incrrnsc i n is have l ~ e c nn r r i c d o u t b y I . l l n n i 1171 w l ~ o o ~ ~ n d t . l ~ e r f t,lint tlrng rocfficient. drng. SII~II cnlct~latlonn of n f l i ~ t plate is given b y ,

'Sl~ro11t.rrI ) o ~ ~ r ) t I n rorirlitionn (i. r. for h -+ m ) of t l i r inner solt~tionn u.cll ns the inner h o ~ ~ n d ry ' nn n r y c.onclitio~~s the outer s o l ~ ~ t i o r (c. g. cqn. (7.45) for l ' ~ ( r ,0)) follo\v fro111 t.he m a t r l r i l ~ g of ls of t.hc inner nncl orlt.nr so111t.ions;ner nlso 171. 'I'hr s y s t c ~ i iof r c l r ~ l ~ t i o n(7.52). (7.53) for l l ~ r ! e r o ~ ~ d - ~ r d r r s ~ 1)01111dnry lny(*r l o o doru not, ronI,nin t.l~c:Ilt~ynolcls n111110t.r* ~ ~ ) l i ( * i l I~o\I.Pv~~~. t ly. it ( : o n I ~ ~ i n f l so1111io11s lil.st, o r ~ I r r of nrlcl is nlortt ~ ~ t ( . l l ~ iI.hcln I.!Ic V~. Iirsb-order ~ysIt.111.b u t it r o ~ ~ s i s on l i n r n r tli~li!rcllIinl r t ~ t l l l t i o l l ~ . 1. I l l i s tf 1'0 rcnson, it. is ~~ossil)le, t,~lrn,In srpnrntc the \vl~olt!so111tio11 n t o 1 sltln of p i ~ r t i nfioltltions. 11. in i 1 l hi18 l~cv:o~iic r11slo11111ry s p l i t t,l~e 1.0 soll~t,ion l l t o rr r ~ ~ r v n t ,t~c~ n ~ n d i n t o n tliul~lnc*e~nent i . rre n tern), IIIII \vtBs l ~ n l nol, IIII~RII~ t,l~isrlinc~~ssiotl y f ~ ~ r t . h e~ e r e . l an Ir Utlr t n t . l ~ e In(-t t , l ~ n tho 011rvnt,11re t . 1 wnll is nrr01111tcdfor i n t,llc sroontl-order theory, t of ~ t h r r r npl)cnrs n I)rrssIIrc g r n t l i c n l i n I h c t l i r r r t i o n norm111l o I l ~xvnll. F o r this rrnson, the prmsrlrr r 111. I l ~ \~IIII~ t x - o ~clilli.t.ont fro111 t,lrnt. \ \ - l ~ i t . l ~ ~IIIII~PSS~~I r I ~~vn is 011 t . 1 1 1)011nd11ry ~ i y r I l y tlie o ~ ~ t r r ~ I r flow. I n I r g r ~ ~ t i n g nt!ross I.l)<*~ ~ t i d n lrn y r r , wt! o11Inin t,lir prc!sst~rec o r f f i r i e n t nt, IIIC bo y wnll i n t.11e for~n

'I'l~t,

prrssllrr 31. llir \r:~ll x r r r d s t11r i ~ n p r r s s r r prrssrlrr w l ~ c r ~ wall is ronvex ( K c l t.hc

> 0).

!r2l~orr 2,32(i = x X (0.RtiO.1)2. 'J'l~o rorrec>tion ( I l ~ c srrond I r r n ~ ) n r t l n . (7.59) n ~ i i o ~ ~to l 5.5%, i n s nl, :-Ill3, (Itwrrnui~ig o 0.2y0 nt, R = 106, ( : o ~ i ~ [ ~ t o~t r ~(tfirst I~I.III. t I ~ l r l% 1 11c fnot t , l ~ ntt l ~ c scrond tern1 i n eqn. (7.5!1) tlocs n o t raprrscnt skin friction is oxplninctl I l y tl~e observntion t h n t the singnlnr chnracter of the f l o ~ v t tlic lending rclgc i n d ~ ~ r n u a e prrssnrt: tltng. Presulnnbly, n t the lending edge t,here nrises n n infinite ovrrlrrrssrlrr ~ v l ~ i c loi n t r i l ~ ~ t t p1sfirtile r 1 force i n spite of the vanishingly s ~ n s lp1nt.c t,liirlrness. 111 t , l ~ i s l connexion n rornpnrison w i t h tlie case of t , l ~ e pnrnboln of See. IXj uhortld be ~ n n t l r . Sl,rict.ly ~ l ~ r n l t i n g , 1)rorrtling ~ i ~ ~ n l yof i n 1,Iit: n (Ion. ~IIHI, n 1111l. p111t0 is r c ~ t r i c l t * cll o II SVIII~. i n l i n i l r p l n t r . 111 111ts t-nsci ol' IL l i n i l o I t ~ n f i t l ~ l ~ t ~ 1 1 t . 1 t r iS(I.~*PH II~.(.OIII(YIl II I.I'I(II~II t, * n~ ~ ~ i o t l i l i t .111, ( rlist.nnre 11psLren111 t , l ~ etrailing edge. Ilotvcvcr, I'rendl.l'n I ) o t ~ n t l n r y - l n y r r of eq~tntionu, b r i n g pnrnbolic, cannot. n c c o ~ r n for t h i "trailing-edge rlrrot.". t ~ According t o K. Stemnrtaon [25n], it is pousil~lct o ninstcr SIICII trniling-edge r f f r r t s , or, generally speaking, t.he elTects which arc exprrssctl ns ~ingrtlnrit.irs(r. g. lencling rtlpr, trailinfi edge, nrpnrnt.ion) I)y I'rnntlt,l'n c q ~ ~ n t . i o r ~ lni ,r o ~ ~ n lgrnornlizntion of I'rnr~tlll'nront,cl)l of l h r t g ~ I ) o ~ ~ n t l n Inyer. This is dono b y t,l~c:int,rodr~clion 1.11~t l r n of " I I I I I ~ ~ ~ R I ~ I I ~ ~ I I I ~ ~ ~ I " ry of i 1)011nt111ry Inyers o r the "triple-tleck" c o ~ l c r p t . F o r t.110 case of a flnt plnt,r, ngnin, I<. S t r \ v n r f s o ~ ~ (25n.1 nncl A. T'. .hlrssittv ( I X I ) ] fintl that t.hc ultin-frict,ion r o r f f i c i c ~ nis given b y t

..

148 VTI. Bo~lndnrylnycr eqnations for two-dimensionnl flow; boundary layer on n plate
[lo] Geraten, K.: Grenzuchichteflkkte hiiherer Ordnung. Anniversnry volume corn~ncmorati~~g Professor H. Schlichting's 05th anniveranry (Sept. 30, 1972). l b p . 7215 Inst. f. Stromungumech. Techn. Univ. a t Brnunschweig, 29--53 (1972). 1111 Gersten, I<.: Die Verdriingungsdirlro bci Granzuchiclibn Iiiihemr Ordnnng. ZAhlM 51, 105-171 119741. , [I21 (ierst.cn, J<., nnd GrOfIfI,J.F.: Iiighcr-orclcr bonndnry lnyor t.l~c?ory. Flnid Dyrinrnic.~ 'I'l.nnn~~c!l.ic)nfl (I 1176). [I31 Oolclntcin, S.: C:onccrtring some aolulions of tho boundnry lnycr equntions in hydrodyrinrnics. Proc. Cnmbr. Phil. Soc. 26, 1-30 (1030); 8f30~180: Modern developme~~ts fluid dynamics, in Vol. I, 135, Oxford, 1938. [I41 Hsnsen, M.: Die Ceschwindigkeibverteilung in der Grenzschicht an ciner cingctnucliten. I'lnttc. ZAMM 8 , 385-199 (1928); NACA 'I'M 685 (1930). [I51 Van der Hegge-Zijnen, B. G.: Mcnsnrcn~entaof the velocity distribntion in tho 1)oundary layer along n plnne surface. Tl~eaia,1)elft 1924. [IF,] Hownrth. I..: 0 1 1 the sol~ltionof the Inminar l>ortlidnrylnycr eqnntionu. Proc. Itoy. Soc. lmndon A 164, 647-570 (1038). 1171 Imni. I.: Second approxirnntion to tho lnrninnr b o ~ ~ n d n r y layer flow over IL flnt. plate. ,JAS 24, 155- 1Bti (1957). [I81 I,iopmon, 1%. W., and J>l~nwlm, Direct n~enauren~enta local akin friction in low-spcccl S.: of and 11igl1-speedflow. I'roc. First US Nnt. Congr. Appl. Meoli. 809 (1951). [18a] Mclnik, 1t.E.. and Chow, R.: Anympt,otic theory of t,wo-rlin~on~io~inl trniling eclgc flows. (irumnlnn ltescarch L)epartnlent itep. Rl3-510 (1976). [18b] Memitcr, A.J'.: Uo1111darylnyor Ilow ncnr the t,railing edgc of n flnt plntc. SLAM J . Appl. Mntl~.18, 241 -257 (1970). [In] Mcksyn, I).: New ~nel.lioclsin lnn~ir~nr bouncl~rrylnyer tlieory. I ~ n d o n , 1961. 120J Nik~lrndnc,.J.: I,nn~inarcRcibungnncliio~~lcr~ (lor liingnnngr~trii~nlcn nn 1'lnI.b. Monogrrrl)h. Zcntrnle f. wiea. 13crichbwese11, Berlin, 1042. 1211 I F d t l , L.: Uber Fliissigkeitsbeweg~~ng selir kleiner Steibnng. Proc. Third Intern. Mnth. bci zur Hydro- und Aerodynnniik. Congr. Heidolberg 1904. Itoprinted in: Vier Al)l~andlttngcn Giit,tingcn, 1927; NACA TM 452 (1928); s m also: CmII. Workn I I , 575-584 (191iI). 1221 l'rnndtl, I,: The mechanics of viscotls fluids. 111W.F. Uurnnd: Aerodynamic Theory I l l , 34-208 (1935). [23] l b t t a , J.C.: Grenzschichtt,heorie zweibr O r d n ~ t r ~fiir cl)ene und nchsensymmetri~chr g llyperscliallstromung. ZFW 15, 329k334 (1907). [24] y h m i d t , H., and Schriider, K.: Laminnre Grcnzsct~icl~ten. kritischor Literatnrberirht. 15in 1 a r t I : Gruncil~gendcr firenzschichttl~oorie. Loftfnhrtforscl~r~ng 65-97 (1942). 19, [25] Steinheuer, J . : Die Liisnngen dcr Blnsiosschcn (~rcnzsrl~icl~t~iiffercntinlgleicl~nng. Proc. Wias. Oes. Braunscliweig X X , 96-125 (1968). [25a] Skwnrbon, K . : Milltistrnctored borrndnry layers on flnt platen and rclnbd hodit*. Adv. Appl. Mech. 14, 140-23!3, ,2cndcn1ic J'reau, Now York, 1074. 1201 'J'oll~nien, W.: (:re~~z~ct~icl~ttlieoric. Ilandbt~chdcr 1Cxpcr.-l'ltyuik I I', Pnrt 1. 241-287 (1931). [27] 'riil>fcr, C.: 1~cr11crk1111g~:n zn dcni ,411f~nb~ 11. 1111mi11s: vnn ~~r,:r~~.s~!l~i(!l~l~~~~ in l~liin~iglc~~il~-n tnit klcincr J<ciI)nng.Z. M~rt,li.1'11yn. 60. :1!)7-:I98 (1!)12). 12XJ WoyI. It. : Cono~:rning t,l~cclillirrentinl eq~rnt,ionnoi sor~lcborlntl~~ry 11ryr.rI ) ~ ~ I ) I c I II'roc. IH. Nnt. Acatl. Sci. Washington 27, 578-583 (1941). [29] U'cyl, [I.: On the differential eq~lationsof tllr nirnplcnt 1)oundnry layer problrrns. i\nn. Mnt.11. 4.3, 381 4 0 7 (1942). [:go] .Innour, Z.: lZenista~iceof a flat plate a t low Jleynoldci nrln~bcrs.NACA TM 131(i (1951).

Cf

10

LO

roo

600

10 00

Fig. 7.1 1. Skin-friction coefficicnt, of n flat, plat^ of finite lcngtl~ t zero incitlcrlco a ( I ) 'f'llrory aftrr 11. Illnsius,oqn.(7.34) (2) l'l~cnrynncr A . 1'. Mrlrsitrr I 1 R I ) I . ' rqn. (7.00) A Tlirnry nrter I)r~lain (m~lulior~ of Nnvier-Stnkrsc~loaLio~~a) 0 ICxnc-ritrte~~Ia 7,. . I ~ I B ~ I I ~ nI.lvr 1301

Here, tlio trailing edge has been ncco~rntedfor, bnt not the displacerncnt effect. Tlic diirgrnrn in trig. 7.11, rcprotlnccd from tllc work of It. E. Mclnik nnd It. Chow [18a], shows t,l~at v:l.lucs of c, computed wibh t,hc aid of eqn. (7.60) ngrec very well witlr the resrrlts t.11~ obtained frorn the complck: Navicr-Stokes equntions as well as with those of ~neasnrerner~ts down to RI = 10. At Rl = 40 eqn. (7.60) leads to c, = 0.:316 which is less than 2% in excess of the exact vnlnc cl = 0.31 1. Sertion 1Xj will ret.r~rnto the discnssion of exact soltltions of houndnry-layer equations of srcoritl order.

References

111 13airstow, I,.: Skin friction. J. ltoy. Acro. Soc. 19, 3 (1025). 121 I%lnsios, M.: Grenzucl~ichtct~ Fliimigkeiten nit kleiner JEcibnng. Z. Mtrlh. J'hyn. .SF, 1-37 in (1008). Engl. transl. in NACA TM 1256. 131 Bolcy, B.A., and Friedn~an,M.B.: On the viscons flow aro~rndthe lcnding edge of a flat plntc. J A S S 26, 453-454 (1059). 141 Ihrgcrs, J.M.: The motion of n fluid in the borlndnry lnyer along a plane smooth surface. l'roc. First Intcrn. Congr. of Appl. Meell., Delft 1924 (C.B. Biezeno and J. M. Burgers, ed.) I)olft, 1925, pp. 113--128. [R] Carrier, (. I?., and I,in, C.C.: On t,tie nnturc of t,ll&bonndnry layor near t,lic leading edge ; of a fllrt plate. Qnnrt. Appl. Mnth. V I , 63-68 (lp48). [ti] I)linwnn, S.: Direct n~crcqurcmentaof skin friction. NACA Rep. 1121 (1953). [7] Van Dyke, M.: Higher npproxi~nntiona boundary layer theory. Pnrt 1: General analysis. in JI'M I4, lti1- 177 (1962). I'nrt 2: Application tm leerling edges. JFM 14, 481-495 (I!)62). I'nrt 3: I1nrrrl)oln in uniforrn streani. JI'M 1.7, 145-IR!) (1964). [R] Van Dyke, M.: I'crtnrbntion rnet,hodu in fluid mnchanicu. ~\cncle~nic Pre-%,New York, 1964. I91 Van 1)ykc. M.: Higher-order 0o11ndar.y Inyer theory. Annonl Iteview of F'l~~icl Mech. I, 2tiR 2!)2 (I!)(;!)).

a. Drpel~denrc of

the rhnmcteristicn of

n.

boundary lnyer on tllr llry~~oldn IIIIOIIIPT 151

tlinler~sionlcssquantities were used; all velocities were referred to t,hc free-strcnrn velocity IT,,, all lengths having been retfuced with t,hr aitl of n cl~aractcristic length of t h r botly, 11. 1)enoting all tlirner~sionlcssmagnitutfes I I n prime, thus ?r/fJm,= u ' , ~ . . . , x / L = z', . . . , wc obtain the following equations for the steady, two-tlimrr~sionnl
CRSR

CIIAFTER VIII

Gencral propertiee of the boundary-layer equatione


12cforc: pnssi~lgt,o t.11~ cn.lcr~l:lt,io~~ of furtl~crcxarnplcs of bountlnry-layer llow i I I t.lla next, chnpt,rr, we prol)ost: first, t.o tliscrlss some grncral propertics of tJlc bound:~ry-l:rycr t:qr~atiorls. 111 tloing so we sl~nllronfinc our ntttlention t o steady, twotlirr~ension:~l, ant1 i r ~ c - o ~ r ~ ~ ) r t ~ s s i ~)~ ( ~( l I:lyt!rs. l)o I ln nr~ Alt,hougl~ . 1 1 ~~)o~~ntl;trj--l:i.yt~r t rclr~:ttionsllnvc h e n simplified t o n great axt,crlt., a s colr~l):wctl\vit.l~t,hr Nnvir~.-St.oltcs rclr~xt,ions.t,hoy arc still so tlifficrllt from t ' l ~ e mat31ren~nt.ical ~)oinlof vie\\, t.l~:lt.trot, vdry marly gcncml s t , a t c n ~ r r ~:rborrt tlicrn ts ran I,c n~atle. 'I'o I,c:gin wit.ll, it. is import-antft o not.ice t h a t t,he Nnvier-Slolrcs aqlla.t,io1ls:trc or t , I ~ t ?c,llil)t.ic.typa \vit,h rrspcct t,o tllc c:oorclin:~l,c.s,n ~ h c r m s Prnnrlt.l's l ~ o ~ ~ t ~ t I : ~ . r y~ l ; t ~ ~ t:~ r,:LI-O i o~~:ir;ti)olic,, is : c o ~ ~ s t ~ t ~ ~ ~ t ~ sin~plifyit~g -t ~ ~ l, t~s It L or 1-IIC r ~ ( ~ r nss~rrnpt,iol~s I)ountl;rry-layc?r t,l~coryt h a t t,he pressure can be assr~mcticonstant it1 ill R clircction n.t right :~nglcst o t h e hountl:lry Inycr, whereas along t h e wall the 1wess1rrc can I,c r c p r d e t l a s being "imprcsscd" I)g t l ~ c external flow so t h a t it bcc.otncs a givrn I'rlnc:l.iorl. 'rhr rcsr~lt~ing omission of t,hc arlnntion of motion perpentlicr~l:irt.o t l ~ e tlirccLiotl of flow can be i ~ ~ t c r p r c t cpl~ysicnllyI)y stat,ing t h a t a fluit1 tl ~);trt.ic.la tha l)our~tl:lryIaycr has zcro mass, nntl s~~lTers frietionnl tlrag, as far in 110 ;rs it,s motlion in t.11r t.mnsvcrsc ctiroct,ior~is conccrnccl. I t is, tl~crcforc,clear t,l~a.t~ with sr~t:lrfrlntl;trnc~t~t,al cl~nngcsi n t r o t l ~ ~ c cint,o the cqtlat,ions of motion we mnsb d :~nt.ic.ipatc t.ll:~t, t,llcir solrlt,iot~s will exhibit certain n~:ltl~cmatical singnlarities, :111(1 t.ll:lt, :tgrrrrncr~t I,c:t,wrcr~ol)scrved :t11(1 ~illt:~~lat,ed phrrlon~onncannot always scc nlso cqs. (7.10) t,o (7.12).IIerc R dcllotcs t.lrc ltcynolds n11rnbc.r forlnt>tl \vit.h t,)lc nit1 of 1 . 1 1 ~ rcfcrencc qunnt,itics

I t is seen from eqns. ( 8 . 1 ) and (8.2) that, the bountlnry-layer solut,ior~ dcpcnds on onc parameter, the Iteynolds nrrrnber R, if the shape of the botly, and, hcnc:c, t,llc potential motion U 1 ( x ' )are given. By t h e use of a further trxnsformation i t is possible to c1irninnt.c tllc Rcyrloltls number also from crlns. (8.1) nnd (8.2). If wt: p111.

eqns. ( 8 . 1 )and ( 8 . 2 )transform into:


u1

a?!: + ax'

,I ,t

ay"

a - U' dU' + -....c dz' 32 u '


ay'j2

'

with the boundary conditions: v' = O and v" = O a t


a Ueprrltlrrlcc of tllr cl~nrnctrriuticsof n bo~lrlclnrylnycr or1 t l ~ r . Ilcynoltls rltlml~rrt

?/'I

- 0 and

71' . =

U' a t y'' =a.

,, J hese equatdons (lo not now contain the R.cynolrls numl)cr, so t h a t t l ~ e solrrtions
'I'ho assu~npt~ions l ~ i c l warc rn;~tlcirt t l ~ ntlt:riv:lt.ion of t,hc t)ouritlnry-lnycr w ~ rqrtnt.ions are s:~tisfictlwith a n increasing tlcgrce of accurncy as the Itaynoltls number ir~c:rrnses.,,hrls hountl:~ry-lnycr thcory can bc regardcd a s n process of nsymplolic l i~itrgmtiol~f t,llr Nn.vier-Bt,olrrs rqnn.t,ions nt 11cl.y In.rge Itcyrloltls nr~rnl,c~.s*. o 'rhis sl.:~tc~mrnt, Irntls 11s 11ow to R tlisc~ission of the yclntiortship bet.wcen t(11c Itcynoltls nirmhcr anrl t . 1 ) ~chn.rnctt~rist.icsof R t,orindnry 1h.yer on our individrlal body-under consitlcrat,iorl. I t , will 1)a reanllctl t,hat in tfllctlcrivst~ion the boundary-lnyer equations of of this system, i. e. t.he functions u1(z', and v" ( s fy"), are also indeperltlent of t h e y") , Reynolds number. A variation in the Rcynoltls number cnnscs a n nffinc t,rnnsformation of tho boundary lnynr during which t.110ordinn.t,o nntl the vclonily in 1,11(. transverse direction arc mult,iplictl by R-'I2. I n othcr wortls, for n given botly tho tlimcn~ionless velocity componcnt,s M / U , ant1 ( v / ( l , ) . ( l J , L / V ) ' / n.ro f~~r~cl.iorls ~ o f the dimensionless coortlinates z / L and (?//I,). ( ( I , I , / V ) ' ~the frlnctions, marc,. ~; over, d o not depend on t,hc Rcy~loldsn ~ i m b c r n y longer. a l~ The practical importance of this principle o/ nim.ilat.il?y~ o i f respo-1 lo Ilr!/nold.~ nirmher consists in thc fact t h a t for a given body shape it suffir:cs t o fir~tl solrtt,iot~ the to the l~oundary-layer problem only once in terms of the above tlimcnsionless varia1)lcs.

162

VIII. General properties of the boundary-layer equations

b. 'Sin~ilnr'solutions or the boundnry-lnycr cqunt,ions

163

Such a solution is valid for a n y Reynolds number, provided t h a t the boundary layer is laminar. I n particular, i t follows further t h a t the position of t h e point of separation is independent of the Reynolds number. The angle wl~ich formed between is t h e streamline through the point of separation and the body, Fig. 7.2, simply decreases in t h e ratio 1/R1I2a s t,he Reynolds number increases. Rforrovrr, t,l~c far!, l,l~:~t, srpar:ll ion tlors t:~ltcpl:lcr i?i prcsrrvrtl wl~c*n process tlicof passing t o t h e limit R + co is carried out. T l ~ n s in t h e case of body shapes wl~iclt , cxhibit separation, t h e boundary-layer theory presents a totally different picture of the flow pattern than t h e frictionlcss potential theory, even in the limit of R 4 0 0 . T h i s argument confirms t h e conclusion which was already emphatically stressecl in Chap TV, namely t h a t the proccss of passing t o t h e limit of frictionlcss flow must themselves; it may only be undernot be pei-formed in the differential cq~tat~ioris talren in t h e integral solution, if physically meaningful rcsrllts are t o be obtained.

I t will be recallad t h a t with the similarity transformution T ] = y r,cqn. (7.24), we ohtained a n ordinary differcntial cquation, eqn. (7.28), for tho s t r c a n ~ function /(q), instead of t h e original partial diKercntial eclnatior~s. We shall now concern ourselves with the t y ~ ~ oof potential flows for s wl~ich . s ~ ~ c t ~ 'similar' sol~~l.ions exist. l'l~is prol)lom WILH (I~N(:IIHH(:~I t , ~ r o n (t , ( , ( . l ~ . i l i I f i t . ~ tby S.( : o l t l ~ l , o i1.4j, w ~ t l lr~l,orby W. Mt~nglcr [!)J. ,'1'11(: poi11t or d(:pt~r!,~~rt> ~ ~~ is t o consider t h e boundary-layer equations for plane stdady flow, cqns. (7.10) and (7.11) together with eqn. (7.5s), which can be written as

1 / ~

-- --/v

au &

-t av= o , ay

1 . 'Similnr* soletions o f the boundary-lnyer cquntions 1

t h e boundary conditions 1)cirig ?r. a -- O for = 0, :hr~tlu - I/ for ?/ --. oo. 'l'ho cc~n:lt,ion of c:or~t~ir~uit~y is it~tc:gratctl by t,l~ointroc111c:l.ion of t l ~ e tilrc:rrn ftrnc:l,ior~ y ( x , 11) wibh
=7 -

A sccond, ancl very important, question arising o u t of the s o l ~ ~ t ~of boundaryion layer equations, is the investigation of the conditions untlcr which two solr~tior~s arc 'similar'. We shall define here 'similar' solutions a s those for which the component u of t h e velocity has the propcrty t h a t two velocity profiles u ( z , y) locat.ecl a t tfifferent coordinates x differ only by a scale factor in u a n d y. Therefore, in t h e rase of such 'similar' solutions t h e velocity profiles u ( x , y) a t all values of x can 1)e m a d r congrnent if they are plotted in coordinates which have been made dimensionless wit11 reference t o the scale factors. Such velocity profiles will also sometimes be e:llled mifine. The local potential velocity U(x) a t section x is a n obvious scale factor for u, because t h e dimensionless u ( x ) varies with y from zero t o unity a t all sections. The scalc factor for y denoted by g(x), must be made proportional t o the local boundary-layer tl~ickncss.The requirement of 'similarity' is seen t o reduce itself t o the requirement; t h a t for two arbitrary sections, x, and x,, the componer~ta ~ ( xy) mustf satisfy the following equation ,

T h u s t h e equation of motion bccon~cs

with the boundary conditions ay/az = 0 and ap/ay = 0 for y = 0, and ay/ay = IJ for y = oo. I n order t o discuss the question of 'similarity', dimensionless quantities are introduced, a s was done in See. V I I I a . All lengths are reduced with the aici of a suitable reference length, L, a n d all velocities arc made dimcnsionlcss wit11 rdference t o a suitable velocity, I / , . As a result the Reynolds number

't'hc! bountlary layer nlong a flat plate a t zero incidence considered in the preceding
r11apt.er possessed this property of 'similarity'. The free-streani velocity U was , the scalc factor for u, and the scale factor Sol y was equal t o the quantity g = v x/U, which was proport,ionnl t o the boundary-layer thickness. All velocity profiles became it1ent.ica.l in a ~ l o t u/IJ,, against y/g = y )/ U,/v x = T ] , IFig. 7.7. Similarly, of the rases of t,wo- and threc-clirnerisiorlal stagnation flow, Chap. V, afforded examples of solutions whic:l~ proved t o be 'similar' in the present sense.

appears iri the cqn;ition. S i m u l t a n e o ~ ~ sthe y-coordinate is reforred t o tlte ~limonsionly les~ scale factor q(x), so t h a t we p u t

1/

I he quest, for 'similar' sol~it~ions particulyly irnporbant with respect to is

t.he mnthen~nt.icnlcl~trrnct~cr the solut.iorl. I n cnses when 'similar' soluiions exist of it. is pwsil)lr, 11s we sl~nllsre in ~norc? ctrtnil later, to reducc the system of partial dilTrrent.inl eqrlnt,ions t o onc involving ordinary differential equations, which, evidcntly, cot-~st,it.ntcsa considerable mathematical simplification of the problem. 'i'he h o ~ ~ n c l a rlayer along a flat p1at.c can serve a s a n example in this respect also. y

proposed by F. Sc11uIt.z-Grunow[Gn, 15a], ninkes it poasiblc to rcduce uevcrnl problems involving self-similar solutiolis to that of bl~e plate at zero incidence. If A = 612 R is cl~oscl~ flnt as the curvature parametor, the trnnaformntions can be npplicd to flows nlong longitudinnlly curved walls with bl~lnt shnrp lending edges as well ns wit,h blowing or s~lctior~ or (Cl~npt. XIV). The preceding trnnsfnrmation is exnct to second ordcr in cnrvnt,~~rc which men118tbnt all t,crms of the ordcr A hrivr been incl~~ded.

164

VIII. Ccnernl propertic8 of Lhe bo~~ndnry-layer eq~lntiotis

b. 'similar' solution of the boundary-lnycrequntioris

155

T h e fact,or I / ~ - f o t,he ortlinabe already appcarod in cqn. (8.4). 'rho stream fnnct,iorl r is m ~ t l e di~ncrisionloss t.ho suhst,it,~lt~ior~ by

This cquat,iorl was first given by V. M. Falkner and S. W. S k n r ~ [2], and its solutions were lat,er studied in tlctail by I). R. 1l:trtrce 101. We sllall revert t o this poi11t; i r ~ the surceeding c h a p t ~ r .
~ ( z )From .

10 remains riow t,o dctarlnino from nclti. (8.14) Cllc nondit.iorls for l J ( z ) ancl (8.14) we oht,nin first

where the prirne in /' clenot.cs difircnt,iat,iort wit,ll respect, to 71, and wit,h rf:spc?ot, t o z in g'. It. is now seer1 directly from cqn. (8.12) tlhat the vc1ocit.y [)rofilc-s ~ s ( x11) , nre similar in t.lro previonsly tlcfincd scnso, when t,llc st,rc:lm firnc:l.iot~ tlel)t:ntls only / on tllc O I I C vnri:tblc 7 , ecln. (8.10), so t,I~:it, t.ho clcl)ct~tlcnc:c f j on [ i~ c.anccllctl. o Iri t l r i ~(:we, moreover, the p:~rti:tl tliffcre11li:~lecl~l:lt,ior~ I,llc st,ream Functioir, For eqn. (s.!)), mtl.sL retlrlce itsclf 1.0 nrr orc1in:~rytliffcrcr~li:rl ccluntion for j(?). If we rlow proceed to investigate the corlrljt,ions untlcr whiclr this retlllctiorl~oi eqn. (8.9) takes placr, we slli~llobtlnin t,ltc condition wliic;l~must be snt,isfictl 1)y tlie potont.ial flow IJ (2) for s r ~ c 'similar' solut,iot~s o exist.. l~ t If we intfroducc now t.llc tlimcnsiorllcss variables from eqris. (8.10) a n d (8.1 1) int,o cqn. (8.9), we obt,n.in tile following tliffcrenlial ccluation for /((, q):

l"rl~rt~l~rr (8.14) we llavc from


a - D r .

L 99'

ant1 I t n ~ ~ c c

where I< is a constal~t. The elin~inationof g froin cqnc (8.17) ant1 (8.18) yic,l(ls t.lle velority dist,ributiotl of the potcnt,ial flow

:~tltl

1'

-- 0 lor

w l ~ r r rI" -- tll'ltlr 'I'll(, 1no11ntl:~ry rontlitions for rcln. ( 8 13) :I,(. ?I - - 0 and 1' -- I for 11 = r-a.

0 :~ntl

I t will 1 ) rc.r:lllcd (,hat the case 2 a ~

0 11:~sl)(-t.ll rsc.l~rtlrtl.

'Sitni1:tr' soIt~t.ions . ~ i s lonly IVIIOII / :i11(1 (lo not, (Ic:p(:n(l on 6, i. (:. ~ I I c ! IJIV t /' ~ rigl~l,-l~:~rlrl t l vo f ocln. (8.13) vanish(:s. Sitr~~rll,:~.ttro~~sIy ~i 111c cocffi~i(:nt,sa ant1 P 01; t.hc Irft,-ltnncl sitlo of cyn (4.13) rn~tst* itrtlo~,cntlcn~ x, i. c., l.lrcy must, I)(: 11,. of (~otist,;~tit.. l:il,l,cr (:o~~tIit,ion, 'l'l~is rotnk)it~(xi wit11 cqn. (8.14), frtrnisl~csl,wo (~tlrl~:~t,ions for ( l i t ? ~)ol.cnl,i:l~l vc,loc-il.~. : ( R - ) ant1 t , l ~ c I scnlo f:tc:t,or q ( z ) for t.11o ortlinal.r, so t.11:11, t l t ~ y(>:III I)<*I~\*:LIII:~I,C<I. ll(:r~cx:, il' si1nil:~r s o l t ~ t , i o ~ ~ sl ) o ~ r t ~ ~ I : ~ r y - l : ~ y carc l o or flow r (,xis1 , t I t ( * s t . r ( ~ ~ n~ t n ( . l , i o(~ I ) I I I I I S ~ , s:~l,isfy t,ll(: fnllo~ving or(lin:try (lilTcrcnt~i:~l fi / ?~

a nntl p, ns i t ran I)c ittcludcd in g. Therefore ns long a s a 0 it is perrnissiblc t,o pnt a =- -1- 1 wit.llorlt, loss of gcneralit,y. I t is, furthcrrnorc, c.onvrrlient t,o irlt.rot1t1c.c
:I.

As srcn from cqn. (8.14) tJle result, is intlrpentlrnt of a n y comnloll f:lct,or of

trow c.or~st.:~.r~t~ roplacc 111 t.o

l)y pr~I,t.ing

so t11:1l., wiI.11 a = 1, the vc1orit.y clisf.ril)~lt~iott t.llc% of ~)otc,t~l.inl : ~ l ~ t.11~: flow r l sc::tltr I:lc:bor ! for t.llc ordinnt,c 1)ccomc /

VI11. Gcncrnl properttiesof the boundary-layer cqrrations

cl. Trnnsformation of the boundary-layer equations into the hcat-conduction equntion 157

and t.hc tmnsformation rcluation (8.10) for the ordinatc is

I t is Ll111s concludccl l.h:rt, siniil:~r solul.ior~s Lhc bou~ttlary-layer ccli~nt.ionsarc of ol)taincd when t h c vclocit,y tiistriI)i~t.ior~ thc potcnt.ial flow is proportional to a of power of thc lcngth of arc, rncnsurcd along 1.11~ wall from the stagnation point. S u r l ~pot.cntial flows occur, in fact, in the ncighbourhood of thc stagnation point of a wedge whose inclutfcd anglc is cqnal t o n /?,as shown in Fig. 8.1. I t is easy t o verify with thc aid of potcr~tialtheory t.liat we havc hcrc

The case a = 0 : The case a = 0 which has, so far, bcen left o u t of account, leads, a s is easily inferred from eqn. (8.19), t o potentinl flows U ( z ) which arc proportional t o l / z for a11 values of /?.Depending on the sign of U this is the case of a two-climensional sink or source, and can also be intarprctcd ns flow in a divcrgrnt, or convorgcnt c.hanncl with flat walls. This type of flow will also be consitlcretl in grratcr tlctiiil in Chap. 1X. Thc second casc excluded earlier, namely t h a t when 2 a - /? - 0, leads t o . 'similar' solutions with U ( x ) proportional t o ep2, where p is a positivc or negativc constant.. We shall, howcver, rcfrain from discussing this casc. , problem of the cxist,cncc of similar solutions i~lvolving Lhc non-stcatly bonntlary layers was discussed l)y 11. Schuh [l!j]; thc same problcm in rclation t o c o n ~ ~ ~ r c s s i l ~ l o boundary layers will I)c tlisc~rsscdin Scc. X I I I d .

d. Transformation of the boundary-layer cquations into the heat-conduction equation

whcrc C is a constant. The rclnt.ionsllil) k)rtwccn t,hc wedge angle factor /? ant1 t h r rxpor~rrit, is cxactly t h a t givcn in cqn. (8.21). m

It. von Miscs [lo] published in 1927 a rcmarkablc transfornation of t.hc boundary-layer cquations. This transformation cxhibita thc mathematical chnract.cr of t h e equations even more clcarly than the original form. Inslcad of tho C:~rtasi:rn coordinates z and y, von Miscs introcluced the stream function y ~ ,together with the lcngth coordinate z a s indcpcntlcnt variables. Substituting

into eqns. (7.10) and (7.11), a s wcll a s introducing t h e ricw coordinatcs [ = x anti r ] = tp instcad of z a n d y, we obtain Fig. 8.1. Flow pas1 a \vcdge. I n t l ~ cneighhourI~r~orl tho leading cdgc Ilm pobn1i:d vrlocit,y of rli~l.rib~~l.ion is lJ(z) C r m

Particular case8 for n = I: ( a ) For =- I we have n = I, ant1 cqn. (8.22) hccorncs : U ( z ) = rc 2. 'l'liis is thc case of two-din~rnsional strqn.nl~:on /loin, which was considered i r l Snc. Vl) 9, and which locl t,o an cx:~ct, solut.ion of thc: Navier-Sl.oltcs cclu:rt,ior~s. WiI,ll a -- I, nncl /? =-: I , the tli&:rcnt,i:ll eclrlation (8.15) transforms irlt,o c q r i (5.39) \rvhich was already considcrcd carlicr. 'l'hc transformat,iori equation for thc ordinate, ccln. (8.24). hccorncs idcr~t~ical with thc alrcaciy familiar oquation (5.38), if we put, IJ/z -- a.

J-Ience, from eqn. (7.10), i t follows t h n t

Introducing, Furthcr, t h e 'total head'

(b) For /? =- 0 wc have nh -- 0, hrncc IJ(z) is const,ant and c q ~ l a t o U,. This is l t.licc:ascof :~/lccll d e d zero incirhnce. ltfollowsfrop cqn. (8.24)t h a t r ] =y U,/2 v z . p 'I'his val~rc tlifli:rs only by a faclor 1/2 from t h a t i~it,roduccd cqn. (7.24). Correspondin /"' ingly t,hc clifTc:rcntial c q ~ ~ a t i o n $-//" = 0 which follows from cqn. (8.15) differs by a fiu:t.or 2 in Ohc snconcl term from nqn. (7.28) whic11 was solved cerlier. The two ecl~lat,ions hrcomo idc~ll~ical whnn tsransformcd t o identical dcfinit.ions of r ] . Soli~t,ionfor diiTcrer~t,valuos of m will be corisiclercd latcr in Chap. IX.

1/

wherc t h e small quantity

p v2 can bc ncglcctcd, wc obtain, reverting t o Lllc s y m l ~ o l

z for l :

We m a y also p o t

158

VIII. General ppropcrtics of t,llc boundary-layer cqr~nLions

r. Tlrc rno~nenlrlrn ant1 rrrrrgy-irrfrgrnl cqr~rilions IIrr I)o~lt~tlnry for I;ryt-r

159

I'ltl~tation (8.27) is a tliffrrrnt,ial equation for f8ho t o t d prrssuro g ( x , vi), and its I)orrtrtlary rontlit.ions arc
g = p ( x ) for rl, = 0 and g = .p ( 2 ) -1- 2
Q

ror~tlit.ions,togct.l~er with crrt,air~ cornpnt.ibilit,y ~ontlit~iotrs. t.ho remaining rc-gion In


of flrtitl in the boundary layer only a mean over the tliffcrcrrlial ~qunt~iotr satisfictl, is

U 2 -- const for

)I)

= co .

111 ortlrr I,o rrl)t.rst?tiI,1,Irc flow in 1 . 1 1 ~ l)l~ysirn.l ~,l:tno ?I, is ncct~ss:r.ryl o t.r;~nsli)rtn n', it, l'ron~ill l,o ?/ \viI,lt t,he :r,itI ol' IJICct111:~tiotr

tlic nIcnn heing t:~kenover the wlrole tlliclrncss of t h e boundary layer. Such :I nre:trr vnl~rcis oht.airret1 from t,he ~nonientumequation wlticl~is, in t,nrn, tlerivrtl l'rorn t , l ~ e t>q~t:itio~~ of niol.iorr I ) j r it~t~rgmt~ion tlrc bor~ndary-1:~ycr over t.hicknc:ss. Sirrrr (.Iris t-tlrt:~,tiottwill Ipc oll,t.rr 11s(*t1r t.110 ~ ~ l ) ~ ~ r o x i t r~~ r l .~ : . I ~ o tIN> ~ I ~ H ~ : I IINIS ( ~jvt. . it r t i t ( ~ to I ~ , : ~I I. I slr~II tIe(Iucc it now, writing i t tlowt~ it,s tnotlcrtr fnrtn. T l ~ eqrt:it3ionis ktrow~l t,Ir(: in c :LS nlo~ttentunt-integwlequation of boundary-laycr theory, o r a s v o r ~l<iir~n;in'sirrtc~gr:rl c q ~ ~ n t i o(7J tr \\'c sltnll rcsl,rict ourselves 1.0 t,lrc cnsc of slc~:ttly,t.\vo-tlitnct~sit~tti~l, ~ ti r ~ t - o ~ n :~r l ~)ressiblcflow, i. c., we sliall refer t o cqns. (7.10) tso (7.12). Upon intcgr:ttit~gt,lle rqu:it.ion of motion (7.10) with respect t o 11, from ?/ = 0 (wall) t,o ?I =- 11, wllcrc 1.11~ I:~ycr?/ 1 IL is c?verywhLrc out,sitle t.lrc b o ~ ~ n t l n rIaycr, we obtain: y
h

JSq~mtion (8.27) is relat,ed t o t,hc Ircat-conduction e q ~ ~ a t ~ i oTile tliffercnt,ial n. rt~nn.t.ion t,ho one-dimct~sional for case, e. g. for a bar, is given by

whrrc 7 tlenot,cs t h e t.cmpernl.t~rr, tlcnoLcs 1.11~ ' t t,in~c, rc is t,ho t,llrrmal tliKr~siviLy, n.ntl scc Chap. X I I . Jlowevcr, the transformed I)o~~ndary-layer cqnat,ion, unlike eqn. (8.28), is non-linear, ~ C C S I I S tlro thermal tliffilsivity is rr1)laced by v .IL, which tlopentls on ~ the indcpentlent variable x, a s well a s on the tlepcndent, varinl~le g. At tblrewall, VJ = 0, 14 = 0, q -- I), eqn. (8.27) exllibit,~ n unpleasant si11gularit.y. a Ttrr Irft.-t)n.ntl side becomes ag/ax = tlp/tlx 0. On the right,-hand side we have 16 = 0, nntl, therefore, azg/avi2 = oo.This circumst,xnce is dist.r~rbing whrn numerical methods are used, and is inl;imat,nly conncct,ctl with the singt~larbelraviortr of t.11e velocity profilc near tho wall. A detailed tlisoussiorr of eqn. (8.27) was given by I,. I'mndt,l [I I], who had dt:tlnccd the tmnsfornration a long time before t,he paper by It. von Misen appcnmd, wit.hout,, however, publishing it?, c I . [ I , 12, 161. 11. ,J. 1,11oltcrt [8] npplictl cqn. (8.27) t o tire example of t.lle borlrtdary laycr on a flat plat>ein order t o test its pmct.icnbilit,y. 1,. Rosenhead and H. Simpson [I31 ga.vc a. c:rit.icnl cliscnssior~of t,hc preceding pul)lic*nt,iotr.

'rhr slrenrittg stress a t tho wall, T,, has l~rcrtsr~bstitutctlfor p(au/ay),, so t l t : ~ t rqrr (8 21)) is sern t o br valid both for laminar and t u r b ~ ~ l e n t flows, on cot~clition that, in t l ~ e latter case u a n d 7~ deuotr the time averages of tlre respechive velocity rotnponents. The normal velocity ron~ponrr~t,,can be rcplacrd by v - - J (iI~/r?z)d v, . y, as srcn from the c q u a t . i o ~ ~ continuity, antl, conscq~~cttt.ly, have of we
Y

1nt.rgrxting hy part,s, we obt,airi for the second t,erln

e.

Tl~c nio~ncnttlm an11 energy-integral eqrrntions for the boundary layer

so t h a t

A complete calculation o l the hountlary laycr for a given body with the nit1 of tlre differ~rit~ial eql~at~ions in Inany cases, a s will 60 seen in more detail in t h e is, next chapter, so cunihersomc and time-consuming t h a t it can only be carried o u t with t.ho a.itl of : n clcct,ronic computer (sec also See. 1X i). I t is, tlicreforc, desirable L 1.0 possess nt Im,st approxi~natc mrtllotls of solnt.ion, to be applied in cases w11en a n exact so111I.ionof t , t ~ c bo~lntjnry-l:~ycr et111at.ions canrrot I)c obtained wit11 a rcasor~ablc an~oltnt, work, cvctl if thoir :iccumcy is only limited. Strcl~ of approximate ~not,Irotls can he tlevisctl if we d o not insist on satisfying t.11~ tlifferential equations for every fluitl part.icle. Irtst~catl, t.he b o ~ ~ n d a r y - l a yeqr~ation ~at~isfietl a st,ratrtm near the er is in wall nntl n m r t11e region of transitior~1.0 t,he external flow by satisfying the boundary
-

j ~ ~ u w - ~ ) ~ ( 1dz J ( u 1- (Ir' ? 1
0
0

-U)CIY -=

zn. e

(8 29:l)

1 Srr foot,no(r on 1). 79 or rci. ( I 11 and t l ~ Irtlrr of I,. rrandtl t,o ZAMhl 8.249 ((1028). r
?

Since in both intcgmls the ir~t~egrnrld vanishes outsitle 1,lic boundary Inyrr, i t is prrn~issiblct o p u t h + oo . We now introduce t h e displacement thicknrss, a, and the momcrrtr~nl , tlricl~tr~ss, d,, which have nlrcady brcn lirtrd in Chap. VIJ. They arc dc,fincd I)y

160

VITT. General propertirs of the boundary-layer equations


9, U =

d. The rnolncnti~rn and energy-inkgrnl equations for the bounclary layer

161

and

y=o

1( U - ~ ) d y
a ,

(displacement thickness) , (morncntum thickness) .

(8.30)

sidc rcpresenta the loss in mechanical encrgy (kinetic and pressure encrgy) taking place in the boundary layer as compared with the potential flow. IIcnce the tcrm

4 p n/ u ( U 2 -u2)
(8.3 1)

dy

T C I ) T O S C ~ the ~~

flux of clissipntcd encrgy, ant1 tho Icfl.-l~r~~ltl sitie

6, U2 =

u(U-U) d y

It will be not& t,llat in the first tcrm of the eqn. (8.29a), differentiation with respect to x , and integration with respect to y, may bo interchanged as the upper limit h
is independcnt of z IIence .

rrprescnts the rate of chnngc of thc flux of tlissipatctl cnrrgy p r r i~nit, 1c:ngt.11 i l l I.ht. x-(1irectpion. If, in acldition to the displacement, and momentum thickncss from eqns. (8.30) and (8.31) ,.espeotjivcly, we introduce the r1issip.ation-energy thickness, d,, from the definition

U3 a3 = [u(U2-u2) d y
0

(energy tlricltness),

(8.34)

we can rewrite thc crtcrgy-inbgral equation (8.33) in the following sirnplifictl form:

This is t,hc momenlum-integml eq&ion lor two-dime~~ional, incompressible boundary ln?yers. As long m no statement is madc concerning T ~ eqn. (8.32) applies to laminar , boundary layers nlike. This form of the momentum inhegral equation and t ~ ~ r b u l c n t was first given by 11. Gruscl~wita[5].It finds its application in the approximate thcories for laminar and turb~rlent boundary layers (Chaps. X , X I and X X I I ) . Using a sirnilnr approach, K . Wicghnrtlt [17] dcduced a n energy-inlcgral e q d i o n for laminar boundary layers. This cqrlation is obtained by multiplying the equation of motion by u and then inkgrating from y = 0 to y = h > a(%). Substituting, again, v from thc equation of continuity we obtain

which rcpresents the energy-integral eqmtion for two-dimnsionnl, lnminnr boundary l yers i n ineom.pre.~sibleflmu t. u I n onlcr to visualize thc displacement thickness, the momentum thickness, and the cncrgy-dissipation thickness, i t is convenient to calculate thcm for thc simplc case of linear velocity distribution, as shown in Fig. 8.2. I n this casc we find: displacement thickness momentum thickness cncrgy thickncss

dl

= )6 6,=+d d, -= 1 d .

The second term can bc trarlsformcd by integrating b y parts: The extension of the preceding approximatc method to axially symmetrical boundary layers will be discussed in Chap. XI. Approximate mot hod^ for thermal boundary layers are trcatcd in Sec. X I I g ; those for compressible and non-steady bountlary Iaycrs will bc given in SCC.X I I I ~ 1 and Chap. XV, rcspcctivcly. wlrercas by combining tlrc first with the thircl tcrm we have
h

Fig. 8.2. Boundary layer wit11 lineor vclocity distribution


d - boanrlary-lnycr tl~ickncss 6, - clisplaccment thickness d, - momentsm thickness 4. - Energy lhicknesa

Finally, upon integrating tlrc right-hand side by pnrts, we obtain

'l'lic upper linrit of ir~tegrat~ion coultl here, too, be rcplaced b y y = oo, becausc the intcgrantls become cqual to zero outaide the boundary layer. The quantity p (&I*)' represent8 the energy, per unit volumc and time, which is transformed into heat by frictiorr (tlissipation, cf. Chap. XTI). Tho term & e (U2-u2) on the 1~"-Ilant1

In the case of turbulont flowtr, the energy-irtbgral equation wsurnes tho form

162

VIII. General propertien of the boundary-layer equations


References

[I] Hct,z, A. : Zur Bcrcclrnung des Uhcrgnnges Intninnrer Grenzschicht~t~ die Auxset~utrijmrrng. in I'ifty yorrs of bortndnry-lnyer rcscarch (CV. Tolltnicn atld 11. Giirtler, ed.). Brnot~scl~wcig, 1955, 03-70. [2] Falkncr, V.M., ancl Skan, S.W.: Some npproxitnntc solr~tiono the hotlnclnry Inyer equaof ttono. I'hil. Mag. 12, 865-890 (1031); AltC RM. 1314 (11130). [W] (:cis, Th.: K l ~ n ~ i c h o Crenzscl~ichtenan Jtot.etio~~nlriirporn. Fifty years of borrtttlnry lnyer researcl~(W. Tolln~icn nnd II. Cvrtler, cd.), Ur~utrschweig.1955, 294-303. 141 Goldstcin, S.: A t ~ o t a trlrcbor~ndnry on lnyer cquntions. Yroc. Cambr. Pl~il. Soc. 35, 338-340 , (1039). [5] Gr~~soltwit,z, Die turhr~lentc? I<.: IZ.cil~ungsncl~icl~tcl~cncr in Stfriin~rtng I)rt~cltnl~f~~ll bci rt~rtl 1)rucknnnLieg. It~g.-Arch. 321 -340 (11):11). 2, [ O ] Hnrt,reo, I>.R.: 0 1 s n equation occurring in Fnlkncr and Skan's npproxitrlate trentnrrnt 8 of t,l~o equntiorrs of the bortndnry Inynr. Proc. (:n~nl)r.l'l~il.Soc. 33, l'art. 11. 223 -239 (1!):17). Ifin1 - Holt. M.: I3asie d e v e l o ~ m e n t ~ Ilttid dgnnn~ics.Corrtribrttion of P. Schultz-Grunow and in I W. lireuer, 377-436, k e w York, 19G5. [7] von KBrm&n, Th.: Obcr ln~ninarcu r ~ dturbulentc Jtcibung. ZAMM 1, 233-253 (1921). Engl. trnnsl. in NACA T M 1092; ncc nlso Coll. Works 11, 70-~-97, London 1056. [R] Ltlckert, H. J.: u b e r die I n t e g r a l i o ~ ~ I)iKerctrt,inlgloicl~u~tg der eitrcr Gleitnolricl~tin ziilrcr Fliinoigkcit. I)~RR. Ilorlin 1!)33, reprirrbctl in: Scltriftcn dcs Mnth. Seminars, IIIR~,.nngcw. f. Math. dcr Univ. 13crlin 1 , 245 (1!):1:1). 191 Mttnglor, W.: 1% "iil~ttliclrcn" Liisrntgntr dcr ProttdLluchen C r o n z s c l ~ i c l ~ l ~ g l c i c l ~ ~ ~ r l g c ~ ~ . ZAhlM 23, i41-251 (1943). vorr Miscs, It.: Iletnerkungen zur Hydrodynnmik. ZAMM 7, 425-431 (1927). Pranrltl, I,.: Zur 13erechnung der Grenzscl~ichtsn.ZAMM 1 8 , 77-82 (iR3H); see also Coll. Works 11, 063-672, , J . Itoy. Aero. Soc. 45, 35-40 (19413, and NACA TM 959 (1940). Itiegels, 17.. and Znnt, J.: Znm f)bergnng von (:retizschiclrt,en in die rtngestiirtc? St.riinrnng. Nachr. Akati. Wiss. cot tin get^, hlntl~.Yhya. Klasae, 42-46 (1947). Itonenhend, L., and Simpson, J.H.: Note on tho velocity distribr~tion the wake hehind in n .~ , l ~ ~ nlnced alone t.he ~t.renni. ts I'roc. Catnhr. Phil. Soc. 32, 285--2!J1 (1930). - flnt. n . Schriirtnr. . Verwend;'ns dcr Dihrenzcnreclttrr~t~g Berechnung dcr ln~t~innren Grcnz...- . - - . , K.: . . - zur schicht,. Math. Naohr. 4, ?39-4(i7 (1951). Sol~uh,)I.: {Jber die "iihnlichet~" Lijnungen tler itlst~tior~aren Inminnror~ Orenzscltichtgleichung in ittltornprcsoiblor St.rornu~tg. Fifty years of bonndsry-lnycr research (W. Tol1111ien nrrd H. (jiirtler, ed.), 13rnun~rl1wrig. 1955, 147- 152. Srliultz-(:rr~no\r., 17.. ntttl Ilensclcr, 11.: Al~nliclrr Bren7,srIriclrt.liiRttt~gr11 z\vt.iter Ortln~~trg fiir St~riinrrt~rgs- ' L . e t i ~ p c r ~ t ~ ~ r g r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ i t : l r t ~ ~ r 1111t~ nn longitudinnl gckriirnrnkr~Winden mit, Cren7~ahichtbeeidlu~su11g. \.Viirt~~e- StoKii1)crtragung I . 214--219 (1908). und 'I'ollt~tie~r, W.: Ubor d m Vcrllaltct~cincr Striin~ungtangs einer Wand an1 Lusseren Rnnd ilrror I<~il~11rrg~~t:lric')1(. Ilt\tz Annivcrnitry Volurrrc, 218-224 (1945). Winglt:~rdt,I<.: ubor r i ~ t r ~ ~ ICncrgicnnt~zzur I ~ c r c c l ~ n r Isnrinnrer Crrt~zxc~l~icIrt.rr,. tr~~ l11g.Arclt. I/;, 231 - 242 (l!l48).
>
~

CHAPTER IX

Exact solutions of the stmdy-stntc i~nau(1orylayer eclnrrtion~in two-clin~cnaionnlniotiorl


'I'l~c p r c s c ~ c:hn.ptcr will tlcal wit.11 sornc! cxn.rt sol111.io11s t,llr I ) o u r ~ t l a r ~ - l a ~ c r ~t of r c l ~ ~ : ~ l . i o n s .~ o l r ~ t . i owill 1)c considorctl e x a c t w l ~ c ni t is a c:oml~lal,rs o l ~ ~ t i o of A n rt t.11(: I)o~~n:l:~ry-In.ycr cqrl:lttions, irrcspcct.ivc o f wl~ct.l\cri t is oi~t,n.i~ictl :~~~:~lyl,i(::tll,y o r I1.y i t ~ t m c r i r a lrnct,hotls. 0 1 1 t . 1 1 ~ otJlcr Ilantl, C l ~ a l ) . will tical wit.l~ p l ~ r o x i ~ ~ t ; ~ t t : S n ~ o l l ~ t . i o r i. s , witlr solut.iorls wl~ic:l~ ~ e. :trn obt.nit~ctlf r o m i ~ ~ t c g r n c l ~ t ~ i o n s t, ~ c : l ~ 1,s rl 1 t , l ~ o n o r n c n t ~ ~ ~ r n ~ n c r g ~ v - i n t ~ e g rc t\l.~ t a l , i o ~ ~ s ~ tltltl ~ I tlrscribrtl it1 t h o p r c c c t l i ~ ~ g c:l~ny)t.c*~., rnt ltcr t,Ilnn f r o m clifI'crcnt,ial ccluatiot~s. I llrro a r e i n cxist,cnce o n l y compnrat,ivcly few c:xn.ct, a ~ ~ n . l ~ t , i cs:o ll~ r t ~ i o r ~~ n c l a ; s.

,.

-.

\r8c shall tliscrtss t . l ~ c mfirst.. G c t ~ c m l l yspcnlring, t , l ~ c procoss o f o l ~ t , a i n i r ~ g n.r,alyt.ical s o l n t i o r ~ sof t h o b o ~ ~ n t i a r y - l a y e r cquat.ions e r l c o u r ~ t ~ c rcor~sitlcrablcm a t l l ~ c m n t ~ i c n l s tlil'lirt~llics. n.s alrently i l l l ~ s t r a t ~ cwith t,ho c x n m p l c of' a flat plato. Tlrc t l i f i r e t ~ t , i a l d c.cl~~af,iotls norl-linrar in most, rascs s o t,Ilat,, a g a i n gcrlt:rally spcalting, t.llry call :t.rr be solvet1 o n l y by power-series e x p a n s i o n s or b y r ~ n m c r i c a l~ i i c t ~ l ~ o 15vrn for t h o ds. ~)lt,ysically sirnplest c a s e of t , l ~ e o u n d a r y layer o n a fiat p l a t e at zcro i~~citlcnc:o b \viI-l~ i ~ ~ r o r n l ) r c s s i b flow n o closed-form a n a 1 y t . i ~ o l u t i o r ~h a s bccn tliscovcrctl s o f:~r. lc s

11 I I S I t o - r l i r ~ ~ ~ ~ soi o ti ~ o I t l I o I I ~ I ~ : I - ~t : I: r I~ o ~ t :1rt,1 ~ v i s t 1 t c . i ~ I ~ o l ~ n t l : ~ r y ions :).re givc.tr I1.y c!t111s. (7.10) t,o (7.1%): colrtlil

y =0:

u=o,

" =o;

y =w.
:III

IL

=U(x) .

(9.3)

111 :~tltIit~inn,vdooit,y profile ~ ( 0 , IIIIIS~, g i v r t ~ a y) I)? :I!,

i t t i t , i : ~ I s v ( * l , i o ~ :~~ y :,t t s ,

164

I X . Icxact solutions of the shady-state boundary-layer equations


= 0 and ify~/i)z 0 : ~ the w:tII, y = 0 , and == t

a. Flow past

wedge

165

with t,l~obollnt1:try rontlit,ior~s r?y~/i)ll ! (r)a t = oo . -- I

a. I;lo~v paat a wedge

Thc: 'sirnilar' solutions discussed in Chap. V l I l consLiI.ntc a particnlarly sitnplo class of solutions u ( x , y) which have the property t h a t the velocity profiles a t different distnnccs, x, can be made congruent wiLh suitablc scale factors for u and y. The systcr.~ of p;xrt,ial differential equations (9.1) and (9.2) is now rcdnced t o onc orclinary rliffcrcnt,ialcq~lation.It was proved in Chap. V l I l t l ~ a such similar solutions exist t when t,he velocity of t,hc potential flow is proportional t o a power of tllo length coor(linat.c, 2, rneasurcd from the stagnetiot~point,, i. e. for

the velocity profiles have no point of inflexion, whereas in tho case of decolcrat.rti flow (m < 0 , p < 0 ) t l ~ c yexhibit a point of inflexion. Sepxrat,ion occurs for = - 0.199, i. e. for nt = - 0.091. This rcs~lltsl~o\vs t.llnt t l ~ c laminar hor~l\tlnry layer is able t.o s r ~ p p o r only a very small dccelcration w i t l ~ o ~separat,iorl occurir~n. t lt I<. St,nwart,son [64] gave x tlct,ailctl analysis of tho rn:~riifoltl of sol~lt,i~rlsf o ryn. (9.8). A(:oor(littg L 1-Itis ~ ~ ~ t t ~ ~i tl1y1,Ite: s rt~rtgc! in(:rc~~sit~g o si , of' prousllrc!s ( 0. I!)!) . , < p ( 0) t l ~ e r c exists a further solution, t h a t is, in addition t o the one discovered by IJxrt.rer. The additional solution leads t o a velocity profile with baclz-flow (cl. Chap. X f ) . Tl~c potential flow given by U(Z) = 1 ~ xm exists in thc ricigllbourllootl of t . 1 1 ~ , stngtiation p o i l ~ ton a wedge, Fig. 8.1, wl~oscinclr~tlcdanglc 8, is given by eqn. (0.7). Two-dimensional stagnation flow, as well a s t,hc boundary layer on n llat. plate a t zero incidencc, constitut,~ particular cases of the preserit solutions, the former latter for = 0 ant1 m = 0. for p = 1 and in = 1, t l ~ e

Jrrorn cqn. (8.24) it rollows t h a t t,hc trar~sformal.ior~ tllc intfol)endcr~t. of v;l.rial)lc ?I, which lends t o a n ortlinary tlifl'crcnt,inl tcl~lat,ion, is:

'J'l~rr ~ l ~ a t i o r ~ o n t i n ~ ~ i t ~ y of o is intrgratcd by tile introduction of a stream function,

as

S ( ~ P I I from

cqrls. (8.1 I ) ant1 (8.23). 'l'hns t h e vrlocity romponel~tsbecome


u = u1 2" / ' ( r ] ) =

u /'(r]),

Fig. 9. I. Velocit.y distribrrtion in tlie 1:~tninar bor~ndary layer in tile flow past a wedge given by U (x) = a , zm. Tllc exponent m and the wedge anglc P (Fig. 8.1) arc connecbd tlirorlgll cqn. (9.7)

1 tit.rotl~tc:ingt,l~c?sc vnlrtos into t t ~ c q l ~ a t ~ i of ~ e o r motion (9.l),dividing by ni. I L ~ zZ"'--I, nnrl put,t,ing, as in cqn. (8.21),

, , c o:~.scfl lh

: -

&,m

2-

.j is worL11y of at~l.c~nt.io~r. (,Itis cnac 1.l1o elillrc!t~l,i:~l 111

we ol)tnir~tllc following differential eqr~at~ion / ( I ) ) for

/"' -t / /" -1- p ( 1

-1 ' 2 ) = 0

cquat.ion for /(q) hccomcs: /"' .I- / /" 1- 4 (1 = 0; it, t,rnnsforn~s irlt,o ~ . I I ( * tlifi:rcnl.inl c!clrtitl.iorl ofroL:~(.ior~:~IIy sytnrnct.ric~~l with slng~l:~l.io~t ocltl. (5.47), flow poit~l,, i. e., 4"' -1- 2 4 4" 1 - 4" = 0 for $(C), if we put r ] = 5 1 / 2 and d//dsj = d+/d<. , h i s means t h a t the calculation of the boundary layer in t h e rotationally symlnctricnl l case can be reduced to the cal~ulat~ion two-din~ensional of flow past a wedge whoso included angle is n = n/2.

I t . will IN: roc::tllrtl 1.Ii:tt it, was ;~lrcady givcr~as eilrl. (8.15), ant1 t h a t itti I ) O I I I I ( I R ~ Y f contlil ions a.re Y] 0 : / = 0 , 1' --= 0 ; /l=1.
7

The rriationsllip between the two-dimensional ant1 rotfatiot~ally bymrnetric:~l I)oun(lary layers will be f u r t l ~ c rtliscussctl, in s morc gerrcral lor~rt,in Chap. XI. If the similarity variable r ] defined in ccp. (9.5) were rcplaccd by t,he indcpendcnt variable i j = y U ( x ) / v z , the difirenl-in1 equatiot~for Lhc fut~clionI ( ? ) / u/fJ woltld change its forrn to

I':q~>:ltio~~ was first clrduccd 1))' \'. 31. Fnllrner anrl S. \\'. Skan, ant1 its solutions (0.8) lvrrr latrr invrstip:~trdin detail by 1). It. Ilart,rce (see Erferences to Chap. VIII). 'I'11r solnt.iol~ rrprcsr~ltrtl Vig. 0.1. In tlic case o l ar.cclcrat,ec\ flow (IIL 0 . P >0) is in b

1/

'I'his c.cluat,ion Lrarlsforms i n t o tI1n.L Tor :I flat plat^, c q n . (7.28), i n (.he special cnse wllcn m = 0. T h e so111t.ions of t , l ~ c Falltncr-Slran rclrln.tion (9.8) h a v e been discussed l i n t l e t + ~ iin 1611. According t,o J. Sl,cinl~cr~cr nn interesting c x t e ~ ~ s ioft 6hr solr~t.ir~t~ r [631, o ~ of t,l~r'nlltner-Sltnn e q ~ ~ n t i o n whiclr in vnlid for ret.nrded flows (P < 0)in cases when velocity dintrihtct.ions posses8(9.8) ing n velocity cxccns (I'(i1) > 1) with n ~ n a x i n ~ l near the wall arc ndrnittcd. In R I I C ~ Icnscs, tlle r~n linlit /'('I) = 1 for 11 -+ 00 is nttnincd nsympLot,icnlly "from abovr" rnthcr thnn "from hclow", as was t,l~e cn8c RO far. SIICII uoIt11.ions can he interpreted pl~ysirnlly corrrspo~~ding a laminar as to wall-jet prodlrcctl in nn cxtnrnal strcnrn wit.11n positive ]~ressu~.e grndient,. dplda: > 0. Ileferenro [ G 3 ] drrnonnt,rntn~ t,hnt t.lle limiting cnne of Lllmc uolt~t,ions, I ) t n i r ~ ~ d~ I ~ I,IIc ~nnxirnltn~ o W I I velocity cxccns tcntlu 10 infinit,~, trnl~nforms t ~ l r ) i 1.l1r \\,I-ll-known~rll-sitnilnr nolttl.ion of n J > I I ~ C wnll-jet in t,l~c absence of nn cxtrrnnl vclociLy -- n cnnc trcr~tcclhy R I . 11. (:lartt:rl (ucc 1401 in (Il~r~p. I ) - ~ X mhen we put, p = -2. A pnrt,irulnrly drt,niletl n~onogrnpllon exnrt., self-nirnilnr solt~t.ionsfor lnminnr I~orlndary lnyeru in two-din~ensional nnd rot,ntionnlly symnletric nrrangemcnt,~, inrl~lsive the nssocintrtl of thcrtnnl bout~dnrylnycrn (acn Chnp. XTl),wns prlhlinl~cdh y C . 1'. J>cwey nntl *I. F. Grosn [141. Their consitlcrnt.io11~ inelntle t,l~e elTt:ct.s of con~presaibilit~ Chnp. XIJI) wil.11 ant1 rnitl~o~lt, (sen hcn,t tmnnfer, relate Lo vnryitlg vnlnes of t.he Prar~tlt,l number, and inc,l~tde some rases of suction nrrd blowing. K. 1(. Cl~ennnd P. A. Libby 191 cnrriecl out nn cxtx?nsivc invcst,ignlion of bo~~llrlnry lnycrs wl~ichare el~ornctorizcdby ~ m n l l clcpnrtnrcs from t.11~ nelf-ui~nilnr\\.ctlge-flow boltt~tlnrylnycrs of t.110 I'nlknrr-Sltan type. Rvidcnt,ly, R I I ~ I I1)ounrlnry Inyerrr nre no longer nolf-uin1iln.r.

,I ltr I ) O I I I I I ~ * L ~. o t ~ ~ l i I ,rollow Pronl C ( ~ I(V.3) nilti nrc?: /' : 0 nl. o, ~ ~ ion~ I. 0 I / I nnt1 /" = 0 a(* 17 == w 'I'lris i s nlso :I j)nrl,ierrlnr caso of ~ l clasa 01' 'sirnilat.' s o l ~ r t ~ i ~ t ~ ~ ~ o

consitlcred in C h a p . V111. ISqr~atiorl(9.12) is o b t n i n c d f r o m I.11c m o r e g c n r r a l t l i f l i ~ r c ~ ~ l tial equation (8.15) f o r t.11~ case of 'similar' boutldnry layers, if we p u t a 0, nlrd 4- 1. l'lie e x a m p l e u n d e r considerattion is o n e of t,hc rare cases w h e n tSi1cs o l l ~ t ~ i o r ~ of' tllc botrndary-layer e q u a t i o n c a n b e ol)t,aincd a n a l y t i c a l l y i n closrd f o r m .

.-.

k'irst,, u p o n mult,iplying c q n . (9.12) b y

1"

a n d i n t e g r a t i n g ollce, \vc? I1:lvc

u ~ h e r cn is a r o n s t n n t of i n t r g m t i o u . 1t.s v a l u e is zero, a s
f]
f 00.

/'

. 1 ant1 -

/"

--

0 lor

'1'1111s

b .

Flow in n convergent channel

'J'l~e r a s e of potcnt,ial flow giver1

I,y t h e e q ~ r n t ~ i o n
x

U ( s ) = -2L

>0 is related to flows pmt a wedge, ant1 also l e a d s to 'similar' sollitions. W i t h it r c p r e s o ~ t , a two-dimengional mot,ion in n c o n v e r g e n t c h n r ~ n c l i t h flat, walls (sink). w
T h e v o l u m e o f flow for a fill1 o p e n i n g a n g l e 2 n a n d for a s t r n t , l ~ n iof rtnit Ilcigllt is ($ = 2 n ?I,, (Fig. 9.2). I n t , r o d r ~ o i n gt.he simi1nrit.y t,ransfortnat.ion

w h r r e t h e atlditive const.ant of intrgrnt,ion is s e e n t o b e c q l ~ n lt o z e r o it1 v i r w of t h e I ) o ~ t n d a r ycondition /' = I at 17 = oo . T h e int,egral r a n b e rxprcssctl itt closetl f o r m a s follows:

o r , solving f o r

1'

= w/11:
(9.13)

H e r e wo l ~ a v s r l l ~ s t , i t ~ ~ rlfat~lr-' r tcd 1 1.14G. Tnt.roclr~oitlgI,ho 1,oln.r n t ~ g l c 0 .: !,/.,., as wcll as Q -- 2 n r I1 ( r -= ratlinl rlistnncr f r o m t h e s i n k ) , wo (*at1 rrplnco 11 fro111 c q n . (9.10) 1,y

fi

,I ,h o vclocilPjr tlist,ribr~tiorl givcn b y r q n . (9.13) is rcprescnt.cci in Fig. 9.:1.


.-

/\I,

1,

7 .

:{,

approxima.t,cly, t h e b o u n d a r y l a y e r m e r g e s w i t h tJre potent6rtl flow. JTcncc. t,llr I~otlndary-ln.yrt. ~ l ~ i r k t ~I)oc-o~nrs = 3 z 140 r ; it, tlc~crmscs, i t ot.Ilrr rxnml,lcs, t rss J n.s ~ Fig. 9.2. 1"low in n ronvrrgrnt rhnnt~rl

as

IIJR.

168

IX. Exnot, sol~rt,ionn tlic ntrady-strateboundary-layer equations of


Fig. 9.3. V~loc*itydistribr~tion in t h~ laminar Iio~~ndnry layer of t.110 flow i l l a convcrgcrlt cllanncl

c. Flow past a cylinder; syrnrnet,ricol case ( nle~ius nerie~)

169

r111mbc:r of tcrms is rcq~rirctl;in fact,, 1.l1eirnr~rnbcris so 1:~t-g~ a t i t oeagcs t ~ obe th ~mct,iral)lo t,al)ulaf,c Ohem all with a reasonnl,lo itnlollnt, of rrrtmcdcnl worl<.'131~is to IS C ~ I I S O ( I Iby t,hc ( : i r e ~ ~ m s l , : tlrat c t t,llo casc or slorltlrr botly-srcliot~s, . g , i t r t4It(: ~ ~ ~ in o onse of 1111 rllipsc, pl:rc:c:tl in a st,rcari~ 1)nrallcl t,o i t s rlrnjor axis, or itl tlte cnso of ntl acrofoil, t'llc pot.cntial vclocity near the st,agn:~t.iorlpoirlt i l l t . 1 1 ~rloialll)ot~rlloo~l of t.l~c Im.tling otlgc: inorca~cs n1,c:r:l)ly it(; first, :trlcl l.ltc?n vi1rit:s vcSl.y~ l o w l ovc:r :i c:ollsi.~ tloml)lo tlislS:~rrce tlowns1.rcn.lrl. A fur~ct,ior~ this t~ypccarrnot bc well representetl of by :L power .icrics with a small nrrml)er of t c r ~ n s .I n spite of t.llis limitsat.iorrB l : t s i ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~nct,llodis nl gmitt f ~ ~ r n l a n ~ c nimporta~rcc tal brcausc, irr cirscs wlrctl its collvcrgcll(:c: is irrsufficirnt to rcacll the! poir~t, separation, i t can I)c rlscrl t,o a~lcttlateannlytirillly of ant1 \ v i t . l ~great accuracy tllc initial portion of t,l~c I)onntlary I:~.ycr nen.r t,hc ~ t , a ~ n : ~ t . i o ~ ~ ~)oillt,. 'l'hc cn.lonln.t.iorrcan t.lrrn l)c cont.in~rctl\rril.lr 1,llc aicl of a s ~ ~ i t n b l o nltlncric::~l inl,egrat,ion mct.hod, such as, for exa~nplc, t,llc ollc dcscribrrl in Src. IXi. We shall now very briefly dcscribe the proccdurc t h a t is followetl for the ralculation of a boundary layer wit.h the nit1 of a Blasius series. A more dct,ailrtl acco~lrlt, can bc found in the earlier editions of tiris book [57a]. llowevcr, t,hc nllrrlcrical rt~srr1t.s for the circular cylinder are given more f~rlly. We consider thc symnrelric case and i~ssurnct.hat, tllc pol~c~rt.ial flow is give11 i l l tile form of the series Tlle coefficicnt,~ u s , . . . depend only on t,l~e ul, allape of the body and me t,o be considered Irnown. Tlle contilruit,yequatio!~is sat,inficcl by elre inl,~~odllction a streamof function p (x, y). In Llinlogy wiL11 cqn. (9.15) it is I)la~~sil)le t,o adoitt n powcr also . .. . scrics in a,its coefficient,^ being trcatcd as fiinct.ions of !I. Thc choice of t,hc par(,irular form of the power scrics is governed by (,he tlcsire to render t.hc firnct.ions of ?/ corlLainerl in it independent of the cocfficicnta 14, us, . . . which tlcsrri1)e t,lrc potc1rt.in.l 113, flow. I n this manner, the functions of y becornc universal ant1 can be calc~llat,etl olxcc and for all. The distance from t,lre wall is made dirncnsionlcss by assuming? (9.16)

The prrcetling solutiol~was first obtained by I<. l'ol~lhausen 1501 It will bc recalled. from Scc. V b 12 on p. 107 t h a t t h e flow through a divergent channel discussed by C. llamel constitutes a n cxact solution of the Nevier-Stokcs cqnations. The diagram in Fig. 5.15 contained some nr~merical results pertaining t o this solutiorl. Tn this connexion, a paprr by B. 1,. IZrevrs ancl C. d . ICipprr~han [52] may n s e f ~ ~ l l y bc consrllt,rcl. c. Flow pnnt a cylinder; ~ ~ r n r n e t r i c n i case (nlasius S~ries) Tlrc cli~ss 'sin~ilar'solutions of the boundary-la.ycr cqnations considered so of of far is comparat,ively narrow. Apart from t,hc c x a m p ~ c s t h e flat plate, stagnation flow, flow past a wc(lgo, and flow in a convergent channel which havc already been dcscribcd, few adtliLiona1 solat,ions can be obtained. Wa s l ~ a lnow corlsider t,he general l case of tho bo~lndary laycr on a cylindrical body in a stream which is pcrperltlicrllnr to its axis. The method of solut,ion was first given by IT. l3lasius [4]; it was clcvelopetl further h y I<. Hiemenz [39] and I,. 1Iowarth [40]. It is necessary t o dist,inpuis1r here two cascs depcntling on whctlrcr the cylinder is symmetrical nbou: an ,?.xis which is pamilel t,o the stream a t a large distance from the body or not,. \?'e shall rrfcr t,o tlrcse two cascs a s t,o the symmetrical and asymlnetrical case, rc~pect~ivc1.y. In cithcr ciisc tllc vclocit,y of the p o t c n t . i ~flow i,q ?ssunrctl t o have,+ f 2 ~ 1 n i of a powcrpcr/ci in 2, where s denotes Ure clistanc? -{rorn t,lre. st.agrrnt,iotr .poirrt, r n c a s ~ ~ r calong t,hc conLonr. 'rlrc vclocit,y profile irr t,hc l~or~rldary d layor is :~1so rcpre~c:nt,e~~ sinrilw power series in r , wlrerc tho cocfficicrrts arc i~ssarnnlW )I(: as a f n ~ ~ c t , t oofs t,he c ~ o r t l i n a t ~ e lacas~lretla t right angles t o the wall (Blasius series). n y, I,. Howart,ll succectlcd in finding n ~ u b s t i t u t ~ i o n the velocity profile which confers for universal validitmyon the y-dependent coefficients. I n ot,her words, by a suitable asslllnption r c ~ r d i ~ ~ g t.11~ power series, it.s coefficients have been made independent of t,llc partPicr~lo,rs t,he cylindrical body, so thpt the resulting functions could be of evnlunt,etl and prcsrntarl in t,he form of t,nl)lcs. Thus the calculation of t,he boundary layer for a sllnpc becomes vcry sinrplo if IISC is lnntle of tslt~t~nl)lcs. providld t,lrit the t,nbuln.tlion cxt,ends over a sufficiently large number of terms of tfhe series. 'I'lto t~scfnlnrssof Rln.sins's inet,hotl is, Irowcvcr, sevorely rest,ricted kty t'hc fact. tllnl., Iwcrisrly in 1.11~rnost, i m p o r l , a ~ ~ t of vcry slender I)orly-sl~ages, l:rrg(: case a

for t'he st'ream-function with the aid of which it now bccorr~espossiblc t o det,crrninc the appropriate serics for t,he velocity compo~rerltsu = a v l a y and v = -awlax. Srll)st,it,nt,ir~~ expressions into the equation of inot.iol1 (0.2) we compare cocxflit,hese

form in oht,aincrl from t h e IIlasir~s eqn. (7.24) 11y nnhstitt~tir~g it. t h c first.term (!).IT,), i. r. in for Urn.This brings wit.11 if, t.11~ tlisactvnntngc. t.llitt it, does not r~lnltrn n nlloanrlrr lor (Ilr i~~rrmne the Imr~ntlnry-layer in tllioltness i r ~ tlownstrenln dirertiorl. tllr
'rllis
111 J

170

TX. 1Sxact uol~~tions t.ho steady-state bout~dary-layer of eqrrntionu

c. Flow past n cylinder; syrn~nrtrical case (the Rlnsius series)

171

cirnts nnd LIIIIS obt,ain n s y s t c ~ nof ordinary t l i ~ ~ r e n l ~equat,ions for t.he funct,ions inl /3, . . . . 'l'he first two e q ~ ~ n t i o n s turn out to be

J I I t,lirsc, ~lill'(;rc:~il~inl~ior~ rrs~)c(:l, r1 is cIrt~ol.r~l 1)ritnrs. 'I'IIC* ~~.sso(;i~~t,(:cl \vil,l~ l,o I)y bol~ntlnrycolltlit.ions are

All difTcrcntinl cquatsions for the fiinctionnl coefficients arc of the third orrlcr, nnd only the first, one, t,haI, for f r , is non-linear; i t is itlct~ticalwith the eq~lstionfor twodirnensional stagnnt,ion flow, eqn. (5.3!)), tliscrlsscd in Chap. V. All rcmnining equntions arc linenr ant1 their cocfficientpsnrc cxprcssetl in t,crms of the f ~ ~ r ~ c t , iassoons ciat,etl wil)h the preceding t,crms. The frtrlctions ant1 hnvc been ralcrllstctl already by I<. llicmerlz [39J, i ~ n dtheir first tlcl.ivnt,ivrs nrc rcpresent,ccl grnplrically it1 Fig. 9.4. The frlnrl,ion 1; for t,hc vclocit,y tlist.rihntion was rcprocl~~cccl rarlicr ill l'ig. 5.10 nnrl l'nhle 5.1 (when it was tlcnot,rtl O 4'). T11e higher-order funat,ions (:an Ilc found y i l l the earlier rtlil.ions [57n]. Fig. 9.5. \'clocity distribution
in the boundary layer on n

circ\rlnr cylinder

Fig. 0.4. Thr fr~iict.ions and 1,' which nppmr It' in t,lir nlnsills power series. The velocit,y profiles for diffrrcnt values of 4 are seen plottecl in Fig. 9.5 whicll is I)nscd on a series for t.hc velocity, u , carried as far as the tcrrn in x l l . The velocity 1)rofiies for > (30" possess a point of inflexion because they lie i n t h e region of increasing pressure. of 8 The di~tribut~ion shearing stress ro = / r ( 0 ~ 1 y)o is plotted in Fig. 9.6. The position of t,l~e point of separation rcslilts from the condition that. TO = 0, nnd is given by # s = 108.8"

E x o t ~ ~ l ~Circr~lnrcyli~ider.Wn sli~11nn\v apply tthe met,liotl o~~l.lincd t , l ~ r le: in lwrcc?cling pnrngrnplis t,o t h r cn,se of s circular cylindrr. In order t o ljc clrfinit,~, we or1 hnse t,hc? ca.lculat~iol~ (.he prcssrirr tlistri1)rttion ol~tninrtlfrom pot>cnt,ialthrory, t t l t l i o ~ ~ glll ~I111c lif8rrn.l.~~re ~ ~ O ~ ) I C I T ulns frc(111cnt.lys01Iv~d i tllic I with 1 . 1 1 ~:lid of all rxprrimrrrt~n.llyrlotarrnirlc.tl prrssllrc clist.ril)~rt.ion. 'I'l~r itlrdl ,vrlocit.jr tlist.vii)rlt.ion i l l n o n - v i s r o ~ ~il.rof.n.t,iol~n.l r ~ \ vpn,st. n c~ir.c:rlln.r s, fl rylitltlr:r of ratli~ls I2 ant1 f~.(\r-st.rcnn~ \jc.loc:il.y (1, 1):~rn11(.1 t , l ~ c : :,-asis is givrn Ijy (.I)

Fig. 9.6. Variation of sllearilig strew nt the wall over the circumference of a circular cylindor for a lnrnirinr boundary lnycr

d. Ronndnry layer for the potential flow given hy U(x) = Uo - ax"

173

wcrc t,erminatetl a t ~ 9 t1hepoint of separat,ion would tllrn ollt LO , If. t,Jle power be at, +s Ion.oo. Iktt,er accllracy can rrowndays ltc obtainetl with nrimericnl

.-=

mct.l~ods, Sccs. JXi ant1 Xc3. sco 'rhc nccllracy of t,his r.ale~~lnt.ion I)nsod on 11 powcr scrirs can I)n t,cst,od for spced of cotlvcrgcncc of t,l~c omit,t,ctl I)ortlion of t,l~c serics by ittvolcing t01c co?adilions o/ com.pnbiOility at, t,hc wnll. I\ccortling 1.0 (>tin.(7.15), wc ~ n t ~ s t , Ilnvc:

Fig. 0.7. Verification of I.l~e conifirst pntibility condition froin eqn. (9.21) for the laminar boundary layer on a circular cylintlcr f r o n ~ Pig. 9.5. Thn first compatibility conclition is satisfied approxitnntely as far as some point beyond separation

were Inado the bitsis of his Itoandary-lnyer calculations. f l i s rne:~snrcment~s sl1ow6tl s ~ p a m t ~ i o n 4, == 81, whereas t,he calculation intlicnted!(bs = 82O. 1,ater 0. l~lneltsat ItnrL p[~l)lislrcd ext,ensive expcrimcr~t,nl t1nt.a on t,hc l~rcsinrrdistsil~~~t,iort, 1 . 1 0 , l'ig. ~vl~icll poirtt t o :I l:~.rgc infl~tencc tahc Itrytrolrls nrlrnl~cr. of 'l'or vnlrtrs of t.l~t, Itc:~~t~oltls r~~trnbcr hcloto Me crilicr~ltJtc j)rcssIlrc r r ~ i t ~ i t r o(;t:tIrs ~~ . I r . t - : ~ t nrnr (b - T o 0 , 41,11tl ~rt~~ i l~ tho prr'ssI".c is r~t-n.rl.y cortsI,:~.t~l, t.110\vlrolo I I O I V I I S I , ~ 11ot.l~iot1 t,11t* (:ylitl~lt,l.. over ~ ! : / I I I 01. ]?or 1tt:ynoltls nnrnbers ahove the critical t.11~ pressure rni~tiln~rtn shifts t,o (b -- no0 al~~roxirnat.t in agreement with t h e potential-flow thcory and, on the wl~olc,t,l~e ly, prrsslire distribution tleparts less from t h a t giver1 by the potcttbial theory t,llnr~ tho in provio~rs case. nct,wcen t,l~esc valtlcs, i. e. n m r a critical Rcynoltls n ~ ~ t n bofrn,l>pro.uie ~nnt.clyTJ, I ) / v = 3 x 10" t , l ~ e drag cocflicict~t,of l . l ~ c t:irc~tl:~r cylintlcr tlrt~rt~ascs nhr111)t'ly(Fig. 1.4-), and this phcnorncnon ir~tlicat~cs tOtat t,l~cbor~ntlary In,ycr I ~ n s I)ccon~ctrtrbuler~t (see Sec. X V [ r I f ) . Tl~e laminar hountlnry layer on a circt~lnrcylirldcr was rllso ir~vcst,ignI.c~rl I)y A. ~l~lrotn [G7], a t a Iteynoltls ~trrmbcrZ J , I l / v = 28,000 a r ~ t l11g A. F:~gc[lOlit1 t,l~c mngc U , L)/v = 1.0 t o 3.3 x 10% A ppncr by L. Sclrillcr nntl W. 1,irtkc [54] cont,ains some considcrat,ior~scot~ccrr~ing prrssrlrc tlrng nt~tl sliir~ f.ricl,io~~ t.110 in rc~gionof Iteynoltls n~lmhcrsb r l o n ~the cril.icnl. 111 t l ~ c r:lngc of l t c y r ~ o l t l ~ 1111t111)(:rs from about GO t o about 5000 there exists bcllirrd the cylintlcr a vortex stxcct w l ~ i c l ~ sl~ows regular, periodic strrlcturc (Figs. 2.7 nnd 2.8). Tllc frcqucr~cy t w l ~ i c lvora a ~ tices arc s l ~ e din tllis so-callcd von I<ilrn~:invortex strcct has been i~lvcst.igatctl by 11. Dlenk, D. Puchs and IT. Liebers, and, more recently by A. Roslllro (see C l ~ a p 11). .
~

d. Boundary layer for the potential flow given by (1(.r)

(Io - a x n

Figlrrc 9.7 cornpal,es t,l~c c~rrvat,urc the velocit,y profiles mcasuretl at. t,he wall wit.11 of its exact value rcpresct~t,edby UcllJ/tlx. 'rllc agrrcment is gootl for a clistance fi' lIryond t,llc poillt sep~.rat,ion. may, Lherrforc, conrlutlc t.11at t,l~t, We J3lxsi11sseries terminnt,ir~g t tlrc t,crtn ~ 1 satisfies t,l~c a 1 compatibiiit,y co~lclit,ion a circ~tlarcylinon dcr up t,o n point. \vltich lies bryolltl t.ltc point of scparat,ion. I t does not,, howover, ~~ccessnriljr (ollo\v t,hat. 1,lrc: Ir11ncnlrtl srrics t.rprrsc~lt.s t.11~ velocity profile n.it.11good nc,rltrl\c*y. As nlrently mcnt.ionetl, in t . 1 ~ case of Inore slender botly-sltnp~scor~siclernbly morc t.rrrns of t,he J3lasins serics are roqnircd, if it is tlcsirctl t,o o l ~ t a i nt,l~c velonit,y profiles as fn.r as t,l~c point of scparat,ior~. Ilowcver, t,he cvalunt.io~l furl,hcr f n n c ~ i o n ; ~ l of roefficic~ltsis hinclerctl by considerable difficult.ies. Tltese are tluc not orily t o t,lle f.:~ctt,l~at, every atltlit,ional t,crrn in t,he scries the ntrmbcr of cliffercr~t,inlequations for l o I)& solvetl incrcnscs, b u t also, ant1 even morc forcibly, t h e difficult,ics are tlnc t,o t,l>cincrtl t o r.va.lnnt,e t,l\e funct-ions for the lower power ternts with ever increasing nrcltrary, if l.l~c ~ ~ n c t ~ i for stClle f on higher power terms are t o be s~ifficicr~t~ly n.ccnrat,e. 1,. Ilownrtlr 1401 rxtentlrtl t.hc prrscnt nuet,l~odt,o irtclrldc t l ~ casymmet,~.ical casts, l)nt t.11~ t,n.ttr~Int,ion t , l ~ c of fi~nct,ional coefficients was not carried bcyo~lclthose c.orrcspontlin~t,o t,hc power z2. N. 1Proessli1tg (231 carrictl o l ~ a n estension of this t rnt:t,liotl lrn llrc rot.nt,ionally symlnt>t,ricnl cnsc which will be consitlered in Chap. X I . illrnsrtrc~nrnt~s t.hc prcssnrc dist.ril)~~tion of nro~lntl a cirrrllnr cylind?r wcrr rcport,rd I)y I<. Tlinnrnz in his t.l~tsis prcsrnf.cd t.o (2octt.ingnn Univrrsit,y [R9l. 'I'llcy

A further family of solutions of the boundary-layer equations was found by L. EIowartl~ [dl] nnd I. Tnni [OF]. Tl~cse solutions relate to t01r potential tlow given by

whirll, evidently, constitutes n generalized form of the flow nlong a flat plate (see Ser. VIIe), arrd becomes identical with it when we put a = 0. ln tho fiirr~plc~t \ v i t l ~n -s 1, \ v h ~ r wn3 rnse l~ trcnted by L. Ilowarth, tl~oflow can bo interpreircl n.9 t l ~ a twllirl~ orcuts in a clrnt~r~ell ~ i c l l w consi~ts a portiot~wit11 pnr~llolwnlls (velocity (, followed by rither a convcrp;rr~t .= 0) of I) (a of or n divergent (a > 0) section?. This is another rxan~plc a borrndnry layer for wlrich the vrloclty profiles nre not sirmlar. L. Ilowarth introd~lccdt l ~ o nrw indrpc~rclent vnrinblo

~vhirl~identical wit11 tlrnt used in tho flat platc solution at zero inridcncc. IIc asxumctl f~trther is

(x*
~

< 0, accclerntcd flow; x* > 0, dcceleratacl flow). 16 is now


--

t,o stipulate a powcr srries

. -

\Vhen cqnatiot~(0.22) is written in the forn~U ( T ) -- l J , ( l -x/L) for 71 = 1 , it can also be intarprctad as represcnt,ing bhc potcntinl flow along a flat wall wl~ich ~tn.rt.q x = 0 and nrhich at R ~ I I I ~ ~ S to anothrr illfinite wnll a t right nnglcs In it at, r on L.Jt is of the snnlc ~JIIIC RR t.11~ cnsc of tlecelcratrtl stngnat,ior~ flo\v sl~ownin Fig. 2.17, thc stngnnt,ion ]mint bring nt z .-: L.

174

TX. Exnct ~olut,ionu tlio stondy-state boundnry-lnyrr eq~lat.ioris of

e. Flow in tho wakc of flat plxtc nt zero incidoicc

175

in r* for t l ~ e t r c n mfimctiori in n mariner ~irr~ilnr thc enao of the cylinder, Scc. TXr, the cocf~ to ficirnta being fnnctions of y:

1I~ncc the vrlocit,y of flow hcco~nes

u = 1 U O{l,'(q) - (8 z*) /,'(?I) -1- ( 8 z ) l;(q) *'

+ . ..) .

(9.25)

Tnl.rotl~lring t,I~rse vnlnes i n h t.ho oq11nt.ionsof motlion (9.2) and comparing coefficients we obtain a ~yutcni01 ordinary diITrronlda1 equ:tt.ionu for t.110 F I I I I C ~ ~ O I IfR ( r l ) , lI(11), . . . . Tho first threo g of t,I~cuc tire: lof"-1- I0 1 " 0 , 0

nt~d tlorolcrnt~edflow are uenn plot8t~cd Fig. 9.8. 11. ~hotrld noted t,Iint.nll p r o f i l ~ ~ tlccclcrntcd in be in flow have n, point of inRexion. D. It. IInrtroo [38] repcntcd tl~cso calo~~lntior~s obtninctl good nrid ngrcemc~lt,wit11 L. H o ~ n r t ~ l The case for a / i J , 0.125 wns rnloolnted more ncc~tvnt.clyhy l. 1). C.F. Ileigil 1441 wlio ~ 8 nn clecl.ronic digit.al cotnpr~ter t,l~c ~ ~ r p o s c w l ~ o ~ d for p nnd pnitl ~llccial nL,telltio~~ tlic region of scpnrntio~i. t o TIICvallto of t.11~ for111fnctor a t l.110 point of sepnrat,io~t il.srlf wns founrl t,o ho x* = 0.1198. , llic nictliod ornploycd by L. JIownrtl~\rns cxkt~tlnrlby I. 'l'ntli 1001 t.o it~cluclcI.lw caws corrcspotitling to n 2 1 (witli a > 0). tio\vcvcr, I. 'l'nni did 11ot publisl~nny t.nbles of the f~rrlct.ionnl roeflicicnts but confined liitnsclf to reporling lho 1i11:~l ros111Lfor n = 2. 4 ntid 8. 111 Iiis cnsc, (no, MIC poor ronvcrgcnro of tlic ~ e r i c s not pcr~nit did llim 1.0 dotcr~nitic poitit of sc:li:lritthe tion wil,l~unfficic:r~t,ncrllril.cy ant1 110 fortnrl I~it~inrli rot~~ltell~cl I I U C I,. Il(~wnrl.l~'sI I I I I ( T ~ ~ : L ~, L o II ro~~li~~~~tilion R(!II<:III~~.

/['" -1- 1 ,

- 2 lo' -k 3 /,>" = - 1 , fz"' -1- 1, 12"- 4 1,' 1 -1- 5 1,'' 1, = - 4 + 2 1, ', '"

3 I,

I,",

e. Flow in the wakc of flat plate nt zero i~~cidence

Only tho first cqnnt,io~~ lion-linmr, nntl i t in identical wit.11 tlint for n flat plats nt zero inciis dence:. All rornnining equations are lincnr nnrl contain only t,he function f, in the homogeneotls portion, wlierons t,he non-liomogeneous tern18 itre for~nrd wit,lt t,Iie nid of the remaining funct~ions 1.. I,. flowarlll solved trho first. scven tliKcrcntinl eqnations (11p tO and including I,), and calctllatocl t,zblcs for Llic~n. 'rim ucricn (9.25) cotivcrges \voll witah t.hcso valnrs of I,, in t.he rango - 0.1 _< x* 5 -1- 0.1. Jti tllc casc of decclorntctl flow (x* > 0) t,l~c point. of scpcration is a t z* = 0.12 npproxi~nntrly, I)ut for thc sliglit.ly cxhndetl rangc of valnns t.110 convcrgor1r:o of the scries (9.25) is no lo~iger wsrlrec!. 111ordor t ronclt t.lrc poinL of sepnrnt.ion,-1,. 1Iownrll1 used a nninericnl proccdum for o of no111t.ion. ~ 1 ~ r i t . y V profilrs for sevcrnl vn111csof r* for hot,h acc~lerntrd tho ronl.innnt.ior~ t,l~c

The application of the boundary-layer equations is not rcstrict,cd t o rcgions npnr a solitl wall. They can also he applied when a stratum in which thc irrfltlcncc of frict,ion is rlominating cxists in the interior of a fluid. Such a case occurs, among ot.llcrs, w h c n two laycrs of fluid with tliffcrcnt vclocitics mcct, for instnricc, iri tho wake bcliind a body, or when a fluid is tlischarged through a n orifice. We shall consider three examplcs of t,his typo in the prcserit ant1 in t h e succccdirig scctions, and wc s l ~ a l lrctllrn to thein when considcririg tl~rbulcrrtflow. As our first example we shall discuss the case of flow in the wake of a flat plate a t zero incidence, Fig. 9.9. Behind the trailing edge the two vclocity profiles coalesce int,o one profilc in t h e walte. I t s widt,h increases with increasing distancc, and its mean velocity decreases. Tlie magnitude of the dcprcssion in t h e vclocity curvc is dircctly conncct,cd with tho drag on tjhc bocty. On thc wholc, howcvcr, a.s wc shall see later, the velocity profile in t h e wake, a t a large distancc from t h c body, is intlrpenrlent of thc sllape of the body, cxccpt for a scale factor. On the otlicr hand thc vclocit,y profile very closc t o thc body is, evidently, detcr~niricct t h e bonirdnry by layer on tho I ~ o d y and its slrapc dcpct~ds whcther or not t l ~ c , on flow has ~ c p a r a t ~ c d . The momcntu~lle q r ~ a t i o rcall be used to c.alculatc thc drag from the vclocit,y ~ ~wofilc t.11~ in wnlre. For this j ~ u r l ~ o s c draw a rcrtarigr~lar wc control snrfacc AA, 13113,

Vr1ot.iI.y r l i s l v i l , ~ ~ l i o ~t ~~ r . I : ~ I I I ~ I I :oII ~ I I ~ ~ ; I:~yrr in l > I I ~ ~ COI. I,II? p o I r ~ ~ l . iflo\v ;~l ( I ( ? ) ~ - -/\,, - . rlx, :~llcr l l o \ ~ ; ~ r141~ ll 1 Fig. 9.R.
t
r .

~ ~ V C ' I I

by

Fig. 9.9. ~\lq)lirnt.ion the niomcnof tun1 equation in tho calcr~latiou the of drag on a flat p l a k nt zero ir~cidenco froni the velocit,y profilo in the wake

difTcrs from tlint i r ~ Chap. VIT by J ho in(lr11cntlrnt \~arinl)lo in t.hr nhovc rqr~nt.inns

factor

1.

e. Flow as shown in Fig. 9.9. The bonndary AIBl, parallel to the plate, is placed a t such
e distancc from the body t h a t i t lies ovcrywhere in the region of undisturbed velocity,

ill

ll~e walte of flnt plntc Rnte of flow

nt

zcro incitlrncc

177

Cross-~ection

Dlot~ient~~nidircclior~r it,

Purthorrnorc, t,llc pressnrc is constant over the whole of t,he cor~trolsurface, so t01at j~rcssurc forces (lo not contrit~utet o the mornenturn. When calculat~ing the flux of mornontunl across the cont,rol surface i t is necessary t o remcmber that, owing t o ront,innity, fl~rid~ n u s loxvc t , l ~ r o n gtho hor~ntlaryA I B l ; tho q ~ t a n t i t ~ y t l~ of f l r l i t l leaving I.l~rongl~ l l l is ccll~;rl A1 t.o t,ho t1iffcrent:o I)elwccn t,l~at ot~tcring Lhro~rglt A I A and loaving t,hrorigh BIR. 'rho boundary AT3 contribntcs no term t o t.hc nom men tam in the x-diraction becanso, owing t o symmetry, t h e transverse velocity vanisllcs along it,. The momentnm balancc is given in tabular form on the next page, and in i t the convc~tt,ion followetl t.11:bt inflowing masscs are considcrcd positive, is and ontgoing masscs arc talten t,o bc negative. The width of the platje is denoted l)y b. l'hc tot,al flux or morncntntn is cqnal to t h e drag D on a flat ~ ) l a t c wetted on orlc sitlc. 'l'hrls we have
03

I/,.

C -- (:o~ltrolsrlrfnrc

2 Rnte of flow

Momctit~~~n flus

-=

Drrig

=be/u(~,-u)dy.
v-0

Intrgrat,io~~ may bo prrfomlctl from ?/ = 0 t o y = oo instcad of t,o 2/ = It, t)ccausc for ?/ > h tllc intcgrantl in eqn. (9.26) vanishes Ilrnce thc drag on a plate wetted 0x1 both sitlcs bcromrs

,I ,l ~ c r o c c ~ l ~ ~ t ' ( ~ 11xc o f n nict,l~otlol' c:o~~l,inr~ir~g p lnnltrs n. Iznowtl sol~tl.ioti. 'l'ltc~ (:ILI(:IIInt,ion st,arts with t.11~ p~,oiile t the t.miling ctlge, calt:r~lnt.ctl a with t.11(: aid ol' Jllnsius's

is stnall rotnl)arctl wit.11Urn,so t.hnt q~~n.tlrn,t ic nntl hig111,r~ , C I . ~ Iill ~ I Z 711

IIIIIY

l)r 11t~gltv~t.rt1.

2D =be u(u,-u) -m

t~. y

(9 27)

~nct,l~otl, we sha.11 refrain from fitrt.hrr disrussing it hrre. 'I'hc asympt,ot,ic exand p:~nsionin t.he ~ll)st,rraln direction was calcnlat~cd by W. To1lrnic:n 1091. Sinrt: i t , is t,ypical for problems o F flow in t,hc walte, ant1 since we shall mi~lte of it in t,l~c nse more itnport,nnt, t,urbulcnt case, we propose t o devot,c some t,itnc t,o an account, of it. As t h r prrssnre trrm is rclrlal to zero, the t)onntlary-layrr cynntiot~(9 2)rombinetl wit11 rqn (9 29) gives

This cc~uat,ionapplies t o a n y symrnet,rical cylintlrical body ant1 not only t o a flat plat,o. Tt is t,o bo rcrncmbcrctl t h a t in t h e more general case thc integral over the profile in t,he wake must be t,aken a t a sufficiently distant sect.ion, and one across n~hirllt,l~o st.at.ic pressure has it.s undisturbed value. Since near a plate there are in no pressure tlill'crrnccs cit,l~cr t,l~elorlgitrldinnl or in t h e transverse direction, ccln. (9.27) npplins t,o any tlist.ancc brhintl the platc. Furthermore, eqn. (9.27) may 11c: nl)pltc(i t.n a n y scct.ion x of tlhc 1)oltntlary layer, when i t gives t h e drag on t h e portion of t-l~c plate between the leatlirig ctlgc ant1 tlltat sect,ion. The physical meaning in of tho ir~t~cgml eqn. (9.20) or (9.27) is t h a t i t rcprcscnts tho loss of momentum due t o frict,ion. I t is itlcntical with the intcgral in eqn. (8.31) which dcfirled the mome?ltum thickness a, so t h a t eqn. (9.26) can he givcn tllc alternative fbrm ,

\vliere t . l ~ clrlatlrntic: t r r ~ n s r in arc :

it,

nn(1 vI I1:lvc I)rc:n ornit.tt~tl. 'l'l~cItn~lntlnry contlit,ions

y =0:

aU! = O ; ay

yroo:

'L1=O.

'I'he 1):wtial tlilli:~~r~~t.inl cqunt,ion call, here 1.00, be tmnsfortnctl into a n or(li11iir.y tliffcrcnlinl ecl~~nt,ion n snit,n,blc? by t,mnsrormnt,ion. Sirl~ilnrly 1 . 1 1 ~ to ass~lml)tiot~ (7.24) in 13lnsirrs's mct.l~o(l t,l~c for 11x1 ~ ) l a t c ~ ) I I ( . wr

Wc shall now proccrd to calcolatc tthc velocity profile in the walte, in particular, large dist.ance x t)ehintl the trailing edge of t,he flat plate. The calculation must bn p(:rfonnc(l in two sLcps: 1. Through an expansion in thc downstream direction fro111 I.he Irntling t.o I,llr t,r:tiling ctlgr, i . c. I)y n ~ : ~ l c r ~ l a t ,which inv?lvt:s tehc conion t.inr~:~.t.ion t11o Illilsills j)rofilc 011 thc plalo near d.hc t,rniling cclgo, anti 2. Through a n of nl)st,rrarn direction. 'fhe latt,er'is a kind of asymptot,ic'int,egration expansion in t , l ~ c for x Inrgc tlistancc bchintl t h r plate and is valid irrespective of the sha,pe of the 1)orlp. It. \ \ r i l l 1)c nrrrssnry h r r r 1.0 makc Lhc nssrrmpt,ion t,llat t.lle vc1orit.y difference it1 t.11~ kc IV:I (0.29) 711 (", !/) ' , - - u ( z , y) U
9.1, n.

antl, in adtlit.iot~, assnme t.hxt( 71, is of' the forin wr


tl1

= U-c

(-;)-kg(,]),

whc.ro 1 is the Irrlgt,ll of tlrr platc, Fig. 9.9. Tl~o power -- .j for 1:i n eqn. (9.31) is just.ifiet1 on the ground t h a t the ~no~nent.urn int,cgrnl whicll givrs t,hc drag on tho plnt,c i l l oqn. (!1.27) I ~ I I I S ~ , intlrpondrnk of r . I)r

178

IX, Exact solutions of tlrc steady-statc boi~ndary-layer cqunt.ions

Hence, omit,t.ing quadm.t.io terms in 1 5 , the drag oil a plate wctzted on hot,h sidca, a s givrtr in eqn. (9.27), is transformed t.o
+m

clifferencr in t l ~ c wakc of a flat platc a t zero incidonrr becomes

2n=beCJ,/u,dy.
y--m

, Ito volocit.y clist.ril)~tt.ior~ I give11 1 . t.11isn.syrnplotio cclllnLiort is rr:prrsc:nt,otl i t t I'ig. !). 10. by

lntrodurir~g,furt.llcr, t . 1 1 ~assr~rnpt~iorl (9.31) i11t.o (9.30), ant1 tlividing tthrough by 11,z . (2/1)--112 z-1, we obt,nin the following tliffcrerrt~i:\lcquation for g(t1):
JI"

1-

4 71 JI'

-1-

hq

=7

(9.33)

I t is remnrkablo t,llat the vclocitty dist8ril)nt.ionis identical wit11 (::~t~ss'.s c:rror-tlistribntion function. As assulncrl a t the bogin~ling,cqn. (9.35) is valitl only a t grcnt, distnnces from the platc. W. Tollmicrl verified that. i t Inny bo nscd a t about z -- 1 . ]pig. 9.1 1 corlt,nins n plot, frotn wllirll t . 1 1 ~wliolr vc:locit,y.lit*ltlrnn I,(! ittliv.r.t~tl. Tho flow in tllc \valto of' n platc as wc-ll a s ill tllat bc:l~intl any ot611rr body is, s, in most cases, turbulcrit J5ve11in tllc case of small Itcynoltls n i ~ n ~ h r rsny R, < 106, w11en the bol~ntlnrylaycr rcrnnins laminar a s far a s tho txailing cdgc, tllc flow iri t,l~e waltc still bccomes f u r b ~ ~ l c rbecause the vclocity j)rolilcs in tile wnltr, all of ~t, which posscss n point of inflcxioll, nrc c ~ t ~ r c m c l1111stnI)lc.111otllrr wortls, cvcn y with ~ o m p a r a t ~ i v esmall Rcynolds numbers tho wnkc 1)ecomes tnrbulellt.. 'l'ur\)lllent ly wakes will be discussed in Chap. XXIV.

f. The two-dirnensio~~nl larnir~nr jet

where flrc rorlstnnt of integration vanrshes on ncrount of tho t ~ o l ~ n d n rcondition y a t q = 0. Rcpcatcd integration gives the solrltion

g = exp ( -

'1 ?12).

(9.34)

The efflux of a jot from nn orifice affords a frlrtllrr example of motion in tho abscnco of solid boundaries to wliiclr it is possible t o apply the boundary-layer theory. We proposc t o discuss the two-dimensional problem so t h a t we shall assume

l l r r c t . 1 1 ~constn.nt of int.cgrnt,ion n.ppcnw in Lllc form of a cocffcicnt and can be mntlc cqr~nl o nnit,y without loss of gerleralit,y, a s t,hc veloc:ity dist,riblltion function u , t frorn eqn. (9.31) st.ill contains n free coefficient G . This constant C is determineti from the condition t . l ~ at,l~c t drag calcr~lated from the loss of morncr~t~r~m, (9.32), eqn. rnrrst, hc equal 1.0 t.ha.t o n t,he pIat$e, q n . (7.33). First wr notivc t,ilnt

0 1t.11r: ot.llnr 1

I~nntl, from cqn. (7.33) we ann w h c tlown tho sltirl fric+t,ionon n. plntc I wat,t,otl o n I)oll~sitlcs in kllc form:

Fig. 9.10. Anyn~pLot.ic vclocitydistribrttion in t11c lan~inarwake bol~inds flat plate, from erln. (9.35)

Fig. 9.11. Velorily (listribittion i t l ~ c t n laminar wakc 1)cllintl a flat platc at zcro innidenco

180

I X . Exact solrltions of tllc sbntly-stato boundary-layer equal~ions

t h a t t,lle jet cmcrgcs from a long, narrow slit and mixes with the surrollntling fluid. This 1rol)lom was solvctl by 11. Scl~lichl.ing [60] and W. Biclrley [3]. I n practicn, in this case, ns in t h e previous ones, tho flow becomes t r ~ r l ~ r ~ l cWe. slinll, llowevcr, nt, discnss hero the laminar c:we in some tlct,nil, since the turbulent jet, wllicll will be oonsidrretl later, can be analyzed mntllcmatically in arl identical way. Thc rmerging jet carries with i L solno of the s~trrorltltlitlg Iluitl wl~icli wns originally a t rest beenuso of the fricl.ion developetl on its periphery. ' r t ~ eresulting patt.ern of sLrcarnlines is shown in Fig. 9.12. We shall adopt a system of ~oorctinat~es wit.11 i1.s origin in Lhe slit and wit,l~ axis of absrissno eoincitling with the jet axis. it,s

'I'l~c tlwo 1111ltnown oxj)o~lrnta and q will I)c tlet.crnlitirt1 f r o n ~ttlle follo\vir~g p co~ltlit iotls :

..his g i v r ; t,u~or q ~ ~ a t ~ i ofors p and q : I n


2p
. f/

-0

a11tI 21)

--

2q

I
'

~7)

:jq ,

ant1 hrnc.c,

-. A

q - ? ?.I

(!or~sr:cl~~c~rt.ly, assumptions for td~ciritlrpcr~tlcr~t~ tllc vari:ll)lt: a t ~ t l for 1.11~ st,rcntn frtnc.t,ion can be writtcri as

if s ~ ~ i t ; ~ l ) l c c:onstxtlt fa,c:tors arc itrc:lr~~lr~l. 'I'l~r.rrlnrc,, t,It(. vc,l1)c.it.3rc S o ~ ~ ~ l ~a1.r ~ t ~ r ~ t o~ given I)y t,l~cfi)llowi~)gexpressions:

The jet spreads o~~twa.rtls t.hc tlowr~st.reamdiroct.ion owing t,o the influence of in frict,ion, wl~crc:~s vc?locit,y in t , l ~ e it,s cetrt,rc decrcascs in t h e same direction. For tlre snltc of simplicit.y we sllall assume t h a t the slit is infinitely small, but in order t o rt!t.:lin a finite volnrnc of flow as well as a finite m o t n o ~ t ~ ~ m , necessary t o nssumo it is a n i n f i r ~ i t fl~ritlvel6oil.y it1 t l ~ c ,~ slit. 'l'lrc pressure gratlicnt tlpltlx in tjho 2-tlirect,ion can Iicrc, as in t.11~prcvior~scxan~plc,be neglcctctl, because the constnrtt pressure i r ~ surro~rntling t.he flr~itl irnl~rcsscs itsrlfon t.l~c Consequel~tly, total n i o m e ~ ~ t ~ r m jet tlrc in t . 1 1 ~r-tlircct,iotl, clcno1,c:tl I)y J, nus st, remain const8ant arid i r ~ t l c p o ~ ~ d n n l 1,lle of tlistancc r from tlrc orifice. Ilcnco

l ~ ~ t , r o t l ~ ~t,llcsc~ g c * i t valrles into tllc difTcrcnt,ia.lccjr~at~ion (9.2), arltl r(lu:~t,i~lg 1 ~) ~ O S S I I T O I.1 I t,crm t.o zero, we obtain t h e following difTercnt.ial eq~int.ion t h e stream fnnc1,ion 1 (TI) : for

is ~)ossil)lc n~nlzca snit.;~l)le t,o assltmpt,ion regnr(ling blic velocity distxil)ution if vrlociLy profiles ~ i ( r , y ) , jnst :IS in tlie case of a flat plate is ror~sitlcrctlt,h:~Lt,l~e zrro ir~aitlcnce, I Y I O S prol)al)ly sinli1n.r. 1)ecause the problem as a wllole possesses arc ~ tlo ch:~mct,nrist,ic!i ~ ~ e n r l tlitncr~sion. \Yo sl~nll ass~!mc:, t,hercfore, t h a t tho velocity u is a fi~tlnt,iot~ ylh, wlrrrc h is t,hc \vitlt,h of t,he jet, suitably tlefined. We sllall also of assume t,l~:~t.is proportional 1.0 x*. Aacortlingly we can write the strcam fut~ction h i t 1 t,hr lor111

'I'I1e c o n s t a ~ ~ t integration is zero bcc:a~~scf t,llc I)o~rlltl:~~.y of o co~rtlit.iotls 11 - 0, :l.t$ arltl the resulting tliKerentia.l equation of 1,lle sccotid ortlcr coultl bo i~ll,c:gral.ctl immediately if the first term containrtl t;llc fn.ctor 2. 'l'his ran bc! nc:hirvrtl I)y t,lrr following t.m.nsformat.ion:

f=2aF(t),1 I \vIlcrc OI is n lice constant,, l,o be clot,er~nittctl Iat.rr. 'l'1111s n.l)ovcc q ~ ~ : ~ t t,r:lnsfol~lns t01c .iot~
==

aq;

182

TX. Exact fiolrtt.ionsof t,l~c stmtly-s1.ntn Iior~r~<lar~l-layer eq~~at,ion.s

K. Pnrnllcl ~t,rcarn.s l~lrninar in flow

nntl t,llt?clnslr now cletrotos tlilTrrcnt,ia.tion wit11 rcspcct, t o (. T h c bol~nrlary contlit.ions art? ( ~ 0 F: = O ; t=oo: (0.41)

and, hencc, for tlio volocit,y di~tribrlt~ion

r=O

ant1

tltt-

cq~t:rt.iorr cnn

Iir-

inlvprnI.ctl on(-o moro l.o give

whcro t.ltr cotlsl;~rtl~ inl.rgr:it,iotr was ~n:itle cclttnl 1.0 I. 'l'llis li)llo\vs if we p ~ i t of Ff(0) 1 , wlticlt is prrnlissihlr wil.ltottt loss ol'gc~lcrnlil,y Itacnnsc (if I,llo frcc cotlst.:inl. a in t,l~c rrlnt.icin Iictwoen f R I I ~ ICq~~atiorr P. (9.42) is n clill:rrrrt.ial cqn:tt,ion of 1tit:t::~t.i'~ type ancl can Iir int.rgral.ctl in closctl t,rrms. \Ye oliI.nilr
F

I h c transvcrsc: vclooil,y a t t,hc l~or~ntlnry L I I ~ . jet is of


7

I ~ r v rtling this etlnnt ion wr ol)l.airl

ant1 tlrc volltme-mtc of disclrxrgc per unit Ircight of slit bocomcs Q = e J v (I!/, or
-m

-1

00

I. =t,arth
Since, furt,llcr, tlP/tlE q n . (9.37) and is
. I

E=

1 - exp(-BE) - - 1 4- cxp (--Z$)

Q = 3.3010 (I< V X ) " ~ .


'

(!).48)

1:in1r2E, t l ~ e vt:locit.y ( l i ~ l r i l ~ ~ t l(:all n I tloclr~cctlfrom ~ioI ~


-

(I

t . a n 1 16) . ~

(9.44)

Ilre vrlorily tlisI.ril)ntiorl from crln. (9.37) is soon plott.ctl i r l Pig. !).Is. 1L tiow rcnr:rins t,o dct.crtnirrc. t811cconst,:tnt. a , :LII(I tllis ~ i l nbe (lone wit.11 tlre nit1 of contlition (!).:3R) wl~iclr st,atcs t h a t t,l~c rnonrcnI,unl in t.llo x-tlirrcl iorl is ronst,nnt.. (:ornbinirlg rqns. (9.44) :111(1 (0.36)we obl.nirl

w e slrall assume tllxt tho flux of momonturn, J, for thc jet is given. It is proportional t o t>hrexcess in pressure with which the jet leaves t h e slit. lrrtrodricing t h e kinematic mo~nenlltnt.I/@ = K, we have from eqn. (9.45)

Tlic volrlmc-rate of tliscliargo increases in Urc tlownstrcam direction, bccai~sc: flnid particles are carried away with t h e jet owing L friction on its botlndnrics. I t also o increases with increasing momcrit,nm. The corre,sponcling rotationally symrnct.rica1 casc in which tlie jet cmcrgcs from n small circr~larorificc will be tliscussed in Chap. XI. The problem of t,hc twodime~lsionallaminar compressible jet cmcrging from narrow slit was solvctl Iiy S. 1. P.zi [4!)] nrrtl M. Z. J<rzywol)lor:ki [42]. Moasl~rcrncnts porformctl I)y TI:. N. Antlrntlo [I] for tho t,wo-tli~ncnsiotr:~I 1n.rnina.r jct ronfirn~t.lre preceding tlrcorct~ic;ilargurncnt vory well. 'l'llo jct rcr~railrslaminar n p t,o R 30 a p p r o ~ i m a t ~ r l wlrcrc t,he Ibynoltls number is rcfcrrctl t.o tltc cfflrlx y, vc1ooit.y and t o t.he widL11 ol' tho slit. Tho casc of a Lwo-tlinlensional ant1 t.llat of .z circular t8rtrl)ulentjct is discusscd in Clrap. X X I V . A comprclrensivc review of all probloms involving jets can be f o ~ ~ n d S. I. Pai's book [49]. in

g. Pnrnllel stren~nni r ~laminnr llow


Wo shall now 1)rirfly cxnrninc the lnycr 1)ctwccn two pnrallcl, Inminnr sI,rcnms which move a t tlifTercrrt vclocitics, ant1 so provitlc a htrt.lrcr cxnrnplc of the npplicability of the bountlnry-laycr equations. Thc forrn~~liif.ion the ~)roblt:rn is scot1 of iI111sLraLctlin Fig. !).14: Two it~il~ially st:p:ir:~Lc(l, I ~ I ~ I ~ s O I1i:irnlIcl~ ~ I , I I ~ I I ~ HI,~~!ILIIIS\vlti(!lt move witz!\ t h e vcloc~it.icsTJ1 nncl (I,, rcspccCivcly, 11cgin t,o intcrc\ct t,lrror~gIrfrit:t.iorr. I t is possil)lo t,o assrlmc t h n t l,hc transition from t,hc vclociLy U , t o vclocity ( I , talccs place in n narrow zone of mixing ant1 t h a t t h e transvcrsc v c ~ " c i t ,componcl~t,v , is ~ everywhere smalc oomp,zrcd with t h e longitudinal velocity, 11. Consequently, t h e boundnry-layer equation (9.1) can be usctl to describe the flow in t,hc zoncs I and 11, and tlie pressure t1crrn may be omitted.
I n n manner analogous t o tlrat employetl for tllc boundary layer on a flnt platme (Scc. VIIe), i t is possible t o obtain t h e ordinary tliff~rent~inl cq11ation

Fig. 9.13. ,VrIcirit,yciist,ril~~~lio~~ i n x t,\\o-rJi~~~rt~. sio11111 ~ i r e ~ t lfrcc~ jcL frot~~ RINJ ~i . cqt~s.(9.44) :~nd (11.1~5) icspect~ivcly.For tlio two-tlirnerrxionnl jct [ = 0.275 K113 / ( v ~ ) ~ / ~ for the y and , circnlar jct. C 0.244 y/vz. I< and K' t1t.not.c: Ilir kir~crnat.ic rnon~rnt.um / e J

184

IX. Exact solutions of the steady-skate boundary-layer equations

11. Flow in the irlet lengt.l~of n strnigl~tc h n n ~ ~ r l

185

by int'rodaring t,hc dimensionless t r a n s v e r s e coordinat,e 9 = y lJl/v z a n d tlte strean1 f~lrrct.ios = y~ V 1z /. A s s u m i n g t , l ~ nIL/U= ure a r c led t o t,Iic b o u n d n r y t contlit ions

1/

1/

/ I ,

Accortling t,o t h e investigation carried o u t by J. St,cinhcuer [63], as ment.ionetl i n C h a p . VIJ, these solnt~ionsbelong to a sprcial g r o u p of solut,ions of Rlasiu8's e q u a t i o n (9.49). T h e values of / ' ( 0 ) a n d /"(0) recent,ly cnlculat,ctl for various vn.lurs of t . 1 1 ~ vclocit,y r a t i o I c a n b e fou~iclill t,lrnt, rcfcrr.trcc. I n t~.tltlition,t.hr c l i s p l n c ~ c ~ n r t ~ l of (.he zero s t , r c a ~ n l i n c Iras also bcc11 cnlcnlatctl. 'l'ljis occrrrs ss a r r s n l t of I , l ~ c , i ~ . r u ~ ~ l st,a.nae t,l~nt, t,hc n o r t n ~ l lvrlocit,y c o t n p o n o n l , ~ 11 = - a i / ~ / r ? x ( I ) / ' - /) for 7, L I , 111.c:not, rclual 111. t,lrc, t,wo c ~ l g c b ~ t.ltc! bottntl~t.t.yIily('~.. of

IICC~IISC Y) =- 0 t,lrcre. T h e s o l ~ l t ~ i oof t h e dilTercntial e q u a t i o n (9.49) s u b j e c t to t h e n borlntlary contlit,iorrs (9.50) a n d (9.51) c a n n o t b e o b t a i n e d i n closed f o r m , a n d a rrurncrical ~ n c t ~ h o d c ~ s tb e employed. It is possible t o o b t a i n e x a c t n u m e r i c a l soluni t,io~tsI)y tlrc IISC of asyniptot,ic e x p a n s i o n s f o r 77 + - co a n d 17 -+ -1- cro togetfher wit.11 a series cxpatisiori a b o u t r] = 0 ; s e v e r a l s u c h solutions were p r o v i d ~ d R. C. by 1,oc:Iz 1451. 'f'hc prol)lcm w a s first, solved by n ~ l m e r i c a li n t e g r a t i o n by M . 1,essen [44a] st,al.t.ing wit.11 at1 n s y ~ n p t o 1 . i ~ expansion for r] -+ -00.
Pig. 9 . 1 4 prc.scnt,s v e l o ~ i t ~ y profiles for I = U , / U 1 = 0 a n d 0.5. A n irnprovcd tlumerical solution w a s p ~ t k ~ l i s h cb l W. J. Christian [lo]. Tliis special ty cnsc of t h e int.eract,ion l ~ e t ~ w e enn wide, l~olnogericousj e t a n d an adjoining m a s s of quiescent, a i r is oft,eti tlescribcd b y tlio t e r m "plane half-jet".

R. C. J.oclr [45l s t n d i e d , i n atltlit.ion, t h e case w l ~ e l rt,hr t.wo Iralf-jets tliffcr in t h e i r clensit.ics ancl viscosit,ies, ar~d riot o n l y i r t tllcir velocities. A n e x a n i p l c of stlclr :I case is t,lrc flow of a i r o v e r a wnt,cr srlrf:r.cc. T l ~ c o l l ~ t i o nn o w tlrpcntls o n t , l ~ c s 1):lr:Ltnctcr x -- I,, p2/p1p1 it1 atltlit.ion 1.0 I. I,oclc provirletl sevcrnl c x n c t solut.iotls n s well a s solutions which were l)ascd 0 1 1 t h e r n o m e n t . u ~ ni ~ ~ t . c g rrclilat,ion. An a ~ ~ ~ r r o s i m ; ~ l c al mc.t.ltotl w a s also conccivc.tl 1)y 0 . I<. l'ott(rr 151).
T1rc probleln of tltc rotnpressi1,lc h:rlf-jet, w a s st,rltlirtl I)y I). It.. C l ~ : ~ p t n a171. n (!or~iprc~ssiblc flows of t h i s t,ype play 1% ccrt.air~p a r t in t , I ~ e a l ( : ~ ~ l n t i o n orsrl~:rralc>cl, l i c e s l ~ r a layers in wnkcs 18, 131. r

.J11n tlin.gr:~rn in .

h. Flow in the inlet lengtl~or n s ~ r n i g l ~ t rlsnnnrl


As i t furl.11rr oxn1n1)loof t . \ v o - t l i ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~fs i o ~i l~ : ItII C 1101111tlilt.y Io\ l I li~yrt.,\ \ r sl1:1111 1 0 \ \ , ( ~ 1 1 1 sitlcr tho case of flow in the i t ~ l r t length of n str:tight CIIRIIIICI \\.ill1 lliiL 11:11.;1llrl~vi~lls. :I I::rg(: /\I t~pstrenrn distnnce from the inlet the velocity dist.ribution is n s s r ~ ~ n rto be ~ ~ n i f o rant1 llamd ~n holic over thr witlt.11 of t.he chnnnel, ns indicnt.cd in Chnp. V. \\'e shall nssnrne tlrnt t.11~ vrlocit,y in the inlct s e c t i o ~ ~ uniforn~ly is distrib~tt,cd over it8 u~idt,h,2 0 , nnd t,hnt it.8 tnng~~it.r~clr(!". is Owing to visrorts frict,ion, hor~ndarylayers \\.ill be formed on t~ot.l~ u.nlls, nntl thrir asitltl~\\-ill incrensr in the dow~~st.rcn~n clircct,ion. At the beginning, i. e. at small tlist,nnccs fro~nt I ~ c inld section, the houndary layers urill grow in t,hc same nny as t,hey \vol~ltlnlong n flat plntr : ~ zrro t incidence. The resulting velocit,y prolile will consist of taro bor~nd:rry-lnyerprofiles on thr two walls joined in the cent,re hy n line of const~rntvclocity. Since the v o l ~ ~ n ~ flo\v Inlist 1)r t,l~r of c same for every section, the tlecrrasr in t,he ratc of Row near the walls whicl~ clue to frirtion ~nrtst is t)c.compensated by n corresponding increase near t,l~c axis. 'l'hr~stho boundnry Inyrr is formctl ~rr~rler influence of an nccelernt,etl ext.crnnl flow, ns cliutinct froin thr cnse of the fl&t.1)I:tlc. At, t,Ile larger distnncecr from the inlet section the two b o ~ ~ n d n r y Inyers grncl~ixlly merge into e n r l ~ other, nr~tlfinally the velocity profile is trnnsforrned asyml)toticnlly into t.11r pnrnbolir d i s t r i l ) ~ i I i ~ n of I'oiseuille flow. , I his process can I x : ~ n a l ~ w x l ~nnt,lrc~nc~ticnllyone of two \ v i y s . I'irsL, the i111cgrat.io11 in can he l,c~rf~)rniccl (.he t l t , \ v t ~ s L r r tlircction so t.l~nL in :~~~~ the I~onncl:~ry-lnycr gro\rt.ll is cal(:~~lntt~tl lor :III:~crc.lrrnt,c~l cxtcr~lnlsl.rr:ri~~. Srco~~clly. is ~~ossil)lr :ln:~I~st! ~~rogrrssivt. ib 1.0 tho (l(?vi:~l.io~l o l 1I1c. ~)rolilc r o ~ n f its :1y11111toti(: I)it~.:~l~oli~' clis(ril)t~t.io~~. inI('~t.~~l.i(lnI ~>ro(.(.t.tl l I l ~ t ' i. r . (YII il ~rpstrra~tn tlircction. Ilaving rrhtainerl bot.h solr~lions, Ray in t.hc for111of scric.s cxp:tl~siorls,\vo c:lll rrl.nir~n suffiricnt, nur~~lx-r t.rrlns in either of t.llcn~ of and join Lhe Lwo solr~tions n sccl.ion wlrcro :tt, I)oLh arc still npplicnble. 111t.lris way the flow for t.11~ v l ~ oilr ~ l r Ict~gtlris obt,ninctl. 'rhc ~ncl.l~otl ~ c t \vhiclr \\as first used by H. Scl~lichling[67], will now hc ontlir~rdin brief. I\-r nssutne a systcni of coorrlinat,es \vhose axis of nhscissnc roinritlcs \vitll t,hnL of the c11n11r~cl. Fig. 9.15. For the cxpu~eion the ~~l)strcnln in tlirrctior~n-r slrnll rncnsltre the ordinate !I from t.11~ ccnt.re-line of the cl~nnnel,wl~crcnsfor the c.xpnnsiot~in t.11~ tlo\vnstrcnt~~ direction t,hr ortlin:ltc !/' will be n~rns~trrtl fro111one of the walls. 'l'l~r inlct vclocit.y \\.ill I)r (lrnoted I)y (1,. nntl that in Llir ccnt,ral st,rean~hy TI(r). I\'(: brain I I \vriting t.hr rcll~at.ion r cont.inr~it).: ~ o

Fig. 9.14. Velocity distrihut,ion in the zone hetrvecn two int,crnct.ing parallel streams, after R . C. Loclc [45]

j u d Y = (ion.
y'=O

1 81;
1 0 08 . 06 . 0.4 02 .

I X . Exact, aolrrt,ionn of t l ~ c nt.rn<ly-stsate boundnry-layer eqnnt.ionn


An npproxilnntcr tnetlrod of calcnlnl.ion for tho L\ro-tlimenaionnlcnsc wltich is bnsed on the momontunr equation (see Chap. X), as wcll as t\u~nerousexpcrin~e~ltnl resulta which rcac11 into the t ~ t r h ~ ~ lregion, have been reportctl in two papers by H. Jlnh~~cmnnn L. Ehret ent and [36] ant1 [37]. The flow in the entrance of n pipe I I ~ Rbeen studietl by 1.. Rol~illcr [55]. The details of a ~alculnt~ion \vhicl~dcvclops the .solution from tlic downs(,rcam directtion t~l)wxrtls cnn bc found in [57]. T11e problem of' t,l~edeveloprncnt of t l ~ e flow pxt,t.ern in t.lic inlet IctlKt,j~ a of clrnnnel was cxnrnined crit.ically by M. Van l)ykc 1711 when he for~nulnt~cd sccondhis order t,lieory, see Sees. VIIf and 1Xm. I l e drew nt,l,cntion t o the fact, tllnt tlic soluLion tlisplnyctl in Fig. 9. IT, ~ . t : l ) ~ . t ~IL c ~ ~ l , s ~ Iir~I.-or(Ic~. l ~ ~ l , Ii o It r ~ ~ vt~liclonly for VC:I.J' ~o L I in 111.t.p: Itcynoltls n ~ ~ n ~ l ~I'vrr s lhis rcnson it i* f'ortntl t.o s l ~ o wccr(,nirr tlcvinl.ions nt. low o . Itcyr~oltlstrt~tnbcrsfrom t,hc corrcspontling t~rtlncricnlsolrtl.ior~of tJlc full N ~ ~ v i c r SLokcs erllrntions.

0 -0.2
-0.4 -0.6 - 0.8

- 10 .
Y

u o
I ? .9 . 5 Vr1ocit.y dintribntion for lamir~nrflow in 1.llo inlet section of n channel

i. Thc n~clhodof fi~ritcdiRccrencest


Modern n~cthods(digitnlcnmpulers). I n recent years a large number ofnl~melical mct11od.s has been developed for solving t h e ln~nirlar boundary-layer e(~lrat,ions. Tlicse rnct,liods fall mainly under the 11ead111g implicit finite-diffcrcr~ce of procctlrlrcs nrirl represent a developrncnt of a numerical procctlure first forn~nlat,cd Flueggeby Lotz and Blottner [21]. The metl~ods refcrrcd t o are accurate and fast but reqt~ire access t,o a digital computer. The choice of m e t l ~ o d a given case depotlcls on t I ~ e in nature of the prohlrm co~rsitlered, but is also a matter of personal prefcrence. For a review of existing methods tllc render is rcfcrrcd to a Rnrvey article hy Blott,ner [6].

lntrotlnring t.he displ:~t:rn~c~~t iI~irl<~~rss 0 , rr0r11 ~ Y I I I . (8.30) we ran write

atid wit.11 tilo aid of cqn. (9.62) wo can \vrit.o

Near t.he inlet srrtion t . 1 1 ~I>n~rntlary lnycr rlcvrlops in t l ~ e salnc \ray as on a flat plate at zero inritlrnce it1 rrnnccrlcratad Ilow, so that fro111cqn. (7.37) we Iiavo

is tllr ('I~nriirlrri~tic. n i r n s i ~ ~ ~ l r s ~ di inlet Ic1ig111.1':qnntion (9.53) ran ~ l s o written as I)e U(x) =

V,

{I

~ v i t l r li, 1.73. I n tl~istnalltirr 1 . 1 1 ~ vrloc:it,y o~~tsitlc ~ r t l 1)ountlary layer has hren developed i n powrrs or . 'i'lio vnlnr of K , is known fro111Hlnsins's solntin~~ tho fiat plntc, but the for rcn~nininproc-1lirir11l.a 2 , Ii,. . . . arc ~ ~ ~ ~ l o ~ o thry ~ , K ns n r t clrl~rnclon tlro 1)nnndnry layer wllich

+ Ir', a + I<,e Z i-

(9.55)

The metllotl proposed Ilcrcin is chosen for its simplicity and its wide range of possil~le app1ioat)ions; it differs from the early rnetl~ods t h a t t.mnsforrncd (sirnilarin it,y-typo) varinbles are uscd ancl t.11~ st,cp sizcs are allowcd t o vary in t,hc st,rcamwise arid normal dirceCion. Some of the advantngcs of tising transformetl varinblcs n.re: (a) t.he growt,11 in t l ~ e domain of c:alculntiotr n.ssocint,cd wit11 t11c ir~crcasingI ) o t ~ n t l n r ~ Inycr tdlickness is largrly eliminn,tctl; (1)) t.11~botindary-layer profiles are smoother nrrtl vary more slowly in the tfmnsfnrmed plane allowing larger step sizcs t o be 11scd; and (c) (.he finite-tliffcrencc fnrmulnt,iotl hcro~ncs virttrally itlcnt,ical for cc~rnprcssible nnd incornpressihlc plane and axially synirncl,ric bountlary-layer flnws. The nsc of vnrin1)le step size in the normal direction lnnltcs it, possittlc L calculnt.~ o ttrrlr~tlctrtns wcll a s Ixminr~r flows with only minor c:I~nrig~:n ~ o r r n ~ r l ~ ~ l . i r ~ t ~ . ir f Special classes of larnit~arflow8 characttrizv(1 1)y I)e)un(l:lry I ~ ~ y e r n wiLh cliflr*rt.r~t lengtll scales (e. g. large blowing rates), can also be ha~ldled with greater accuracy.

4 :

l~ns no( yrl I)rrt~ tl~.trrn~inc.el. 11 the serirs expansio~l 1 frorn the npstrcnm clirrction we asantno u = a o ( y ) -- TL' ( r ,y), 1v11ere u,(!,) is t,lre pambolic vclorit,y dist.rihr~t.iun, e. u,(!/) = ) 11,(1 - y 2 / n 2 ) , and u' is n.n additionnl i. vrloc.ity wl~oseliigl~crortlcr~Inny hc ncglrrtccl i l l t . 1 ~ first npl~roxinlation. Ir'ig~~re gives nn inclie.ntion of Iho rl~nngo t,l~o 9.15 in vclocit,y profile over t,ho inlet. Ir~igtlr. It is srrn t.hnt, t,l~r l)nr~bolic ~)rofile fnr~nctl about v z/rc2 No = 0.10, SO tl~nt a c t ~ ~inlot in nt tho ni Irr~gl,lt ZE - O~llin(fJ,a/r)= 0.04(2rr) . R wl~nrcR tlcnotas t,l~cItoy~~oI(Is is nt~n~ber referred to t.l~e~wi~lt.l~ cl~nnncl.For exnriiplc nt. R 2000 t.o 500n t.he inlet l o ~ ~ gexknds over of t,lio tl~ XI) to 200 rlint~rirl\vidt.l~s. COIIRPC~IIPIIIIY, doc.s not h1~00111ef ~ ~ l tlovrloprtl nt all if the (,he flow ly c.l~nnnrli~ sl~e)rt il t.lw Il.cyt~e~ltls or r~nn~hcr rornpnml.ivcly lnrge. is

I n111 indcht~tl Professor T. K. Fnrinelorp o f t,he Tr~nt-itutr Trrl~rrolngy Trontlliri~n, to of it1 who kintlly provided tuc with tlw following presentation.

\\r)ltre j = 0 (plane flow) or j = 1 (flow with axial symmetry). The boundary condit,ions arc 16 -- I ) = 0 a t !/ = 0 n.ntl 11. =- 1 (n.) a t ?/ 0 . For turbulent flows u - a n d v 1 a.rc t.he n,~)propl.in(,c lrlrnn vclocit,ics n,tltl ~1 rrprescnt.s a sllitably defined cdtly viscosit,y, scc for inst,:~ncr A . M . 0. Smit.11 n.nd 'l'. Ccl)coi [ D l ] . I'or Inminer flows 1 .= 0. 7'11~, r n l ~ s f ~ , ~ ~ r ~ ~ a l , i o t ~ l of r(ltls. (9.50) ancl (9.57) to d i t r l e ~ ~ s i o t ~ l ~ s s vnria1)Ies i~~corporaLes I~ot,Il t11(, l$ln.sir~s ant1 l l ~ c Mn~lglrrl.rnnsfot~tr~n.titr~~s:~lsoII. (:orrl.lcr I:13, 341) nl~tl (sc~ is tl(4itlrd n.s ft)llows :

In the absence of ~ r l c t ~ i o r ~t)Io\ving t1he boundnry conditions nrr or

Nrar t,hc lending'ctlgo of a cuspctl botly anti in tell(:stngnat,ion region of a I)lnnt, I~otly, rq~~at'ions (9.04) and (9.05) r c t l ~ ~ c e t,rnc similnrit,y form. 'l'l~ccorrrs1)ontling s i l n i l ~ ~ . ~ . to ~ o I ~ ~ ( . i(:II.II IIHIYI, I,II(~I.vI'III~I~,. i ~V ~\ .lI I I ~ * H (111. I . I I ~~~ ( ~ t ~ ~ ) - IO l y i-I ~~i~l t~~ t ~~l ~~ . r . o n sI)(* 1 si t ~ i t 1 I i ~ t( l l . . . t ( ~r~cl.ltc~tl. ~nc.l.l~otl 'l'lto prosentcd hcrc solves t l ~ c 11art)ialtlill'crerit.ial cclllat,ion (!).(i4) a ~ i t l(wit,li small modificabions) also t,he associated sirnilar eqnaLions re(~uirotln.s init,ial val~lrs. Tllc method is tJlus self-st,art,ingand ~cclnires o ndt1iLionn.l i t ~ p t ~ t . . n Finite-clilTereace q11otient8: The tlornain of c n l ~ u l a t ~ i o ~ lt,he (6, q)-l~ln,n(in rnn I)(, re~~rescnt,rd a scmi-infir~itc by strip borlnrlcrl by t.l~cwall q = 0, t,llc rtlpr or t.llr 1)onncIary layer 11 = ye, wit,ll q, suit,nl)ly drfinrtl, n,ntl t , l ~ init,ial linc [ -= lo\vl~c.~.rI V r ~I sol~tt,ionis p r c s ~ ~ r n et,o I)c lcnown. d
7

This strip is completely covered by a grid with lines drawn parallel to t,he ( and coordinntes as illrlstro.t,ctl in Fig. 9.16. 'l'l~c s t q sizr A[ rcl)rcsc~~t.s tlist,:tnrc. t.11~ bet,wcer~t,wo snr.crssivc grid lincs 5 = const,al~t; is prost~~nctl I)c stn:~ll I I I I ~ , is it i.o ot,hcrwise rrnspccifictl. 'I'hc corres1)ontling step sizes in t.llc q-tlirrct.iou nrr spc:c.ilictt t,o vary i r l geometric 1)rogrcssiorl. The rnl,io Octwecn t,wo s ~ ~ c c r s s i v e lincs, TI,, grid and yn+l, is denoted by I< = I -1 k where 1 k J varies from 0 t,n 0.05 in l.ypical cases. Rncll notlal point is itlcntified by a dor~l)lcintlcx m, ?L wllirl~tlclinrs it.s posit,ion Fin, yn according tso

111 writing t>hefinite-tlilTerence quol.icnt,s it is corivcnlent t,o int.roclr~ce t,he moan of two successive Ay-values

nntl E , is t,llr rdtly visvosit,y from etln. (39.2). The s~~l)script,s tlrnotx- part.inl ctilkrctit.ia.liot~, anrl t,l~c clunnt,it,y
5

0( t ) = 2
7 7 ~ 0 ;/ = O ;

iJ' ( r )
1, (a)
0

t J(2,)d . ~ .

In the step-by-step calculations the solution is considcretl I<nown a t 5,n arlcl ell preceding grid lines, and the variables F nntl / are sougl~tat. [,,,, 1. C t ~ t ~ I l ~ ~ l - t l IiIl~ Yrr~l,ptositnntio~~s Iltr tlrrivalivc~sk',, nncl l~',,,, n t [,,, I I rltc ( \ T ~~ to nntl 1',,,+1, .-I, rr,sprctiv(~ly, a ' I ' n ~ l o ~ . in sc,tic~s olttainttl by expnntling 1",,,,1,

=On.r~tlq=cm;

I,--

I.

(9.63)

Fi~~it~e-tlifl'c?rcncc: cclnnt,ions of sccoiitl orcler call I>(: S O I V C ~ (by mnt,rix invel.sion ront.inrs) r1111rhnlorc cfficicnt.ly trllan t.llirtl (or higher) ordcr equat,ions. I t is of inter?st,. t,lict.eforo, t,o rrclurc eclnat.ions (9.01) to sccond ordcr. To this erld the variable I;' -= /, is int,l.otl~tcrtl and ecln. (9.01) is rcwrit,ten a s

INF'v],l I / F I I

--F~)-T-~((FE'~--~~F',~].

(9.64)
Fig. 9.16. \'ari.zble stcp size finit.c-rliffrronce grid for t.he rnlcr~lnt,ionof lat~iinnr and tr~rb~llctlt,

'J'llis rtlua(iotl now conlains two l ~ n k n o w rfunctions, f and 1'1, I ~ u tllrse are relat,etl ~ t by tlrr sirtlplr rxprc~ssior~

Iiotlnrlnry Inycrs
x knon.~~ vnlllcs, O rtnknn\vlr r n l l ~ r s

ccnt,rred at, (rn -1- 1, n ) . 1'110 two t,xpt~cssionsare t.hert:lipon cornt)ined in such a way t h n t tcrnls of ortlcr A q 2 are elitnina1.rtl. The corrcsponclir~g rliffrrerlce qnot,icnks can I,c given t.tlc, form (index w e 1I omit,tcd):

aF,,
il,l

2 /I 11,'

II

I]

I 0( A .1
= -Ii;

(9 69) proces.s t,lle tcrrns ( / S ) t can be licJ)t constnrlt. (ecll~nlt,o stration)unt,il initial convergence is ncllicved.
t . 1 1 ~ Gnluc

n~11rl.c

L I = \(--I,

14 = ( l i 2 - 1 ) C1,

n.t t . 1 1 ~prrvious

where

I'~

1l2

(I

-+- K ) , rPz- L ~ ,

.-- 2

r1J ' ~ ,

I>,,

-=

I.

E(lltn.tions (9.69) nncl (9.70) rcrlr~cct.c-,t,l~c st.nntlartl form for cent,ral difl'crenccs when

K = I. For the (-tlcrivat,ivrs in cqnnt.inn (9.64) a siml~lc baclrwnrtl tlini.rener forrnl~ln is


used

Metltod of nol~ltion:Equations (9.74) r c p r c ~ o n n~~ o of N-1 si~ntlll.nnc:ousr1,lgc:t t I~raiceqt~ntiotirrfor the t ~ ~ i l r t i ok;ntl,n = 2, 3, . . ., N). At, c n c l ~levcl IL (.llrcc w ~ ~ (n unknown quat~t~ities appear, namely F n a j l ,.-I, Fm.kl,n Fniit, ant1 ,,+I, but sincc F , + I , ~ and F m + l , are known from t h e boundary cot~ilitions,1.11~ ~ totnl nnrnbcr of ccl~~ations equals t J ~ enr~nlberof unlrnowns. The set of nlgcliraic cqrrnt,ions rnn be wril,t.cn in so-callod tllrcc-tlingonnl matrix forrn. Mnhriccs of Illis ttypcwhcro oK-tlir~go~tnl elements vanish o l ~ t ~ s i i d e three-tliagonal band can bc invertotl b g a sirnplc: ant1 th direct nlot.Iloc1 well s11it.cdfor digital co~nputcrs.l'oend tlriseqtla.tion (0.74) is rcwrit,toll in "stantlard form" (snbscripts ( m -1I ) ornittcd)

E -

Fsr

1,.

n --

Flit, n

At -

-I

ocnr).

(9.7 I )

Thc botlnclary condit.ions arc

The 1nrgc.r I,rtlnc.at,ion error wlliclt alil,cn.t,s 11crc is balancctl liy 1,llc it.cral.ivc scltclne proposc(1 for solving t l ~ tlillbrcr~ccc-qt~al,ion. r 'l'llo non-lit1cn.r t,ernis in r(lnnt,ion (9.04) Ilavc t o be replaced by lincarizccl diflkrencc qnot,icnt.s. Tho tcrlns fFIlant1 FFg may serve as exntnples and t,l\cy are writ,t,cn as
J'

wllerc IL = I t l r ~ ~ o ttbc wall and ?t = N the edge of tile bor~ntlary cs layer. J1, is asst~tnetl now t,llat a solut,ion existst in tllc form

F g = Fi,(Ff)mI. 1 , n. and

jt(Ft1)m+1, n ,

(9.72)

\vhrrr (FE)lni ant1 (F,,),,,( 1 , . a r r given 1)y (9.71) n.ntl (9.69), res})cct,ivcly. The unltnown coel'firictlt.~ ant1 / i a r r srl. rcltlnl t,o tllc Itr~ownvalurs PI,,,, ancl I,,, in F'i trllc: first it.cm.t,ion ( i -- 0) anti latar ulitl:~l.cdb y F" /Ji(i= 1, 2, 3 , . . .) in t,hc second nntl fnrt,hcr successive it,crat,ions. lSxperic:ncc sl~ggestst,llnt the tc:t.rn F2 shot~lrlbe ~pproximat,rtl by
t I, n

The boundary condit,ion F1 = 0 and t,hc rcyuirernent t,llnt rcll~ation (9.77) sl~orlld rcrnnin valitl indcpcntlcnt,ly of the s l , c size /Iq leads to ~

rl n

n t I , ,l L

- Z%, n .

(9.73) When the precerling expressions are substitut,cd int20 oqn. (!).741,), 1.11~ following relohion is obt.aincd
17n

l'hc lincnrizrtl Iitii1,r-tlifl'ercnw c,not.icnts given ahove are su11st~it.ut~erl the into tlifl'crentinl t~q~~nl.iorl (9.G4) nrtd Llle result is rltultiplied througlt by A E t o give a tlilYcrcnce ecllra.t,iotl. 'J'l~isis writden as follows

- C,I - J l t , 1- A,, Jtn-l Fn

,.I

I),,

-- A , , G n - .1 11,t 4. A,, ~c',,-I

'

(!).SO)

En =

- Gtl
I{" -I A" E,,- I

Q n = -1)" - A " Gn- I

n, -I

A , , R,

By rncnns of cclr~alion(9.81) ant1 tlle condition (9.78), it bccorncs possil~lc cotnpot,~ t.o

192

J X . 1Cxact sol~~Lion~ st,rndy-state l~ountlary-layer of tho equat,iona


= 2 for all grid point,s between

i. T h o method of f i r l i b diffcfcrr~~oes

103

R , and G',, for sucoessive values of n startling wit,h ?z


t,hc wall and the ctlge of the 1)onndary layer.

Sinco 17,,.,l for 12 = N - 1 is lznown from rqnat,ion (!).70), it 1,ccomrs possil~leto evaluate all nnlznowns F, I)y means of equation (9.77) wl~ilc t,mvc,rsing td~o hountlary layer from t,ho ctlgc t,o the wall t,lirongll (Icrreasing va111cs of ? b , i . O. for 17. -- N-l , N--2, . . ., 2. '1'11is corn~)lrl,rs r calc~llnl,ion Il',, lh of F,, l l . n )in ono il.c~.nl,ion. On(:(: I{',,,, 1 1 s 1 1 I)c~vi l r I r ~ . n i i ~ ~t11r l . t ( ~ ( cot.~.c.sj)ondi~ig solnt.ion for /0141,n ca.n be found by rlireot. nun~cvirnlinhcgrat,iort of e q ~ ~ a t ' i o n (9.05). The t,rapezoidal rule snfficcs for t,his purpose.
(7.-

guessing a solat,ior~whicl~salisfics the bonndary condit,ions), whereas those wit,ll index i arc t o be found in t-11c 1:-th or c n r r c t ~ titcmt,ion. 'L'lte t1ifTcrc:nc:c tjrlol,irnf,s (9.69) and (0.70) are now srtl)sti(.ut,cd in1.o equa0ion (!).84). '1'1ie rrsnlt. is a t l i f l i - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c c ecluat,ion whicll can be writt,en in the standard form of eqnat,ion (9.74), wit.11 coeffi-

The calculat.et1 vniues P7n4.1,n /,,+l,. are used t,o dnt,crmine new and iniproved a.ntl vn,lrtcs of t,l~e cot,fficients A,,, I?,,,C,, which in t , ~ ~leads t,o new and improved values rn of F,+I,,, ant1 f,, I,,. 111(? ~wocess t.~rtnin:~tcd is whct~t,hc rcs111t,sof two s~~cccssive it,rrnt,ions ngrco t,o within a specifietl t,olcrancc, typically of order 10-5. 'l'lio convergrlice is nsnallp rapitl, t01ree t,o four iterat,ions being atlecluate in most cases with st,rp sizrs A.r in l , l ~ e range 0.01 t,o 0.05.

, ,.

111 crrt,t~in ~)roLlc:nisit, I~ecomrst ~ ~ c c s s n r ~ t,o nllow for b o ~ ~ n d a . r y - l ; ~ y ( ~ r growt,l~ 1)y inerc,asing N (or ve) as t,l~ecalc~~lat~ions procercl tlownst,reant. The houndarylayer ctlgc is rlcfinctl by t,hc rcquirctncnt t,hat tho difference F N - F n r ~ l sltould be Icss t,lian a sperificd valnc, t,.vpically of ordrr 10-4. 7'hc growth, in t,crrr~s the preof s r n t variablcs, is usrlally very rnotlcst even for cases involving separation.

A v n r i a l ~ l ( ~ primary int.crcst. in Lhc calcnlat,ion is the s1.rrs.s at, t,hc wall; it,s of vnlr~ocan bc tl~t~erminetl with gootl accuracy from the five point formula

A linear variation in F suffices as a n initia,l guess, Fo, and the corrcsl~ontlingvalr~e o f f is det,ermincd from equation (9.86). The coefficients A,, /I,,, C,, ant1 I),, nro c:~loulatcd next, and tltc corresponcling valncs of h, n.ntl (r,, arcb tlct~crrni~~ctl ', ILCI.OSS t l ~ t * bonntlary layer. The recurrence rclnlion (9.77) and t,he bonlltlnrg contlit,iorls (!).78) are t.llerl used t o determine t h e new it,crat.e, F I , across t,hr bounclnry Iagrr. 'Yhr process is repeated until the difference bct,wcen successive it,eratrs becomes slnallcr t l ~ a r ~ specified t,olerance. The number of it.emtions required is typically of ortlcr the 8 to 12. The method is simpler t,lian t,he usl~al "s11ooting'' 111ctliod usc(1 for two-point l~onntlary-vnlncproblem$ ant1 it converges in tnany eases wIlc:~.ct,lre In,t.tel.~ r ~ c t , l ~ o t l fails, for inst,ance for very large blowing mt.es.
Applications: The finite-tlifferencc methot1 prescnt.ctl Iirrc is in1,cntlctl a s n prnctical engineering t,ool. Great,rr accuracy can be achicvcrl with a more elnl>orntr proeednrc, 1,111,t,his in trtrrl learls t,o greater cotnplexit,y in forninlat,ion a.ntl progrntnrning ant1 t o a n increascct tlemnrid for comput.er t,ime and cnpacit.y. The corii\~nting time nnd accnmey tlel~cndfor all tlifTcrcncc ntet,lrotls on the st,rp sizr nsrtl in tht. r n l r ~ l Iatiorts. It, is of int.crest, to exa,mine the accuracy of the present, ~nct,l~otl a few in cases for which very accurat3e solut,ionsare known. The cases considrretl are 11owa1.t.h'~ linrnrly retarcletl flow (cf. Scc. I X d ) a,nd the circular cylinder with a pressure clistrih~~t.ion ncrortling 1,o l)ot.cnt,inl 1.11eory ant1 nccot,tling t,o t.11~ cspcritnenl,~ I[ic.li~r~~z of (c/. See. X o). '1'11~ rrsult,s for n "norrnnl" step sizc nntl a "srn:i,ll" S ~ C size arc tal)nlntcd [I 11clow. l'rotn t.11~ c:II(:III:L~.~(I rc~1111~s only t,hc 1ocat.ion of t,ltc scl~n.rt~.l.ion 11oin1s:II.(! sl~own. Cnse ('o~lsiderrd I,i~~enrly set.artlrtl Ilow

111ilinlvnlr~cs: \Vlic~n sing hnl~~~l:rl.c.tl similar solrrl.ions as s1,arling valrlcs, ext,c:nsivc int~c~t,j)olat,ioti rc.clnil,ecl wl~rncver variable st,cp sizes Ay,, are nsctl. I t is is rnorcx conrcnirnt, antl rfficient also t,tr g o ~ e r a t et,hc sin~ilarit~y solut.ion by finite tlifi~rr-rcst.hroupl1 surcessivc iterat,ions. The equat,ion t>obe solved is oht,aincd from cclna,li~~ii (!).64).and can I)c writt,on in 1inoar.ized form as

Present res~~lts (1) x,' (2) x,*


(1) 4, (2) 4 ,
=
=

I
I
or r,* or T,*
=

.-

1Sxnct

0.1227 0.1210 106.13" 105.01


O

r8* = 0.1I!)!) ( I l o \ \ . n r t l i )

(l,eig11)[44] - 0.1 198 (Sc~l~ortinrlcr) 0.120:)

Circular ryli~~tlcr (l'okntinl flow)


-.

= = = =

( r f . Scc. X c )

4a

104.5' (Srl~ocnni~er) -

Circrllnr cylit~tlrr (Ilic~ncne prms. tlntn)


r 7

(2) 4,

( I ) $,

80.!)8" 80.08"

#.

-=

(intrrl)olntrd)

80.0(: (.lnlli: nnd Stnitl1)(.42/

1 11c i~~(li(%cs ( i . i--1) i~itli(,:it,(, Llic it,ct.nl,ioti for wl~icli t,lic varinl)jt; is ~ : v a ~ t ~ a t , r ~ ~ afl(1
t1rnot.c.s tl/llq. \'nrial)lrs witdl in(lrs i-1 arc consitlcred lrnowrl (init.ially by

(I])'

(1) "Norlnnl" step sizc: .,It

0.01, ,,ItI = 0.05; (2) "S~nnll"strp size: A [

0,001. .,11/

-=

0.025

194

IX. Jqxnct eolutions of t,hc stcwly-ntnto I)or~ntio.ry-layer cqr~ntiorin

j. Bor~ndaryl ~ y c r second ordcr of

I95

Ilere, the new variable is defined a s The cornputing tirnc wit11 f . 1 1 ~"normnl" strep sizc is tyltically Ci t o 10 scconds on t.hc UNIVIIC 1108 colnpntcr.'l'he accuracy wit,l~ slnnll step sizc is seen to Ire bet,tcr the 11r1t t t.11~ a expense of a twcnt,y-foltl inert-nse in comtrut,c.r tirnc. For engirlenring calcnIations Lhe conl.scr grid shor~ltlsrlflicc; il, rcclt~iresrunning times of t,lrc ortlcr 10 sccorltlrr in cr~sc pr:~otinnl int.c.rcst sr~cltas t.l~c of 1n.tnirlnr l)or~ntlnry Inyrr ol' nn ncrofoil. 11nl)rr)vc:tleconotny cnr1 bc nc:hit:vc:tl Iiy vnrying t.lrc step size ns t.hc cnlt:ulntion proc,cetls, t h n t is using t h e fine mrsh only in t h e critical region near separation.

Stll)st.it,ut.in,g t.licsc forrr~s into t,hc J)onntlnry-lnycr er(~~nt.ionsfirst nnti second ortlcr, of wc oi~l~nin

1"' -1.
,,I

f f"

-11 - 1'"

0, - 1'2 -1- 2) -1- 0.6470,

(!).!)l)
(9.92)

A summary account of nurncricnl methods in fluid mccl~anicsis give11 in thc lecture notes of Stnoldc,ren [G5].
j. Uot~i~dnry layer of second order?
'l'he secontl-orclrr equntions, cqns. (7 52) nnd (7.53) for flow in n hol~ntlary layer were dcrivcd in Ser. V l l f . This system of linear partial differcnt,ial equations r a n be solvcd if the first-order solntiorls u (z, N ) nnti vl (x, N ) are Irnown, and if the funcl tions I < ( r ) , IJz(x, 0) nntl I'z(x, 0) nre suitably prescribed. I t follows t h a t the calculation of n second-order bo~lttclaryla.yer on a given body in a strcnm requires t h a t the following steps should be taken: (a) Cnlculat~ionof t h e potential flow (external flow of first order) about the body with the boundary conditions IT1 ( r , 0 ) = 0. The solution yields U l ( s , 0).

Fy' -1- f P;' - 2 f' F; -1Fd -1- f


with t.11~ btrllntln.ry condillions

1" F, = 11 ( J f" - 2 1' F'd 4-/" IFd -- - 2 ,

(!I.!):!)

'

The first, equation d c l ~ c r m i n c ~ first,-orclcr b o ~ ~ n t l n rInyc:r which in itlcnI.irn.l wiI.11 the y eqn. (5.39) for ~ t n g n a t ~ i oflow nt a flat plnt.c. The two succeeding equn.t,ions detern mine the second-ortler boundary layer. Thc solrlt~ionhns been split into t.wo part.s, the partin1 solution thle t.o curvature (srtbscript c) anti the partial solut,ion due to the displacelnent effect (subscript, d). T h e latter is induced by the cxtcrnal flow of sccond order wit,h the velocil,y Uz(x, 0) = Uzl z , a s determined in step (c) above. For Fd we obtain the following simple solution

(b) Cnlculat,ion of t h e first-order boundary layer for given U l ( x , 0), t h a t is, determinatfion of tlie sol~ltionof t h e oystem of equations (7.49). I n pn.rticular, from the uolution i r l ( r , N), v l ( ~N ) we calculate the fnllction Vz(x, 0) with the aid of equ. , (7.45). (c) Calculation of the second-order external flow for the boundary condit,ions Vz(x, 0) and zero velocit,y a t large diotance from the body in accordance with eqn. (7.45). The solution provides us with U z ( x , 0) and P z ( x , 0). I n what follows, we shall assume t h a t t.hese steps have already been taken. We shall concentrate on more detailed second-order calculation for several particular cases. Symmetric atngnation flow: T11is type of flow wau analyzed in detail by M . Van Dyke (see also Chap. VII, [7]). It is assumed that. the expressions for the external flow of first ant1 second ordrr on a convex wall a t the stagllation point (K = 1 a t x = 0) have bcen found and yield U ( 2 , 0) = U l l x The skin-friction cocfficient follows frolri eqn (7.55) Inserting the numerical vnl~les f"(0) == 1.2326; F:(O) we find I.hnt,
= - 1.9133; F:(O)

= 1.8489,

(9.06)

-t F UZ12 + 0 (c2),

(9.87)

whrrc IJu nntl TIzlnrr conslsr~ts which dt,pentl on the shnpc of the lrody. Accortling for t o eqn. (7 48), wc make t h e following assu~nption the inner solution:

Thc formrllae for the pressure ant1 skin-friction cocfficiorlt are ul~ivcrsal. The missing numerical values of the constant,^ U11 and Uzl depend only on the shape of Lllc bociy. In nll known examples, Clzl has turrletl orlt, t,o b~ nrgat,ivc. 'Yl~issignifies ttle sltin-friction cocfficicnt, near the ~ t n g n s t ~ i opoint on a convex wall decreases dllc to n higher-orcter bonntlary-layer cfft:cC~ ((:urvl~tlIrc nll(1 (~i~~)ln(:crnt!l~t.); (.)I(! OI)IJOH~(.(! i~ true about the pressnrc coefficient a t the wall. t This eql~stior~ seen to be idcntjical wit,h eqn. (9.16) of Scc. IXc if it is ~totedthat l l ~ e i8 coordinates z,y in it derroto lengths, wlrersas Iicre t,licy have bccn rcferrerl to I.hc cli~ractcrinlicI C I I ~ I . I I R, (radius of cnrvntt~ro t,llc hody at the nI~gni~t.ion ol point) nntl nrntlc dimcr~oior~lcs,s. Wllctt cornparing the velocity distribution of the cxtcrnal flow8 from cqns. (9.87) nrtd (9.16), we have Q = l/KN = ! l/V" / .

~ I I I

iri~lnhtr~rl Profcnsor I<. Grrntcn for 1,11enxpo~it.ion thin ~rct-ion. t,o in

l!Ni

I X . I3xnrt solr~tionrc thc .stc*n(ly-stntr of 1)onndnry-layer e q r ~ n t i o ~ l ~

j. 15oundnry layer of second orclcr

1!)7

P n r r ~ l ~ n l n n ~ymt::etric strclnl::: 'r'l~c in sccond-o~.tlcr I)otrr~tlary layer on a parabola in n ~yrnrnr1.ric: st.rrn.tti was rnlrnlnt,cstl I)y M . Van I)yltc (sc!c c ~ l u o('ll~al). I I , 171). 111 V 1.110I I C ~ ~ I I I ) I ) I I I . I st,n.g~i:~t,io~i,II:LV(: of I ~ ~ ( I wr

I'ig. 8.17. 1,ocnl kin-friction coeffirior~t in t.hn rleipl~l)nurhootl u ut.n&nnt.io~r of point ~x~.rnl~ol:$r r r l l d of in t 1111111l)cr -- l l mR/v R
1 1

UI1 1 nntl lJzl = - 0.01. (9.00) 111t.hc rnsr of t l ~ c pnrnl~oln h a v r nt onr tlispos:l.l a r1111ncricn.l wc sol~lt,ior~ t,hc co111of pl('f r Nn.vit:r-St.okrs cc]llnt,ions drlc to It. '1'. I):Lv~s I I I I nntl c:Ln use it. for a tlirc!ck cval~lnl of t.11~ ion irrrl~r.ovc:n~rnt mntlr by 1.l1csccontl-order t,l~oory. Pignre 0.17 slrows a plot. of t . l ~ c sltin-frict.ior1 rocfficicnt from (9.!)7) a t a si,ngnat,ion point, of s parabola. in t,rrrns of 1.11~ Rcynnltls nurnl)cr forlnrtl wit.11 1.11~ ratlius of cnrvature nt, 1.11~ vertex. I t follows I'ron~c q n . .(9.!)7) Lhat

of

Lllo

I<,cy~~olds

( I ) l'irst-urdrr I ~ n ~ ~ n < l n r y - l n y c r Ilicnr)'.R -coo: (2) Srt.o~ttl-orclcrI , o l l ~ ~ ~ l n r y - I ~ tIy, f ~ ~ o r y ,I?IIII. l r (n.lol),n l l v r I < , ( ; V I H I V ~ I ( I 1111 01 ( ' I ~ ! # I L V l I ) (3) Nnt~beric:~lI I I I I I O I I r , l 1.111: N:~vi(.r-XI~!kr'n rrlllnII l.lo~tanIIc.r 11. 1. Ilnvin 1 1 1 1 ' (I) R 0. Str.,:t.riall Ill,!v

0.1

lo-'

roo

10'

10'

I 10'

toL

- 'J7p

105

lo6

Cnrvc 2 in Fig. 9.17 is a plot, of t l ~ i s rcl;l.t,ion, w l ~ c r c a s Curve 1 dcpictss t l ~ e first-order solr~t,ion. Cilrvc 3 11;~s IJCCII plo1,tctl with t.hc rcsrllt.~ It. '? I)nvisls nr~mcrical of I. solunt~ in tion. 'l'11r ronsiclcrablc i ~ n l ) r o \ ~ c r n ccfli.ct,ctl by t h e sccontl-order t l ~ c o r y t h e lower r:tngr of Jtcynolds n111nl)crsis clcnl.ly visil~lc.I n wtltlition, t,he clingrams give a n unsln1)ignous intlicnt,ion t,l~ni, t,lle sccontl-ordrr t.htory allows 11s t o itle11t.if.v t l ~ c range r e of vn1itlit.y of first,-ortlcr l.lrc:ory. Jf a n c ~ . r o of lrp t,o 2 % is t o t ~ tolcmtcd, it follows t l ~ a tfirst-ortlcr t,llcory applies a t J<.cynoltls nl~rnl)crsin cxcess of R = 1.5 x 105. Similar cornl)nrisons bnscd on I t . . 1):~vis's ~t~rnic~ricnl ' I solnt,ions reveal l.l~a.ttlic lo\rrcr limit of vn.litlit,y for the scc:ontl-ortlcr t,hcory is at, R = 100 for a 2 % t,olcrnnce. l'ig111.r 9.18 givos tlingrnnis of st,nbir prc~ssr~rc sltiri-friction tlisl.ril)r~t,ions nntl along t,he cx~ntjour a pn.rxl)ola at. zero incitlrncc, both cvaluat.ed with t,lle aid of secontlof ortlrr t,l~cory. I'or purposcs of comparison, tthc tlia.gmrns contain dist.r.ibut.ions calcnIat,cd with t,hc aitl of first,-order bo~lntlary-laycrt,hrory (R -z GO). 13ot.11 ~ ) r c s s n r c dist,ribrlt.ions s t a r t a.it,l~ = 1 a t t.11~ c,, st,agnntiot~ pciint,. F'rictionlcss flow (R + GO) givcss 1 c,, = ----(9.102)
I - 1 2 r*

(1) c p for I l o ~ l v i a c ~ n lflow, R -r m, r ~ l n(8.102) lo . ( 2 ) c p for R 100; erln. (0.104) (3) C ; A'/' = 3.486 x * ' / ' ; ~ ~ n g n n l i opoillt; R --+ m: r~ eqn. (9.101); s 0 (4) C; R ' / ' = 2-63 x*'/';sl.nn~~nlion point; R--t m: eqo. (9.101); s = 0-1 (5) c j R1/'==0.601r* - ' I 1 ; flat,plitt,c

Ii'ig. 8. 18.n) St.nt,irpressure dinLril,r~tion h ) disLribl~l,io~~ and of sllc:~ring8Lrcsn nround 1 . h ~ ronL011r p:rr~t[)oln zero i~~citlci~cc. curves for R = 100 corrm~)ontt ~econrl-order at, The 1.0 l~o~tr~rl:iry-lnyc*r tlleory ; the curves R -+ oo correspond to first-order l.l~cory W l ~ r r c n ~ prcssrlrc cocfficio~t incrcasccl IIY higller-ordcr cfit:t,s, t h e slcintlic is friction is rctlr~crtl h c r c l ~ y I t follows Urnt tl>cp r c s s ~ ~ tlrctg of n p n , r : ~ \ ~ )inc:l.cnsc~s, t . rc ln whereas t,l~t? sltiri frict.ion tlrcrcnscs for 1l.oynoltls 1111rn0cl.s tl(:c:rc:nsit~gf r o ~ r ~ m. R

'

w l ~ c r c ---- : c l / l l otlcnot,c:s t , l ~ dirnc~isior~lcss :I.* c tlist,;~nrc from t , l ~ vcrt,c:x of t.Ii(: 11nral)ola c ant1 ~ n o a s r ~ r cnlorlg 1,llc: ccntcrlinc; sot: n.lso Fig. 9.18. I'or R tl 100 w r find frorn ccln. (9.98) for t,11c r1t\igh1)orrrhoo(1of tfIlc st,ng~~nf,ior~ Gllnk point

J'or t,hc pressure d r a g ol' :L pnrabol:~of \vitll,li 1) [I11 t h a t

( C X C ~ I I S ~ V of C

I)ILSC ( I I Y I ~ ) .~

Y C

li11t1

C,,

--

I I.:IH r*,'

(9.104)

wl~oroR: =: (231*)112 near t11c st,n.gnat,ion point,. A4 expected, t,he higher-order correct,ions dccren.sc in t,he downstrcarn direction, particuln.rly also tluc t o t h e decreasing t:urvc~t~rrrc !.hat, tlircct,ion. At, z~1)olrta:* = 2, t . 1 1 ~higlrcr-order clfeetrs vanish t o all in it~i.rnt.s ~)rrrposcs. n,t~tl Si1niln.r concl~isioris apply t o l.llc slrin-friction coc:fficicntt which, 11on.c-vcr,clisl)lxys nl, t,lrc, st.n.gnnt,ion 11oir1t. t,lr(% Iargcst, sccor~tl-ortlrr correct,ion.

T h u s , aL R = 100 t l ~ c pressurc d r a g cxccctls th:rt in nn inviscitl flow 1)y I(il)'/,. T h e fact, t.llat t h e pressure d r a g incrca.scs n.s x rcsult of t h e opcrntion of socondorder boundary-lnycr cfTects point,s t o t , l ~ e possibility t,lrat snr,Ii d m g s l ~ o ~ ~ l t l :Ipprnr in t , l ~ c frarncworlr of a second-ortlcr theory also for- n flxt, j)lnl,c a t zcro inritlrrlor, a s alrcatly intimat,cd in Src. V l I f .

O~l:cr ehnpw: Second-orcler (:ITcetls f i ~ r11n.lf-borlics h a v o I ~ c r n i n ~ r s t ~ i g n t e t l 1)y 'I'hc ~OSIIIOS n r c similar t o t , l ~ o s c for t.hc parnholn.. 'l'hc cocffi c i e n k for c q n s . (!).!)7) ant1 (!).!lX) a r c

Id. 1)evan 1 1 21.

1JI1 :1.5;

1JZ1= r - - 0 . 0 2 .

l ~ u t . l . l ~sol~ll.iorls t . l ~ c : I)onntlary-lnyrr c*rlun.l,iol~s rr or (7.52) a r ~ t l(7.53) scco11t1 ortlcr of a r c availitblc, as rnigl~l, 11n.ve 1)cr.n cxl)ccl.c:tl, for oases which Ien.tl L o self-sin~ilitrsolut i o n s in first o r d e r , See. VIII b. I n t h e c a s e of flows wllosc first-order e x t e r n a l flows a r c of t h e f o r n ~ I J l ( x , 0 ) z m 1,11t: scc:ontl-ordcr t l ~ c w r yn.lso Irarls t o st3lf-similar solut.ions if

K(x)

x(jn-l)Iz;

tJ2(:x, 0)

xn.

(9. 101;)

li'~trt,l~cr tlc.t.:~ils o n c c r l ~ i n gl.lrc cfrefr.ot*sof srcontl o r t l r r call bo S o ~ ~ ninl CIhnlx V l I n.s c t 8.9 i r V1lI [Gal, [IFia]. Tflc l&tlter r.or~t,nin ~ intlicntaions a b o u t s c c o r ~ d - o r d c effects r i n t4I1eprcscncc of srlct,ion, blowing, hcnt. t,m.nsfer a n d compressibility. Secot~cl-order clfcct.s ncqniro inc:renuing impori.ance for I ~ i g h Mach nnrnl)crs ant1 i n t h e presencc of blowing. I n tllis connexion c o n s u l t [24, 25,47,48,59].

well

[ I ] Anclrado, 15.N.: 'rhc \~nlocit.ydist.ribnt.ion in :i liqr~itl-illto-liq~~icl l'l~eplnnr jet. Proc. jet. Pl~ys.Soe. 1,on(lo11 51. 784 - 7!)3 (I!):!9). 121 Ihxtcr, I).(>., nr~tlI'liiggc-1,ot.z. I.: 'l'hr sol~ltinnof rornprc~ssihlelanlir~xrb o ~ ~ n d n r y layer prol~lcninby a iinitr: tlilli?rcnc:c rnrtd~otl.i';ir~ 11: I~urkl~er dist:r~ssionof t l ~ crr~ct,l~od and con~y)nt;it.inti exnn~l)lcs. of Tccl~n. Jl.cp. 110, Iliv. 15ng. h1ec:h. Stanford Univ. (l!)57); short8 version: ZAh11' gh, 81 !IT, (1!)5X). [3] 13icklcy, Mr.: '1'11~pl:tno jrt.. I'hil. Mag. Scr. 7, 26. 7 2 7 7 3 1 (I!l30). 141 1)Iani~s.11.:. (:r(~~~zst-l~i(:l~(r~l in 1~liissigkcit.t~n ~ i t n ltlcincr Itcibnng. Z. Mnt.11. u. T'l~ys. 56, I ~-37 (1!)08); I311gl. t,r:insl. in NACA 'l'hl 1256. I5J I3lott,ncr. F.(:. : I"initc difli:rcncc n ~ r t l ~ o d a solntioli of t.hr bor~l~dnry-lnyrr of cqr~alions. AlAA ,I. 8 , 19:) - 205 (1970). If,:&]13lott,ner, I?. ( 2 . : Invest,igat.ion of some 1init.t: rlifircn~:~ tcchniq~~cs solving t,hc bour~dnry for 1nyi.r (~c{~~:~tions. I I hl:tl,l~.Ajq11. bli!(!11. l4:11g. 6. I -- 30 (1075). (!OI ~. Stnith, 11.M.0.: A Iinitc (lilTcrc~~(:c ~nct.I~oil v : ~ l r ~ ~ l a ro~~i~)ressihle for ti~~g I(;] (;vOcri, 'r., Iarnin:~rnnil t.r~rh~~lcnI bonr~dnryIayrru. 'l'r;ins. ASM 15, ,I. I3a.sic I':t~g. 92, 52:)--535 (1970). 171 (>h:i11111nn, It.: 1,antinnr nixing of n r t ~ n ~ ~ ~ r c s Ilni(1.l c 11. s i l ~ NACA 'J'N 1800 (1049). 181 C ~ I : I ~ I IJ).IIt..: I'I'hc!on-t.ic:rl ;in:ilysis of I~c:i(. ~ ~I , t.r:~nsfcr regions of scparat,cd flow. NACA in 'YK 37\12 (1!l!it;). [!)I Chcn, I<. I<., tind I,il)l~y,1'. A,: Hor~ntlnryInyrrs with sn~nll ~lcp:irt.~lrcn from Lhe PnlknerSknn profile. ,I I'M 36, 243 - 292 ( llI(i8). 1101 Chrisl,inn. \2'..J.: In~provcd n~~nlrricnl l ~ ~ t i o n t.11~ J ~ l a s i ~ ~ s so of problem n.it,l~three poil~t. hor~nclaryc!o~tclit,ion. ,IASS Z Y , 91 1-912 (1901 ). 11 I ] I):~vis. I<.'l'.: h'11111rrira1 solnt,i~n 1.I1c Knvicr.St,ok~scquat,ions for sylnlnetric laminar of i n r o ~ n ~ ~ r c s s illowc pnst, a 1111r1iI)oln. l~l JVhl 51. 417 .433 (l!)72). 1121 I)n\,nn, I,.: Sccontl order incon~prcs~ibli> lnlni~~nr bonntlnry layer tlrvclopnicnt on n twoilintcnsic~~~:il ~rtni,infinit,chcn1,y. 1'11. I). 'rl~osis,Univ. of (!nIifornia at 1,os Angclcs, 1964. [I31 I)cnisor~, M. 12.. and J%anrn,15.: Conlprrssiblr free sjlcnr lnycr wit11 finite init,inl thicIt~icss. AlAA ,I. 1, 342-340 (I!)F:$). 114) I)cwry, C.I'., and Gross, k'.: Exnrt siniilnr s o l ~ ~ t i o ofs the Ian~irlarhortndary Inyer eqnan t.ior~rr.t1dvnnc.r~in Ilcat 'I'rnnsfer Val. .I, ~\e!:ulrn~ic I'rcss, Ke\v York, 1967, 317-446. [If,]. 15rnns, II.l,.: I,:~ti~innr 1)onnclnry Inyrr theory. Acltlison-Wrslry P~lblisl~ing Corrrpany, I~)ntlt)n, L!)(i8. I IT,] I't~gr,2 1 . : 'l'l~ctiirflo~rnro~lndII c.irc.nl:~r c:ylintlc!r in 1 1 1 rrgion ~vhrrn bo~tndnry ~ t.11~ srpnrntm fro111thr U I I ~ ~ II'ltil., ~ . I C Mag. 7. 253 (l!P2!)).

1171 Page, A,, and Palkncr, V.M.: Frlrther o x ~ ~ r r i r n e n b t l ~ c on flow nrountl n circular cylinder. llh4 136!) (l0:Jl). [IS] I~nlkncr, . M.: A f~lrtlier V ir~veal.igat,ion soll1l.io11 honndnry 1:iyrr AIt.(: R.M 1884 (19:{$)). of of I I!)] J'allcner, V.M.: Sin~plifiedcnlcolntion of t,l~c lalninar bount1:rry layer. A I t C llhl I H I ) ~ (1941 1. 1201 I'anneloep. T., nntl I'liiggc-lotz, I. : 'rho con~presnil~lc bo~tntl:lrylayer nlo11g 11 W I L ~ - C - S I I : L ~ I ~ ~ I wall. 1rtg.-Arch. 33, 24--35 (1!)63). (21 1 l~liig~r-I,otx,, nncl l5lol,t,11t*r, G . : Vmn)l)r~t,titit)n t.hr t!oi~~~)r~?asiI~lc t)o1111(1:~ry I., IP. of 1ti111i11:br layer Ilow incltrtling diq)l:rccrnent I.l~icltnrsnintcr~~(:t,ion 11si11glinite diIlCrc~~ccI I ( ! ( ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s . I Stnnford Llniv. Div. J<ng. Mccll. Tcah. Ilcl). 131 (lg(i2). Shortr:l~cclvcruiot~in .Jourl~:~l tlc MCcaniq~~c 307---423 (1963). 2, [22] Jt'liiggc-LoL7., I.: The cornl)ntnf.ion of 1.110 Innlinnr i : o ~ ~ ~ ~ ) r e sI~ io ~llo ~ ( l ~~r~ el)cl~. ~ l) r : i y r . Ill~~:ll. J5ng. St.anfort1 1Jniv.. I t c j ~ :lV2---30--7 (11)54). 11. [23] Friisnling. N.: Vcrd~~nst.nng, Wiirn~ciil)rrgnngrtncl (:cui:I~wi~~~li ~ i t ~ v c r I ~ ? i l ~ t t ~ g I~i T.I~*I!~. tlitr~cnsior~nlt:r uncl r o l . r ~ l i o ~ ~ ~ n y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n ~ iL r irs(:re~~z~~l~itf~t~f.rii~n~~t~~. I n ~ n n ~c I ~ c r r I,II~I<~S. v . (III~ Ars~lcr.N. I?. Avd. 2. 36, NO. 4 (1!)40); arc n l ~ o NACA TM 14:12. [24] Gcrstcn, I<., ant1 Grons, J . IP.: Maw-Crnnsfor clfccta in l ~ i g l ~ordor bo~indary cr l~iyer solnt.ionfl. Tho leading edge of n swept cylintlcr. Int. J. ItcaL Mass Transfer I G , 05-79 (1072). [25] C:erskn, I<., Gross, .J. F., nntl 13orgcr. (:.: 1% Grcnzschicllt, hiil~crer Ortlnung at1 (lor S t e ~ t linio cines ucl~icbcndrnZylindcrs tnit ut.nrkcn~I \ I I R ~ ~ I L RI~111gwiu~. 3:JO-:l41 (1fl72). %. P ~ . 20, [21i] (:oltlslci~~, Otr bhc t\ro-tlirncnsiot~nl S.: nt~:ntly llow of a vincous ll~titlhcl~indt i solitl I)otly. I'roc. Itoy. 601:. I.ondon A 142, R45-5(i2 (l!l3J). [27] C:oldsLrin. S. (ctl.): hlodcrn tlcvclopmcnla in flrtid tlynnrnim, Val. I, 105. Clart:ndon l'rcxs, Oxford. 1938. [2R] (:ol(lstein, S.: On Inrninar honnrlnry layor flow near a posit.ion of ncpnrat.ion. Q~lart.,J. Mcrh. Appl. Math. 1, 43- (i!) (1948). [29J Giirtlcr, 11.: Ein I)illcre~~zet~veifnl~rer~ Jlerochnnng Inlninarcr Grcnzschichtcn. 1ng.zur Arch. 16, 173-187 (1048). [30] Giirtlcr, 11.: I':~II~~IISR ~cliwaclrcn cincr Wat~clwclligkrit drn Vcrlnufclcr In11ri1rart:n Crcnza~rf schichten. I'arta 1 ant1 11. ZAMhl 25/27. 2:):i-244 (1947) :inel 28, 13-22 (1949). [31] C:iirt.ler, H.: Z I I A[)proxirnat,ion st,ation$rer latninarcr Grenzncl~ichLsLro~nu~n Iiilfe ~ mit dcr al)grbrochcnen I3lasiusschcn Reihc. Arch. Math. I , No. 3, 235 2 4 0 (1049). [32] Giirt.lrr, 11.: Jtcibr~ngs\\riderstn~~d schwacl~ eincr gcwclltcn Ilngsangcstriitntcn Plnttc. Arch. hlatli. 1. 450-453 ( 1940). 13.31 (:iirt.ler, H.: Kine n e w Jtcihcnc~itwic:klr~~~g fiir Inn~innreC:rcnzs(:hirhtcn. ZAMM 32, 270271 (1!)52). [94] (tiirtlcr, 11.: A nrw srrics for thr calc~rlnI.ionof steady lanlinnr hor~nflnrylnycr flows. J . Mi~tl~. Mech. 6 , I -GC, (1957). [35] (:iirt.lcr, I]., anti MriLLing, 11.: Zn den l'aniscl~en C.rcnzscl~icht,cn. Ostcrr. 1ng.-Archiv 11, 11 1-- I22 (1!)57). [36] I ~ I I ~ I I I ~ I I(., nn(l IIChret, L.: 1)cr I)n~cltvcrlust II~III , (lor lnn~ir~nrrr~ Striin~ung dcr ,lnlnrtfin strerkc von gc:rntlcn, rbcncn Sl)alt.cn. .lb. (It. I,~rftf:~l~rLfornc:I~~~~g I, 21-36 (1041). [:17] I ~ : L ~ I I I ~ I11.. ~R~I II I~ICl~rrt,,I,.: Ilcr Strii~n~~~rgs\viclcrntn~~d II . in gcraden, cbenen Spaltcn u n k r 13criicksicl1t.ig11ng 1Pinlnt1fvcrl11nt.c. clt,. 1,11ftfahrtforscI11111g 186 --207 ( I 942). tler JI). I, 1581 Hartrec, 1).R.: A solrttion of t l ~ c Inn~inarb o ~ n ~ d n r y Inyrr cqnation for rct.nrdetl Ilow. A1tC 1tM 2420 (1949). [39] I l i r ~ t ~ e n I<.: Die Grenxscl~irht,nn rir~cnlin tlcn glciehfiirn~igc~n z, I~liissigl~rit8st~ro111 ringet,cuchtcn grmtlen I<rriszylintlcr. 'I'hesis (:<it tingrn 1!)11 ; I)ingl. 1'olyt.rchn. .I. 326, 321 (I!)] 1). 1401 lIo\vnrt.l~, O n Ll~c I,.: rnlcrtliition of slcatly Ilon- i l l t l ~ r horlntlnry lnycr ntrir t.hr s~~rfavc! n of cyIin(lcr in IL ~ t r r ~ ,\It(! ~ItM l(\:V2 (1O:ki). ~n . 1411 II01vart11, I,.: 011 LII(: nt~l~ltion the I n ~ n i ~I~ot~n(I:irv - r:q~lnt,iona. I'roc-. Iloy. Sor.. of ~ ~ i r " lnycr . London 11 164, 517--57!) (1038). 1421 ,Jnffc, N.A., and S n ~ i t l ~ . A.M.O.: Cnlc~llr~tion Ialninnr Oounclnry 1:iyern by Inrans of n ol' dilferentinl-dinbrcnce 111ethotl.Progress in zlerospace Sciericm, Vol. 12 (1). I<iicl~crnnnt~, ed.), Pcrga~nonl'ress. 1972. 42.21 Icrller, H . B.: Numerical mebhodn in bountlnry lnyer theory. Ann. Rev. Firlid Mech. (M. van Dvke. ed.) 10. 41 7-433 (1978). 1431 I<rzywohlorki, M.Z.: On ~ t m d y .Inn~innr two-cli~~~rnsionnl in ron~~irrnsil)lc jets viscorls R:~FIOR fttr brhin(I tht: ulit. Qttttrl,. llpl~l. I ~ I I I 7, 313 (]!kt!)). M .
l ~ ( k i

200

1X. Ixxnrt nolt~tionaof t.lin nt~ntly-nt-ah o ~ ~ n i l n r ~ - l n ~ o r b equations

1441 Leigh, I).(!. IT.: 'I'll(. 111111innr honnclxry layer equation: A lnetl~orl solnt,ion hy Innnnn of of l'ron. Cnlnbr. I'hil. Son. ,51, 320-332 (1956). an nlltot~lnticconlp~~tor. r44nl 1,rsnen. M. : 0 1 1 (.11(. at.nl)ilit.y of t,he Inttlirl:tr frcc bnrlntln.ry layer hrt.wt!en pnm.llcl ntrcnmn. NA(:I\ J<,c:p.!)7!t (I!t50); sc(: :tlso Sc. I), 'I'l~nsin,MI'I' (l!)48). [46] I.ork, I<.(:.: '1'11~ vcloc.ily tlistril)ntio~~l Lllo In~liitlnrI)or~~~(lary I)rt1vr011p e r ~ ~ l l r l il I:tycr stre:rtns. Qi~:~rt. Mc:(:l~.AppI. Mnt.11. .I, 42--6:l (1951). ,I. [,lli] Rlills, Il.. 11.: A r~olo S ~ I I I C OII nccc:lrrnl.c:fl I~ol~r~clnry voloiril:y proli11's. .l AS 5. 3125 (1!):38). 1nyt.r [47] I ' ; I ~ I C : I I ~ I II).: ,1liglic:r-ortlc:r sr~lrrl~io~~x ~ I I ( : o I I I [ I ~ ( ~ l isl~ Ir ~~ * ,: - ~ l i t ~ I~I (~ :I tI ~ I~ i~o ~ ~ ~ ~ l 11. ~ ~ for LIIC s ~ II : ~ I ~ . nry-lnyrr Ilnw nt I.lle nt.ng~~nlion point, of n grtlernl t~ocly.Archiven of Mecl~arlics(Warsaw) 26, 46!) 478 (1!t74). 1481 I':tl~rt~ft~ss. I).: Mnss-t.rn~~sfer H. offrr1.s or1 t.11~ t.llrcr-din~rnsiot~nl seconcl ortlor I1o1111daryI:tycr flow nl. 1 . 1 1 ~st,:bg~~:tl.iol~ of I I I I I I I ~ bo~li(?n. l~oint , Met:l~.Ilcs. (!OIIIIII., 286 - 2!)0 (1974). I [4!)] I'ai, S. I.: I'l~tid dy~lnl~li(:s j r t , ~ .1). \'a11 Nost.rnntl ( ! O I I ~ ~ New I York, 1954. of I~I ~, 1601 I ' o l ~ l l ~ n ~ ~ I<.: . Zr~rnWl~rr~~ngs\\~cisrr\ scn I111.egrat.iot1 der l)in'crct~tinlgleicIi~~ng C:rcnztler sclliclit. ZAh1M I, 252 208 (1!t21). [5l 1 I'ol.tcr, 0. IC.: I,n~ninarbol~lltlnry Inyors at. 1.11(* inferfncw of co-cl~rrr~lt. pnrnllrl sl,rmn~s. ()~r:irI~. hlrrl~.1\11pl. h l : ~ l ~10,. :%W2(l!t67). -1. l~ 1621 Ilc~cvrs.1%. : I J II<ilq,ci~l~i~t~, A 1111rlicnlnr I,., ~ C. .I.: clnss of si~llilnr fiolr~tionn Ilr rrlllations 01'1 of lotion :~ntlenergy of a ~risconsIluifl. JASS 29. 38--47 (1!tG2). I6:ll I<irlrl.~l~(:yc.r. I).: I ) i f i r o ~ ~ c e It. r~~ct.liodn it~ilialvnllre ~ ~ r o b l eIr~tc~rscirt~rc, Yorlr, for ~~~s. New l!t57. 1541 Scllillrr. I,., :~ntlI,i~~ltc, I)rr~ck-ntlcl Ht~il~~tt~gs\r.itlcrsI:~t~d MI.: dcn Zylindcrn hei 17.cy1101dnn(:llotl % : I ~ I ~ C I II~io40000. ZIW 24. l!):)~ l!i8 (1!):33). ROO 1551 S(.l~ill(-r, I)ic 15nt~\vic.ltl1111g I : ~ I I I ~ I I ( : (~ O(I~ l ~ ~ v i ~ ~ ~ l i g l z ~ : i (ill1 c r I ~ ~ i l ~ ~ U ~ g ~ I,.: (lor :~ ~s I t s v I<r~isroI~r) I ~I illl-c. Ikvl(:~tI.r~ng fiir clio %iil~iglztritfirnr.qnr~~r~g(:~~. 2, !)ti IO(i (1022). ZAMM [WiJ S ( ; l ~ l i c l ~ l i11.:gI. A ; ~ r ~ ~Sl,r:~l~In~~:i~rsl)r(:it,~~~~g.I,?, 21;0--263 (l!):33). ~~ i~~:~rr ZAMM 1571 St!l~licl~li~~g,J A I I I ~ I I : ~ ~~<~~ : I I : ~ I ~ ~ I I I I L ~ I ~ S ~ ~ ~ %~\hlhl ~ . :1(i8--:17:$ (19:34). 11.: I I I I ~ I I 14. ~ l57nl S ~ : l ~ l i c l ~ t11. :~(:rr~~zscl~icl~t.t,l~eorin. t~.;~nsl. I<estin, J. : I3o1111tlnry i~ g. 1':11gl. hy -layer theory. (it.11ctl., MrCmw-Hill, New Yorlz, I!)(%. 158j Scl~roodcr,I<.: Ein rinf:~cllrnI I I I I I I C ~ ~ S ~ '~cIr~f S l ~ r ezur Rerocht~ntig 1:~nlinnrenCrenz\ n ~~ tler scl~icl~t,. 1741 (1!)4:3); Intnr cx~)nn(lrilI I I I ~ rrpritltrd in Math. Nnrhr. 4, 430--467 (1!351). I'll : [ E l ] Scl~ult.z-Grunow, atld Ilrnselcr, It.: ffht~licl~c r r n z a c l ~ i c l ~ t l i xweitcr ~ ~ I'., C i s ~ ~ ~ Ordtlr~ng fiir Strii~nut~gs- I I ~' I ' r : ~ ~ ~ p c r e t , ~ t r g r n t ~ z ~111 ~longit,udinsl g c l z r i i n ~ ~ ~ ~ t n ~ ~ tnil II 1~ l~ir.l~(n~ Wander1 (:rc!~~zsrhicl~l.l~c.rit~fI~~s~~~~~g. St~oll'iil)crLm.gr~~~g \YKrlrlc- 11n6l 1, 214- 21!) (1968). [(iO] St~litll.A . M . O., :111tlCllltkr, I). \?I.: S n l ~ c l i o ~ ~ of tile inron~prrssiblebor~ntlnrylnyrr equnt.iot~s.,IIAII ,J. 1 , 2002--2071 (lOK3). [GI] Snlit.ll, A. hl. O., nntl (!rbori. 'l'.: Nnlllericnl sollll.iol~ Llle turi)r~le~lt of bor~~~rlnry-lnycr rqltntinus. M c l ) o t ~ ~ ~ r l l - l ) o ~Jlcl). : ~ s I)A(! :!:%7:%5 ~ ~ ; I No. (1967). [(i:%]S l . r i ~ ~ h c t ~ r r .Si1nil;lr solrttiolls for Illr I:llnirl:lr ~ n l jet, i l l a deoelernt,il~g .I.: l enter Ro11,. AIAA .I. s, 21ns 2200 ( 1nci8). 1 6 4 ) Str-\r.artso~~. I'l~rtllrr soll~tiorrs t.11~ I<.: of l~:illtr~c~r-SIzar~ cqrtnlion. I'roc. Cn~llhr. Phil. Soc. .50, 454 4li5 (1!)54). 1G51 S ~ ~ ~ o I ( l r I<.~ n ,~ ~ t ~ ~ c r itr~rtI~o(ls lIl:i<l(lyt~:~t~iivn. r( : X c;nl ill A(:/\ll,ll I,ecl,~treSer. No. 48 (1!)72). [Mi] 'J'nni, I.: 0 1 1 I.llr s o l r ~ l i o ~ ~ I:~lnill:lrI ~ o r ~ ~ ~ clrlycr cq~~at.ionn. I'hyn. Snc. J o p n l ~ o f t.11~ lnry .I. 4. 1 4 - 154 (l!b4!)). S(T :IISO:ITifty yr:ws of l ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ i l : ~ r yr.rls c n rr~ ;(\\I.~ ~ 'l'oll~i~ic:~~ 14. nyc n11d (:iirIlcr. r ~ l . ) I%rr~~~~~sc.lia.c:ig. 0 ( I !)ST,). , 10:1 2 0 l(i7 1 '~'IIOIII. 'I'll(: I X I I I ~ I I I I I . I ~ o ~ ~ ~ l c l n r yof t 1 1 frol~t. ,\.: lilyrr ~ p:lrl. O ~ :~ylil~(lc.r. I1hl I17(i (1!)2H); I t\I<C scr also ;Ill(! llhl I l!l4 (l!32!)). I0Xl 'l'iffortl. ,Z.N.: 11(.111. Ir:~~~sf(:r frirliot~:~l :inti cn'ccis in I.ztl~i~l:tr~ o ~ ~ n t l n r y I I:~.yrrs.l'nrt. 4: 111irrs:1Ii s O I I i o . \ V \ ' I I I I . 53 288 (l!)54). ((i!)] 'I'ollrl~ivl~. . : (:rr~~zsc:l~ir.l~trn. \\I lli111(ll)11(~11 ICxpcr. J'liysik 11'. I'art. I , 241 -287 (l!l:11). (lrr 1701 IJlricll, ;\.: 1)it. r11(>11v ~ l ~ i ~ l I <rc ~ i l ~ ~ t ~ ~ g s s c I ~ ic i-lI~ r ,t ~ l In n r an c ~ t Z~llintlrr.Arch. hlnl.l~. 33 --41 2, ( I!),t!t). f 7 1 I I 1.: I t I I a I I I I I I . I 1 . 8 l 823 (1970). (721 \\'i! I i t l k , I I . : ill)(.r x\wi I)iIfrrr~~scr~r~nt.T;I~r<~~~ rIvr (:rrl~zsr.I~irI~t~I.I~~-oric.Math. 4, 247Ar(:l~. 2%; ( l!)5:3), 17:1-1 , \ I I O I I ~ S I I O ~I~ ~ ~ ~ r l >: IoI I ~ nllirdi i ~ ~ ~ i'rr[~:~rrcll ~ y l I S: l : ~ t , tr111Ic-s. Fl.hl. NnnI,irnl ,\IIII~II:L(: Offirc. 11. hl. S l : ~ l i o ~ ~ Offir(: (l!l5(i). :~ry
~

CIJAPTEIE X

Approximate methods for the solution of the two-dimensional, steady boundary-layer equations
Ivllrod~rctor?~ rem,nrk: 'rhc cxaniples of enact solt~t.ionsof Ll~e bot~ntlnry-I:~~yt.~. ccluntions w h i c l ~h n v c b c r n d i s ~ t t s s ~ d t . 1 1 prcootling clrnpt.crs llavc s h o w n l , l ~ n (.It(. in ~ t mat,hemat,ical difficult.ics associated w i t h av~,cl,l?jtic.c d ~ t l ~ i o fors t h c m a r c consitlrrs i~ ablc. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e general p r o b l e m involving trhc flow of fluid r o u n d a botly of c a r b i t r a r y s l ~ a p e a n n o t b c complet.ely solved w i t h t.hc aid of t h e allalyt,icnl n1el.hotls prescnt,ctl t h u s f a r . T h e nuntericnl o r s t e p - b y - s t e p m e t h o d s (see Sec. I X i ) allow u s t o solve m o s t wit,l~ t,olcrablc ntnonitt. of worlc if n fnst, digil,nl co~nptttc.ris a availnblc. F o r t h i s rcnson, t.hc n p p r o x i m a l r rnct,l~otls t . 1 1solution of o u r 1)otrntlnl.yfor ~ layer eqnat.ions dovelopetl in cnrlicr t,imrs, thnt, is 1)cforr t , l ~ o ncjvcnt, of rontl)~tt,c.rs. d o n o t e n j o y t h c sarrlc irnl)ort,ar~cc o w nu t h e y tlitl I.hon. N c v c r t ~ l ~ r l c s n , 1)1.11l)osc. n wc. t o g i v e h e r e a n o u t l i n e of t h e s e approximat,e rnethotls, bccntlsc t h e y a r e \r.ell-sr~itetl 6, t h e g e n e r a t i o n of a q u i c k orlt,line of a solutpion e v e n in l n o r r c o m p l e x cases; i n t l ~ i s connexion t,he s u m m a r y b y E. T r u c k e n b r o d t [24] will h e fonntl I ~ e l p f u l .
T h i s c h a p t e r deals wit11 a p p r o x i m a t e mctllotls for l a m i n n r b o n n d a r y Iaycrs otlly. Anslogous m e t h o d s for t u r b t ~ l e n tb o u n d a r y l a y e r s (c/ C h a ~ )X X I I ) h a v e retn~rbrtl their speeial i m p o r t a n c e 111) t o t h i s d a y . A11 appro xi mat,^ m c t l l o d s a r e integral ~ n e t h o t l s l ~ i c h not, a t . t . e n ~ p t o sat,isfy w (lo t,he b o u n d a r y - l a y e r e q u a t i o n s for e v e r y ~ t ~ r c a r n l i ~i l es;b a d , t h e equat,iotis a r c s:~Lisn ficd o n l y o n a n a v e r a g e ext,endecl o v e r t h e t,lrickncss of t , l ~ e bounctnry Inyor. All npproxirnat,c met.lrocls a r c based o n t h e m o r n c n t u t n a n d c n c r g y cqnat.ions of O o t ~ n d ~ r y layer t.hcory k n o w n t,o u s f r o m Sec. V I l I e . All t , l ~ c s eneth hods c a n b e t.m.ccd l o t w o papers, o n c d a c t o T11. v o n ICArmQn [7], ancl t h e o t > l ~ r r 1C. P o l ~ l h a t t s e nI l 6 J . Reto forc p r o c c r d i t ~ gt o a p p l y t h c rnet,l~otlt o t.11~ goncral c a s r s of t,wo-ditner~sion:rl n.utl a x i a l l y - s y m ~ n c t , r i c n lbountlnry layers wit,h prcssttrc g r n ~ l i c ~ t ~w . ~ ,sl~rtll ronsitlrl. te firsl, t , l ~ c essentinl fcn.t,urcs of l.he mct,hod a s npplicd t o tSht: flat, plat,c nl. zcro incidcnoc. T h i s o x a ~ n p l cis ~)art,icttlnrly simple in t.hat t l ~ c prc.sstlrc gratlic>nt v:l.t~isltcs along t h e whole 1)lat.e. Morcovcr, w e sllnll h n v c t,hr o p ~ ) o r l , r ~ n i to, f n s s r s s i ~ ~1ht: y g powcr of t l ~ c p p r o x i m n t c rnctllotl, at. Icast i n a part,ict~larcase, a n d t o cornpnrc it a with t h o exnet, solution which is a l r e a d y I t n o w r ~f r o m C h a p . V I I . a. Application of t h e m o ~ n e n t u t n equation t o t h e flow pant a flat a t zero inciclence Applying 1.11~ o m c n t u r n c q ~ ~ a t i o rLo t h e f l t ~ i t lwi(.llirl t.h(: c:o~lIrol st~rf:tcc, m i s h o w n i n Icig. 10.1, wc: c : ~ ntlcrive t,hc s l n t c n ~ c n t t,l~nt. t.11(: l l ~ t x f I I ~ O I ~ ~ I I ~ ~ ,I lI~ r o n g ) ~ o I III

202

X. Approximate rncl.hoda for steady cqrlntionu

n. Applicnt,ion of tile morncntilm rqr~nt~ion L ~ I Oflow pnut n flnt plnLo at zcro incidcr~cc203 to the exact vnlrle for tofrom eqn. (7.32). Putling t u / p Urnz=a we have
E

the c:ont.rol s~lrfacc,consitlcrrd fixrd in spacr, is cqllal to the skin friction on the plate D ( s ) from the leading cclge (s=0) to the current section a t x. The application of tllc momentum equation to this particular case has already been cliscussecl in See. I X t It was then found, cqn. (9.26), t h a t the drag of a plate wetted on one side is given by
m

iy/urn2 a =0.332, with

.-

D(s) = b e /
u-0

u(u,--u)dy,

(10.1) Wit11 rcfc:rcncc to cqn. (10.3) or (10.4) wc con now porforrn nn npproximnto calcnlnt.ion of the I)o~~ntlnry lnycr nlong n Il:bt, plnlo a t zcro incitlcncc. '1'11t: CRH(?IICO of the npproximatc neth hod consists in assuming a suitable expression for the v c l o ~ i t ~ y tIist,ribr~t.ion (y) in t,trc bou~ldarylayer, talting cnrc thnt i t sntisfics the importnnt, u bou~idaryconditions for u(y), and t h a t it contains, in addition, one free p:~ramct.er, s11cl1ns a ~ n i t ~ n b l y clloscn bountlary-layer thicltncss which is finnlly dctcrmincd wit.11 t,lle aid of the momenlum equation (10.3). I n the particular case of n flat plate a t zero incidenco now being considered it is possible t o t,ake advantage of the fact. t h a t the velocity profiles arc similar. IIencc we p u t
'

where the integral is t he taken a t scrtion s . On tho other hantl tho tlmg m n bo o expresscd as an irltrgral of the shearing stpressto nt tllr wall, lnltrn nlong t l ~ c plntr: 1) ( s ) = b

1 r0(x) d x .
X

Upon comparing eqns. (10.1) and (10.2) we obtain

l'his equation cnn bc also dcclr~ccclin n purrly formal way from t,11c 11011ntlnr.y-layer equntion (7.22) by first integrating the equation of motion in the x-direction with respect t o y from y ---- 0 to ?/= m. Equation (10.3) is, finally, obtained without difficulty if the vclocit,y component v is eliminated with the aid of the equalion of = continuity, and if i t is noticed t.hat p(au/a~),,,~ t o .
m t m I surlace

&'l":--p
-5

u (x.Y)

Fig. 10.1. Application of tho momcrltun~ equation to the flow pmt n ant plnto nt zero incidencc

-x

Introcincing thc morncnl,nrn tl~iclir~css, clefinctl by rqn. (8.31), wc have a,,

where r] == 2/16(s) is the dimcnsio~lless distance from the wall referred to the boundnrylayer thicltness. The sin~ilarity velocity profilcs is here acconnt.ed for by assu~ning of that / ( ? I ) is a function of 7 only, and contains no adtlitional free parameter. The filnction / must vanish a t the wall ( 7 = 0) and tend to the value 1 for large values of 17, in view of the boundary conditions for u. When using the approximate method, it is expedient to plnce the point. a t which this transition occurs a t a finite distance from the wall, or in olher words, t o assume a finitc boundary-layer thickness 6 ( x ) , in spit.c of the fact that all cxnct solut,ions of t.hc houndnry-layer equations t.cntl asympt~oticallyto the lwtential flow associated with the part,icular problcnl 'l'hc bo~ndnry-lnyer t.liislrncss has no physical significance in this conncxion, being only a quant.ity wl~ichi t is convenient to use in thc computation. Having assrimcd tllc vclocity profilc in cqn. (10.0), we c:~11now proceed to r v n l ~ ~ a tllo momentum intcgml ( 1 0 3), arid we ol)l,;~in tc

Tllc momcntom cqnn.tion in ils form (10.4) rcprosrnb n particular cnso of t,hc gcncrnl momentum eqnntion 01' bollntlary-laycr Lhcory ns given in eqn. (8.32), heing valitl for the cnse of n llat plntc nt zcro ir~ciclcncc. pli~sicalmeaning expresses tllc fact 1t.s tfhatst.I~t!sl~earing st,rcss a t the wall is cqunl to thc loss of momentum in t l ~ o bonntlary I:lycr, because i n tho cxnrnple under consiclcrnlion t,hcre is no conl.ril~utionfrom t,llc prcss~lre gmtliont. 'So far rqn. (10.4) int,roclucncl 110 ntlclit.iona1 :~ssnmpLions,as will be the case wit,l~ l ~ c t aj)proximnt8cmct,l~od, bul, 1)c:forc tliscrissing tlris matter it might be nscfrll to nolc x ~cI:LI.~oII I)C~WCCI\ nn(I S2, W I I ~ C I I is obtaincti from cqn. (10.4) by int,rotl~~cing to

7'11~ intt*g~.nl cclrr. (10.7) rnll t ~ o w in I)~'cy~llr~nl,t.tl ~)rovitl,vl Illr~l sl,rcsilic: c t r s r ~ ~ n ~ ~ l i o n rt is mntlc for / ( ? I ) . 1'11tti1ig
1

for short,, we have r u ( u W - u) d y = u m 2 ~ = a, 8 2


v-0

urn2,

or

d,

= a, 0 .

204

X. ApproximnLc metl~otls stcatly equations lor

o.

Application of tlir mo~nrnt~~rn rqr~ationto Lllr flow pnst a flab lllr~lrL mro incidrnrr 205 n

'I'hc value of the displacement thickness O1 from cqn. (8.30) will now also be calcnlaktl as it will be rcqniretl later. Putting
1
a 2

J (1 - l) dtl,
--a,

(10.10) (10.1 1)

wc:

oltl,n.in

0,

d.

I?'l~rt,hrrniorr, thc visrous shearing stress a t the wall is given by


v

Un r

-/'(0)

=A

-5 --,

Um

hc calc~ilatodif a specific assumption rcgardirlg the vclocit,y profilc is matln, i. r . if t,lte fitrtction I ( ? ? )from eqn. (10.6) i~ given explicitly. W l ~ c nwrit.ing down a n expression for f ( q ) , it is ncrrssnry 1.0 sat,isljr cc.14nin 1)orlndary condit,ior~s for ZL(IJ), i. c. for / ( ? I ) . At lcast tJlc no-slip c:onclit.io~~ -- 0 L I : ~ t . -- 0 ant1 t11c condit.ion of continuity when passirlg frorn t,Itc 11ottnd:tr.y-layer ?/ l)rolilo l,o (.lit! ~mI,(:~)l.ilrl vl:loc*il.y,TI . (1 I I I , - 0, I I I I I S I ~ I)(\ ~111isli(vI. I I I ~ I ~ (I- O IV. I ~ I~ I I tlit,ions might inclr~tlct . 1 1 ~ contiriuity of 1.11~tangent ant1 crlrvi~lr~rc t l ~ o11oirlL, :IL wlicrc t,lic t w r ~ sollltions arc joined. Tn otllrr words, wc may scrlr t o satisfy tha (:onditions a~l./i)?l = 0 and a Z i ~ / a ? / = 0 a t IJ = (1. In the case of :t plate the col~tlit~iolt : ~ t,liat a2u/tJy2= 0 a t IJ = 0 is also of irnportancr, and it ran I)c scot1 frorn rclrl. (7.15) tl1a.t i t is satisficcl by the exact solution.
,

P1 = i ' ( 0 )

Numerical c x a m p l c s :
Wc now propose to test the usefulness of the prccctlirlg npproxirnak mct.hotl \viLh t,lte nit1 ofsevnrnl nxnmplcs. 7'11~ q~~alit:y thc result tlcpcrltls t o a grcnt cxI.cn1, of 0 1 1 t,hc assllrnpl,ior~whicl~ is matlc for thc volocity f~lrlot.ion (10.6). 111 ally c::~st%, as already mcnt,ionecl, the funct,ion /(q) niust vanish n 17 = 0 in view of t l ~ c L noslip condit,ion a t the wall. Moroovcr, for large vnlrlcs of 17 we 1i111sthavc /('/) = 1. T only a rough approximattion is tlcsirccl, tlie transition t o the valuc / ( q )= 1 may f occur with a tliscontinuous first, tlcrivativc. For a beltcr approxi~nat,ion,corrLinnit,y in d j / d f l may bc postjulatcd. lndcpcntlcnt~lyof the pnrticular nssl~myt,ionfor l ( q ) the cruant,it,ies

Inf,rotlllcing thcsc vnlnrs into the niomcntllm equation (10.4), wc obt,ain

Irit.cgrat,ion from 0 in t.11~ form

0 a t z -= 0 givrs t.11~ first, r c s ~ ~ lfor the approxi~nat~c t. thcory

I T r n c ~ sllearing strrss a t t.l~e tllc \vall from cqn. (10.12) beronics must Itc pnrc numI)crs. T h r y can bc easily calc~llatcdfrom cqns. (10.8) t o (10.17) Finally, t.hc t . o t ~ ldrag on a plate \vrt.t.ctl on both sides mri be written a s
I

2 I1 -- 2 1) J
0

to tlx,

i. c. Fig. 10.2. Vclocity tlisLril,~~lion t.hc boundary in layer on n flat plntr nt xrro i~icitlanrc!

:11i(1 fro111~ ( ~ I I s(10.1 1 ) anti (10.14) we obtain the tlisplaccmerit t,hicknrss .

(1) Lincrr armlrroxirnntiorl (2) Cubic npl~rrrximntiouIrom Tablr 10.1

A cornparison of t.11~ approximaf,c oxpressions for the Itonndary-layer t6hickrlcss, li)r t . 1 1 ~shcnring st.rcss a t t,hc wall, ant1 for dm.g with thc re~pcct~ivc formulae of t.11~ :lrc:ur:tt,c throry, rqns. (7.37), (7.31) nt~tl (7.:13), sliows t h a t Lhc use of tllc iritcgr:~I rnorncr~l~um q ~ l : ~ t i olcatls in all cn.ses t o a peufcctly correct fornlulation of the c n equations. I n ot,hcr words, t,lrc dcpcrlrlenccof tliese'quantities on the current length, x , t.11~ frcc-st,rexm vclocit,y, Urn,ant1 the coeffioiont of kinematic viscosity, v , is correctly tlctll~c~etl. li'r~rt,l~crniore, relation I)ct.~\~ecn the momer~tunitllickncss and shearing strrss nt, tlw wall givrn by rqn. (10 5) r a n also be dcducrd from t h e approximate rnlr~llation, is rnsily vcrifird. The still-unkrion,n coefficients a,, a and P, can only as ,

Tahlc 10.1 contains rcslllts of scvcral calcrtlat,ions wil.11 a.lt,cr~~ativc veloc:it,ytlistribl~t.ion fltnctions. l'hc first two funct1ionsnrc illuslr:l.tod wit,ll tlrc aid of I'ig. 10.2. 'I'hc linear fnnct,ion sat,isfics only t h e condit,iot~s ( 0 ) -- 0 ant1 / ( I ) -= I , wllcrcns tllc f cubic fr~nctiorlsatisfies i r ~atldition t,he conditions / ' ( I ) 0 :~ntl/"(0) : 0 ; finally, x a fonrt11 clcgrcc polj~r~ornial be made to snt,isfy the atldjt,ional contlit.ion /" (1) =-- 0 . can Thc sinc function satisfies the same I~oondarycoritfit,ions as the polynomial of folirtli dtgrcc, except for / " ( I ) = 0. The polynoniials of third ant1 fourth tlrgree ant1 t h e sine-fnnction lcatl t o values of shearing slrcss a t Itro wall which arc in error by less than 3 per cent and may bc considrrcd ent,ircly atlcqllatc. 'Tllc valnrs of the djsplaccmerit thickncss 6, show acccptablc agreement wit,h thc corrcsponditlg cxect values.

206

X. Approxi~nnte rnct.l~otls steady equat,iona for

b. The approxir~into nirthod duo to TIN. Jchrnlhn and K. Pol~lha~~ncn von

207

Table 10.1. Rrsultn of the calcr~lation the bo~lr~tlnry of layer for a flat plate at zero incidence baaed on a~nroximaLethcorv

forin is assumed for the vclocitty profile. This allows us t o calculate t h e momentum tl~ickucss, h e displace~nent t thickness, a n d t h e shearing stress a t tllc wall. I n choosing a suitablc velocity fi~riction t is necessary to talrc into account t h e same considerai t,ions ns beforc, nnmnly thosc regarding tlie no-slip contlition a t t,l~c wall, a s wcll a s thc r e c ~ i ~ i r c m r nof, ~ t cont.inc~it,y t . 1 1 ~point whcrc this sol~tt,ion joinctl t o tthc poLcnt*i:~l at, is soI~~t,ion. ~ ~ r I . l ~ t : r ni t~ oI,IIc, ~)rt:sot~co IL pr(-ssItro gratlict~t~ fr~r~c:I,ion I~ 1 rr of t,hc n111st atln~it the cxisbcricc of profilcs wit11 and w i t l ~ o r ~ tpoint of it~llcxioncorrcspor~tlirtg a t.o t,hcir occrirrencc in regions of nsg,zt,ive or positive pressure gradients. In ortlcr to kc in a posit,ion to cn.lcr~latc point of scgamtion with tho aitl of t l ~ npproxin~at~c tho c nletl~otlt,hc existence of a profile with zero gratlicnt a t the w:~11(au/ay),-,=0 must also be possible. On thc ot.hcr l~anclf ~ ~ n c t i o n s postulating similarity of vclocity profiles for various valrics of x m a y no lorigcr be prcscribctl. Followir~gI<. I'ol~l11a11scnwe asslime a polynomial of tlic fonrbh dcgrcc for the velocity function in t.crn~s t,hc dinicrrsionless tlist.ancc from t,hc wall 11 = ?//8(2), i. e. we put, of

in t,I~e range 0 5 11 5 I , wl\crens for 31 > 1 we assumc simply tc/U = 1. W e further d c ~ n a n d ,as before, t,Ilat the boundary laycr sho~ildjoin the potential flow a t the finitc distance from tltc wall y = d(x). I n ortlcr t o clct.crrninc t l ~ c four frcc constants, a b, c, (1, wc s11all prcscribc t l ~ c following four boundary conclit~ior~s

It is seen t , l ~ at.hc a p p r o s i n ~ a t c t mct.liocl Icacls t o sa.t,isfnctory rcsult,~ t.11~ in case of a flat platjc a t zero inciclcncc, and the extraordinary sinlp1icit.y of the calcnl:~t,ior~ is cluite rcnlarkable, compared with tlte complcxit,y of thc exact solution.
h. Tllc approxil~intcr~ietl~oilI ~
I C

to TII. VOII KLr1n511 R I I C ~K. P ~ b l h n l ~ s e for twoll dirnct~siot~al flow#

As seen from ccjns. (7.10) t o (7.12), t,hcy arc a11 sat,isficd by Lhe exact solution. Thcse requirrment.s are sufficient t.o tlctrrtriinc tlrc constants a, b, C, d, because the no-slip condition a t the wall i s implicit in eqn. (10.19). The first condit,ion whiclr is sat,isficrl 1 ) ~ ' all exact solntions, as seen from eqn. (7.15), is of part,ic~llar importance. I t dctrrtniucs t l ~ c curvat,urc of t l ~ o velocity profile near the wall atld malrcs sure t h a t tlrcro is no point of inllcxion in the velocity profile i n regions of dccrcnsing pressurc. I~nrtl~ertnore, regions of incrcasir~g prrssnrc contain poir~t~s of inflexion a s required by the exact solution in Chap. VII., Figs. 7.3 and 7.4. Introdrrcirlg tl~c tlirner~sionlcssq~~arit,it,y

We now propose to clcvelop the approximate mcthotl of t l ~ c 1)reccding scct.ion so t , l ~ n t can l)c apl~lictlto t . 1 1 ~ gcr~cralproblrm of a two-tlirncr~sional ho~rntlnry it layer wit.11 prcssrlrc gradient. The tnct,l~od its original for111was first ir~tlicatctl in I)y 1C. l'ohlhar~scn [Is]. The succeccling tlcscriptio~lof thc method is basetl on iLs tnorc motlcrn form as developcrl by tT. TIolstcir~and T . 13011len [GI. \Vc now cl~oose,a s t,hc along the wcttetl before, a system of coortlinat.cs in whicll x c1enot.c~ n.ro r n c a s ~ ~ r e d wall and whcrc y tlcnot,os t l ~ c tlisLancc fronl t,l~c wall. 'rhc I~asic crlnat,ion of t l ~ c tnonrent,nm t,heory is ol)t,ninctl by int,cgrnt,ir~g eqr~:~l,ior~ tlic of motion wit#I~ rcspcct tsoy from t.hn wall atf ?/ -=- 0 t.0 a ccrt,i~.ir~ tlist,arica I L ( x ) w l ~ i e lis assntn(:cI t,o t)e o~~tsicle ~ t.11~ I)o~trtdnry layer for all val~ros x. With this r~otat~ior~ tnomentl~mcqtiat.ior~ of t,l~c ' 11a.s the form nlrcntly givcri in (8.32), namely
I

wc o b t a i t ~ l ~ c t following cx1)rcssions for tlic cot:ffic:ic!t~l,sin cqn. ( 10. I D ) :

and hence for tlre vclocit,y profile: 'J'his e q ~ ~ a t ~ i o n g ian s v e ordinary diffrrrni ial rqnat,ion for t l ~ c o ~ ~ n t l n r y - l athiclrncss, h ~pr a s was tire rase wil.11 t l ~ c flat plntc in l,lic prc,cctlir~gscc*lion,provitlccl t l ~ n a ~ n i t : ~ b l o t

208 where

X. Approxin~atemethods for sbady equations

b. The npproxitnab rnethocl dl~o Th. von Kkrnldn ant1 K. Pohll~nnsen to

209

I t is easily recognized t h a t t h c velocit,y profiles cxprcssed in terms of g = y / b ( z ) constitute a onc-paran~ct~cr family of curves, t h e tlirnensior~lessquarrt,it,y A being a shape factor. T h e tlin~cnsio~iless (l~l:ltlt,it,y which may also IIC written a s A

in t,hc bolrrltlary layer, but tlris must be exrlntled in stcady flow. Since bel~indt h e point of scp:lration thr, present cxlculalion bxsrd, xs i t is, on t,he boundary-layer concept,, loses significance, the shape fnctor is secn t o be rcstrictrtl t o t h r rangr - 12 1 A -k 12 , src Pig 10.4. J3cforc proceeding to cnlctllat,~the bountlary-layer tlliclrncss S(x) from t,hc mon~cnI,~lrrl I.llrorc:t~~, is now ~nnvrniont, (:ILICIII~LI,O t.110 : ~ I ~ I I I I O ~ I ~ . ~ll~ivlcllrss, it, 1.0 IIII S2, t h e tlisplaccmer~tthickness, (I1, nlltl t h e viscous sliearing strcss aL llrc wall, t,,, with t,hc aitl of t h e approximate velocity profile in the same way a s was (lone for t h e flat platfa a t zero incidence in the preceding section. 'J'hrrs we obtain froin cqns. (8.83) ant1 (8.31), t,oget,her with eqn. (10.22),

PdU

dv

ran be int,rri)rcted pllysically as tJhr ratio of prrssrlro forces t o viscous forces. I n order t o obtain a quant-ity t o whirh real physical significance can be ascribed, it would be nerrssary to rcplnce 6 in the above definition by a linear quantity which itself posscsscs pl~ysicalsignificance, s ~ i e ha s the momerrtrim thickness. This will be done Ialcr in this section.

Cornputitla the tlefinitc integrals with the aitl of the values of F ( q ) and ecln. (10.23), we Ilavt:

(:(I/)

front

Silnilarly, t.11~ viscor~s stress a t t h e wall,

to = ! ~ ( i l ~ ~ / a y ) , _ , ,given is

I)y

I'lg. 10 3. Tho functior~sF(91) arld G 7 )for (7 the velocity distribution ill Lhe boundary rqns. (10 22) and (10.23) layer fro111

I n ortl(3r t.o tlct.c.rmii~rt,11(: s(.ill-r~nltnown s11n.p~ factor A (z) nntl, Ilrncc?, t11c ft~n(:t~ion O ( x ) from cqn. (10.21), it. is now necessary t,o rcfrr t o tthe momcnlum cq11nt.ion(10.18). h111lt.il)lying d , / v I J we can r c p r c ~ r r it tin t,Ilc following tlitnc~lsionlcssfornr: by ~
Fig. 10.4. Tho ot~c-parntncter family of vclo-

city profiles from cqrl. (10.22)

'1'11e t\vo ~ I I I I C ~ ~ ~ F(77) O I I S anrl ( : ( q )tlcfirlctl by nclrr. (1'0.23), which t,ogel,hcrcompose tthc vc1ocil.y-rlist,riI)r~t~ior~ fr~nct.ioll gi~rnnin cqn. (10.22), a.rc serrl ploltc-d in Fig. 10.3. Vrloc:it.y profilrs for v:lrions vnluns of A arc shown in J'ig. 10.4. The profilc wllicll cr>rrcspontls t.n A -0 is ol)f.ainc?rl w1ic:n tllJ/tlx'= 0 , i. r . for i,hc I)o~~rlda.ry : Iilycr wil.lr no prrssltrc g r : ~ t l i r ~ ~ t glnt,e nt zero i~vcitlrncc), for a point wlrrre t.11~ (Ila.t, or vrlocity or t,llc pot.rrrtinl flow pnssrs t,lllorlgl~ rnilliml~~n a ~ n n , x i n l n ~In . this case or n lhc: vclorit.y profilo l~ccotnrs itlenticnl \vit,I~ for~rtlt-drgrcc the polyno~nixl usctl for t,llr. flal, plate in t,l~oprcrrtling snct.ion. 7'11e prolilo a t separation \vit.lr (itu/a!/),, -- 0 , i. e. nib11 (1 =- 0, occrrrs for /I == - 12. I t will he sl~o\vn1at)rr t,hxt 1.11~ profile :LL tlhr st~agnat.ion point corresl~ol~ds A t,o 7.062. For A > 12 vnlnrs ?r/U > 1 occrlr

in which t,lrc bour~tlilry-la.ycr tl~iclrrlcss does not ap11r:~rcxplicil,ly; t.his circrlrnst,n~lrc 0 i s 11oL surprising, brcausc it const,it.ul,csonly a fortuit.ous qrrnnt,it,y nssorintctl with 1.11~ al>proxirnnto mct,llotl of cnl(:r~lnt,iorlant1 l ~ n sn o l):lrt.i('~~l:~r physi(::l,l I ~ ~ ( > ~ I I ~ I I F ( . 0 1 1 t,hc of,llcr 11:~ntl cqn. (10.20) cont.nins t.ltc rcnlly inlporl,;~lli, l)llysicnl cl~~:rrl1~il,ic:s, viz. t l ~ e tlisplncernenl; tl~iclrnrss,(Y1, t,llc rnomcnt.l~~n t,l~iclr~lrss, an([ t,hc sllrnring ii,, slprcssa t t,hc w:~llto.i t is, t.llcrcfore, n a t , ~ ~ r : ~11cgi11 to l with tllc: C:IICIII:L~.~O~I a2 fronl of t h e momcntum cqu:~t,ion (10.2G) nncl to drtll~cc fro111it wit.11 t,l~c of ( : ~ I I(10.24). d nit1 . J'ollo\ving J l . ITolst,rin nntl T. Dohlcn [T,] i t is c o n v c r l i r ~ t ot i ~ ~ t r o t l u for this prtrposc ~ cc a sccol~tl sha.~)c factor

210

X . Approximate mcthod~ shady rqi~etions for

b. Thc npproxininto incl.hod duo to Th. von Khrmhn rind IC. I'ol\lhn\rscn

21 1

which is connortctl with t l ~ cmonlcr~t~tnl tl~icknessin tllc samc way as t.lle first sha)>cfactor, A , was connect,cd with t,l~c boundary-layer t,l~ickness, in cqn. (10.21). 0, Tn atltlit,ion we sl~a,ll put
= ??"
v

'

(10.28)

so t h a t

This is a non-linear differential equation of the first ordcr for Z = S22/vas a function ftirlct,ion F ( I < ) of the current lengt,h coordinate, x. The fact t h a t the form of t l ~ e is very complcx does not c o n ~ t i t ~ ~ ~real difficully insofar a s t l ~ csol~~t,ion a te of eqn. (10.36) is concernetl, because i t is a urliversal function, i. e. one which is indcprndcnt of the s11:tpe of tllc body and i t can, thcrcforc, he calculntctl onro and (10.30), ns well na j2(I(), arltl F ( K ) for all. Thc ftlncl~ionsI C ( A ) from e . q ~ ~ from eqns. (10.31), (10.32), and (10.35), respectively, are given in Table 10.2. The auxiliary function F ( R ) is represented grnphically in Fig. 10.6.
Solution of the clillkre~~~ial~ ~ a t i ofor motnentum tl~ickneoe: Cor~ccrninqthc eq n solution of eqn. (10.36) i t is possible t o make tlie following rcrnarlrs: 'rho calculat,ion should begin a t tho st-ngnation point x = 0, whore U = 0 ant1 dU/& is finit,o and different from zero, unless the body posscsses there a shnrp crisped cdgc with zcro anglc. The initial slopc of tfhc integral curvo db/dx would bccome infinitc nt the upstream stagnation point were i t not for thc fact t h a t F ( I i ) vanishes there uimultancously. Thus the func.tion F ( K ) is seen t,o hnvc n physicnlly menningf111 init.ia1 value. The zero of P(I0 o c c ~ ~ w vnlucs of A for which t l ~ e for scconct bri~cketccl term on t l ~ right-hand side of eqn. (10.35) vanishes. Thus c

I t is sern from crjns. (10.21), (10.27) nntl (10.24) t l ~ n t(.l~c l ~ a p c s fa.ctors ,,I a t ~ t lli satisfy Lhe universal relation

F(lr') = 0 for K = K O = 0-0770, or for A = A , = 7.082

I< for the saltc of brevity, a.ritl sul)st,itutji~lg, ant1 Z from eqns. (10.27) ancl (10.28) rcspecl,ively, t.ogothor wil,l~f l ( K ) ar~tl/ , ( I ( ) from erlns. (10.31) and (10.32), we obtain, further, from Ll~r o m c r ~ t u n ~ m cqr~:~t,iolt (10.20) togcthcr wiCh a2 6,'/v = 4 cIX/tlx, the rol;~t,iorl

llence A = 7.052 is the value of the first shape factor a t the stngnation point, ss already mentioned. I n this manner the initial slope of the intcgrnl curve a t tlie upstream sta.gnation point is seen to be of the indeterminate form 8 (singular point of eqn. (10.36)), but its value can be easily comp~itcdby a simple process of going over to the litnit. U1e obtain

2 / 2 ( 1 < ) - 4 TC or, \vrit,tcn OIII, f ~ ~ l l ~ ,

--

2 I /'(I<) - F ( K ) (

( I0 :14)

\vllrrt: 1.110 rcxl:~.l,ion I)c~l.\vcc.t~ :1.11(1 I<was givc.11i l l (v111. (10.:10). \\'it,l~a.Il tl~csc il a.l,l)rcvint.ions nnrl s ~ ~ l ~ s l . i l ~ ~ ~ IlI I~ IiToC I I~. sI I I Ir c l ~ ~ a l , (IO.:3:1) can t01o O I ~ ~ I io~~ I)? r~\vril,l.cn in (,It(! vcry c~o~~tlc~rscltl (i1r.111

IIcre the subscript 0 refers to the upstream st,agnat*ionpoint. With these initial valncs t l ~ equation call bc convcllicntly inlcgratcd, c. g. b y the method of isoclincs. e Igigr~rc 10.5 illustrates the use of this method s s applied t o n symmct.rical aerofoil a t zero incidence. Thc calculntion begins with the vnlncs A,, = 7.052 and KO = 0.0770 a t the leading-edge ~ t ~ a g t ~ a t ipoint, and becorncs completetl ~rpon on reaching the point of separation with A = - 12 and Ii = -- 0.1567. Tllc velocity funct,ion U(x), together with its first d c r i ~ a t ~ i v e clU/dx, is given by the potcnt.inlflow solution. Thc value of d2U/dx2 is only rcquired n t t l ~ cIcading cdgc for t11c initmid slopc of t.he int,cgm.l curve. The procedure usctl in the c o m p ~ ~ t a t ~ i o n be sumr?arizcd as f o l l ~ w s : may

'I'II(* qt~nutilyIf - (TI/(?, is also rrg:tnlrtl :IS n shn.1)~ r:~rtor: is o f p:i~.l.ic~rlnr it. itnporta~~ce for Lho'li~rl~i~l~:t~t. I I : L ~ ~ c/. (!II:II). X 11. I t 3 V:LIIIC (;IT liitnita:~.r 11011:id:~ry J)OIIII 1:1yr~, S lilyrrs rnllgrs frotn n l ) r ) ~ ~2.3 (r) 3-5, f . 'l':~l)lo 10.2; i t , nsstunm val~~ca t. c ft-o~rl nl~ot~t to 2.2 in tllc rnso of 1.3 t,~~rl)i~lrr~t I)ou~lrlnr.y I:iyrrs. A 1 11tf: point of I.mrlnit,ion I/,? i~lcrrnsrs co~~sirl~:ral~ly, 10.6. r f . Fig.

,,

I . The potcr~t,ialflow functior~ U (x), togcthor wit11 i1.s derivative dU/dx, are given in terms of the arc length. 2. Jntcgration of cqn. (10.36) gives Z ( x ) and tlrc sccond shape factor K ( x ) so that the momcntum t,llickncss a,(x) can bc cnlcnlatcd from equation (10.27), and t,he posit,ion of the ~ ~ o iof tsrparntion may bo found subscq~icntdy. n

212

X. A1q)roxinintc r~ictl~orlg stearly equations for

b. The npproxitnste met,hod clrtc to 'rh. vori Kbrmhn nntl I<. Pol~lhnusen

213

for of I:~yera, 'bblr 10.2. 1211xili:iryfr~nrtio~in thr npproximntr rnlr~~letiorl lnlliitier bor~ndnry nftrr HoI~tcitinnrl l%ohlrti151

R. Tho variat.ion of tho first shape fact,or A ( % )is o ~ ~ t d i n from cqn. ( 1 0 . ~ 0 ) rr~ anti Tal~lc 10.2.
4. 'I'ho tlis~)lacer~~cnt t,liiclrncss, O , , anti thc s11o:~ring stress a t tile wall, to,are folrnd from rqn. (10.31) ant1 (10.32), respectively, togctllcr wit11 t l ~ c valucs in 'I'atjlc 10.2.
5. Tlic: I~or~titlary-hycr tlIti(~k~~css I'ollows rrorn ctlw (10.21). O(Z)
(i. I'inally, I,lle vclotait.y tlisLrib~~L~io~i is for~rltlfrom ccln. (10.22).

I'ig. 10.5. 15xnn1ploof 1 . 1 1 ~cnlct~lat~ion the ho1111of dary layer l)y t,hr npr)roxi~~lt~t,e c t , h oIIIIC t,n ~i~ d ~ ' ~ I I I I I : ~~iri(l1 lIoIl s l ~ i ~ i 1 1 - l ~ r ~ [8j.~SoIi~t.ir)t~ II~C lil~ i1 of
l.l~c cliKorenl.inl cqri:ition (LO.:!(;) by the ~~ict,l~otls of isac:lincs for I.hc uytit~~~ct.rirnl %Ittiltovsltii tiorofoil .I 015 nl. nti i~~cirlrticc a angle 0. See also Fig. 10.12
1

- point or separation

A. Walz [26] ~ o i n t r tout t h a t cqn. (10.36) can I)r rrtlrt~c~tl n simplc qu:~tlr:~trtrc l l,o by tllc it~troductior~ :I frtrtl~crapproxirr~al~iot~ of witltont, any xpprt:~i:~l~lo of loss nc.c.rtrnc.y. TTc forll~tlt h a t tllo function F ' ( K ) ran be approxirnatctl clrrite closely by llir str:~iglttline F ( K ) - - a - 0 I{.
\Vil,l~rr - : : 0.470 ~irltlb 6 t,llc aj~l~roxirnatiotr pnrl,ic:r~l:lrly c:losc Octwccti the is sl.:~gt~:l(.ir)~~ ntltl t,lir l>oint; or rnnximrrrn vcloc.il,y (I'ig. I0.fi) ,111 I.liix oinrttior point cqn. ( 10.36) rctlncrs L o
;

or, subst.itllt,ing the origi~lal values for Z and

X,

This differential equation for U 8,2/v earl bc integrated exl~licitlyt o *

214

X. Aliproxi~nnto mothotls for atcady eqnotiona


Tablo
10 3.

c. Compnrison betwcct~tho upproximutc and oxnct uolrlt.ion~

215

or, u ~ i n g h e ~lumerical t values for a and b given earlier:

Compnri~on exnrt nnd npproximnte vnlr~rs Lhr honndury-layer pnrurnctors for of of tho caso of ti~m-dimen~ionnl stngnntion /lout

I'hus t,llc solution of eqn. (10.36) is secn t o redrlre l o a simple q r ~ a d r a t r t rAn anal~. ogous q~tadrntllrcwill k)r I I S C ~in C!hnp. X X I l for t h r ~ o l u t ~ i oof t.l~crql~ntionsof n turbulent. flow.

In t l ~ c approxirnnt,~ ~ncthotlwc havc Z0 = R,/U1, and from cqn. ( 1 0 3 ) i t follows - -. t h a t t11r momentum tl~icknessis given by (T2 = dif; = i0.0770 = 0.278 . I t is seen from cqn. (10 81) t - f ~ a tile displacement thickness is approximatctl by t 6, JiF/v /,(~i,,) 1/ii,= 0.641 anti cqn. (10.32)givest0/p = =/ z ( K o ) l i R , 0 :132/0.278 = 1.1!) for tllc sllcnring slrcss a t the wall. 'rile ngrccnlcr~l bclwccn the approxirnnte ant1 exact values i s here also complet,cly satisfactory.

iVfi u - 4~ 7'

-0 R

-am -OM-am m

602

am onc m o m
K

Fig. 10.6. Tho ar~xilinry funct,ion F ( K ) for the colcr~lstionof lnminnr bor~ndnrylnyer by thc method of JIolntcin and Bohlen [5] ( I ) train* e q n . (10.35): (2) lincar nlrproximntioll F ( R ) -- 0 - 4 7 0 - 6 K ; S = a1,agnntion point: lf -- vclori1.y milximum

c. C o n ~ p n r i ~ obetween tile npproximnte nnct cxnct solutions n

3. Flow past n circulnr cylinder. A comparison of t h e result of t h e approximate calculation for a circular cylindcr wit11 t h e fiolut,ion due t o Ilicmcnz (See. I X c ) was given by I<. l'ohll~ar~scn I s ] in his original pnpcr. IIe 11sc:tl IIicrnenz's cxperirnen[ t,al pressure distribution function for the circular cylinder and compared the results wit.h Hiemcnz's solut,ion which takes ir1t.o account only the first thrcc t.crrns of t.lle I3lnsius scrips. Ilicn~cnz's solution irltlicnlcs tltat scpnral.ion occurs a t an :~nplc 4 -=R2.0, wllcrcns l'ohlhnuscn's npproxirnntc valnc was 4 = 81.5O. IIowcvcr, t,he a ~ ~ p r o x i r n n tmct,l~otllrntls t.o vxlucs for tho 1)ountl:~ry-lnycrt.l~ic:kncss rlcilr t,11(: c imint, of scpnrnt.ior1 wllic:h arc consitlcrnl)ly largcr ~.II:III 1,Itc vi~lucsnl)t~:tinr(l by Ilicmcnz. On t.ltc ot,llcr hand i l must be rcalixcd t h a t sr~clln comparison is not t*or~cl~~sivc, l)c:mr~sca 15lnsir1s scrics corlt,nir~irlg only thrcc t.crn~s in it,sclf inntlrql~atc is t.o rc~)rc~scrll, ~ c t l solution near t,llc poi111of s~:p:~r:ttion.

I. Flat plnte a t zero incidence. It is easy t o see frorn cqn. (10.22) t h a t the Polill~a~~ncn i~pproximnt~ion becomes cquivalont tjo 1Sxn.mplc3 in '1;nblc 10.1 for t h e case of a fI:~t. plnt,c a t zero inc:idcncc. l'his ease can also t;c obtainctl directly from eqn. (10.36), whcre I l ( x ) = U,, U' = 0 and hence R = A = 0, so t11at e j n . (10.36) givcs dZ/tlz = F(O)/U, = 0.4698/U,. Taking into accor~ntt,hnt Z = 0 a t s = 0 it follows t h a t R ~ 0 . 4 6 9 8 z/fJ,, or a, - 0.686 I/l.&/ii, ngrccmcnt wi0h T n l ~ l c in 10.1. l'ablc 10.1 contains ox.zct and n p p r o ~ i m n t ~ c values of the boundary-lnycr pnrnrnct.crs for tltc purpose of comparison. Tt is sccn tb'nt agreement is very satisfactory.
2. T w o - c l i n ~ c n ~ i o ~ ~ a l stngnntion flow. The c x a r t solntion of 1,he problem of t wo:(lirnrnsionnl stngnnt.ior~ flo\rr for wllirll U (r) = U' . r , was given irl Sec. V 9.
r

Ilte exnrt vnlnrs of displncrmcnt ll~iclzness,momentum tfl~ickncss and shcnring strrss at, tho wall, calrulnlcd wit11 ttllc nit1 of t h a t theory, arc given ill 'I'a1,lc 10 3.
7

\V,: now propose t,o give n comp:trison 1)clwccn a scl of cnlcr~lat.ions ol)t.:iinc:tl \vit,l~ aitl of Pohll~nuscn'sapproximale moll~ocl t,llc and rlumcrical calcnlat~ions which Ilnve bcen ~>crlormntlwill1 great accnracy on n. tligilal colnpr\lcr ~~rograrnrncrl to solve tlle clifferential equations directly. The e x a ~ n p l ecl~oscn for comparison is ttlat of a circular cylinder in the presence of a free-st re an^ velocity cornpl~tetl from pot,cnttial thcory, t h e boundary-layer vclocit,ics having bccn cal~ulat~ctl wilfll a 13lrtsin~~ c r i c s o n t ~ n i n i nt.crtns I I t~o x l l (SOC.IXC). This ~ o m j ) n r i s o r ~l t o w st.l~~tt, ~ g ~ tlle power-series method givcs very high accumcy up to tile irnmc4atc virinily of t h e point of separation, However, a t t h e point of separation itself, t h e series broken dff a t t11q term zll becomes inaccurate. I'ignre 10.7 shows a plot of tfhc l)oundary-layer paramctcrs, clisplaccmdnt thicknrss, dl, inomenturn thickness, a, and , It wall shearing stress, to. is secn t h a t t h e reccrit numerical calculations performed by W. Schoenauer [20] show somewhat dimerent trends in t,lle vicinit,y of the point of urparat,ion as fnr a s the variations in the displaccmcnt and n ~ o m c n t l ~tl~ickncsscs m ns

216

X. Approximato n~ethods steady eqllations for

d. Further examplcs

217

well a s in the shearing stress are concerned, a n d predict a n earlier point of separation. = 109.5' ol)t.ainctl with t11cnit1 of t,he l'ohll~auscn npproximalior~ and r$s = 108.8O sl~ggcsted by tllc series cxp:ansion cont,inuctl up to the term z". A cornparison between t,hc v c l ~ c i t ~ y tli~t~ribut~ions, 10.8, leacls t,o t h e conclusion t,llat there cxist,s almost perfect IGg. ngr~c~nrr~l. hr1,wcrn t,Iln exn.ct solr~t.ion and t.hc npproxin~at~ion t.11c m.ngc of angles in 0 < 4 < !)On,t,lrat. is in t , l ~ c range of acc:clcrat,ctl c*xt.crnal flow. I<y conl,~.asl,, o w n d st,rearn of the pressure rninirnltm the discrepancies increase very fast on approaching the point, of separation.

W. Schocnauer found t h a t thc separation angle is a t 4 8 = 104.5Oas

st,at,ed t,hat in regions of retarded potjent1inlflow t h e approximate solut,ion becomes somc\vl~nt, innccuratc a s the point of ~cpn.rat,ionn approacl~c-(1. i Thc posit.ior~of t.11~ poil~tof srparal.ion cnn only be calculnt.rtl with 11 col~l.:lil~ tlrgl.re of ~ ~ n c r r l , : ~ i l ~ t . ~ , parti :~ilarlyin cases whon the point of separation is sitr~atctf con~parativclyfar l)cl~intltJrr point of mir~i~nrrm prcssurct:. JCront l , l ~ rass1111i1)I,in11 I,IIC v(-lo(:il,y 1)rofiIt~s : o i ~ s l i l ~ ~ot~c.~):~r:~t~r(:l,(:r I.II:LI~ ~ n ~l~o frunily it ncccssnrily follows t l ~ a t , l ~ c point of' separation is tlct,erminccl solely by t,l~c value of t,l~is paramct,cr. I t was, I~owever, shown by I. Tani [22] t,11att l ~ c position of t l ~ cp o i l ~ tof scpamtion clcpcncls, in adtlition, on t l ~ cpressure gradinnt of t l ~ c' es1,crnnl flow.
d. Further exnrnples

No gcncral critmion regartling t,hc admissibility of t,he approximation has been givcn so far, nntl it scems t,l~at, t will bc difficult t o obtain. Judging by the i ahovc a r ~ tsimilar calcnlations a s well a s by cxpcrimental results it appetlrs, I~owevcr, l t o he rcnsonnbly ccrtair~ t , l ~ a tI'ol~lha~lscn'sapproximate method lcatls t o vcry snt,isfactory rcsnlt,s in regions of accclcrat,ctl potent,ial flow. Similarly, it may 110

111t,l~is sct:t,ion we propose t.o sumnrari7.c. some oxampl(:s illust.rat,ing {.Ire r : ~ l ( ? ~ ~ l n tiot~of 1)onnd:~rylayers by 1 . h ~ prccctling ap~~roxitr1a1.e mct,llotls \vl~ich wcrc: first give11 i t 1 a pn.pcr by 11. Schlicht,ing ant1 A. Ulrich II!)]. 'l'l~cfirst set of cxarnplcs is cot~ccrnctl wit,l~elliptical cylirltlcrs ~vhose1nn.jor axes arc pn.rnllcl t,o t l ~ c tlircct,ion of 1 . 1 1 ~s1,rcam. The rat,io of the major t,o t.hc minor axis of tho cylintlcrs ri~ngcd ovrr all) = 1, 2, 4, 8 and the potcnt,inl vclocit,y-clistril)r~tiorl fllnct,ions arc scen plot.ted in Figs. 10.9. 'l'he valnc of Llle vc1ocit.y rnaximcl~nis (J,,/U = 1 bla. 'rho charitcterist.ic parameter of the bonntlary layer, namely the tlisplnccmer~ttl~iclrness,d l , tlw S I I R J I ~fact,or, A , ant1 t.l~e shearing slrcss a t tllc w:~ll,T,,, are s r o l plot,l,ctl in Pig. 10.10. The results for t J ~ e flat plate at, zero iriritlencc havc I~eenplottccl in thc same figure for t,he pnrpow of colnpnrison. I n tlie case of a c:irc:ula.r cylinder separa(2 tion occurs a t 211' = 0.G09, i . c. at, 4 = 109.6O, as already ~ncnt~ionetl, 1' = c:ircl~rnfrrrncr) ant1 moves tlo\\;nst.rcam a s t8hc c1lij)sc bccomcs rnorc slrl~dcr.l'hc j)osit.ion of 1 . 1 1 ~poitit of separation is marked in the vclocit,y profile plots in f i g . 10.!). The rrsl~ltsfor nn ellipse of cr/b = 8 cliKcr only very lit,t,le from thosc fc)r a flat. pl:~t,c nt zrro innitlencc. Fig. 10.1 1 co~lt:ains vclocit,y profiles for the boontlnry 1a.yer on an cllipt,ic cylintler with a/h = 4. Calculat,ions concerning elliptsic cylintlers whose minor axes are parallel t.o t , l ~ e direction of thc stream as wcll as ellipsoids of reroll~t.ion may 1)c found in a paper by J . I'rclscl~ 117J.

+-

- - -.

. .--

for t.ho CRRB of n rirc:rllnr cylinclrr -- f l i s p l n r r n ~ r n lIltirknrqs: = n l n n ~ r s l ~ ~ ~ n 1I~i1.knr.s~: r. -- sl,esrllag atrvria a1 tlur wall
d, d.

lutiol~wit11 0l1c exact nolrtlio~~ for the rase of a cirrlrlnr cylirl~lrr;velority profiles

1%. ~ ~ I I I ~ 1.21L ~i~rnsurt.cl ~ ) < ~ s i lo,fi o ~ ~I I I I ~ I I ~of I I I ~ I I ~ I I I I I I I~I I I . I . ~ S I I ~ ( . S I : 1 I I ~ . ~ 1.11~1 1111: , a11 t~lli~~Lir:~l t!yli~~<lcrslc~~tlcr~~rss = 2,!)li : I ~11:icctl L 8l,rt!:~111 01 CL : 1) i11 : p:u-:illt~l L o l l l c 111:ijvv axis. Ile fotll~rl that it was located : ~x/b = 1.3 aritl tllat separation took place at x/h t 1.!)9. A mlculation 1)ased on J'ollll~a~~scr~'s apl~roxil~~ntiotl sllowetl vnry good a~rcrrncr~t with ~~~rnsrtrrr~~cnt,s for vclocit.y profilrs I I 1.0 lllc 1)oinL of n~inilni~tn ~ r~rrssurcIIIIL tt prrtlict.c:tl $10 stbpnr:~tiorl. hlrlcsy~~ tlnvrlopccl n rr~rlllodof ror~~l)~rl.nt.ic,~~I C : L ~ R to a. v:llll(' of 1). [I31 H.\I~(.~I r/h 2.02 li)r thr p o i ~ ~ t srl~nrt~tion tllr n l ~ n v coxn~~~l~lr:. i nt~lc.(.llo<l, I~olr~~cl:try. of in 111 l ~ t.lrc: layrr cqu:~t.ions arc? Lrxnsforlnwl illto orcli11:rry tliKcrr:nti:~l eqliat.ior~?l l ~ i o l:~rcrc.l:it.c.cl Lo w ~ F:~lknr>r Skitl~'~ :rntl cqllnt.iot~ (9.8). : ll(,rc it I I I :I ~ ~ N 1vorl~11I I C I I ~ ~ O I I l11:rt r~pproxi111:tIc I ~II~ i~~Lrgrail,io~~ IIII!LIIO~I of i ~ o ( ~ l i ~ ~ r x l).y tho i l l ro~~ncxiol~ I'ohll~a~rsrn'n wil.11 :ipproxill~atior~ in t l ~ e fails rrgiorl of large 1)rossIIrc gr:idic~~trq \slriclr ocrur for A > 12 (1i > O.O!IR), because the plot o f X agnillst A t.~trns tllis poi111 at, (Table 10.2) and cantlot, tl~rmlore,be contirlucd I)oyond K -- 0.0!15. Moreover. for /1 > 12 the vrloriby prnfilcs bcco~no r~nnrrcpt,al)le t.hry rolltniri poil~t,~ \ v l ~ i c tli~I I -.- I (Fig. 10.4). as for / 'I'l~rarcliffieillt.ira arc obviatcd wllcr~cqli. (10.37) is IIRO(I. I'or
cxan~l~lo: (:.
011

218

X. Approximntn rnet~liods shndy eqr~ntions for

d. Further oxnrnplea

219

-4 F ~ ~ r t hexample is shown in Fig. 10.12 which contains resl~lts a symmetrical er for Zhukovskii nerofoil a t zero incidence. The point of minimum pressure is a t x/l' = = 0.141 which is very far forward on t h e aerofoil. The pressure rise a t the rear is very gradual so that, the point of srpamt,ion lies very far downstream of the point of minimum pressure, i. e. zll' = 0.470. Since the Zl~ukovskii aerofoil has a cusped trailing etlgc t,hc potential velocity a t tho trailing edge is djffcrent from zero. For details of adtlitional systcn~ntic bountlary-layer calculations concerning nn extensive serics of Zhultovskii aerofoils with different thickness and camber ratios and a t cliffrrcnt angles of incitlcnre, refcrcnce may he made t o a p i p e r by K. nussmnnl~ and A. Ulrich [2].

A review of the very numerous approxi~natemethods which have been proposed so far is contained in the collective book entil.lod "Laminar Boundary Layers" 1181 nnd edited by 1,. Rosenhcad. .
I n a n effort t o improve t,he accuracy of the calculation of laminar boundary layers, many authors replaced the preceding single-pnrameter methods by oric employing tifio pramelers. This is acl~icvcdwhon t,llc encrgy intcgrnl cc11rnt.ion is sntisf e d in addition t o the m ~ m e n t ~ u n ~ intcgrnl equation (ace e. g. I<. Wicghartlt. [27]). Two-parameter methods have been extensively devclopcd by I,. G. Loit.sinr~slrii and his coworkers [8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 141. Since such two-1)nrnrncter rncthotls n1.c vcry co~nplex, n ~ l n uincc t,l~cir nccrlrncy i~tliffic:tllt 10 nssc.ss, 1norlrl.n n u t i i o r ~ f~cvo11re.t~rrc.1 numn,erical methods cmployetl in conj~lnct,iorl with largc clocl.ronic con1put.crs; tlrcir principles have bcen outlined in Sec. I X i .

Pig. 10.0. Potcntinl velocity tlistrihution function on elliptical cylinders of slenderness o/h = 1, 2, 4, 8, tlic direction of t.he stream being parallel to t.110 major axis
R
; ; -

position or point o f srpnrrtion

Fig. 10.10. Ilrsillls of Llic cnlcr~Int,ion hor~ndnryIn.yers on ollipt,ic,zl cylinders of ~lcndorncss of n/b t 1 , 2, 4, 8, Jcig. 10.9. n) displnrrrnnnt, t,liickrirsa of tlre bonntlary layer, h) shape factor r) cliraring st.rr%q t11c~ ' n l f2. 1' -- rircllllifcrr~~~~c rllipsc; n/b -. 1 rircr~lnr nt of bht: cylintlcr; n/b = m flnt plate

Fig. 10.11. J'elorily profiles in t,l~c Iniiiinnr borttldary lnvor on all ellipt,irnl cyli~~cier.

1lat.io of axes

a,/()

Fig. 10.12. J'rlority profilrs i t 1 t,hc Inniinnr 1)ouiitlary I:tycl. and pot.entinl velocity f~lnct,ion for a Zl~ultovskii ncrofoil .I 015 of t11ic.knrss ratio dl1 = 0.15 a t an angle of inrirlrl~re u=0

220

X. Approximate n~etlroelsfor steady equations


e. 1,nmittnr flow wit11 nclverse pressure grndiertt ; sepnrntiotl

e. 1,nminar flow wii.lr ndveruc presnure gmtlient; sepnrclt.ion

22 1

Flows with :~tlvcrsopressure gr:itlic~ri.s (rct,arricd Ilo\vs) arc of great practical inrportancc. 111I.l~in conncxiolr it is always tlcsire~lto avoid ncpcr.m/ion frorn t,l~e wall, I)ccanse thin plrcnomeno~r in associatccl wit,h large energy IO~RCS. '1111~ flow a l ) o ~ ant nrrofoil in a case in point,. Owing b ~ t.lrc hcL that on the n~rcl,io~~ the prewrirc rnust, increase L it# free-st re an^ v a l ~ a tcthe txailing side o ~ edge, tlrc flow is always likely 1.0 sc:parxtc. 'l'l~c flow in a divrrgcnt channcl (tlin'~~scr) nfTords ar~ollrcrcxan~plc.'l'l~c objcc:l, in r~singthis sl~n.pc:of cl~n~~nr:llo convcrt. kincl.ic cnrrgy i11t.o is prr:ssurc energy, and if I.lre angle of tlivcrgrnco is ~ n : ~ d c large, sc*pamt,ionm:ry ooc~tr. t,oo l'hcoret,ic~:ll i~~vest.igat.ions tlre I)ol~nvio~~rtllc I)o~~r~tlary in tlrc virini1.y of 0l1c on of Ia.ycr point of nrparntion lravr been carried out, hy S. Goldsbir~ nnrl 13. S. Strni.ford 121 :rl. C / . talm pi] rcvirw I)y S. N. I3rown a ~ v l S b u ~ n r t n o ~ ~ 1C. I I). Ol~scrvat.ions slro~vt l ~ n ta Inl~~innr I)or~nclnry I:~gorwhir11 separates fronr a n.nll frcqr~ent,lg I)reolnes rrnt.t.:~rlrc~cl it, Iraving first h r r o ~ ~ t ~ ~ r l ) r ~ l c l ~ i . .Irads t,o tllo crent,iorl of a I a ~ n i ~ l n r lo ~c. Thin separ:~t,ionb~lbl)le.Fig. 10.13b, a.l~iclrpl:~ccnit.sclf bet,\vrerr t11e sepnratio~r point S I L I I ~1,110 rcaLt,~ ncl~tnent[joint, R. 'l'l~o flr~itl t l ~ e in bul)l)le 1)erfornrs a rircrllntory rotio ion. Accortling t,o 1%. lO.I:%a,tlre prrssllre tlistrib~lt.io~r nlong the wall can be represrrrtctl, in siml)lified fashion, by f i csonstant,vnlne brt,ivcen thr point of separatiotr S ant1 point I' of largest tl~ickncnsfollowed by a litrcl~rinrroasc fro~rrI' t.o the point of reattaclrment Phenomena of this kind have been deneril)cd in tlcl.ail l)g I. 'rani 12:IJ. More rccetrt experirnerrtal investigations into t l ~ e nnturc of I:u~rinnrscpnrat.ion I)III)I)I~~sV ~ I ) ~ C I I pcrfort~~rtl A. 1). Y o ~ ~ n g nl. [2R] as \r.ell an hy hf. II:L by rL Gnstcr 1481 and J. L. Van Ingen [GI. I'or theoret,ical contribr~tionssee [Zb, 3a, 5~1.3.

docs occnr. 12 nu~ncricnlexample will serve to make tlrin idra clonr. Anot.l~er~~osnibility cor~sisln in ontrolling tlrc bon~rtlnry Iayer, e. g. by s~rctionor by injecting fl~ritlinto it,, or by adclit,ion of -11 ac:rofoil a t a poit~twl~creils presence favoural)ly afictn t.lrc I ~ o l ~ r ~ d a r y in critical layer regions. Thrsc ~nct,lrods will l)c discrlsscd rnorc ft~lly Chap. XI\'. in I'olloaing 1,. 1'randt.l [I61 we sllall slrow I~owit is 11ossil)lc1.0 cni.i~nnLct.11~ pcrn~issil~lc rl~ngnil~~tlcl ~ c of t :~dverscprcss~lre grn.<lic~~t ~vl~iclr for scj)arat.ion is jnst. ~)rcvctrI.crl. 'I'llc a r g ~ ~ n ~ r n t will l ~ l):~.sccl I I ~,III: von I ~ & ~ ~ I I ~ ~ I I - I ' ~ I I I I I : L a I~ ~> ~~ ~ r o x i ~ ~ ~ : ~ t i~ ItI~ CXI). ll,\vill I ) ( : : I X M I I I I ~ ~ ~ ~ e O I ~ I clisc~~ssc~cl S : ~ . o l l ~ : i t .t l ~ c : I ) O I I I I < ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : i i y in i~c.lc~l 11[1r)t1 I1. t.11~: ~ I I . ( . s s I I ~ ~ (lislril~~~(,ion y : cIvtc.r~ni~~c~~l 11.(.1..51I . : I I I I I),y t110 ~ poLe~111i:rl flo\v 111) 1.0 :L point, \vl~i(:l~ w r y clclsr in t,lie poi111,of scp:~ration,sue11 as 1)1)i11t~ lirs 0 in Fig. 10.14. St:rr.Ling rvith i.l~is point, it will I)c a s s ~ ~ ~ n c d i.hc prcssllrc gratlic~~t,srtoh that t.ho that is s11:1l)cof I I I C vnloc.it,,y profiln T O I I I : I ~ I I R I I I I C I I R I I ~ ~ .~)roccc~ling ~~ eIow~~sLre:~n~, or trIl:~t,, ol,I~c~r in \r.~rcIs, I l ~ ofilial": f:~r:l~)r rc:~r~ainn A rol)st:~nt.; fiincc aL sc:lr:~ral.ion/I . - 12 a val~rcof A - 10 will be cl~osc.n. As sccn from 'I':tl)le 10.2 Llris lcadn t.o a clcfinite val~lefor t l ~ c second slrnpr factor, narncly I( = - 0.1:169, so L11:lt Il'(K) = 1.Tr23. Using tl~csev a l ~ ~ its is sccrr from rqns. (10.28) r the following relationsliip between tlrc vclocity and (10.29) that prevention of separation i~nplies U(z) of potential flow and the ~nomentumthickness d,(x):
-7

B,' 0.1369 - =z= v

-V ( x )

n.

I t follows that dZ/dz

0,1369 U"/U'2, or

It, \rill now bn shon~n wil,l~ air1 of srvrr:~Icxntnple:~that, a laminar flow can orrly support the very sln:~llaelvrrsc: Itrcssorr g r a d i n ~ ~ t . ~ wiI.lro~~t srl):lr;;t.io~~. Arlversc pressure gradients wlriclr exist in practiral npl)lic~xt.ionswonl(l, tlrorcrorc, nl~nontnln.ays Ic:ul L separation if the flow were o that rt rates of pressure increase laminar. 'l'lrc: circ~~msl.atrcc real flows c:ln s ~ ~ p p oconsitlcr:~l)le in n large nr~tnl)cr rnsrs \vitl~out of scpnr:~t,ionis elllo t.o t l ~ e f:lct that tlrc flow is mostly turbulent. I t \ \ r i l l I)c srrn later t.11a.t.t.l~rl)~llcnL arc r:~pal)le overe~otningn11lc11larger adverse pressure flows of gr:~rlicnts\vil.l)o~~t scl>:rral.ion. 'l'lrc Iwst known rx:~tnl)lcsinclutlc tlie cases of flow past circular e;yIi~~~Ic:rs SI)II~.I-OS, and \\.IIc:II srp:~rat,ionocr:rtrs ~nr~c:lr f~~rt.lrcr r~psLrcamin laminar tiran in turl)~~lent. 111 pri~cti(:t: V I I ~ I Ia ~ l v ~ r ~ c ~ S S gr:~dicnf.s 11o\\r. I s ~ I I ~ C exist, the lIo\v is aln~ost aI\\'ays tnrbulent l)c~cn~~sc, in atlelilion, f l ~ o cxist,c:nre: of an nrlvorsc prrssIIre gmclient favours the transit,ion from la~ninar1.0 t11rI)111e:nt. llo\v. 1t is, t~cvcrtlrclrss, 11sef111 clarify some of t,he frlnda~ilcntal to relations :~sso~~i:~lc~cl tho ~ ) r o v o ~ t t iof ~sc.p;;rntin~~ f l ~ c o.it.11 o ~ or1 cxatnplc of I ~ ~ n ~ i t flow, in particnlar, rnr I)c(.a~~sr I I I ~ I I : I ~ : ~ r c 1 1 1 1 ~ 1 1Inore rcaclily :~t~rc~~:rl)Ic I:I l10\1s 1 1.0 n~ntlrc~nai,icnl treatment than is tho c~tscwit11 I 11rI)111r>nt, lln~vs. 'I'l~e.rr arc. sc.vr.r:ll ~nrt.l~ocls ~)re:vcr~t,ing of scp:~r:ll.ion. T l ~ e si~nplcstof t,lrrnr consists in : r r r : ~ n g i ~for I I I ~;~~lvc.rsc~ ~g ~ 1)rexss11r(: r : ~ ( l i r ~ ~ i . s r n ~ i ~ ihrlow tile limit for wlrirl~ncpnrat,ie>~~ g lo r n

wlrere

Fig. 10.14. Devclopnrent of bo~indary I:~yerin the case when laminar separation is prevented

Fig. 10.15. I'otcntial velocity fi~nction for n laminar boundary layer \vitlr ar~tl witho~ltseparation

On the otlrer hand the succeeding vclocity proflcn are given by tlro ~ n o n ~ r n t u t n rquation (10.36)
for
3.

=. 0, or

U (le --dz

= F ( I < ) = 1.523,

(10.40)

I'j

-5

'j 2 V

R
I

Fig. 10.13. Sc~)ar:~t,ion br~l)l)lein a larninar bor~ntlsrg l:~yornficr I. 'l'nni 123). a) Shape of bubble (nchcnratir): b) l'rcssl~rodistrib~~tion hnbhle along t l ~ e in wall (sr!~rmatic). 'l'hc nrc'sn~lrchetwoen S and V in tlro I)r~l)l)lo

~ v l ~ c r e nr~~neriral the value for F f K ) which corrcsnontls to A - 10 Itas beet1 irrscrlctl. Igrom cqn" (l0.38) ant1 (10.40) i t follo~\~s the value of tlre .sh:b~)c that fart,or rrrnains constant :lt A -: - 10 if O.130!) n = 1.523, or if U U" 0 = = 11.13 z 1 1 , (10.41)
\

U'=

- -

.Llrc l~rcccdingargument slro~ssthat t l ~ ebor~ndaryI:lycr can st~pport,Llre atlvcrsc prrssurc gra.

a > 11 : no separation;

< I l : scpnr:ition .

(10.41: I )

11ienl.q if o > 11, wlrereas n < 11 in~pliesscparalio~~. a rrnrainn r o ~ ~ s t . a t~ n t= 11, n.it,lr If ~ A -- -- 10, t.11~ I)eu~~tlary lnyrr rc~n:lins~ I t.11~ I vrrgc of scl):~r:~t.ion.

222

X. Approximate methods for steady eqnations


lly way of n fr~rthercxam~)le retarded flow we shall ronnider the flow t.I~rorrgha of tlivergcnt cl~:inncl whose walls nro straight. This ca.qe in corollary to the cmc of the hotrndn.ry layer in a divcrgmt cl~nnnoltrentcd in Soc. IX b. The flow is nccn sketched in Fig. 10.16, where x tlcnotrs t11r rndial tlislnticc frorl~ t.11~ norlrrc a1 0. 7'110 wall is nsa~~rnccl I~cginnt, x . n \vl~crc to the entrnncc vcloril,y of the potrntinl strrarn is put cqnnl to U,. The poknt.inl flow in givcn by

Qnalitnt.ivcly i t is a t once possi1)lc to ~ n n k cthe following nt~atcmcntregarding the shape of [,he potential velocity f u ~ ~ c t i oU(x) which Icatls to no ncl)arntion. I n viow of cqn. (10.41) n

U" > 0
is a nrccndnry condition for n rctnrtlrd flow (IJ' < 0) t o xrlhcro t,o the wall. I n other words, t.lle ~nn.gnitudeof the advcrsr pressure grntlicnt, I I I I I ~tlccrrnsr in t,lic, flow direction. Ii'ig. 10.15. ~ , 11nsscpnrntion will nlwiiyu occllr il' ~ , I I c f~~rlt:l,ion J I/(%)i4 c;~~rvctI tlo\vnw:irtIn 1)chi11rl I I I R X ~ I I I I I I ~ its (11" < 0). In the opposit.~ rase, whim tho vc1ocit.y fr~nct.ior~ ~ r v r s ci i~pwnrds (U" > O), srj)aration tnny he ol>viatetl. 15vcn t.he li~nilir~g of IJ" = 0,i. e. Ll~crase of a velocity which tlccreanea c,we lir~carlywith the length of arc, always Icatls to scparatiol~.Tliin latter remark agrees with the rmitlt fonnd in Src. I X d ; i t was conccrnrd with the bootwlary lnyer aaaoriatcd with a potentinl flow vc1ocit.y which dccrcnwd linearly, ant1 t.he solution of thc tlil~rret~tial cquntiona wm q u o k d from a pnpcr by I,. IIowart,h. The su//icient condition for the absence of aepnration iu givcn by
%

Cornpt~tingthc vnlr~cof the qnantity a from cqn. (10.41), which is decisive for separation, we obtnin here o = 2. Applying the criterion giver, in eqn. (10.4111) we cor~cludetl~nt, scpnration occllrs in 1111 cnscn irrrnpcctivc of t.hc m e g n i t ~ ~ d e t.ho nnglo of divrrgence. This oxnmplc RIIOWR of very clrnrly t.lr:d c lwninnr nt.rm~nhas only n vcry li~nitctlcn])ncitg for n ~ ~ p p ~ r t n11g i n ntfvrrsn prcrrsnrc gr;itlirnt wit110116ncy~nrntion. Acror(lirrg t,o a c:alcrrlation pcrforrnctl hy K. Pol~lhnnscn[In] tho poir~t ~cpnrnt.ion of occrlrs n t xr/rl = 1.21 nntl is sccn to be indcpcntlcnt of tho anglc of divergence.

Wo RIIRII XIOW procrccl to cnlc111:itctho potential flow and the varint.ion of ho~~ntlary-lnycr tllickncus wllicl~ wnorinktl wiLh t,I~r are li~nit.ing cane of o I I, rvhm tho bonntlnry lnycr ro~r~ninu on t,lie verge of sep~raLiot~. I"rnnr cqn. (10.41) we Ilavo
... .

U' U" - I 1 x u, --

or, npon intrgrat,ing: In U' - 1 I In 1 -I- In ( - C,'), i. r . IJ'/CJ1I . 1 tlio constant of integral.ion. ltcpcntccl intagrnt.ion ~ i v c s
1 - U-lo
= C,' z

- C,', whero 6,' denotes

Fig. 10.16. J,nniinnr honnclnry layer in n tlivrrgent chn11nc.1. SrpnrnLion occnrs a t r,/n = 1.21 intlcpendcnt,ly of t.he nrlglc of tlivcrgence
-x
p-

:
I

+ C, .
lu,yrr

rc----,ys

) :

For z 0 wo ul~ot~ld hnve lJ(r) . IJ,. no that C, = $6Nn-'O. P ~ ~ t t i n g furthcr C,' UOl0= C,, we obtain frotn cqn. (10.41)
w.

Eqnat,ion (10.43) reprcsrn1.q the pot.cnlial vslocit,y for wl1ic11 cloparation can jnst be nvoidwl. 1 ' 1 1 ~ const,:~ntC, can IIC tlctnr~~~inccl the vnlnc of the bor~ntlnry-layer fro~n I.hickness do a t t.11~ origin z = 0. We hnvc A U' ( j z / v = - 10 or d 1/10 Frorn eqn. (10.43) we ohtain

The prcrrding concl~~sions npply only n long as t,he displaccn~rnt q . clTect of tllr Iioi~ndary I I I I I ~ be ~~rglcrlccl. Ilo\vevcr, this is trot the cnsc u l l c ~ l t.hc angle of divcrgcnco in stnnll. When thin nnglc is small, t.he boundary laycrs fill l h c whole c h a ~ ~ ncross-scclion aflcr a certain cl inlet length ( r / .Scc. XI i) and the flow gorn over nsytnptoticelly to that discussed in Scc. V 12 undrr the lieatling of channel flow. When the included angle does not excced u certain valnc which drprnds o ~ the Reynolds number, thet.e is no separation. ? Ilcccntlg, S. N. l3rown nnd I(. Stewnrtnon [I] 1)111,linhrtl nllninlnry rrvir\rf on ncl~nrntior~ n in \r-l~irhthe rnnthen~aticalqucst.ion cenbrcd on thr ning~~larity \vhich occllrn in 1.h~. tlifl't:r.rlll.i:rl eqr~*t.ionn t tho critical point llas been ernpl~nnized.Sccilso tho work of S. (:oltlst.ei~~ 11 Inore a 141. physicnlly inspircd revie\$. of thin problcln nrm II;M r c c c ~ ~ l lbeen pr~h)inhrdby J . C. \villi:llll. y 111 (291, n.nd by P. IC. Cl~ang [2c].

;q/(--D7).

and hrnrc 111 Rrorrn, S.N., nnd Stcwartrron, JC.: L n ~ n i ~ l srparnl.io~~. ar I\IIIIII:II I<rvirrr of Id'l~~itl illrt.11. 1 , 45-72 (1969). 121 I3rrss111at111, ant1 Ulrich, 12.: Syste~l~ntisrhe I I ~ C ~ ~ I I C iihrr I~ lIr~15inll11sn I<., IJ I I ~ I n~ I I c11.r I'rofilfornl nnf tlio 1,ngo tlos U I I I ~ C I I I I I ~ ~ I l1rv~)ritll.: R . ( I t . l , ~ ~ l l f t ~ l ~ r t f o r ~ l (1!).1:l ~in: : : I I I I ~ ~ ~,111. .I~~ ~~ 'rrv1111,lkvicl~tt!10, No. !) (l!bl3): K,I(:,\ Till 1185 (l!147). I. ~ I -I I C ~ I ~ \'.I Y.: I,r~ilsi~i~~nltii'n I , 111c1l1o(l I ~ o ~ ~ n d n r y \\.it11 st~rtion1111tl i ~ l j ~ . v l i o ~ ~ . for It~yt'rs ;\I.\,\ J. 7, 5fi2--5B:I ( IcJIiO . [21,] Ijrilry, W. 11. a r ~ dI\.Icl>onnltl, L). t I . : h'u~nerirnlprc-rlict.ion of i ~ ~ r . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l n . ~ B I I~ .iIlI) l t(-~ I I S(r t ~ ~ I !~ buhhles. J F M 69, 631-056 (1975). [2cl Cliang. P. J<.: Separat,ion of flow. Pergamon Prens, New York, 1070. [3] (:liir~crt, hf.J3., and Ligl~t,hill,M..J.: l'lle nxiny~nn~ctric hounrlary Inyt-r ~ I :I I O I I ~ thin I cylit~dcr.I'roc. I!oy. Soc. A 230, 188-203 (1!)55). [3n] Crinli, P., and Rcevcs, I%. I,.: Analysis of lending edge ncparnlion buhhlcs on nirfnils. Air\.\ -1. 14, 1548 --I555 (1976). [ 4 j Golclntein, S . : 0 1 1 In~ninnr honntlnry Inyrr Ilo~rnrnr n point of s r l x ~ r n t i ~()il;~rl. hlr~rll. ) ~ ~ . .l. ..\ppI. Mnt11. 1 , 4% -I!!) (19i18).
2

From 6 - ,!r n t x = 0 we hxvr C , - 10 rl/lJ, doZ,wl~icli gives the final solution for thr potcntinl flow nnrl thr vnrinl,ion of bo~~ntlnry-lnyrr thirkt~rsu

It, in arc11 that, t.11~ , n g ~ ~ i l . ~ ~ t l r ])rrmissil)lc dcrrlor:rt.ion (tlcrrmsc in vclorit,~) very small, n of l.l~r is Irring ~)roporlion:ilto . (1 1. I t s vnll~cis vcry nearly rcnlizctl for t,hc cnsc of constant vc1ocit.y I : n l o n ~ II:iI, 1)I:ilr at. zrro i ~ ~ r i t l r ~ ~ t.hc prcscnt. cnnr t,llc incrrnsc in hound:~r.y-lnyrr tho Jn r r . tl~icltncsn, 0, is ~~roporlionnl 3:I'.5" :his vnll~calso t1ilh.m h n t lit,t,lc frorn t.he rase of n fln.1. plate nt zrro to ~ I I I ~ ~ I ~ I . I I ( , ~ -\ v I I ~ I , I I 0 l'c~r 2+5.

224
.
.

S . appro xi mat,^ I I I ~ I . I I O ~ R alcady equation4 for

I'roc. 4 , 8l!) 854 ( I !IlKi). 1.51 Ilc>lslvir~, a11r1l1ol11011, 1 4 : i t l e i ~ ~ f : ~ r l ~ r s [I., 'I'.: \'erfaI~rt!r~I I V l%rrcci1111111g Z 1:1111ir1:~rrr I<t-il~~~ugssvl~irl~le~r, (ICIII K i i l ~ ~ - r ~ ~ ~ ~ g s v ~tO Ir fI<. l ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ gev~iigsr~, i l i ~ ~ ~ ~ l l ~ : ~ l . l ~ t ~ r i r l ~ t (lit! I ! I : ~ I'~IIIII:IIIS~II l, S. 10, 5 -- I0 (l!)40). [5n] Jlortnn. 11. I?.: 11 serlli-erllpiricnl tl~cory the ~ r o \ \ t l r lor and I~r~rstir~g of Iarllinnr s s p ~ r a t i o ~ l t)~rl)I)lrs. ,\rro. J<cs. (~o~rncil,~ ~ r r e r ~ t , No. 107 (l!)(;7). C 1':~pcr
( I !)is):

or^ I ( h r n ~ h ~ ~ , iil)rr I:r~~ri~r;lrr I ~I I I ~ I I I I I C I I I Ilri01111g. 'I'll.: I I I ~~ Z.\hlRl I . 2:j:t 252 (l!l2l); N1\(:,1 10!U (I!ll(i); src! also (!oil. \\'arks 11, 70- 07 (l!)5(;). 181 ~ < ~ I s c \ I ~ I I , :III<I N.,I., I,oilsi:~~~skii. I,.(:.: )o\~rr eirrc i ~ t ~ g r ~ ~ l i lhl~.l,l~o(It! I I ( ~ ~ C C I I I I I I I ~ ~ rrrlr (1r.r drr L i l r r ~ i ~ ~ : ~ r g r c ~ ~ z s r l ~ i v ,\lincl. Nnuli, SSSl<36, Ko. !) (1!)42):srr nlso: ;\I)ap],roxi1)olil. l ~ l , . 111:~tc rnrl.l~t)il rali~~rli~lit~glnrl~illnrI ~ o r ~ ~ ~ r l : ~ r yC o r ~ ~ ~ iHrlullls (I)oltlatly) do of IIIC I:tyer. lrn I'AvntlCrl~ic!c1r.s Svirr~c*cw I'UIISS 46, 2(i'L-~-2(ili rlr (I!)il'L). l!)J l,r~iLsi:~~~sltii, I , n ~ t r i ~ ~ a r ~ ~ y i I,.(;.: pogr;u~i(;Itr~yi I:in1118tgin Blosco~\~. ~ ~ I tIr : ~ ~ ~l),y . filoi. ( I . sl 11. l,ir~rI)cr~: l,a~r~ill:~rr (;rc~~~,sclricI~l,i:~~. ,\lca~lt~~~~ic:-L'erl;~g, I!Ni7. l<crli11. 1101 Imit-qi:insltii, I,. G.: Mckltatlika zllitlkosLci i gazov. Narrltn, Moscow, 1073. I,. ura ix pril>li~,I~r.~~ia I a r ~ ~ i r ~ t ~ r 1, trorii [I I I,oiLsi:~~~sltii,(;.: U~~i\,ersal'r~ye v ~ ~ c ri~l)ar:t~~~~!trirl~rsl~ie nyltlr p o g r ; ~ ~ ~ i c lsloe\,. I'rikl. hlnt.. i hlrlth. X X I X . No. I (1!)65). See also: 'I'll? ~~r~ivrrs:bl ~r~~ltl~ e q ~ ~ : ~ t inutl~pnr;lrllrt,ric:n~~ylroxir~~:~t~ir)r~s nt s i l l l l ~ tllc.org nf I R I I I ~ I I : ~ ~ r l)o1111d:1ry I:I~(*I.s. 1111111. J. Blath. Mcrll. (I'hlhl) 2 1 , 70 8 7 (I!fC,5). [I21 l,oilsia~~sltii, (:.: S t ~ la 1116t,I1oilr 1.. r l)ara1116l,riq11e I:\ tl~<,orir l:i VOIICIIO Iir~rilc (I(! (I(! I:irr~i~~:iire. I'roc:. I l t,ll I I I ~ ~ IC O I I . ~ A1)1)1. hlrr11.. hllll~irlr I!)li(i (11. (:iirllrr, rd.). Ql)rilrgt'r \'srI:lp. >~ ~ PSS I1rrli11,I!)l;(i, 7'22 728. I 1 I z s y 1 , I . : I I ~ I ~ O of II 1 0 1 1 l 1 r y I r : I I : ~ I rI . I S t . I 2J7, 5 55!) ( I !15(;). [I41 Onrrova, 1: I?.. ar~clSill~llt~i, 4 . J,.hI.: A11~roxi111:itr I.\vo-~):~rar~~clw O I I o f t11(%rqll:lt.i~ll ROIIIL~ for stc:~clv-sLa.t.s I:ilnirlar I,orrn(lnrv I:~yorn(.i r r Il~rssiar~). 'l'rudy I,cllillgr. I'olyt. Irlsl,. No. J1:I " .. (l!)70). [I51 I'ohll~:~usrr~, Zrlr 11al1rr1111gs11-~iric.n I<.: I~~tcgl;it.io~~ tlrr I)ifli.rrnl.ialgicic.l~r~ng Inrl~irlnrrn tlrr I l r i l ~ ~ r ~ ~ g s s r lZAMRI t I. , 252.- 2(i8 (1!)21). ~icl~ [ I G I l'l;~,r~~IlJ. '1'11~ J I I ~ C ~ I ; I I Iof ~ visrolrs fltricls. 111 \V. I?. l ~ u r : ~(~ ~ i .I)ArrocI,v~~a~i~ir I,.: ~ S ~1 : 'I'l~rory If I, 34- 208 (l!l:J5). [17 1 !rel.sc:l~, $1.: I)ir In.t~~i~\:rre I<eibrrngssc.l~iclrt. sllipt.ischen Zylir~drrn nn unrl I~ot,ntio~lsrllipsoltlnn I~oi~ y r ~ ~ t ~ ~ c t . r i ~ ~ ~ l ~ c r Ar~slriirr~rr~~g. I,~~ftfal~rt~forscl~lr~~g 18, :j!)7-402 (1!)41). (181 J t o s r ~ ~ l ~ rL. t l , ; ~ (rtl.): 1,:ilninar borcl1tlnry I;~ycrs. Clarcrltlor~l'ress, Oxford, I!)G3. 1 l!l] Srl~lirl~Li~~g, I I ~IJIricll. A,: Z~rrr3r.rrrl1111111g tJ~~~sc;l~lages~ i r ~ : ~ r - t ~ r rvJ1).~ r l o ~ ~ t . ti., : L clcs lar~ I ~ (it. I,r1fl.f:~Irrl.fol.scl11111g R5 (1042); star also: I,ilir~~tl~nlI, R Ijer-irllt.S 10. 75-- 135 (1!)40). 120.1 Sclrii~l:l~lrr, : I c i t l I)ilTt~n~nzr.r~vc;rfaI~ret~ \V. zur J,ijs1111g ( : r c r ~ ~ ~ ( : l ~ i v l ~ t ~ g I~ iis1:lt.io-~ ~ ~ g ilrr f r r I~~ c 11iirr. I : I . I I I ~ I i ~~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ ,s~ i l ~ l l11g.-11rcl1. l7:!--lR!l (l!l(;4). I: ~lc , S c s ~ I r I I I I I ~ .33, I 121J S ( ~ l ~ ~ ~ l )(:. ~ r r r . n 11.: Airllow in ;L srpn.rat,il~g lfirl~itlar I)ol~ntlnr,v layer. NACA l<cl>. 527 (l!)35). [21:11 SLr:~llhrcl. S.:Ir'io\r, i l l t,llo Inll~illar I<. boulr(Jnrylnycr r1c:l.r srpnra(.ior~. Al<(:, IbRI :1002. 1 -27 ( l!)57). 1221 'J'nni, I.: 0 1 1 t.11~ so111t.io11 t . 1 1 ~ 16 Inminnr \,on~~darg layer ccll~ations. I7ift.y yrxrs of 1)ollndnl-y luyrr rrsmr~:l~ (:iirl.lcr, ctl.), I1rn1111nolra.cig, (11. 1!)55, I!):{--200. I2:II 'I':r.tli, I . : I , o ~ Y RI)CC(I IIOIVR i l ~ v ~ l v i I)lrl)l)lesrl):irat,ion. l'rogress ~ I IArronnr~t.ic~:~l t~g Sciorlcm 5 , 70 I0:i (l!l(;4). 124j ' I ' r ~ ~ r l ~ r ~ r I >I<.: Nt ~ ,I I ~ ~ I I I I ~clrrI S t~ iS r ~I ~ ~ r ~ ~ s r I utlii ~ I ~ a ~ ) li ~<~ ~ i l t a l i s ~ ~ ~ c ro~l S ~ r i I ~ t I ~ g I ~ ~ r ~ illre ~ ~ l I > ~ I I ~ IhI'Ii I ~ .r l r r ~ ~ t l ~ AIrr~~ori:~l ~~ l'rar~(ltl 1,crtlrre. ZF\V 24, 177-- 188 (l!IiG). (251 \\'n.lz, 14.: 1Sir1 tlecrrr Annalz fiir rlns ( ~ c ~ s ~ ~ l l ~ r . i n , l i g l t ~ ~ ~ t t s Inl~~il~arrn i l ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s s c l ~ i c l l l . . tlrr P r o l i l I<r ~ . ~ I ~ P I I I ~ I ~ I - 141,C 8--1'2 ~ ~ I ~ , I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (1!)4l). I 12(i1 1Valso11,1C.,1.. nlltl IFrcston, .l.Fl.: 1\11nlrl)roxi~r~ate sohlliol~of lsnw Hal, pln1.c I)o~lrltl&ry Inyrr ~ I ~ O O I ~ I I I RI.t M 2537 (1!351). AIM: 1271 il'icgl~~~rdt,, i)llor ri11(,11 I<.: I<r~crpirsaI,z I I ~13sr,:(:l11)1111g Z In,~~~irlarsrr c ~ ~ z s r l ~ i11lg.-~ l ~ c ~ ~ . (~ ~*l

171

Axially symlnetrical and three-dimensional bounclary layers


I n trhediscussion of boundary layers in t,he preceding chapter we h a v e consitlrretl cxclr~sivclyt,wo-tlitnensiot~alcases for wllicl~t h e vclocity componcttbs tlcpnr~tlotl011 only t w o spacc coordinates. A t t l ~ s a m e tirne t,he vclocit:y c o t n p o n c t ~ ill t.lto tlirrc(.iot~ c t of t h o tllirtl s p e c coortlinnt,~ (lid n o t exist. 'l'llc gcllcrnl t.ltrcc-tlitr~crlsio~~:~~Iof V:LSC a borrndary layer in w h i c l ~t h e t,hrce vc1ocit.y components dcpentl o n all three coordinates hns, s o f a r , been ltartlly elaborated bccansc of t h e cnortnous ~nall~crnxt.ical diftic~llt~irs nssociatotl wit.11 tile problem. W c sltall tlcscribc t , l ~ c first at2t,c:tnpt,si l l this tlirecl.ion nt t h e cntl of Lhc prcsc:t~tcllaptcr.
O n t l ~ c t l ~ r r11nntl t . l ~ etnat.I~ctnnticnltlifficttlt~icseticour11.crctl i t 1 1.l1c s1,11tlyof' o axi:tlly s y ~ r ~ t n r l ~ r iI)ortrrtlnr.y 1:r.ycrn nrc ror~witl(:~.rrl)ly ri~l fr\vc~r ntrtl 1111r(lIy r x ( . ( ~ c I t.hosc in t l ~ o two-tlirnorrsionnl cnsr. Axially sylnmct.ricnl b o ~ t n t l a r y i ~ y c r soc:cllr, c. g., l in flo~vsp a s t axially symmct.ricnl botlics; t l ~ c axially ~ y m m c t ~ r i c n l also belongs jet under this heatling. T w o cxatnples, t h a t of tllc rotat,ing tlislc nntl axially symmct,rical flow with st,agnat.ion, h a v e nlrcady I)cct~ discusset1 in t,hc r l t : ~ p t e ro n e x a c t solot,ions of t.11~ Navier-St.oltes equations.
W e sltall begin tltc prcscrlt c l ~ a p t c r wit11 n discussion of s o m e furbhcr cxntnl)lcs of st,ratly axi:tlly symrnct.rica1 flows w l ~ i c c a n b e solvcd with the aitl of t h c d i f i r c n t i n l l~ equations, ant1 will continue wit,l~ 1.11~ ~ t ~ c t ~ sofotile a.l)proxilnatsc c i r~ procctlnrc. \ v I ~ i c l ~ w a s exp1:~inctl i r ~t h e prccetling c l ~ a . p t c r o inclutlc t l ~ caxially sgrnmct.riral c:lse. t Furtllor, wc shall rlisc~lss t.11~ princip:i.l fcxt#uresof t,lrrcc-tli tnrt~sionnl bonntlnry layers. Norl-st,carly n.xi:ally symn~ct.ricalbotl~ttlary layers will bc consitlcrctl it1 (Il1:111. Xi' t,ogct-ltcr nit.11 nott-stcatly two-ditncnsional cxnmples.

n. I ~ X L I ~ o l ~ ~ t i ofors nxinlly ~ y ~ ~ ~ r l i r t rIirro ~ l ~ t d i ~ r y C~ ii nl Inyrrw

1. Rotntion rlrnr the gror~nd. In C l ~ n p V we 1t;~vcconsiclcrotl 1,11(: (~;ISO of Ilonr . in t h e ncigl11)ourllootl of a clislc w l ~ i c h rotntcs in a fluitl n t rest. T h e rase o f motion near a stsal.ionnryw:rll, \vl~cn 1.11~ lluitl a t n largo tlist,ancc al)ovc it, rotates : k t :L constant angular vrlocit.y, is closcly conncct,ctl with i t , Fig. 11 . l . 'l'his c x n n ~ l ) l o \v:~s st.udic?tl by U. T. Rocdewatlt [ O ] . One of 1.11~ essential cffect,s in tJte example of t,lre clislr which r o t a t r s in a fluitl a t rest consists it1 tltc fact tltnt in tllc 1,l1i11 lnycr trcar t,hc wall tllc fluid is thrown o r ~ t n ~ a r d s owing t o tllc cxist,cncc of ccnt,rifug:~l forcrs. 'l'flc flnicl w h i c l ~ is forcctl ortt~vnrclsit1 a. rntlinl tlircct.iori is rcplacctl b y a tl~riclst.rcnrn in t l ~ c :~xinl ciirect,ion. 111 t.hc case ~ ~ n t l cottsidcrat~ion,in wllicl~t,hc fl~ritlrot,at,cs ovcr t h e waU, er tfl~cro n sitrtilnr clTcct 1ntt its sign is rcvrrsrtl : 111(: 11nr1,irlrs\ol~it:lrro1,c~l.o rt, Iitrgc is nl,

220

XI. Axinlly symniobricnl nnd thren-di~~~el~sionnl bor~ndnry lnyers

a. Exact solr~tioll~ axinlly syrnmntrical borlndnry lnyers for

227

dist>ance from t h e wall are in eqllilibrium under the influence of the centrifugal force which is balanced by a radial pressure gradient. The peripheral vclocity of the particles near t h e wall is reduced, thus decreasing materially the centrifugal force, whereas the radial pressure grntlicrit directed towards the axis remains the samc. This set of circr~mstanccscauses the pnrkiclcs ncar the wall to flow radially inwards, and for rcasons of cont,inr~it,ythat motion must he oo~npcrlsnt,cd11y an axial flow upwards, a show~i Fig. 11. I . A srlpcrimposctl firld of flow of this nature s in which occurs in the boundary layer and whose direction deviates from that in the external flow is quite generally referred to as a secondary flow. It was first discovered by E. Grusc11wit.z 1451 whrn he nnnlyzcd the flow in a curvet1 cllnnnel, scc also E. Becker [R].

rotating tlisk, bccause the terms whicll are neglected in thc bo~~ndary-laycr cquntions vanish here on their own accord. 13y eqn. (3.86) we can write down the Navier-Stokcs equations as

arc The boundary cor~ditions

I t is convcnicnt to illtrotlacc thc dimensionless coordinate

Fig. 11.1. Itotnt.ion of llow near

the ground
Velocity component^: u radial; a - tan~ential: 10 - axial. Owlng

in place of z, as in tile case of the rotating disk (Sec. V 11). Wc assume t,liat the vclocity components havc t,he form

to

t h e tangential velocity sulTera deceloratlon in tho ncfghbourhood of the dlak at rest. Thls glves rise to a aceondary Pow which la directed radlslly Inwards

rrlctlon.

Thc ratlial prcsstlre grnrlicnt can bc con~pntctlfor t.lia frictiorllcss llow a l a large distancc from t.hc wall from tho c~rldit~iorl:/ @ ) . (aplar) = V 2 / r ,or, wit11 V = r CO, (I

The secondary flow which accompanies rotation near a solid wall and which hna bcen described it1 the preceding paragraph can bo clearly observed in a teacup: after the rotation has bcen generated by vigorous stirring and again after the flow has been left t o itself for a short while, the radial inward flow field near the bottom will he formed. Its existence can be inferred from the fact that tea leaves settle in a little heap near the centre a t the bottom. I n order t o formulat,e the mathematical problem, we shall assume cylindrical polar coordinates r, z, the stationary wall being a t z = 0, see Fig. 11.1. The fluid a t a large distance from the wall will be assumed t o rotate like a rigid body, with a constent angillar vclocity w . We shall denote the velocity componenh in the radial direction by u, that in the tangential direction b y v , the axial component being derloted by W . For reasons of axial symmetry the derivatives with respect to 4 may be dropped from tltc Navicr-Stokcs cquntions. The sol~ltiori which we are about to find will be an exact solution of thc Navier-Stokes equations, just as wae t h a t for the

I n the framework of the boundary-layer theory i t is a s s u ~ ~ i c h a t the same pressure td gradient acta in the visaoua layor ncar the wall. lntroclucing cqns. (1 1.4) and ( 1 1.5) into eqns. ( l l . l a , b, d), we obtain a system of ordinary dilrcrcntial equatio~is which is analogous t o that in Sec. V 11 :

+,

with the boundary conditions

>

228

XI. Axially symtnrlrir:~lnn(l tl~rrc.dimrn~ionaI botlntlary lnyer~


it1

a. Exact solntions for axially symmetrical houndary layorn


SIIC~I

Tltc pressure grndjrrtL

t.he z-rlircct,ior~rnny l)c nssr~mcd eqnnl t,o zero, ns

an ass~~mpt,ion comp:it.iblc with I)otlt~tl:~ry-lsycr is t,llcory. AItrrt~xt.ivcl~r, mtl i)e it,

cnlcr~lat.ctlfrorn rqn. ( 1 1 . 1 r ) , nft.t:r t,l~c prirlrip:~lsolution llatl Ijocn oht.:~itlctl,whicll t,l~rn rrs111l.si l l nrl rsnc:t solt11,ion of 1.11(- Nnvier-Sl.oltrs cq~~nt,ions. 'I'llr sgsl,cbn~ rrl~lnliol~s 1.6) \ritll l , l l r I)orttldnry contlit.iorls ( 1 1.7) was first, of (I solvc~l 11. 'r. T30c3tlc\rr:~dt. i r :I~ vcvy I:~l)ot.iorls I)y [!)I \r:t.v I)y IIIC:IIIS o f :1 I)OIVPI. scries cs~):unsirlnat[ = O : ~ t l t l:ITI :~syn~l)totic cxl):~ttsior~ [ m. IEecently this sol~ltion for was ~~rt.t:(.tc(I .1. E.Ny(I:il11[Sin] i l l nrl r~nl)rlhlishctl 11~1 I):l.l)cr.T l ~ V:LIIICR of t,l~(: fur~(:t,iotl~ r F,f:, 11 :~(-(*or(lit~g tx) Ny(l:~,Itl g i v ( v ~ 'J7:t,t~I(,I . I : L I I ~ Ii t 1 Icig. 1 1 .2. TIIP11orizo11t~:~l :Lr(\ in I vcloc-ily. i.c. I.l~r I.(~RIII~,:I.TII,:i1i(1 I ) , i~ :LIRO R I I ~ \ V I I plo(,tcd i l l n 1)olar tlingram in of IL Fig. 1 1.3. 'l'llc :l.nglo I)rt,wccn l,lrc I~orizot~l~nl vclority componrr~t ant1 (.he pt:ripl~crnl dircrtion tlrprntls only on t,l~nI~cigl~t,, arltl t,l~ovrclors irl Fig. 11.3 ititlicxntc t,llis tlircctiotl for varying Iltigl11.s.'l'hc tlcvi:~t.iorrI'rorn 1.11(! 1)cripltcrnl tlircction 1)rcst*rihctl a t n Inrgc? 11c:ight. is Inrgcst. nrnr 1 . h ~ grotrrrd alltl has n vnlue of 50.G0 inwnrtls. 'l'ho Iargcsl. tlrvixtiolr of 7.4O ot~twartfsoccurs for ( = 4-63 so t,llat, the largrst angular
I =

l'nhlc 11 1. 'l'l~r funct.ions for thr velocity tlistri1)ution for t l ~ rcase of rotation nvpr a slntiot~nry \v:111, nftcr J . E. Nytlahl [81a]

Fig. 11.3. IXotation near a uolid mall, after Boedewadt. Vector representation o the horizontal velocity component C

Fig. 11.2. Rotatior1 near a solid walh aftrr Soedewadt [Dl. Velocity rlistribntion in thc bounctnry layer from eqn. (I 1.4); RCO a180 Table 1 I . I

difference, i. e. t h a t between t h e ground and t h a t a t ( --= 4.63, is 58". It is ft~rtllcr remarkable t , i ~ a tllc axial velocity component w does not depend on the dist,nnce r t from t.llo axis bltt only on t l ~ c distance from t l ~ c grountl. Tllc motion a t all l>oir~t,s is llpwartls wi1.h la > 0. As alrcatly mcnt,iorlctl, this is catlsctl by the ii~wnrtl Ilow rlcar the grot~ntl, consequent upon tho tlecrcase in the rcntrifrigal forces. 111 a n y anse, as seen from Pig. 1 1.2, t l ~ i s compcnsatctl by n mdial flow o ~ l t w a r (at, n groat,or I~eight~, is I~ 1)1it or1 t,lic wl~olo,i.llc rntliiil flow ir~wr~rtls 1)rt:tlo1ilir1t~t,cs. 1.ot.11IV O I I I I I I ( ~ IIo\vi~~g 'I'IIc towartls (.he a.xis t,aker~ over a cylinder of radius R around the z-axis is

Tnscrtit~g thc nlrmcrical valt~c I I ( m ) from Table 11.1 we obtain of

Q = - 1.387 ~

r ,

R 2i n ) .
11

(11.8)

Tile volume of flow in t,he positive z-tlirection is of ~ - . mngnitudc. 'J'Jlc 1:lrgcst equal I I ~ ) w : I niot,ion oc(:tlrs a t [ == 3.1, wllrrr I I I = 1.80 $0) 1) . 1t. is nlso wort,l~ ~(~ not,itlg tl~nt,

230

XI. Axinlly symmctricnl and three-dinicnsionnl bonndnry layers

a. Exact solutions Tor axially syn~mctricnlboundary lnyers

23 1

t h e boandary layrr cxt,ends considorably higher than in the example with the disk rotatsing in a fluid a t rest (Scc. Vb). I f thc boi~&r?/-hyer thickness 8 is defined as the height for wliich t h r drviat,ion of t h c pcripltrral vclocity is c q ~ ~ta l 2 prr ccnt , wc o for t h e stationary Ruitl. shall obtain 8 = 8 v / w a s against 8 = 4

1/

d q

The pressure can here be regarded const,ant, a s in t h c two-dimensional casc. The system of coordinates will bc selected with itts x-axis in t,l~c axis of the jet,, the radial distancc bcing dcnotcd by y. The axial and radial velocity components will be dcnotcd by u ant1 v , rcspcctivcly. Owing t o thc assumption of a constant prcssurc the flux of momctltrlm in lhc direction of x is constar~t orlcc Inorc:

The cxa~njtlcof t,11cmot.ion of a vor1.c~ sourno ~1c1.wccr1 pzrallcl walls cont,wo siclnretl by U. Vogclpol~l[I201 is rcl:it,ctl 10 somo cxtcnt t o thc prcscnt casc. For very small ltcynolds numbers thc vclocit.y distribution deviates little from t l ~ c parabolic cllrve of Poisc~~illc flow. For large Rcyrloltls n~lmhcmthc velocity profile approacl~cs rcctarlgular tIistril)ntion, a n d a borlntlary laycr is sccn t o bc forming. a flow was tliscussed by C. I'fleidercr [85].I n this T h e corresponding case of t~lrl)ulcnt papcr hy R. Bccker [F1 may also be consulted. conncxion t,I~c Similnr phnno~ncnncnn bc found in swirling flow through n conical fnnncl-like channel investigated by I<. Garbsnh [:12]. The potential flow ia gencrntcd by a sink of strength Q placed a t the vertcx of t,lio cone and a potential vortcx of st,ffingtliI' plncnd along tho axis, Pig. 11.4. The solution to t h o bonndnry-lnycr cqrrnt,ior~s obtninetl by an itcrntivc procedure whicl~is is with r said to lead to n good npproxirr~ntior~ n srnall n ~ ~ t n bofr step8 only. Two pnrticulnr cnsra of such flowa have also hccn iuvcstigntctl with the nid of npyroximntc met.l~ods, and they will be ~nentioncdin Chap. X: A. M. Ilinnic ant1 L). Y. IJnrris [7] studicd pure sink flow (I' = 0). and G. I. Taylor rll I] nnd J. C. Cookc [ I 71 at.~~tlicd pnrc vortex llow (Q = 0). 111 tho lnttnr case, M shown in Pig. 11.4, the flow forms a hor~ndnrylaycr on the wall of the conical clmnnel. The flow ficld in thc boundary Inycr develops n velocity component w in the clircction of the cone generators,\r~I~cmas frictionless corc, bcing a prlre swirl, possesses only tangential velocity tho compononh u. The oerondnry flow in tl bor~ndnrylayer tranuporla some fluid towards the !e vertcx. The render mny further wish to a t ~ d y related palm by H. E. Wcbcr [121]. a
2. The circr~lnr jet. \Yo shall now inclicatc 11. Sclilinl~ting's[97] solnt,ion for tlrc laminar circnlar jct which is analogons t o the onc for a two-dimensional jet given i n Scc. I X g . 'Yhc subjnct of the i~lvcst~igal,ior~ is, thus, a jct which lcavcs a small circular opening and tnixrs wit,Ir t3hesurrountling flrtitl. I n most pract,ical cascs the circular jet i s also t.ur11nlent. 'l'l~ct,nrt)rllont circular j(:t will 1)e considcrcd in Chap. X X I V , b11t since i t lratls t o a tlilTcrcnt.ial oq~tationwlrich is i d ~ n t ~ i cwit.11 t,hat for tho laminar al case we shall ~ ~ S C I I St.11~ S Iat,t,cr in some grcat,cr (letmail.

I n thc adoptctl s y s k m of coortlinatcs thc cqrlation of moliorl in thc tlirrcfion of x, undcr the us11a1bor~ntlnry-layer simplifications, togetl~cr wiCh thc cquatiorr of motion, can bc written a s

ant1 lllc bonndary contlitions aro

As before, the velocity profilcs u(x, 9) can be assumed sirrrilar. Thc witit11 of the jet will he taken t o be proportional t o P,i t being furthcr assumctl t h a t

In ortler to determine thc exponents p ant1 n wc can use the samc two contlitions as in the two-tlimcnsional case. First the momcntum from eqn. (11.9) must hc irldepcndcnt of z, and secondly, the inertria and frictional terms in cqn. (1 1 . I o n ) must bc of the s:mc ortlrr of magnitr~tlc.IICIICC

Thus t,he followir~gtwo equations for p and

la

rcsult:
--

2p-4n

1-2n=O;

2p-411,

1==p--4n,

so tI1a.t p = 11. = 1. Conscqr~cntly,we rnay now put Fig. 11.4. Swirling flow in a convergent conical rhnrtnel, afb r G . I. Taylor [ I l l ]
1

y ~ = v z F ( q ) and

TI=

Y *,

from which it follows Lhat the vclocity componcnb are

C T

II = boandrrry lnyer on llie wall of L11o conical r l l n n n r l wit11 secondary flow lowardr llle vrrles

232

XI. Axially synimet.rica1and tllrcc-dimensional boundary laycrs

n.

Exact .solntionn for nxinlly ~ylntnrt,rical botnldary layers

233

Jnscrting t,hcsc values irlt,o cqn. (11.10a), we obtn.in the following equation for t h e strcam function FF' F.' FF" (F,, tlz tl tl dtl

3-

):

Figure 11.5 rcprescnts a strcamlinc pattern calculated from t l ~ prcccclit~g c cclrlations. The longitntlir~alvelocity IL is shown plott,etl togcthcr with t . l ~ ror,t,llc? two-tlirncn~t sionr11 jcl, in ]pig. 9. I :I,
r

1110 volnmc o f flow Q


7

= 272

/ u y tly
n

(volnmc per sccontl), which incrcasrs

whic~l~ be int,rgratetl once t o give can

FF' = F 1 - q F " .

The I)on~~tIary condit,jons arc IL = IL,,, ant1 v 0 for y = 0. I t follows t h a t F' = 0 and F = 0 for "1 = 0. Since TL is a n even fi~nct,ion r], F'lr] must be even, F' otltl a n d E' of evcn. I3ccausc of F(O) = 0 t h e constant tcrrn in the cxpansio~l F i n powers of 11 must . of
vanisll, which tlet,crmincs ono constant of intcgrat,ion. The sccond constant of integrat.iotl,whicl~ will be dcnot,etl by y , can bc evaluated a s follows: If F(r]) is a solution of rqn. (11.13), t11cn F ( y v ) = F(() is also a solut,ion. A p:~rticularsolnt,ion of the tlill'crcr~t,inlccl~~at.ion F d. F = d F - dZF . . -dt dt d ~ ' wllic:h sat,isfics t l ~ c hountlnry condi1,ion ( 0: F 0, F' -=0, is givcn by 5' 1+:t2.
1

(11.13)

with t l ~ tlist~anccfrorn the orificc owing t o t,ltc flow from the srlrro~~ntlings, rcprcr is scntetl by the simple cclnnliorl Q=8nvx. (11.18)

F
Ilcncc wc obtain from aqn. (11.12)

(11.14)

Fig. 11.5. Strranlline pattern for a circular laminar jct

JJere [ = y y/x, ant1 the constant of inlegmtion y can now be determined from the givcw valne of momentum. From cqn. (1 1.9) we obtain for t.hc momenttlm of t l ~ c jet

This equnt,ion should be comparccl with eqn. (0.48) for t h c two-dimensional jct,. It is secn t.hn.t,, nncxpcctrtlly, the volume of flow a t a givcn tlist.altcc frorn t,llc orificc is intlcpcntlcnt of thc morncntl~rllof t l ~ c i. r . , ir~tlepc~rtlc~~l, csccss of ~)rcssnrc jot,, oT t,l~c undcr wllicll t.11~ leaves tlrc orificc. A jet wl~iclllcnvcs under a large prcssure jet tliffcrcnce (large velocit,y) rcrnrtins narrower t,han one leaving wit,lt a srnnllcr prcssurc tliffcrcnce (small veloci6y). The latter carries witll i t comparatively inore st,at,ior~ary fluid, namely in a znanncr t o make the volunlo of flow a t a givcn distance fro111 tile orifi cc c q ~ ~ tol t h a t in a faster jet, provided tlrat t,hc kincn~:~,t,ic a viscosit,y is t,llc same in I)ot.l~ cnsrs.

l'inally, t.11~; at)i,vc rcst~l1,scan bc cxprcssctl in n. forrn t.o c61rtai11only the 1ti11cmnt.ic viscosit.y, v , ant1 the kin.ematic momentu.m, Ii' == J l q . 'l'l~ns

11. 1%.Scjnirc [106, IOG] was able t,o find solutions to t l ~ 1)orintlnry-1n.y~ e cqt~at.ions well as t,o the comp1ct.c Nnvicr-Stloltcs ccluatiorts ant1 t,o m:~ltcL con~p:~rison : bctwccn I ~ l ~ fi)r n . 1 1 ~r a w o f a conic:t.l jrl. \vllic.l~I)OSRPSSPR n.11 : ~ , t l t l i l ~ i oi.:~,li:tl I , t ~ l o t -(.otn- ~ r~ 1 ~l~~ ~ il.~ ~ I ~ I I ~ i~t )I I L : L I I I I ~twilit:~:. 111 1J1is l:~t,t,t%r of rt~tli:~l 1,110 vrlot;it,ics :IIY> I~:L~ clt~ss jtal,s :11so invcrsc?ly proportional t o t,llc tlist,ancc from t.11~ orificc. 'i'l~e t,lrcory can I)(: exto~rtlcd to t,r~rl)nlnr~t flows by rcplncing t.l~e kincmat.ic viscosit,y wit 11 t.l~c apparent kincr~latic visaosit,y of tlurbr~lc,rlt flow, wl~icllin t,l~is case rctnains constant, scc C:\I:L~. S XIV. Tlte cnsc wlren a jet impingcs at. right angles on a wall nt~tlis sprcntl along il, was solvctl Ily R4. 13. (:laucrt 1401, n.ho incl,rtlctl plnl~cns \vcll 11,s nxially syul~~~c~f.rit::~l, atltl latninar a s well :LS L \ ~ r b t i I ~(~ l0 ~ s . 1 t
:IS

The correspontling cnsc of a cornprcssiblc circular I:~tnirlnrjet was cvalu:~t.cd1)y

M. Z. JCrzywoblocki 1611 ant1 U. C. I'ack 1831. In the subsonic rcgitnc, tllc tlcnsit,y
on the axis of thc jet is larger, and the tempcraturc is smaller tltan o n its I)o~~ntlary. Tllese differences arc inversely p r o p o r t i ~ n a lt o the square of the distance from tile

23.1-

XI. Axially uynimet.rira1nncl tlrrec-dimrnuionnlhonnrlnrg laycrs

n. Exnct soll~tionq nxially symmctricnl boundary layers for

236

orifice. According t o 11. Goertler [4317 the case when a wcak swirl is sl~perimposed on the jet can also bc trcated mathematically, and t h e effrct of the swirling motion present in tho orifirc can bo tmcrd in the downst.rcam tlirecf.ion. J t turns out t h a t t-l~c swirl decreases fastcr wit,l~ dist,ancc from t11e orifice th:m tlrc jet vclocit,y on the the axis.
3. The axinlly symmrtric wake. 'rile flow in an axially syn~mctricwakc, SUCII as occurs downstream of an axially symmet,ric body ~ l a c c d a strream parallcl to in it4 axis, can also be tlcscribctl with tho air1 of tho system of equations ( l l . I Q a , b). Tho s o l ~ ~ t ~isoquit-c analogons to that, for the two-tlirncnsionnl case whicl~was tlci n scribed in dctail in Sec. I X f . Let U, denote the oncoming vclocity and let ~ ( r , y) be t,he flow vclocity in the woke. We assume, a s was clone in eqn. (9.20), that, tile vclocity differcncc in the wake, (11.19) U,(X,Y)= urn - ~ ( x , Y )

this form, too, being analogous t o that in eqn. (9.34) for tllc two-dimrnsional case. IIcnce, thc velocity difference turns out t o be

The val\lo of tlrc constant C must be tletermir~cdfrom thc drag with t11c aitl of rqn. (11 21); it,s value is

wl~rroc, tlcnotcs t.11~ drag cocficicnL rcforrrtl 1.0 t l ~ o frontal arra of t.11~ botly, ant1 R = 11, d / v . JIcnce we ot)tairr

is very small compared with U, far downstream. Consequently, we shall neglect quadratic terms in u,. With this simplification i t is possible to deduce from eqns. (11.10a) and (11.19) t l ~ e following differ~nt~inl equation for 11,:

The plot of tile velocity difference from eqrl. (11.26) is the same as t h a t in Fig. 9.10. Experimcnt.al data can be found in F. R. 1Inmn's worlc [4An].
4. Bor~ndarylayer on a body of revolution. Tho flow of a viscous fluid past a body of revolut,ion when the stream is parallel to its axis is of grrat practical importance. The bounrlary-layer equations have I~ecnadaptcd to this case by E. Boltzc [lo]. Assuming a curvilinear system of coordinates (Fig. 11.0), we dcnotc by z the current length measirred along a meridian from the stagnatron point, y denoting the roorrlinate a t right angles t o the surface. The contour of the body of revolution will bc specified by the radii r (x) of the sections takcn a t right angles to t l ~ c axis. We assume t h a t there are no sharp corners so t h a t d2r/dx2 does not assume extrcmcly large values. The velocity components parallel and normal t,o the wall will be denoted by u and v , respectively, and the potent.ial flow will be given by U ( x ) . According to Uolt,ze t,he boundary-layer equations will I hcn assume the form :

The analytic form t o be assumed for the dependence of the velocity difference ul(x, y) on t h e axial coordinate, x, and on the radial coordinat.e, y, can be discovered from the condition t h a t the drag evaluated from the momentum of the wake must become independent of z a t large distances downstream of the body. This leads to the relation

=2

n~ U,

/ u, . y
1 (rl)
x

03

dy = const,

(11.21)

which is satisfied by the form


U,

= ClJ,

'

where

This form is a n a l o g o ~ ~t s t h a t in cqn. (9.31) for the two-dimensional problem. o Substituting eqns. (11.22) and (11.23) into eqn. (11.20), we obtain a differential equation for /(q). This is (11.24) (?I/')' -1- 2 q2 i' -1- 4 q / = 0 , artd tho boirndary conditions arc
I

wit11 thc boundary conditions :

/'=o

4
and /=0 at

,.fi
i,

at

q = 0

q=oo
Fig. 11.6. Ilounrlnry lnyrr nrnr a body of revolntio~~. Syatcrn of coordinates

u",--1
(11.25)

It is easy t o vrrify t h a t t l ~ c solnt,ior~ eqn. (11.24) has the form of a n exponential, of


/(7) = exp ( - q2)
9

236

XI. Axially symmetrical and three-dimensional boundary layera

a. Exact solutions for axially symmotrical boundary layers

The e q ~ ~ a t i o n motion in the x-direction is seen t o remain unchanged compared of with two-tlirncnsional flow. An order-of-magnitude estimate of terms in t h e equation of motion in the y-direction shows t h a t the pressure gradient normal t o t,ho well ap/aly u2/r 1. Coii~equent~ly e pressure difference across t h e borrnda.ry layer th is of t01c ortlcr of the borrntlary layer t,hickncss S , and i t is again possible t o assrirne t,llnt, t , l ~ ~ ~ r c s s ~ i r e r gr:ltlicnt of the potential stream, ap/ax, is impressed on thc bonnciary I:~.ycr.

T h e body contour is given by the series

- -

the potential flow being defined by the series

The diaterico from thc wnll is rcprcuct~tetlhy 1.110tlirncr~sionlra~ coorclinnlo

Wc shall limit t.hc consitlemt,ions of this chapter to the case of ste:~tlyflow. 111orrlcr t o ir~trgratccqrls. (11.27a, b) for the axially symmctric.zl casc i t is oncc rnorc possible t o ir~troducea stream function l/~(x,y) given b y : and in analogy with eqn. (11.32), t h e stream-function is represented by the Blasius series

This t.mnsforms eqn. (11.27a) into

Substituting eqns. (11.31), (11.32) and (11.35) with (11.36) into eqn. (11.30) and comparing terms, we obtain a set of differential equations for the f~inct~ions /3, . . . . The first eqriation is

fir' = - 1; --I-- (/iZ - 1 ) , 2


with t h e boatitlary conditions

(1 1.35)

where differentiation with respect t o 77 is denoted by primea. The boundary conditions are :

Wc now procced t o give a brief account of the rnet,hods used t o calculate tdie bonntlary layer on a I ~ o d y rcvolut,ion. A tnore det,ailecl account can be found in a n of earlier ctlition of this book [ l o l l . The numerical results for a sphere, however, will be discossctl in more completpcdetail. The t~orrntlarylayer on a bod!/ of revolulion of nrbitrrtr?/ ~ h a p e .. - can be determined 1)y the same method a s that. used in See. [X c for the caso of a cylinder of arbitrary cross-section (two-dimensional problem). The velocity of the potential flow, U(z), is expantled into a power series in z and the s t , r e a t n - f u t ~ c t i o n ,is ~ , ~ assilmed t o be represented by a similar series in N, with coefficienta depending on the wnll distance (Blasius series). Following N. Froessling [29] it, is found t h a t here also the coefficient-functions of y can be so arranged as t o become intlependent of t,he parameters of any particular problem. In this manner the functions can bc calculated once and applied universnlly.
-

The first equation of the set is non-linear and identical with t h a t for threedilnensional stagnation flow which was considered in See. VlOt. A plot of /; is sllown in Fig. 5.10, where /; = #'. The equations for the terms in 1 3 and z5 havc 1)ccn solved by N. Froessling [29]. The succeeding ten functions of the term 2 7 havc been evaluated by F. W. Scholkemeyer [102]. Example : Sphere. cylinder in Scc. IXo, wc I n a manner analogous t o t h a t employcd for a circr~lar can use the preceding scheme to solvc the casc of the sphcrc. Thc cnrrcnt, rntli~ls for a sphere of radius R is given by r (N)= I1 sin x / R , and the velocity distribution a t the surface of the sphere we have U(x) = - Urn sin x/R = - U sin $, , 2 2
3
3

(1 1.37)

( 1 1.38)

The oq~mtion continuity can also ba snlisfied by an'alternative stream function @, such that of

where $ denotes the central angle measurccl from the sta.gnation point,. Comparing

'Tliix form of bllc st.rcnrn f11notio11 was 11scd by E. Boltzo when he calculated non-steady

axinlly symnictricnl borrndary layem, as tJnscribc!d in Scc. XVb2.

~h~ qtlation for /l(q) tron~fortn~ eqn. (5.47) for d(Q, i T it i~ rtotircd t,l~at into 1, tl/l/dq = da/tlt.

-=

~'~atrtl

I). A p ~ r o x i ~ n nsc)l~~t,ions nxinlly syni~nrlric tr for 1,onntlnry lnyers t h e t w o wries expnnsiclns for sin cocfficicrlt~sof cqn. (1 1.3) a s follows

2313

(%In)in eqns. (11.37) ant1 (1 1.38), we det,ermille t,he

introtlncetl certain ~nln~cricnl rorrrrtions. M. D. GI:ir~rrt rind M. J. LigI~Lhill [41] ol~tninrrl ~0111Lionq t l ~ c hy n~)~lication J'ohlliausrn's npl~roxl~nnta of method (scc See. X11)) ant1 of nn ~*)ynipt~(~tic axpnn~ion. ueries Tlin flow along the generators of o cylinder of arbitrary cross-srction anr, worked out hy .J. C. Caoko [IR] \vllo employeci a Blnsius seriw nn \\ell ns I'ol~lhn~~sen'n np~)roxitnnle procedure. Tllc nlnrc gc~~crnl msc of n con~prmsil,lr, nxi:llly s y n ~ n ~ r I .Iro~tnclnryI;~yaron :I I~ocly ri~ of rcvolr~tio~~ whosc r o n t o ~ ~ r a f~lnction or 1 . 1 1 ~ lo~~p,ilr~rlit~nl is c:oortlinnlc, a:, ill ~?:crlir:~l:ar, tl~c cnsos of n circrtlnr cylintlrr nntl n spllcrc, a.cro sl.otliccl by It. I". I'robstcin nnrl I). 1Slliot. [RR]. I1 turnrtl ont t,llnt thc trnnsvcrsc c ~ ~ r v n t u has the S ~ I I I O ~fli\ct, RIICII I l o ~ s rc on wit11 n. prcssur(: grnelicnl 1 s n R I I ~ I ~ I ~ C I I I I : I ~ ~ ~~rrssttrt! 1 fiivonr:iL)Io ~ ~ ~ , gr:~tIirnL.As 11 r~>snIt,, sI~(v~ring 1110 xlr~,sgis inrrc~wrclC I I I ~sc:l~rrrnI,ionis tlclayctl. I

Tlie resultzingvclocit,y dist.rit)rtt,ions for various v a l ~ r c s f t.lrc n.nglc $ nre seen o i n I'ig. 11.7; for t,l~eso graplrs t,hc vclonit,y ?L h a s been con~prltedu p to t , l ~ e e r m 27. t Tlic vclocitfy profiles for > 90 exhil)it a point of inflexion bcrausc they a r e associated with t h e rnnge of prcssnrc incrcnsc:. I n connexion wit,h t,llc prot~lcrna t I ~ a n t l , we can repeat o u r previous rernarlrs concerning t l ~ c gcnrral prnct.icahilitayof applying n B l a s i t ~ s series. 'J'llc cnlc~rlnt.iol~ of tthe fundnn~ent,al cocffiaicnt.~bcyontl t,lrc t,t:t.rn r7 involves a n unaccept>ablenrnogrnt of con~prlt,at,ion, n.r~d filrt,hertnorc, t h e calculation of slcntlcr bodics rcclr~ires o n s i d ~ r c al)ly Inore t,c:rnls. All t.11is pr~t.s very severe 1irnit.ntion o n this mettrod. F o r frrrther n resnlts concerning s p l ~ c r e s r ~ f e r c n c e , sl10111(1b0 rna.tle t,o t h e s ~ ~ c c c c t l isection. ~ig

b. Apprnxirnnte s o l u t i n ~ ~ s nxially crytnme~ric11o1111tlnry for lnycrs

I. Approxiniarc iolr~tioris Ior bou~iilnrylayers nn bodies w l ~ i c h(lo rant rotati:. 'I'llc npproxirnat,c ~ n c t l ~ ofor-Jltc s o l n t i o t ~ tllc d i k r c n L i a l cqnntions of bor~l~ilnr.ytl of Inycr f l o ~ o r t\vo.cii,rncl!sionn! f stfitly prhtlc~;ls wl!ici~ \ ; a s , p ~ c s c ~ ~ ~ , c ctlr(.:~ilin in l (:11n1). c : ~ n b e c x t c r ~ t l c tt,? t h. e. ., ,. . of a:i?!~y sy,ntn~c~tj:x~l , ~ ens: h ~ ~ $ ~ ) ~ ~ i i r t l ~ ofor t h e cnlculi~t.iol;'ortorlntlary iaycrs o n bo(!ic? of r c y o l u ~ i o n nxin.1 flow tl 111 a.ns -fil.s ifiiliEZtcd b j ~ . q.-'Milliltiiri [76J. I)OII~II~IISCII'Sr o x i m a t e nlcl.liotl of C' app c5l&llnt,ioti iLl;ikh was describiil in Chap. X a n d w l ~ i c l ~ bn+cl o n a polynomial is of 4 t h tlcgrec w x i ' dxt.cndcd by S. Tomotilta [116, 1171 t,o it~clutlo:I body of r c vti1iil.io11.

now:

~ ~ ! ~

'I'hc following n c c o ~ i n of t l ~ c t mot.hod a s applied t o 1)otlir.s of revolnt,ion is I~nsccl on t h e work of F:W. Schollrerneier [102], who used t h e m o d e r n version of t h e niornrllt,l~rn cc1un.t ion in a sin1il:~r a y t o t,l~nb w crnployctl I)y 11. 1lolslci11 t ~ t'I.'. J3ol1lt~n a l fix t\~c., cxsc of two-tlimensio~lal flow. 'Cite ~ n o m c n t ~ cc\nnt.ion fiw tllc axially ~m s y ~ n ~ n r t . r i c cnso is obtninctl in t,llc snlnc wn.y a s t,l~nt, nl 11sc.11in Scc. V J I l t l 1'01. t11(: t.\vo-tlin~t:tisionnl case. SLart,ing with r q n s . (11.27n., I)) \tro o b t : ~ i ~ r t

t 'I'l~cdrfi~~itiona r~nploycdfor t l ~ o tlin~)l:icc~nr~~t, I~l~irknrss, z111d 1.11~: I I I ~ I I I ~ I I ( ~ IIIl~~I i ( ~ l i ~ ~ ~ ' s s , (?I,


<\,, of n bon~,tl:w~~ y r olr n Irotly 01 rrvolr~tionnrc t.lle ~ : L IssIi~ 1:llc t.\v~~-clit~rrnsio~~:rI l r I n r:\so. ct111" (8.30) and (R.31), \vitl~ tlrnoI.ing thc coorcli~~nla right. nnglr.s Irr t l ~ c ! I at \v:III.So~nc:Iit~~c-s.

I~on.c.vc.r, slipl~lly tlifli-rrnt tlt~linitionsl ~ n v r ~ r r n11arel [122]: I Trnr~sversecarvnlure. We llnvc! statre1 rcprnt,cdly t.llxt the rqllnt,iolt of lllotion (11.27n) of an nsinlly syn~tnnI,ric: flow 11ns 1.11~ snrnc for111as tliat for t . 1 t , w o - d i ~ ~ ~ r : ~ ~ ~ i o ~ ~ : i I ~ mse o~ily011 contlition t,lr:tt bl~cl)o~~t~~lnr.y-ln.ytrr trlrirknms is cvcrywl~r!rcIIIUCII stnnllcr t11nn 1 . 1 1 ~r n t l i l ~ ~ t l ~ c of cor~l.o~lr tlir I)o(ly (R< r). 'Illis contli0iot1 is 11o1. ~ t v i ~in it ~ d~ of ~ f . 1 1 case of n 1o11gbut t.11ir1 cylintlcr or, for thnt ~nntt,er, t.lle c:n.sc of nny long and ~lcnder in f)otly of rcvolul~ion. 'I'l~cbor~nrlnryI:rycr on sr~rlt I)otly gro\vs ( I O W I I R ~ , ~ P ~ Iand i q I , l ~ i c ~ l ~ ~ l ~ ~ s s cornpZrnl)lc wit11 t l ~ c R II L bc60111cs rrltli~~s cvc~lt.onlly. 'l'ltis I~ringsint,o rvi~lt:~~ce rsnc:l~l.i:~ll.v. l ~ r c c - t l i ~ ~ ~ c ~~ ln ito ~r)fn ISlloI)o~~~ltl:lry tho I ~ n r ~o l r Inyrr on n I)otly of rovolr~I.ion\rrl~ie-l1rrs111Iafro111I,l~e con~~~:rrnl,ivcly cr~rvnb~rrc (he surfnro large of o l tho body in t . 1 1 ~trannvrrsc direction. R,.A. Srhnn ~ n t R. Jk)ntl [95] t,rmt,rtl I.lir mso of n nlcntlcr rylinrlcr, of rnrli~~n -- a = ronst, l r, plnccd in a nrriforrn axial S I ~ ~ C : ~ I I I .RRIIIO J)~OI)ICIII was sl,11dird O 11. 11. I<olly [ G o ] \vho 1l1c y

..

'I'llc f:ictnr ( 1 -1 ?//I) taltrs into acnonnt t.11~rirrnn~nl.n~~c:n I.II(. vrloc-il,y I! at. n rlisli~trrc: f.1111t fnrln f.l~c wall is aqsocinlcd with the volrln~cflow wllich ~rllssc.4 1.11rong~l sl,ri{~ \ v i t l l l l (I!/. n 01 '1711is~ O ~ ~ I is Ilarger by n factor ( 1 4- y/r) L I I ~ I I t l ~ n \vl~irl~ I ~ C t pnssrs I,llrongl~ flat. nrr:i of u.itll.l~ n 2 1 r.

240

XI. Axially symmetrical and three-dime~isional boundary lnyera

I). ~\pprt~xirnnt,c? solr~t,io~~nnxially nyrnrnrtric 1)01111rl:try for Inyrrs

241

The significance of r ( x ) m a y be inferred from Fig. 11.6. Retracing the steps of Sec. X b we obtain t h e following differential equation for t h e quantity Z = cJ,~/v:

'rile qu:mtit,irs I i , f l ( R ) , fz(lC) have the same moaning a s in tho two-dimensional case, eqns. (10.27), (10.31) nnd (10.32). Introducing E'(IZ) as before, cqn. (10.34), we 11ave 1 dr U (11.40) F(K)-2K--,I; K=ZUt. dz U r dz U I t is casy t o see t h a t the substitution

Some nunleriral examples have been calrulated .. F.-.-- Sc!loll~emcier [I021 by - W. -8i n llis tiles;s t-o tlij T-E"-----'-< n lnecrlng Univcrs~tya t DraunscIlwcig as w c ~ Ia s in7fli^oi)ai)er by J I'retscl~ [aij,"BlEailj; qiioX6d. 9 . Toinotika [117] calcnlatctl the bountlary lkyer on a s ~ > l ~ c r c foFaY$ii@ of Reynolds: numbers using l ) o t l ~ potrrit.ial ant1 ~ncnsurctl~ ) r t s s u r e distribntions,. A comparison with mcasurcmrnt is given \)y -- . A Fnge [27], ant1 frlrther results of mcasurcments akc cGnl,Si~iEdin a paper I)y W Moc-ll(~17(;] 111 conncxion it, is IISCI'II~ L ~ncntion A . Micllallco's 1741 t.l~rol,ct,ical o arid experinlcnt,;il invest.igat.ions on a rol.at.ionally symmetrical r:ozzlc.

pr;scrlkcd

7--.-

--

g=r2Z
transforms the prcrcding equation t o the form

This form is preferable t o t h a t in cqn. (11.40) because i t does not contain the derivative drldx. The point of separation is again a t A = - 12, i. e. a t Ii = - 0.1567, but a t the st,agnation point t h e values of tfhe shape factors A and K are now different. I f the body of revolution has a blunt nose, we have a t x = 0 , i. e. a t the tip st re an^ stagnation point,

With this value the terms in the bracket in cqn. (11.40) reduce to F ( K ) - 2 Ii. B y following the same argnment a s in tho two-dimensional case i t is found t h a t the initial valnr of Ii a t the stagnation point is deterrninetl by t h e condition F ( I i ) - 2 R = -- 0 , or, explicitly A, = -t 4.716 ; R, = 0.05708 . I l r n r r the initial valtrrs of thc intcgml rrlrvc (11.40) a t thc stagnation point l)cronic

7
'0

-! ..

ur,,

0.05708
1

u',

2. Flow in tile etttrnnce of n pipe. I n this connexiorl it, may be wor.t.ll tlrnwing attention to another axially-symmetrical boundary-laycr problcn~, namely t h a t associat,ctl wiLh larnirlar flow in the inlct port,iorl of a ~ t i p c Strictly sl)calti~lg,t.his , is not a problem in t~oltntlnry-layertheory I)nt il, has bccr~solvccl with the aitl of tncthods similar to thc ones now bcing considcrctl. 'l'hc initially rcctangltlar vclocit,y tlist,ril)ul.ion in the entrancc scction of t01e pipc (z -=0) is gradl~allyt,mrlsforn~ctl irlt,o a ~)nrnl)olic:, l'oiscr~ille, tlistril)r~t.ion11.y t,hc acl.iorl of viscous forces as sct:tior~s furthcr dowr~st,reatn arc consitlercd. %'he arlalogo~~s two-dimcr~sior~al prohlcni, narncly laminar flow in the inlet portion of a rectangular channel, has alrcady been consitleretl in Sec. I X i on t h e basis of the dilTercntial equations of boundary layer flow. The approximate mctliod tluc t,o L. Sr.ltiller (961 is basctl on a n oqunt.ior~ which cxyresses the condition of cqnilibrium betwcol momentum, pressure drop arltl viscous dm,g i n a manncr similar to thc momcntum cql~atioridiscl~sscd earlicr. 'I'lle velocity profiles in the inlet portion of the pipe arc approximated by a const,ant velocity near t h e n.xis of the tube combined with t,wo tangent portiorls of a pxrabola near the wall, so t h a t a t the wall t,lle vclocity becomcs equal t o zero. A t the inlet section the wiclt,h of the parabolic portlions is zero and increases downstream until they coalesce into a single parabola a t a definite tlistance from the entrancc. This dist,ance const.itrlt,es the t,hcoret,ical initial Icngth, and its nlagnitnde, as calculated ; by I,. Schiller, is given by x v/R2 1 = 0-115. Mcasurcmcnts j)crformccl by J. Nilruradse, Fig. 11.8, show good agreement with Schillcr's thcory for about a third of t h e initial length near t,lic ent,rance (about x v/R2 1 2 0.04). The act,ual transition to a parabolic velocity profile appears to proceed more slowly than implied in the approximate calcrllat,ion. Owing to tho accclcration impnrtccl t.o thc fluid near the ccnt,er khe prcswirc drop in t,lle cntrancc increases comparrtl with t h a t of a developed flow. 'I'hc addit.iona1 pressure tlrop a t thc entmncc is A p = 1.16 p 1Z2/2. An approximate solntion t,o this problem was also given by 11. 1,. I,anghanr [65].

r l i c flow in the ent,mncc rcgion of a pipe was st,ntfird by 11. l'l~nnis1891 in t,l~e l year 1947 and, more recently, by E. M. Sparrow e t al. [I OFa].

The initrial slope is zero for a body of r e v o l ~ t ~ i o n , because for reasons of symrnctry we must, have (I,,'' = 0 a t t.hc st:~grrat,ionpojnt. 'l'hc mctllotl of tlircct integration tlrscribetl in Scc. X b can hc cxtendcd t,o the case of axially symnictrical bodies, a s shown by N. l t o t t and 1,. F. Crabtree [931. Equation (10.37) for the momcntuln ~t.hiclrnessis now rcplacctl by

The flow 1)eco~nes much more complex in axially syn~mctricalflows in cases wl~cnthere cxist,s a tangential (whirl) component, in atltlition t o thc lo~lgit~utlirlal componcnt, which dccays in tlic downst,rean~ direction. This problem was invcstigated by L. Talbot [I101 and L. Collatz and 13. Goertler [14]. Assuming t h a t t,he whirl component of velorit,y is small compared with the axial vclociCy of 1Iagen and Poiscuillc, it is possible to comp11t.c the former by formulating a bountlary-value 1)roblcni in relation to a linear diffcrctltial equat,ion of second order whosc first rigcnval~lcs have bccn evaluatctl. According t,o Tnll)ot, 1,110 whirl cornponent

242

XI. Axially nymtnct.riral and tl~rrr-tli~rrrtrsio~~al 1)onri~l:~ry Inyrra

b. Approximate aolutiona for axinlly apmmctric honndary lnyer~

243

Pig. 11.9. Moment cocllicient on a rotating disk in axial flow, aftor Gchlichting and Truckenbrotlt
[98, 1 191

W4

WS

106

lo7

in Fig. 11.8. Velocity distribr~bion t,hc inlet port.ion of n pipe for the lnn~inarca.se; mennrlrcments perfornicrl by Nikuradac and quotrd from Pranc1t.l-Tiet.jen vol. TI. 'l'lieory drrc to Scliillrr (901 llns prarf irally tlrcayctl al, :I clistancc of 40 pipe radii whcn t t ~ c Rcytrol(ls nuntber has a \.alrrc of R = 10:' This is in good agreement with experimental results.

Reynolds number

R =g$

3. Rour~clnrylayrra on rotating bocliea of revolution. TIIF simplest cxarnplc of e bounclary laycr on a rotaling hotly is tli:~tconsiderod in Scc. V b 11, namely the
problctn of a dislc rotating in a fluid at, rest,. The lluitl p r t i c l c s which rotate with the bounda,ry laycr arc thrown outwards owing t o the existcrlce of centrifugal forces ('cent.rifuging') anti are rcplaccd by part,icles flowing towards the boundary layer in a n axial direction. Tlic casc of a dislc o f mtlitts I< rot.nt,ing with a n angr~lar vclocity o in a n axial sl.rc:~m of velocity U :~lTordsa simplc cxtcnsior~of the previous , problem. I n t<hclat,t.cr case the flow is govcrnctl I)y two parameters: the Rcynoltls number and the rot,af ion pammetcr, U,/Rw, which is given by t,he ratio of frecst.rcam t o tip vclocity. An cxact solution t o t h e problem l ~ r ~ d e r consiclcration was given 11y Mi* D. M. Ilannah [46]t and A. N. Tiffortl 1.1131 for tho case of laminar flow; IT. Salllicl~ting and R. Truckcnbrotlt [98] provided a n approximate solution. E. Trttclrcnbrotlt 11191 invcst8igaf,ed t h e case of tnrbulent flow. .Figure 11.9 cont,ains a plot of the torqnc coefficient,, C, = ilf/g e (2R in terms of the Reynolds " numbcr and rotation parameter, U,/ll(u, obtained from such calculations. Ilere M clrnotcs t h e t,orquc on tllc lcatiing side of t h e dislz only. When tlie clislz rotatcs we may stmillassumc Ifhat separation occurs a t t h e edge of the disk. 'l'he 'stn.gr~ant,' fluit1 Ilcllintl tllc clislr part,ly rot,n.tcs will1 thc,clislz ant1 c o n t , r i b ~ ~ t lit,l,le t o t,he rs tortlltc. Any such contribr~tionhas been lcft n t of account in 7 in Fig. 11.9. (, I t is seen t h a t Llie torque increases rapidly wi 1 U , a t constant angular velocity. 1

Thc flow in a circular box provided with a rotating lid shows a marlzcd rcscmblance t o t h a t between two rotating dislts mentioned in Scc. V b 1 1 . 7'11t! cnse of the flow inside the box was investigated in deLail by 1). Grohne [44] who discovered two peculiar features in i t : First, the flow i n the friction-free core in tlie interior of t h e box can only be determined by taking into account t,he inllncnrc of tlie boundary layers which form on the wall, in contrast t o normal cascs wlicn onc naturally assumes t h a t t,hc influence of tho flow in a bot~ntlarylayer rcsu1t.s at, most t in a d.isplaccment. Secondly, the bonndary laycrs arc u n ~ ~ s u iarl~ h a t they join car11 other. Siniilarly, in the arrangement consis1.ing of R rota1,ing channrl irivc?stligat,ctl by IT. 1,11dwieg [68], i t is possiblc t o discern two rcgior~s flow when the spc:ctl of of robat,ion is sr~fficic?nt.ly high, ttamcly a fric;l.ionlcss corc ant1 1)ottndnry layrrs which form on the side walls ancl which givc risc t.o a secontlary flow. 'l'hc t.hcory lcads t o a large increasc of t,hc drag cocfficicnt w l ~ i c l ~ dnc to rotation, ant1 this fact has is been confirmed by experiment.

Arl.~inlly 1381 solvm n rrl:rlr~lprol,lrrn i r r nrltic~l1t,lit! cxtcrnal ficltl in t.l~:ct, rluc to '& source rrf. a t it~finity.

Blunt boclies, sncli a s o. a. a sphere or a slcr~tlcrbody of rcvolut.ion, 11lacctl in axial streams, show a markccl influcr~ccof rotnt,ion on dmg, a s cvitlrnc.ctl I)y t.11~ mcasr~rements performed by C. Wicsclsbergcr 11231, ant1 S. 1,11t.I1:~ntlcr ant1 A. Rydberg [69]. Fig. 11.10 contains a plot of thc drag cocfficict~tof n rotating s p l ~ c r ein terms of the Rcynolds numbcr. I t is sccn 181iat Lhc critical Rcynoltls number, for which the drag coefficient dcrrcascs abrnpt,ly, depends strongly O I I tlic. rot,at.ion paramcl,er U,/Roj, and the same is trtle of t . 1 1 ~position of 1 . 1 1 ~ poitit, of snl):~ration. The effect, of rotary motion on bllc posi1,ion of 1,hc line of lan1irln.r sc.pnr:~l.iot~ on a s p l ~ c r r tl(;st~il~t:(l lhc grc~pli ltig. I I . I I ; 1,Ilc(IILI,IL ror it IIILVO I)~Y;II ~ ~ o I ~ I ~ ~ I I I ~ I ~ I I is by in by N. E. lloskin [50]. When the rotatmion para.mctcr 11:~s al,tdinrtl t,11c vnl~~c: Q = wR/[J, = 5, t>heline of sepnm.t,ion will have moved by about l o 0 in 1,hc 11pst,rean~ direction, as compared with a sphere a t rcst. 'l.'hc physicnl ren.son for this beflaviour is connected with the centrif~tgal forces act,ing on t,l~c fluit1 parLiclcsrolat,ing wit,]i tile body in its bour;tlary layer. Tlrc crl~l.rif~tgal forces have tlic sn,111c n i ~ n.s nn r t atltlit.ionn1 pressure gratlirnt dircct,etl townrtls t,l~c plntie of I,ltc erl~tn.t,or.

244

X I . Axially symmrtriral nnd tlrrcc-dirncrrsionnl borrndary lnyers

c. Itrlation hel:ween axially ~y~ntnctricnl t ~ ~ o - c I i ~ ~ ~ c ~ ~ a i o ~ r ; r l and I,onntl;rry I;ryr~s ancl t.ho displacement and tnonrentum thicknesses arc defined as
m

245

- -

4
1,

5x105

Fig. 11.10. i)r:lg coefficirntr, o i n rotnt.ing spl~crrl l axinl i flow in trrtns of tlrc ltrJrrrolds number R and rotntion Imra~nrtrrQ - ioR/lI, . a9 111eaq11red hy I,uthatrdcr and R\ilhrrg [0!1]

R = O"D
h t.lrcorct.i(.:~l c?cpl;~nntioli t,lrc vrry conrplcx thrrc-di~nrlrsionnlcll'ccb in the boundary of 1:ryrrof rotating I~odics rcvolr~t.ion axi:~lflow is contained in the papers by H. Schlichting [00], of in IC. 'I'rr~cltrr~l~rotll~ ant1 0.I'arr 1841; tlrcse authors onployed the approxitnato method [I181
!:xplairrrd earlior. I t is l.rne that the borrndi~ry layer of a rotating body of revolution In axial flow still rctains it^ axial syn~mct~ry, n owing t o the rotation there appears a peripheral t~ t vc1ocit.y cotnponer~t adtlit.ion to that in the ~ncridional in direction. For this reason, the calculation for st1c.11a I)o~lntlsr,y layor 111usLint,rodrrce a ~nornentom eqnat.ion in the circ~~mferential direction (11-direr:t,ion) in atlclit.ion L t.lrat in tho nrcrirlional tlircction (x-direction). Assuming that the o al~gr~lnr vclocit,y of t.11~ I~odyis io, ant1 ilcnoting t,he coordinate a t right angles to the wall by y, wr ran writ.(: 1.11~l.wo erlr~at.i~lrs ~ I I ~ I ~ C ~ ~ in ItIhI ? for111 of , I I

In the procctling eq~~ntionn, local pcriphcrnl velocity w, the r u) Iraq 11,cen cl~onen n rofc!rcnr:c ,w veloc~ity the a7.im11talconrl~oncnt, for w,(x, 2). 'l'ho preceding oquatiorrs ~r~:rke possil)lr L pcrforrn it o crrlcr~lnLions Inltrinar as well as for turbulent flows, i t being necessary to irrtrodrrcc d i f i r r n t for expression8 for the shearing stress a t the wall in the latter (:me (see ref. [R4] and Sec. X X l l c ) . In some of the cases, it proved possible to evaluate the drag coefficient in addiLion to t,he t,r~rning tnomrnt,, the former decreasing as the parameter mR/Um is increased. In this connexion, the papen I)y C. It. Illir~gwortl~ and S. T. Clru and A. N. TilTbrcl [13] may nlso hc st,ndied. The appro[54] xilr~ate procedarc conceived by EI. Schlichting [98] was extenrlcd to cornpressit~le flows by .I. Y;rnlnga [125]. The preceding investigntions have been extcnded for laminar as well ns for t.nrl)ulent. tlows by theoretical and experin~ental investigation^ described in ucveral papers by ,Japanese nr~thors [29n, 10, 01, 79, 801. l'rohlcnrs connected with laminar flow nboet a uphere rotating in a flrlid at, resL IIGVO II(:I;II discirssed by I.. Ilowarth [51] and S. I). Nigam [All. An extension to the case involving ellipsoids of revoh~t.iorr wns provided by B. S. Fadnis p6]. Near tho poles, the flow is L11e same as on a rotating disk and near the equator i t is like the one on a rotatin cylinder. The acrorr~panyi~~g secondnry s t r e a n ~ causes fluid particles to flow into the boundary yaycr near the poles, nntl out. of it a t the equator. The rate of this secondary flow increases with increasing slenderness, the cqr~abrialarea and peed of rotation remaining constant. However, the phenomena in the plnno of the equator where the two boundary layers ilnpir~qcon each other and are thrown outwards can no longer be analyzed with the aid of boundary-lnyer theory, el. W. 11. If. Banks [5a]. Further theoretical and experimental investigations of t.his problem have been later undere taken by 0.Sawatzki [94] and by P. Dumsrgr~e t al. [21a]. Reference [94] describes n~edsurernenls d the torque exerted on a rotating sphere in the range of Ibynolds number 2.105 < R < 1.5 x 106 which goes far beyond the laminar regime. The invwtigntion of Ref. [21 a] included the vi~r~nlizntion the spiral strenmlines near the wnll on n sphere nnd on cones of various inof clntlod angles as they occur'in laminar flow.

r .

I hr romponent,~ the shearing stress a t thc wall are then given by or

I t has been observed that in axial turbomachines there may, under certain cireomstances, appear an extended zone of dead fluid in tho whirl bcl~indthe row of stationary blntles ant1 ncnr the hub. This 1,henornenon was described in great detnil by K. J3antmert and H. Klaeukens [5]. The origin of this dead-water area is conneckd wiLh the radial increase in prcssurr in l.110 ontwnrtl direction which i~ due to the whirl. Owing to tho whirl the axinl pressure inerrme nrnr llrc huh in the bladelorn annulus behind the guides is much greater tllar~ t the outer wall. The a itrfluent:~of tho houndory layer is here only ciecontlrrry. ALLonl,ion rrr!ly, f ~ ~ r t h eho (lrnwn L r, o an invc:sbigaLion tluo Lo I<. I3nmrncrt nnd ,I. Schocn [4] concerning 1.110 Ilow I.lrror~gl~ roLallinl: IL l~ollowshaft. I t is observed thnt n funnel-like free surface is forlned a t the exit, owing to I.IIc inbraction between centrifugal and viscous f o r m .

c. Rclatinn between axially symmetrical and two-dimensional boundary layers; Mangler's transformation
~ i g 11.11. Position of line of laminar . separation on a spllero rotating in axinl stream, after N. IF. lfosltin [SO]

The preceding considerations demonstrate that the calculatior~ of an axially symmetrical boundary layer is, generally speaking, more difficult than that of a two-dimensional boundary layer. That this is the rase (.an be npprcciatctl if i t is rrmembered that the flow field in a two-dimensior~al bol~ndnry layer, say on a rylintler

246

XI. Axinlly sy~nnirt~ric-nl tI~n~r-tli~nrrrsio~~:ll rind I)or~ntlnry I:iycrs

in cross-flow, tlrprntls only on lrhn potat~l,i:~l l o ~ i t ~ y vc tlistril)cltiot~,IJ(z). By ront.r:~st,, wl~cna n axially syrnmctrical I)ol~ndarylaycr is stutlictl, for cxatnplc t h a t on a rotating 1)ody of revolntion, i t is fortntl Ifhat t l ~ c contour r ( a ) of the botlg enters explicitly into thc corresponding rq~lations.Tile present section is clcvotctl l o x more tlot,ailctl invcst,ignl,io~~ 1 . 1 1 ~rolntion 1)ctwc~cn ir~l,o two-tli~nc.~~sit)t~:il axi:illy nlicl symmntric l~orrr~rlary Inycrs.

w11orr 1, ~ l c t ~ o t a sconst,arit I~tngth.I t c n ~ c ~ ~ i b c r i n g t r tha

In st,en.tly flow t J ~ cOo~~ntlary-layor rqrr:rt.ior~sfor Lwo-tlitncnsiond flow :~ntlfnr axially symmot~rical flow are giver1 I)y cqns. (7. lo), (7.1 I ) nntl ( I 1.278, h), rospectivrly. l'hc lnt,tfcrrcfcr t o a crlrvilir~cnrs y s t c ~ nof c:oortlin:~.l.c:s witall z tlolo1,ing t , l ~ cttrrrnl, r arc: Icr~gt~h y tlrnot,ing {,l~o nntl tlist,nncc from t J ~ rwall in :L tlirrt-t,ior~ normal t , if.. ~ The rcspcctivc vc1ocit.y componctits n.rc tlcnotctl I)y I L nntl v , and l,lln mn.gllit,rltlcs wit.11 a bar rcfcr t,o tho two-tlinicnsio~~d cnsr. Wit.11 these syml)ols, wo Itavo for tho two-tlinirnsional cn,sc:
caii

it, is rasy to verify ttllat 1.l1csyst,rm of c.clrt:iI,ions ( 1 I .GO) l,mnsfortns ir11,ooclns. ( 1 1 .4!)) I1.y t,lln rrsc: of LIto sr~bsl~itulions l .GI). (I

az

a/

aii = U .-

- dB .dli:

,-,,arii '

aii

a t- =o; T a?

8ii

' ~ I I c hountla,ry layer on a 1)otly of rovol~ttionr ( z ) having tho itlr:~l~)ol,rt~t.ial vc:loril.y tlisI,ril)clf.ion I J ( z ) nnn l)c cv:tltial.c:tl by t:on~l)nting ~ J I C t,\vo-(litllr~~sio~~:~I l ) o ~ ~ n ( l : ~ , r y for tt, vcloc:il,.y tli3l,ril)11l,ion l:tycr \vItc:ro / J r-: ZLII(IZ ti11(I :I:tire r(;l~il~(t(l , I)y oqns. (1 I . G I ) . I l : ~ v i ~ tc~alcrtli~t,rttl voloc.il.,y o o r n p o t ~ o l ~ l . ~ g I.llc ii, nrltl 6 for 1 . 1 1 ~l.\votlitr~ctl~iottal I)ortr~tl:~ry Inycr it is possil)lo tlo tlclcrrnine t,l~o con~poncntn nntl I T or I* tltc n.xinlly symmct.rical borlntlnry laycr $1i t l ~ tjl1c. nit1 of t11c t,mnsforlnnt,ion rclrrations (11.51). r 111r tnctl~odnl:Ly I)(: I)c~talfcr rlntlcrsl~ootlwiI.l~l , l ~ c of tlro following cx:~.mplc. n.itl Wc s11:~ll consitl~rroI.:~l.io11:~11y syrntnc:t.ri(::~lstagrlat.ion flow, for wltiol~

o(:?),

for t.hc axially symn~ct~ricnl vasr Iloncc, from r q n . (11.51), we Itavo

I l r r e ~ ( z dcnot.cs tJto (list,ancc of a point, on t11c \va.ll frotn I.llc axis of symmnt.ry. ) Tllr first eqnnfions of l)ot,l~ systems nro iclrnt.icn1, t.he tliffrrrncr 1)ring or~l,y t.l~c in npprnrnncy of t , l ~ r rntlirls ~ ( n . )in t.11~ rqrtn.l,ion of conI,innit,g. It, sc~cms1.1111s rcasot~nl~lc inqnire ~vltelllrrit, is gossil)lo 1.0 intlic.at.c a trmnsto fortnal,ion wl~icll~voultlpermit t.11c nsn of t,l~n soltrt.ions of Lltc two-tlirnrr~sionnl cast: 1.0 tlrrivc solr~f,ionsof 1,llc n.xinlly syn~rnrt,ricnlcase. Such n gc%ncmlrr:1at,ionsI1il) bctwocn t,wo-dimcnsiond nntl n.xially symmetrical I~ounrlarylayers Itas bccn cliscovcrctl by ITT. RTn.t~glrr [72]. I t rr(lrlccs t l ~ o calcnlat,ion of t,l~c Innlirrn.r 11orlntla.ry Inyor for a.n n.xially s.yinmct,ric.:~lbotly t,o tl~nf, t ~ cylintlricnl I)otly. 'l'he givcn hotly of o a revol~lt,ion nssocin.18rtl is wit.11n.11 itlcnl pot,cnl,inl vclocit.y dist,ril)ntion for n rylint1ric:ll t~otly, l ~ fr~ncl~ior~ rnsily calcnlatfctl frotn t,he cor11,ntlr:rntl tJlc pot,cnt,inl vcloci1.y t c Lcing tlist.ril)tlt,intr or t.11~ botly of rovol~tl.ion.Mnnglrr's tfmnsf'ormation is also valitl for coml)rcssil)lt: I)otlr~tlnryIn.ycrs, n.s well ns for t11c:rmnl boundary 1:iycrs in In.tnil~:ir flow. W r sh:1.11, I~owcvrr,consitlcr il, here only in rclat,ion to incornprrssil)lo flow. According t,o Manglrr, 1 . h ~ cqrin.t.ions wl~ic:l~ t.m.nsform tJle coortlin:~.t.esant1 1I1t: velocit.ics of t.hc xxinlly syn~mct.ricnlprol)lcm to t,hosc of t.he eqiiivalcr~ttwo-tlimcnsional prol)lrm n.rc a s follows:
Z

l ' l ~ c~)ol.rnI.ial flow of t l ~ c associat~ctltwo-tlimct~sionalflow bccornrs


J

- ---

U(2)

u, 113 L22 ,

so t h a t 0 ( ~ = C 5' , W ~ I C ~ ( dcnotrs a constant. 'rllc associat.~dtwo-tlitnct~) C : sior~a.lflow bclongs t o thc (:lass of w ~ t l g cflows disoussotl in Sce. 1 X a ant1 is givcn by I1 = C an', with m = for tllc present c x a t n ~ ~ l c . l'rom cqn. (9.7) wc find t.11~ wc~lgc nnglp P = 2 m / ( m-1-1) = 4. Tllc assocint,ctl two-tlimcnsiot~dflow is t.ltat past a wcdgc wit,h a n anglc n P . n/2. '1'11~ fact tllnt nxinlly symmct.rical stagnn,l.ion = Ilo\v rat1 11e rcdttced t o tllc case of flow past, a wcdgc whosc angle is n/2 wa.s st,nt,etl in Scc. 1 X a and is now confirmed.

11. Three-clin~ensio~~nl Lo~tntlnrylnyers

IJttbil now wc have restricted or~rsrlvcs allnost cxc:lrlsivcly L t l ~ e o consitlcra1,ion of two-tlitnrr~siond:mtl axially sylnmct.rical prol~lcrns.1'rol)lcms of t.wo-tlinlct~siot~al nncl of nsinlly syrnn~cl,ricnl flow havo t l ~ i sin ronimon l.ltat t,l~o 1)rcscril)otl ~)ol,c:nt.in.l flow tlrprntls o t ~ l y onr sp:~cr: on coortlil~:il.o,:~.ntl t,lro l,wo vc:loc:it,y con~l)c)t~ottls l.11(: ill Irortntlnry I:~ycrtlc:pcntl on t,wo space roortIin:~t,cs (\:LCII. [II I,IIc cnsc ol' n I , l ~ t ~ ( ~ ( : - t l i ~ ~ ~ t : t ~ - sional 1)orrntl:iry lnycr the cxhcrnal 11otcrtt.ial llow clcpcntls on two coortlin:r.I.cs in t,l~c w:~llsrlrfaco ant1 t.ltc llow willtin tllc 1)ountlnry laycr posscsscs all t l ~ r c cvcloci1.y componrnt,~ wllicl~,moreover, t l c p o ~ ( l all t,hrce spxco coort1irl;~l~cs t,l~c on in gcncr:~l tmc. 'l'llc flow abont a tlislc rot,nl,ing in a fluid a t rest (Scc. VI)) and rotnt,ion in t l ~ c nc~ig11l)ourllootl a fixctl wall (Scc. X l a ) cor~st,it~t~tr of cxarnl)lrs of t,l~rcn-tlimcnsionnl I)ol~ntl:~ry I:~yors,rrpnrl from Ijcing cxnol solr~l~iol~stllc Nibvier-Sl,ol<osccltin.l,io~~s. of

248

XI. Axially symmetrical and three-dimensional borrndnry layers

I f the streamlines of the potential motion are straight lines which either converge or diverge then, essentially, t h e flow differs from a two-dimensional pattern only in t h a t there is a change in t h e boundary-layer thickness. On t h e other hand, if the potential motion is curvet1 the pressure gradient across the streamlines of t h e potential flow impressing itself upon t h e boundary layer gives rise t o additional influences, such a s secondary flow: out,sidc t h e boundary layer the transverse pressure gradient is baln.nced with t,he centrifugal force, but wit,11ir1it t,11c cer~trifl~gal forces are clccrcasccl because of the decrcasetl velocities and, consequer~tly,the pressure gradicnt causes ms.ss t o flow inwards, i . e. towards the concave side of t h e potential streamlines. T h e rotation of air over a fixed wall affortls a n example of this bellaviour ant1 illustrates t h e existence of a flow inwards. A furt,ller example of sccondary flow is affordcd by the mot.ion on the sidewall of the channel formctl I)y turbine or compressor blades or by a deflector. The boundary laycr which forms on tthc wall dcvclops a sccondary flow from the pressure side of one blade t o t h c suction side of the next one owing t o the curvature of the streamlines in t h e external flow ficld. The secondary flow caused by t h e sidewall is further affectetl by the boundary laycr on the blades thc~nselvcs causing the flow pat,tcrn through a turbine or compressor stage t o become vcry complex. This prcsent.~ a vcry tlifficlllt problem to 1)ourldary-layer t,l~eorybcca~tsct h e three-tlimcnsional nature of Lhe flow is essential to it. For a long time problems of this kind hat1 been stutlicd by cxlicritncnt,al means only [471. 1. The Boundary layer on a yawed cylinder. Anottllcr important case of a threeclirnet~sional bor~ndary laycr is t h a t of a n aeroplane wing, wl~ose leatling edge is not pcrpcntlicular t o t,hc stream, as in the case of swept-back wings and ynwccl wings. I t is lrnown from cxpericncc tllat on the suction side considerable qunnt-itsics of the fluid move t,owartls t,llc recctling end, t h e phenomenon having a very tlet,riment.al elfcct. on t.hc acrotlynamic behavior~rof t h e wing. 111 two-tlirnor~sionalrnot,ion t,ltrorlgh a 1)ountlary layer, the gcometriral shape of t,l~cI)otly it~llrlenrcsthe ficltl of flow only irl~lirect~ly, e. tlirougl~the vclocil,y i. dist.l.il)ut.ion of t.11~ pot,cnt,ial flow which alone er~t.crs the cnlrulation. By cont.rast,, 1,ltrro-tli1nensio11nl t~ountlarylayers arc affcctctl by both: by tlle external vclorit,y tlist.ril~~~t,ion by t,llc geornct,rirnl shapc tlirectly. For example, in t h e case of ant1 a I~otlyof rcvol~rliotrt,lrc variat,ion of tllc ratlilts with tlistancc cxpressctl by tho f~lnrt.ion ( r ) nl'pcars explicitly in t,ltc dilTcrent,ial equations, see eqn. (11.27 11). n For tJtr I)tlrposc of rst.al)lislling tl)r I~o~~rltlary-ln.yer ccluations we shall co~lfino o ~ ~ r s r l 1.0 t~1 1 ~ v r . silnl>lrst,r:isc of a plane w:~.ll t,o a curvccl wall wl~icli tlrvt~lol~:tl~ln or is into :I p1n.n~(Pig. 11.12). T,ct 3: ant1 z drnot,e t,hc coortlinat,cs in the wall surface, 1, (Irnoti~)g (:IS ~ I I . C V ~ O I1,110 Y ) ~ S I coor(liti:~t.(? v l ~ i isl pcrl>en(licular t o t,he wall. 'l'l~r, ~ r ~ vrloc,il,y vrc!t.or of I)ot,cnt.i:ll llolv 1 will be assumrtl l o hnve tllc cmnponcrlt,s 1 ( x , t ) ' 1 nntl II'(r.z), so 1.11:ltin the st.catly-st,al.cm s c t , l ~ pr??srlrc d i ~ t ~ r i b u t ~in n pot2cnLinl c i o t.he

the corlclrlsion t,lln(,in bllc frictional terms of the equat,ions for the z- and z-tlircctior~s, re~pcct~ively, is possible t o ncglect'thc tlcrivat,ivcs with respect t o tllc coordinaLes it \vllicll are parallel t o the wall as against tlre derivative with rcsprct t o t,llo coortlinat.r a t right nnglcs t o it,. Itcgartling the equation in the y-tlirecliorr wc again obl,niri t.lrc result t,liat ap/i)?y is very small and may be neglectetl. Thus the pressure is sect1 t o depend on x and z alone, and is impressed on trhc borr~lda.ryIaycr hy the pot.ct~t,i:ll flow. 'lllo c-st,irnr~.l,iot~ ft~rl.l~c,r sl~o\vs t.l~at,, o ~ ~ c r n ls y c ~ ~ I < i IIOII(:, 01. t.Jl(: g lp t~g ivt' trrrrts may I)e ornitLetl. 'l'lle trllrec-tlilnensio~~aI liountlary-layer cqrrat.iotls arc, t(l1r11, as follows:
(.011\11~.f

\vit-li tile following boundary conditions:

Fig. 11.12. Sy~tem coordinates for of a t,l~ree-clinirnsiond boundnry layer

7'he pressure gradicnt,~ i)p/ax and aplilz arc known from the pot,bntial flow in accordY 0 ance with eqn. (1 1.52). 'l'llis is a system of t-hrecequations for qi,, v , ancl lo. For 1 and lo 0 t,he system transforms int,o tile familiar systcm of eqliations (7.10) a ~ l t l (7.11) for two-tli~ncnsionnl boundary-layer flow.

of U p t o Ihc prcscnt time 110 exact soll~t~iorls this gcncml systcm of cqnat,iotts for t,hrec-tlimensiond floiv Ilavc brcn found, apart from ttllo cxan~plcsw l ~ i c l\vc 11:lvr ~ ~ncnt,ionctl prcviorrsly. 7'11. Gcis [33, 341 invcstig:ttcd tho spcri;l.l class of flows whirl^ lead t o similar solut~ions. analogy with wedge flows, t h e velocity profiles arc now In similar in the direction of each of the two axes of coonlirl:~tes,\ant1 this :~llo\vsus to transform tltc systcm (11.53) into a set of ordinary diKcrenti/l equations.

I f wr now prrfortn l l ~ snrno cst,iniat,ion, ~lntlcr assu~npt.iot~ vcry large Iteynol(ls r tlre of n ~ ~ ~ n l ) crc,lalivc; t,o 1.11~ t.llrrc-tlimrnsionl Navicr-St,okr.s cqttnt,ior~s(:1.:%2),as ~rs, ?xp!ainrtl i t , tlot,:~ilin Sot. VII a in rclat,ion t o tile two-tlimcrrsiona~ casc:, wc sirall rcacll

A pxrticular case of three-dimensional boundary-layer flow wjlicll is consitlrr:~l,ly more amenable t o numerical calculatiol~ t h a t where t h e potent,ial flow depentls otl n: is b u t not on z, i. e. when U=U(x); JV=W(x). (11.55) apply irr bile case of a yawed cylinder ant1 npproxirnat.cly, in These contlitior~s trhc case of a yawctl wing a t zero lift,. 'L'hc syst,cnl of c!cl~lnt~ior~s (1 1.5:1a, I), r ) is silrlpli-

250

X I . Axinlly nymmet,rirnl nntl t,liree-dirnenaioridhonnrlnr.~ lnynrrr


= const and talritlg into

cl. Tl~rcc-dimensionnl boundary Inyers

25 1

fied in tjhat, t.hrre is no clepc~ntlcnccon z . With W = IV, account t h a t - ( I / @ ) . (ap/ax) = U .((lUplx), we obtain

Tt is frtrt,hcr asslrmetl t,hat the vclocity compot~cnt~s 11) and ~ ( zy) of 1.11is flow ?c(z, , stagnation points lie on a dcfinito lit~c) may also be oxprcssotl wiLh tho (in which t l ~ e nit1 o f n scrics i l l z with cocfficicnta dcpcntling on y (Dlasius ~crics), tho flow ~)ntt,crn bcirig i~ltlrl)cv~tlont, tho coordinntc z rncasr~rcctalong tho gcncralrix of tho cylinc1t:r. of '~'I~IIs, ~ t t i n g pr
(1 1.57)

with tho sanlc 1)oundar.y co~ldit.ions 1)efore. I11 this p a r t i c ~ ~ l a r the syst,cm is as case rcduciblc in t,he sense t h a t it is possible t o cnlcr~late nntl v from tho firsL a t ~ t l IL last cqunt,ion, tllc solr~t~ion bring iclentficslwiLh t h a t for a two-clirnensionnl cnsc, ant1 subs c q ~ ~ c n l , l t o cotnpl.ctrc lhc c:~.lcitlnl.ionof 11 from t,hc secontl c q ~ ~ a t ~ i owhich is, y, 1 rl, it, moreover, linear in lo. This rcndors such cases really simple. Tncider~tally, rnigllt be not,ctl t h a t t,hc equatiotl for the ~ e l o c i t ~component u) is identical with t,hat for y t h e t.mipcratnre distrihlltion in n two-clitncr~sional boundary Inyer when the I'mntltsl nmnber is ct111n.lt o unitmy (soe Chap. XTJ). Specializing t,hc syst,orn (1 1.66) still f ~ ~ r t h e r the case when TJ(z) = I J , = for ronst, we obt.ain the cxamplc o f t h c flat plaLc in yaw hilt a t zero incitlcr~ce.111 Lhis case tho prcssrlre term in the first, cqnnt,ion vanishes, and t,hc secorltl oql~at.ion becomes itlcr~t~ical the first wllen lo is rcplncctl 11yu. Thus t,l~c o l ~ ~ t ~ i ?~,(x, nnct ~ ( zy) wit,li s o n s y) , brcomc prol)ort,ional, w(x, ? = const. . 71 (x, y), or ) I

'Shr hlnct.ions IL.13, . . . satisfy t,hc diRcrrnt,ial cqunt,ions (9.18). 'l'llc rornln~t,n.t.ion of t l ~ c o n l l ) o ~ ~ cI& i t first given by \ill. R. Scars [IOB]. I t was Inter consitlcrenbly ex~ vras t.cntlctl 1)y 11. Coer(.lrr [42]. The frlnct,ions go, g z , . . . snt.isf.y tl.hcdiffercnt,ial ccl~~nt,ions

wl~oscborintlary conclitions are

Tltis ~ n e a n st - l ~ a in t,hc cnsc of n yalvrtl flat plate t.hc ~ ~ R I I I ( . : L I I of L ~ I C vcIocit,y t L in t,llc bor~r~clnry layer \vhic:lr is pnrallcl to t.110 wall is also pnr:~llclto thc ~ioLential flow a t :ill 1)ointa. 'l'l~o fact 1,liaI. trhe plate is ynwcd is seen t o have no influor~noor1 Lhc f'orrnat.ion of I,hc bor~ntlr~ry 1a.yer (ir~tlcpcnrlcnceprinciple). \Yhrn t.\ic llow in the honntlnry Iiryor on a yawed flat plate I)ccomcs t~crhvlort, t h e right,-l~nrltl sitlcs of t.11~ first two cclll:~tions (1 1.56) must Ile srtpplcmcntcd 1vit.11 t*l~c~ I,rrlns tlilc t.o t,l~rl)r~lcnt lLcyr~oltls~ t ~ r c s s (C11:lp. X I X ) . 'I'llrn, t,hc two cqunt,ions rs cnrl no longer be t,rnnsf(~rrnctl into rn.rh ot.l~cr the ~ u b s t ~ i t , ~ ~ t iIL n lu ant1 vice by of o for vrrsn. Cotiscc~r~t:nt.ly, t,l~cst.rr:~ntlillcs it1 ls11(: borlrldnry Iiyer ccnsc t,o l)o p:~r:~lIcI t,o 1,llc llow tlircc:l,ioti it: (,Ilc I'rcc sLrc-:l~n, ~ : L I I vcx~,ifictlOg tlircclj c:xi)t:t~irnctil, :ln bt: [Dl. 111:ttltlil.io~~, [:{I J~jlscs1nl)lisllctl t.l~:~t. tlisplncctnc!nt thic:ltrlcss of' n Lnrblllctlt, ref. I.l~r 1)ortntlnry lnger on n y+wc-rl plnfc grows so~ncwhnt, fn.st,crin the tlowrrsl,rm.~n tlircct,io~l t.11nr1 is I,IIC c:mc 1vit,11 I I I I J ~ : I \ V C ~p1:~lc.'I'his :1g:ti11tI(~morist,rat.csc i 1 1 t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 i c a I ~ i l i l ~ y n111 ~ t,11(! ol' I I I V intlrpantlcr~ccl)rincipla t,o t.nrl)~tlrl~l, I~or~ntltiry Inyrrs. 'I'l~cc : ~ l ~ ~ ~ l : l tof ol r1 1 ~I,I~rc~r-tlitnt~~tsio~l:~.l lnycr on :I, ynwetl cylintlor, .i . l borintl:~.ry rclns. (11.5(i), ran I ~ c r n r r i c ~ l I)y n. 111ct,hotlsin,il:~rt.o t h a t 11srtl in t,ho cnsc of olit, t,wo-.tli~nrr~sionnl llowlnl)o~lt cylit~tl(~r a \vl~osca.xis is n.t righl, nnplcs t,o 1 . 1 1 ~ sl,rmtn (Sco. TXa), i. c. I)y a s b ~ ~ m i n gscrirs oxpn~~siotl rcspcct t o the lengt,h of arc, X, n with tncxsr~rcdfrom 1.11~ .st.ngnn.t.ionpoint,. For n syrnnict~ricn.l cylintlcr we may p u t

As irltliralrtl Ly L. Prandtl [801 tfllc eqila(ion for go can bc solvccl by dircct intogrntiorl, t h e reslrlt bring
J 'exp !{

go(

v) =

(-

f j,dl~)j
0

dv

OZ

- - -- O

--

(I I 60)

j 0

j ' ~ , d ~ dl) )

Fig. I I. 13. I,nniir~nrhorlndary Inyer on n ynwcd rglintlrr. The functions ge nnd gz for the vclorit,y ron~porirnt. nlorig t 11eaxis of the rylindcr, cqn. 111 (11.58~). t the ntngnntion lilw wc have lo/ll', A
= go (11).

252

X I . .\xi:rlly ~yrnrn~triral r l t,l~rce-ditncnsiot~al an bonntlnry layer3

d. Three-ditnensional boundary laycrs

253

wl~erc tlt~t~olcs solr11.ionfor t,l~c the t,wo-tlimnnsior~d st,n.gnal.ion-point flow accortlirlg t,o ccln. (5.39) n.ntl 'I'able 5.1 ; hcrc i l ( q )- = - @ ( ? I )'Shr frtnctions go ant1 gz which . a.ppr:Lr in t , l ~tlirT'rrcnt,ial c y r l s . ( 1 I .Gla, 0) arc sern plobt,cd in Fig. 1 1.13. A t,aOulatiotl r for I)ot.l~ ft'rlr~c:tio~~s be fot~ntlin ( 101 1 Chap. XI and in [42]. can Approxi~~lntr trtr~l~ntl. I'r:~.t~rlt.l 1,. 1721 laic1 tlowtl a. ~~rogr:~~rltnc:o t ) t , a i r ~ i l ~ ~ for soI111io11s i l l ~I,IIc nifl of ~ I I Vtnonlct~t\t~n \v t~I~t!~>r(~tn,l l :L wajr \vl~i(:J~ i. r. i is siniil:~r I 11:tt. r~sc.tli l l Sro. X'1 11. In l)art,iclllar, t-tlcset of rc~nnt,ions 1.45) t o ( 1 1.48) 1.0 (1 t r : ~ ~ ~ s l i ) rillto ~ I I ; I ( Iiw : j1:~wc:tl cylintlcr when it. is ass~rrncclformally t h a t tns L const :111tl w l ~ c t1,ltc n.zitnr~ll~:llI I O I I I ~ I I ~ , I I I I tlliclctr~ssr j ~ ? is~ r r ~ ) r r s c ~ ~ t cv t)l~c o r ~ n ~ l l a . ~ I I . 11. d f
:I.II~II~~X~III:I~(*

The respective streamline is shown a s a broken line, and the potential streamline is seen plotted for comparison It is noticeable t h a t thc flow direction in the boundary layer is t,urnerl by a large angle t,owards the r~recling end of tho cylinder. This rirrumstanre is very important when flow patterns on yawed wings are obscrvcd with the aid of tufts
Swept wings. The cxistencc of cross-flow which occurs in 1.he boundary laycr of a yawed cylinder is important for the aerodynamic properties of swept wings. When yawed or swept-back wings operate a t higher lift values t h e pressure o n the s u c t i o ~ ~ side near theleading edge shows a considerable gradient towards the receding tip, t h e effect being due t o the rearward shift of the acrofoil sections of the wing. This phenomenon can be inferrcd from Fig. 11.15which shows the isobars on the suctibn side of a yawcd wing. The fluid particles which become dcaclcrat,cd in the boundary layer have a tendency to travel in the direction of this gradient, and s cross-flow in t>he dirc:ction of the rccctling tip rcst~lts. d c ~ r ~ o ~ ~ s L rby . t o ( l As ~ ~ in011~11romo1it.s~ r r o r ~ n o ( l li by R. T. Jones [58] and W. Jacobs [55], tlic bountlary layer on t,he recetlirig portion thickens, the effect leading t o prcmatnrc scpnration. I n aircraft c q ~ ~ i p p c d sweptwith back wings separation begins a t the receding portion, i.e. ncar the ailerons, nntl causes t h e dreaded one-winged staU to occur. It is possible t o avoid this kind of sepamt.ion, and hence t o prevent one-winged stalling, by equipping the wing with a 'boundarylaycr fence' which consists of a sheet-metal wall placed on the suction sidc ill t h e forward portion of the wing, thus preventing cross-flow. An aircraft with swept-back wing.? and x boundary-layer fence on each half of the wing is shown in Fig. 11.16. W. Liebe [66] reported on the improvement in wing cl~aract~erist~ics which earl be t attained by these means. A paper by M. J . Queijo, B. M. J a q r ~ e and W. 1). Wolhart [90] t1cscril)cs ~xt~erlsive mcnsurcrnent,s on models providctl with 'hor~ridary-layer fences'. The papers by ,J. Black [8] and I). ICi~ccl~emann (641 contain morc details

=7

A I)ro('rtl~~rc: wllic.l~ I~:~sc%tlt . I ~ f ~ s c~ ~ a l . i o r ~ s ~)rll~lisl~c:tl \V. 1)icnrm:cnn 1.211. is or1 r(l was I)y

A sititil:tr :t[~l)roxit~~at,(, rncl,l~odwas usrtl by J. M. Wild 11241 for the solution of thc prol)l(:rn of the ynwocl cylirttlcr. I'igrlrc 11.I4 reprcscnt.~ pn.t.tern of st.rcamlines the for :L y:~wctlrllij)t.ic cylirltlcr of slrtldcrnrss ratio 6 : 1 , placctl at, a n angle of incitlcnce to 1.he st.mn~n. 'i'hc l i f t corfficirnt has a valuc of 0.47. The arrows s l ~ o w n the sketch, ill intlic:at.c~ Ll~crlirrct,io~i flow of t-hn velocity con~porlentpan.llcl t o the wall in its of i~nmctlial~c c i g h l ~ o r ~ r l i. o o the value ~~ ~ e. t l , A

Il'ig. 11.14. I~ortn~l:~l~y-l:~yrrabor~La flow y:rwrtl ellipticnl cyli~ldrr with lift., nf'tar .I. M. Wild ( 1241

Vig. J1.15. 15xlrlnrlation of origin of c:rousflow,on a ynwcd wing nt an angle of incidcnce. Curves of constant pressure (isobars) on t,he ~nctionside of the wing. Near t.he leading edge on the uppcr snrface of the wing there is n harp pressure gradient a t right angles to the main stream and towards the receding end causing cross-flow

Fig. 11.16. Jet fighter De ITavilland D. 11. 110 ~ v i l . l lswept-bac:lt wings and a. Irvr~ndnry-layc:r fence at edge of encll ailcron; from W. J,icl)c [66]

c,or~c-t.rnir~g t.11(: v r r y romI)lox llow l ~ a l . t , c r r ~in I ) o u n t l n r y In.yers 011 ~ w c p tw i r l g s . s lSxl)rri111(:111.:11 1.c~sr11l.s ol)l,:ritlc,tl l)y A. I):rs 120) ir~(lic::r.l.n t , l ~ n ( a I ) o 1 1 l l t l n r . ~ ~ - l aPVII~C . . ~ C1 (::I,IIS(Y : ro~~si(lrr.:~l~l(~ I , ~III~~I~~)v(:III~~II~~ ill I,II(> l l o \ v o ~ il,s i1111rr s i t l r ill n t t ( l i l , i o ~ ~ l,11:1,t, i I,()

,I III.r:~sc!r.il.l~ 11: (.OIISI., cclr~.(1 1.55). is 1101. 11 1 o n l y otrr \ \ , l ~ i t s l ~ 11:in I)CCII nt.l~tlJ,ion. .1: give11 11. (:. Jdoos 1671 ~ L t ~ c l i cI.llc cnsc of Ilom pnsl, n l l n t plntt! w l l c ~ ~ free ntrcsrn in rlencrib1:~lby cl l.l~e rJ -- r o ~ ~ s l .11' - n,, -4- n, x , !\.llcrc:~s A. (:. I l a n s r n n ~ l d14. %. l l o r z i g (451 corisitlc~rerl t l ~ c . gr~~f.r:~lixc.tl (.:~sc: \r.il.l~
t

11

:-

oonsl;

11' --

2
I

n, .z."

.
Fig. 11.17n

Si~~rc: s11c.11r x 1 ~ ~ r n :flows ilrt. 1\01, irrul,:~licn~:~I. vcIot:ilry i n l.11(: l)olind:~ryI : ~ y r r r a n Ircconlc iI l11c Inrgrr III:LII I.lln1 ill t.ltc: frv~.sl,rc;l~n. 'l'l~n cxc:css ill vclocity is r l t r r ? t o the sc:ro~rtlnry Ilorv i n I.llc I ~ n ~ r ~ ~ t 1;iyrr \ v l ~ i r lr:~t~sli.rs l:rry l~ inln) if, l l t ~ i t lp:~rl.it:lrs fro111rrgionn of I ~ i g l ~ cncrgy. I t . s o ~ n c t i ~ n r s cr also II:II~)~IIS i r ~ i l i : r l\~eloril,y1)roIilt~si n 1.11~l ) r i ~ ~ ( ~ i r llo!v t l i r r r t i o ~ rsI1o1v rcgiot~so f ~,II:L~, I.II(\ nl l ) ; ~ r k - l l o ~ v l ~ i c l ~ ,~ c ~ v c r l l ~ r l (lo snot, s i g ~ ~ i s y p ; ~ r ~ i l i o ~ ~ ; t ~ n ~ ~ : i .tIis:rppo:~r f ~ t r l , l ~ e r \ ~ cs , fc t,11cy lly t101r.nsLrrt~111. 'l'l~is t,yj)c o f br11:lviour can also bc o x p l n i ~ ~ c t l bcing tluo to n trnr~sfero f rrlr?rgy b y an t,llr srrontlnry flow. ' r l ~ cr r n d c r w i l l recognize from the p r e c c d i ~ ~ g exnrr~plct l ~ n t,llc t l e l i n i t i o ~ l t o f sc~~):~.rnI.ionhcscl. \r,it.lr clifficrrltics \\~11ciithree-clin~rnnior~:~l is 1)ounrlnry layers arc Ijcing consitlrrr(l. 'l'l~isin c l ~ ~ c the fact I,l~ntt.110 relnI.ion b r l w c e ~ ~ 1.0 I~nclt-floxv t ~ d h c a r i n g a ~ strrss has ceasrtl trr :IS sitnplc nn i n t.11~.t . ! r ~ o - t l i ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ raac ~[4!), 771. A scp:\rot.ion o f tcrms itlcnt.icnl will1 sior :~l thf: o l i r t ~ ~ ~ c ~ o ~ ~ n c~ot~l~c!xion 1 . 1 1 ~ i ~ ~ t c : r c t i wiLh frco s t , r r n ~ n (1c~cril)rd y cqn. ( 1 1.55) call I)c srrcccssb f t ~ l l y r l ~ i t ? v r t l:~c.rortling 1 16. 1 ~ o g : ~ r [24], m l ~ c n n , 1.0 , . ly considcvit~g n infiuitely l o ~ r g n wing \vl~iclr is 111:ttIt: 1 rrrl,nle nl)ouL n vcrl.ical axis ( I ~ r l i r o p t e rrotor). I t is fount1 t l ~ n t ,tho r o t a r y m o t i o n 0 c1oc.s n o t nll'rct, l l ~ cl~ortln.iso vclocity co1111~oncnt r ant1 so I.llc incitlencc o f scparat.ion rclnnitln 1ln:r~li~t~tcsd. I1oI.:1lio11~ n n r c l ycntlscs 1.11~ nppc~:lr:%nrc f slight r:idiaI vclocit,y roniponr11tr4. o

A f t ~ r l , l ~sprri:tI c:rsr o f I11t: gr11cr:11~ i r c ) I ) l cr1cscriI)cd l)y c q t ~ s (11.53) and (11.54) \ v l ~ i c is rr r~~ . l~ ntnrtl:1I)I1' 111r : ~ l r ~ ~ l n lorwcrs B.II~II 1111: c x l c r n n l flow consisls o f a t1r.o-tlin~rnsionnlbasic p a t l r r ~ ~ .in~~ OI I \ ~ l ~ i i . l ~ is s t ~ l ~ c ' r i t ~ ~ i ) o swr:~lz t l i s t , ~ ~ r l ~ n n c r1.11~k i n d tlrsrril)rtl I)y t11rr.en ~'d of
(1 (.r,z) = [ l , , ( x ) I lJl ( y . 2 ) , ll'(.r,z) = I \ ' #( r , : ),

Uc1 ,
ll.l < [lo .

.I.

Irr- I i o t ~ ~ ~ ~ l : r r y - l :(lo\\.* (::I.I ~yt r I.11tx1,~ : r l r ~ : ~ l ll)r s011:lrntrrl i n t o n t n ~ o - r l i ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ n sii o n t~ca n y, I ~ s r ~ t rl p l v i l l ~:L \ \ t * : ~ l < p ~ - r l ~ ~ r l ) ns11l)t:ri1111)ost*(l Iit,. 'J'l~c rcr{~risitc I i l T c r c ~ ~ l i atll ~ ~ n l , i o r i~ I Ionce l.io~~ ~ I ( r s , 111111.1>. 111, 1111rot1111(:~1 l i ~ ~ t : : ~ r i % : ~ l i o t ~ . 11)' ICX:IIII[III>S o f this kitr(l \v(!rc giv011 I)y A. M a g r r 170, 71) :IIII~ ll. S. 'I':III[ l lOaJ.

I:~yrrs 011 n ~ l ~ I~edies. ' I ' l ~ r r ~ c : - t l i ~ ~ ~ rl~ ~ t ~ o~ t:l~ ~ r ~ ' - flr)!r.s r r cr ) ~i t n ; l I n . y hrronrc n v r n \VII(.II II* f ! x I ( ~ r ~ 1 1:0~ l~ I S ~ 1 1::111110l, I)P( : l ~ r t : s i ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ I 01e s11l1t-rr xi11111ly Ipy ~ ~ t s i l (PI' ~ VOIII~)OIIC.IIIS. i oI.\CO ~ '1'110 Iiil1,t.r IYISI: orrrtrs, li)r ~:x:I.IIIII~(-. 0 1 1 n y:~n.c.ll I ~ r ) ( l y f tr.vol~ll.i<rn. o 111 :II.I.:IIIE~~III~~II~S lS1i9 l<i11<1. of 111~: 11irwI,io11 vrlo(,il,y (,OIIIJIOII(~II~,S of' ill I,II(: l)ot111t1;1r,y 1:~yf.rt I r \ ~ i : ~ l c a v o ~ r s i ~ l c ~ ~OI)I l ~l.l1:11,ill (.IIv Srr(: SI~~AIII I'I. . a l ~ :itI I,IIc I)o~IIL,; i n oI,ltrr ~ ~ o r c l s . sIro11g s t ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ l : ~ r y - l I o r v : I livI,l is ~I-II~~:II,IYI. : ~ IIC r r y (;o~npli(::tLrrlll~rcc-tIi111c11sin11n1 ~ :lItI r ~ n SIIVII AII i t l r 01.1 v Ilo\v s i~ Otit~n(I:~ry l : ~ y ~ > r sY I I I \ ~ I . ~ C * ( ~ b y l,l~t:~ ~ l t o I o g r : ~ ~ ~ iln liig. l1.17l); it \vns l,alzc>r~ ) ~1 . A. lCit:l~rIl)rcn~~cr is ( SIIO!VII ~ 1 C n ~ ~ I c l 011(1:1rl, 2 2 011 1 1 1 ~ \. 1 tll)l)tbrsiclo o f a yntvcxl ~llii)soitlo f ~ . ~ : v o l ~ t t . ito l ~ ,llo\v r ) : ~ l , t r r l ~ n \ ' i l ~ g , Ilr I II~,I-I)III:I(I(! visililt: l ~ st,r(!:il~o f tiye iss~ring y fro111 d r i l l i t ~ g s t l ~ c 011 srrrkhcc t)f l,lrt: I ) o ~ l y 'l'l~t> . ~111otogr:11)11sl~o\vs,ill p:trl,it:~~l:~r, III:II. l . l ~ t :[):il,l6~11 f :I, l~l~rct~-~li~~~r~isio~~nl o 1)o1111tInry layer \!I1ic11 csisls i11 :LIB :t(lvrrst: IIK~SSII~(: ~I.:I(I~~:III, ~ n : i r l ~ c t I lclili'rrrnt frolit III:II, itr a t ~ v o - r l i ~ r ~ c ~ ~ s i o ~ ~ : ~ I i8 y I)ot111<1:~ry 1:ryt-r. 'l'hf: p r i ~ ~ c , i l )tlilli.rc~~c.o f.l~is:i n t l ~ c ! t . n . o - t l i ~ r ~ c ? ~ w cnsc,~ : , ll~ o :~l is i ~ ) ~ l ~ flrlitl i n I l l o 1)ountlnry 1:tyl.r is g r r ~ c r : ~ l lforrrcl i11f.ol . l ~ n ~ s l n : r ~ Ilr)rvl i f l.l~rr r s s ~ g r~ v i c t ~ is s l ~ l l i r i rl y ~ ~l . ~ o I I ~ ,~.IIIIS y c ~:~ p ~ nd t ~R ~ : I I I S ~ I I ~ s r p : ~ r n l , i o ~~) ~I ~ C II l.l~r . : ~ l (.r / . Fig. 7.211); ~ I I I . I I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ I ~ I I I C I Ic:rsrI Il ~l I~ c ' ~ l 1)art.iclra ~r l I,IIC S~~ ~~i(l ~,:III ~:;C.:~II{: s i ~ l f > \ v : ~ y s long l l ~ e v n l l .' 1 ' 1 1 ~ p l ~ ~ ~ l , o g rill Fig. lI.1711 rlvarly c:xl~iOits l , l ~ i sy p e o f ~ :~pl~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ I I : I ' ~ I ~ I I ~ :1,111: III~~~II~II~II~IIC)~(I 1111- slrv:~l<s ill o f I,II,:r r : ~ rSI:I~II:II~~II i. c. i n IIIc.rrgio11 o f point, : sl r c t ~ ~ g I :~clv(.rsr.Iirl.ssllrc: g~.:~(li(wI. irlsti Iiig. 1 1 .I (sf'(. 7n), ; ~ r o elrnl-ly S I ~ ~ I It o l)o clrllt:rto(l sitla\v:iq.n; I l \ v > (\<I. lro\\vvrr. S~III:I~II ~ , l i ~ ) g i111l igt . SII~I':IIV. slrr;11111i11(~s llrc SII~I.:IP~! l l l ~ i ( ,arc. SIIO!VII ~) l 'l'l~r nl. l~ i t 1 ls'ig. I I . 171.:IIIII t t l ~ i e 11:1vt~ ~ l ~ l1t.1~81 ~ ~ I : I lI I Ir:tl1~111:1lio11 goo(l t i t ~ : ~ l i l : ~ l : ~ ,g : r r r ~ ~\sit11 t , ~ ~ (Y~ y sl~o!ri tr e~~
III~II.~~ ~ ~ l ) l i , . : ~ l t s ~ L S ( ~ S (.o ill ~ : I

2. I~<IIIC~:I~J.

) I ; Sclrrn~nl,icl i n g r n ~ n f s t , r m ~ ~ ~ lvio\vrtl sitlnn.:~ys r o i~~rs I)) I ~ l ~ o l , o ~ r otf l t~ l~ o : l ~up1icr siclr o f llrc ellipsoid o f r t ~ v c ) l ~ ~ l ~ I I rv;~l,c?r I ~ : ~ n n(11~IIC. 14:1<~1 , i cI,IIc n~ r cl ON ill (:lrstillon-sorrs-Ungnc~~x(l'sris). Rcynoltln IIIIIII~C~ (Iin1 / 1 1 -= 2 x 1 0 1 '1'11e l l ~ r vp i ~ t t c r l t was rnntlc visil)lc b y sI,rcnk~01 (lye issrrir~gfro111 l 1 1 r 8urf:lc:c o f I . l ~ cI)otly. 'l'hc ~ I ~ ~ P ~ L I I I ~ ~ I ill tllo Inycrs ill tlrr: r~c!igl~lrourl~ootl 1.11~ rr:tr st:~gn:ll.ion p l ~ i n t , of sllow n ~ n i r r l t r t clt:llrxion l Ri([C\v:LYs,'rllis ( : O ~ ~ ~ S ~ ~ O I1.0 ~scpnr:ltion i n n. I l ~ ~ ~ e c - t l i n ~ r n I,o~~ntl:iry I( R s i o ~ ~ : ~ l 1:lyc.r c) SlrenlnJinrs a, tile wall, rn:lrltccl 8, ol)t,ninr~tl y c n l c ~ ~ l : ~ t:III~~~ r w r r t i c : ~ lo ~ x i r i ~ l ilitlf', ~ t h i o ~ ~ ..l l s ti~ nlnrlcctl RC; t l ~ o r cis snt,isfnct,ory qr~nlil.nlive ngrcc.rnt~111. \vilh 1.11~ pnl.l,ern 111t! ~)l~ot,cigr:~l)l~ of \ v l ~ i r is s l ~ o \ v r n I)) l~ i~

256

XI. Axinlly ~yn~motricnl tl~ree-dimcneionnl and boundnry layers

tl~o oxperi~nent,nl pnt,tnrr~in Pic 11.17 b. It is, tllcreforo, not at all eaay to establish a critorion for scparat,ion i r ~a thrco-clirnc~~siol~nl boundary layer, if proper weight is given to this type of bel~nviolrr.A t l,l~is point, we wish to drnw tho render's ~t~tention the investigations on yawed to cmwn (lnc to W. ,1. Itninbird, It. S. Crnbbe and L. S. Jurewicz [91]. It, a111)rarsL bo possible to attempt, n theoret,icnl analysis of t,hree-dimenaionalboundary o layers w i l h t . 1 1 ~aitl of ir scheme snggcsted by L. Prnndtl [RBI who proposed to introduce a c~r~rviiincnr systrrn of coordinatm in which the potential lines and streamlines of the free stream aol~lclplay t.11~ ])art of coordit~ntos. This progmmme wns cnrrictl out by E. A. Eichelbrenner n ~ ~A.l 011flnrt[22] whon Ll~cycnlmllnlad tho Inlninar cmo ment~ioncdearlier. I t hna already t Iwrn rncnt.ionccl l . l ~ n tgood qr~nlit,at,ivc ngreerncnt rrsultetl. as shown in Fig. 11.17c. See also It. 'I'i~ntnnu I 141. [ 'I'he mcl.l~otlof c:nlculnt,ion proposetl by L. I'randtl r86] was recently tlcveloped n~~merioally W. C:cisslcr 135, 36, 371. Figure 11.18 illnstrntes the resrllt.s referring 1)y t,o t.lrc t,hrcc-tlilnrnsional l ~ o u n d a r ylayer on a yawed ellipsoid of revolution. I n acldition t80 t,llc pot,ential lines and st.reamlines of l l ~ e external flow, Figure 1 1 . 1 8 ~ shows the sepnrat.ion line rS; the latter has a course ~ i m i l a r o t h a t in Fig. 11.17. Fit gures l l . 18 11anct 1 1.18c represent t,he v ~ l o c i t ~ y distribution in the boundary layer nt various st,sLions on a partpicnlarpotc,nt.ial line. T h e la~nirlarI~oundnrylayer on a ynir,ad rotating circular cone in a snpersonic streart1 was rnrlior invcst,ignted by R. Sedncy 11041, whereas ,J. C. Martin 17.71 irivrstigat.ecl 1.11~ Mngrlns eKect8on bodies of revol~tt~ion R, small angle of incidence. at, Fig. 11 .I!). \'rloc.ity clist.ril)ution i11 1.11r J I I I I ~ I I ~ L)~( > I I I I c ~ I I nry Iitycr along a corner, nflrr Vasn111.n Itan1 1921. I,iue of vo118t,11nt v e l o ~ i l , yi l l tl~cI)ot~~~(lnt.y,o ( r ) = a/(i const. Frce-stre:wn velorit,y (J" (l) C Z"I

Another import,ant, example of a t,hree-clirnensional bountlary laycr can 11efor~ntl in the corner Sormctl by two ~ n u t u a l l ypcrpt-~~dicnlar planes in a sf,rcarn p:~rallrl t,o t,lteir line of intersection. This flow config~rat~ion invrsl,igat,ed t.llro~~rl~irnlly was 1)y V ~ ~ s a ~ l1dn.m 1921. 'I'lie: rst.rrnnl rcloc:il.y nl, fnr t1ist.ntlc.c11:)s1)c.c.n nssr~nrc-tllo IIr of t,n Ilnrt~.co's l,ypc., i . c!. given by

It, is recalled from See. TXa t h a t this type of exterrlal strrn.ln leads t o sirnil:tr vclocity profiles in tile boundary layer. This feat,ure c o n t i ~ u ~ t,o holcl in the casr of flow in a es corller. Some of [.he resltlts of these strldics arc given in Fig. 11.19; t,llis shows t.110 vclooity distril)utions in the corner for three cliflkrcnt v n l ~ ~ c s tlie prcssnrc paraof llletcr nt. A comparison between t h e distribulions for different values of ns tlrrnonstrntes t h a t the boundary layer in s corner t l ~ i c l r c ~ ~ s apprrcia1)ly in t,l~c prcsrtlce of a pressure increase in the external flow.

Fig. 11 .lR. \'rloc.il.y cli~trih~~lion. 1 1 ~ in t t,hrco-di~r~cnsio~~ni bor~ndary-lnyer an ellipsoid of mvoon 111tior1 n x i s mtio L I I ) - 4 nt nn angle of inci~lcnco = is0,after W. Geisslcr 136, 871. a) SysLc~n or ? of ~)otrnt,inl I I I I ~ linrfi st,rrn~nlinm outer flow; S = sopaintion lit~c. Primary flow velocity proin b) filrs. ~ r / l J , ,i l l t,l~r clirc,c.t.ionof the outer flow strcanilii~e~.Secondary flow velocity proBles,iu/Um, c) nt ripl~tnnplr~to t l ~ r clircrtion of t,l~e outer flom strcan~lines.'rhc velocit,y profiles arc given for l,ot.r~~t.inl 1 (13)nt, diKorrnt st,ntions111, \vit.h a7,il~~~it,l> 4 alld st.nt,ionx as pcr table above line nliplc (6 - 0" - ~r.ir~dxr.arrl sytnn~rt,ry)

Expcrimcnt,al ol)scrvat.ions [82, 391 suggest t h a t t,ltr flow in t,lle corncr S(:~I:LI.:L~,~S carlicr than t h : ~ l llic por(,ions of t01c walls a t a larger dislnncc frotn it, cvcSl1i t 1 t,lic on prcs[:ncc of sn~nllntlversc pressure gratlicnts. 'J'l~ispliysit:cllly r ~ r ~ t l c r s t ~ r ~ . ~ ~ t l ~ ~ ~ I ~ I ~ 111011(: of I)t:linvior is fnlly conlirrnetl by Lllesc thoorctionl r ~ s r t l t 0 1.1 a flnt plrtl,c: ~ t - j ) : ~ ~ . : l ( , i o ~ l ~ occurs a t m = -0.091 (see Fig. 9.1), separ:rtion in a riglit-nriglcd corncr occrtrs a s cnrly ag for m = -0.05. At na = -0.08, Fig. 11.19, t h e flow in t h e nciglll)oll~.lrootl of t,he corner displays a separation region wit11 revrrse flom (IL < 0). By oontrnsl, a t a large distance no reverse flow occurs. M.Za.mir and A. 1). Young [120, 1271 carrirtl out extensive experiments on t h e laminar bomndary layer xlot~g right,-anglctl corner a a.t zero incidence. See also S. G. Rubin [93a].

258

XI. Axi:~Ilysytn~nrtrirnl nncl tl~rrr-~liri~msionr\i borlntlary layers

rl. 'rl~rro-clin~or~sior~:il 1)ounclnry I I L ~ ( V H

%5!)

11r1 r ~ I . ( ~ n s iof ~~i ' ~ J I I I I I ~ u R ~rictl~od rot11.tinghodieu \vns given by G. J~rngclaus[40]; n ~ ~ I ' ~ 1.0 lie :~l)plir(l t.o tl~c:ir~vrsLignt.ion rclnlivo ti~olionthro~tgh cr~rvcd it of a chnnnel which is important it1 t,llc Clrror,~ rrrilriftll~.nl11111111)s. of 1.110 LI~roryIcnils 1.0 ~~rcdirl,ioriu regarding scpamtion which wit11 nrr: in goocl :igrcrn~r:~~t, ti~ras~~re~iirnI..r. 111 cc)nrlr~sion, attention nlny I>r: drn~vnt o t.lir mlc~ti:~tion t.lie 1101111clnry of layer on two ~ n n t ~ ~ ~~ )l~ :y ~ ) r f ~ d i flnl. l~)lalcs znro incitlt:ric:c pc:rfortnctl I)y (:. IT. Carrier 1121 and I<. Gcrn l r c~l nr a(. ~ I C I I [.:Hi]. 'I'II(:s a ~ i ~ o 1)rol)lrnt \viLlr s ~ l ~ ~ r r s nIIOIVnn(1 lirnt trnnsfrr Ilns IIDCII nic dc::~lt. \ v i t . I ~IJVM. Z. von I<rxg\vnl~loc:kiwho n~:~.krn of C . 1'. Cnrrirr's enrlirr work; c / . 11. A. Ilwj-cr [21bl. rise 'I'lie so-rnllctl "q1lnrt~r-11I:~tn 1)rol)lcni" is closrly rrl:rt.c:d to tllc above. 111it, nn invcsl.igal.io~i i.s rnntlr of t , l ~ r *flow n l o ~ ~ g n II:rL pI:rtc: a t zero ir~~*itlenoc ~ i r l ~ \vl posqcssca n niilo etlgc! parallel to t l ~ c !ilrr~a~rl :~(ll1it,i0ll 1110 I(>:ldil)g in to cdgr. ~ ~ ~ l l r i l ~ ~ I . Ii. ~ I ct.llcorcti(.nl treatment of 1,llisprol)lcrn for ~ l l s nrr tlrlr to I<. St.rwart.son a.1it11,. I l o ~ v : ~ r[IOXI. n ~ ~tol I<. Stewnrt.son [10!#]. T l ~ sitle edge cnr~scu tl~ t e Ll~rn~)pc:~r:i~t(~? s r ~ p ~ ~ l r r r ~ t ~ t ~ l n r y n ~ n t i o rin tlln I)onndary layer which $reduces, of' a sccor~rl;rry ~ ntnong 00I1rrs. 1111 ii~~r(::~s(- the s11eari11g st,rcss. 'I'lris rcs~rltagree8 \vitIt ~ I I C ~ r ~ e a s ~ ~ r e ~ t ~ e ~ r t s in prrfc~r~nrcl .J. \V. 1':ldrr 1251 on n plnln o r linile width. IIowover. the flow at t l ~ o I)y siclo edge, likr I.II:IL i l l lire itii~nrtli:~tc trr~igl~l)onrl~ootl1,110 I r a d i ~ ~ g of crlgr. is not. yeL mn~plclcly ~ n d c r ~ t . o o d . ~ M a n y I.llrcc-tlirnensi~~tal o u n t l a r y - l a y e r flows a r c s o physically c o ~ t t p l c xt , h a t b Ilrey will, n t o s t probnl)ly, r e m a i n inarccssiblc t o a nnnierical trcat,~nerrt, for a long timc:. An cx:rlnplc of t,lris t,ypc is illust.rat.ctl witll t h e a i d of' F i g . 11.20. T h i s d e p i c t s srhernnl.icnlly t.lta t , l ~ r e e - t l i ~ n e n s i o n hollrltlary l a y e r which f o r m s in t,he n c i g h b o u r al hootl of a. scluat eylintlrical b o d y (small hoigllt c o m p a r e d t,o l e n g t h ) p r o v i d e d wit11 a blllnt nose. The 1)otly is plnccti o n a flat, p l a t e . 011 t h e plat,c, a n d at a Iargc d i s t a n c e f r o m t0re cylirtd(,r, t,llc 1)ountlnry l a y c r is trwo-tlirnensional.A s t h c c y l i n d e r is spproacll. c ~ l nrltl o u t . ~ i d c , tlrc pla7re o/ .~?/ni.melry,h c r c f o r m s i n t h e b o t r r ~ d a r yl a y e r t a region t a lilre t,hosc ill Fig. of sc,contlary flow in wlricll t l t c vc.locit,y ~)rofiles r e sltewcd, r a t l ~ c r

ITig. 11.21. Srparat,iotl of a t,l~rcr-rlit~~rnsin~~nl I,ountlnry layer in stngnntiotl lln~v;S ~ I I ; I ~~yIi11~1rr ~ ~nottlllet1 on n H:rt pltrtr, nfl,cr 'I'li~vnilrs ( 1 12nl; srn n l s ~ Fig. 11.20

1 1 .] . TIlf I)ollntlnry layel. in tllc plarle of s y n ~ m r t ~ lntlst o v e r r o m c a s t r o n g I)rc~ssllrc ry increase in t.hc stngnnt,ion region of t , l ~ aylintlcr. T h i s Ira(ls t,o s e l r n r a t , i o ~ ~ p o i n t S. c at. ill a m a n n e r si~nil:tr t o t,hat i n t,lle dccrlcrat,ctl st,agnat,io~i Ilow of I'ig. 2.15.

ncoming boundary loyer

Woll 511wmline5

Ill t,lte r l c i g l ~ l , o ~ ~ r h o oft l t,ltis separat.ion region, t . 1 1 ~ o llo\z, tlcvclo1)s a ~ c . ~ ~ n ~ n t c . c l v o r t e x sllcet whicll c ~ l r l su p a r o u n t l tltc cylinrlcr n.t, its I):~sr lilt(: a Irorsrsltoc. 'I'lrr pllot,,grap~l of Pig, 11 ,21 w a s t : L l z e ~ ~ t , l ~ e \vit,It inicel,ioli of S I I I O ~ Z ~ l)~.o\~ialr k) \risll:lli~n ( i o l l . I1rl.c it is l,~)ss~[)[e Ilo(,i(:cl,ltnt i n atltlil iorr t,o 1,!1(: prilllnrjr vOl't,(;.X \~!li('I1lOt:lt('s t.0 c:loc:l~wisr nllrntl 01. t.l1(- cylintlt~r t . l ~ r r ef o r ~ n sa.n a.dtlit.io~r:~l, stn:~.llc~. vor.Ic.x \vl~ic.lt ~ . ~ li l l ~(.Ilrt s a l n r ~s r n s r . 'l'lro primat.y vol.I~c~x , ~ ,liiT(.rs ~ I I I I ~ I : ~ ~ ~ I 1'1.0111I I ( : I I I ~ (~ its Itvotlilrlcrlsionnl n.ltalog in t h a t it. is n o t formctl Oy t,lr(. siirnc llrtitl ~rn~.liel(.rr:I I l11(% (.onO t m r y , it. accel,t,s oortt~inuo~rsly freslr rnat,t:r,i:~l fro111 t.l~(: n p s l r e a m tlirvct i o ~ t: ~ n t ltlis~ ; l l ; l l ~ lllat~~~ri:Ll, ( : o t t t i n ~ ~ o n s l y , g~~s also iltt,o t,l~(: Y,OIIC~ of s r l ) : ~ ~ . i ~ l , i o ~ t rottli11v(1 i n s i ~ l vtlto , ~ ~ ) ~ t . ~ x t is very (lifficult t,o rnast,cr snc:11 a c:o~nl,iox flow I):L~,IVI.II iby c.:ilv~llnf ion, s]lcet,, I IKlr(,irlll:lrly IIccnllse it is p r c t l o m i n a ~ ~ t lt11rl)lllrnt in tnost r : ~ s r s cv(.ll ~ ~ I I O I I ~ it I ('all y , I 11r Ia.rnirlnr near t.lrc nail.
~ o l 1 t r m l ) ( ~ . a rrcs(-arrlr invt:st.ig:~t,ions inI,o s c \ l ) : ~ r : ~ l i o i~1r l l 1 1 . c ~ c ~ - t l i 1 1 1 c ~ t t s i ~ i n : 1 1 y t Ilo\vs a r e cxtcllsivcly tliscnssctl in t.lrc A(:AIbI) (:c~nli.~,cs~~c,v . o c , c v t l i ~No. s I(iX I I ) . I'~ ~~ S1lllllll:lry 1):11)1-1.s n I I ~ r ~ ~ ~ : - : l i ~ t t r t ~ s iI o I I~I :~~II:tyc\~.s\ ~ O I . g i \ . r ~1)). \\'. Ib o ~)I I~ l: I I . ~ C ~ S o a r s I IORa.], F'. I<. M o o ~ . c1781. .T. C. Coolz(> :11t,I R1. (i.II:III 1 I!)), :IS \vc.il ;IS I,y I1 Scl~liehtirtp 1100(.

Ia'ifi. 1 1 .20 (svI~r~ti:~t,i~').r ( ~ ~ : - ~ l i ~ ~ ~110\111<lnry l f ~ r ~ n indt,lw corllrr 11rt~1vcr11sqt~:it, 'l'I~ t~~isint~:~ Inycr r x

~.,vli~~:lrir,:~l ~~l:~,c,c.rl :I flab ~)lat,r, ~ l l-1.r 1'. .1011nsl~011 571. TIICst.re:~~iili~~rn I)ody on ~ r I5ri. arc (:~trved ~ n ~ t s i c l ~ .~ ) I : I o I ~n y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~n rrs~rlt. t Iir I f' ns ( ~ t . r y ; t.hrr1. F O ~ I I I S t,l~r ~ o ~ ~ n t llnyrr n nrco~rdnry in I nry flo\v, :~ntl tl~c:vc.ln1.it.y 11roliIr-N I~~:c~onrc skrwrtl. 'I'lrr I ) ~ I I I I C ~ I:ryrr~ i l l l.lie 11l:11)e sgrnritt:try ucpnr:~tos nt, JI~. r~f ~ ) o i n l in 1.Irr sl:~gr~n.tion I'? region. 'rllr flow for111sn ~urfnc~k: srpn.rat.ioll; see also Fig. 11.21 of

\\'t. (I(*scril~(* ty111* (lo\v in c . o ~ ~ j ~ l l ~ wit11oour r l i ~ c r ~ s ~ i o n In1ni11:ir I ) o ~ ~ n ( l : layers IIli* of (.li ~~ on ~ry rvrn I l ~ o ~ l s11c*11r ~ ~ v:rrc: t l ~ r l ~ ~ t l rln t~tlostc:mcbs. I)c:c:nnse 1.li1:ir c,hnrn,:tc:r in, f~~~i(l:~tnrnt~uIIy gl~ fl u i l , slrralti~tg. 111: satiic.. 1

260

XI. Axially syrr~lnrlrir~al II~rrr-tli~~~c~t~sio~~al Inyrra nntl bonndnry References

References

261

[I] i\GARD Cor~fcrcncc Proccedir~gsNo. 168 on "l'low Rcparat.ion" (1975) containing 42 contributiolrs. [2] Andrndc, J':.N., and Tsicn, TI. S.: T l ~ vclority distribution in a liq~titl-into-liquid Proc. c jet. Pl~ys.SO(.. Imndon 49, 381-301 (1937). [3] '\shkcnna, 11.. and Itiddoll, F. R.: Invcstigntion of t11c t11r1)nlent bonndnry layer on a yawcd flat plnk. NACA 'J'N 3383 (1!355). [4] 13nmrncrt, K., and Sol~ocn, Die Strij~nr~ng Fliissigkcitcn in r o l i c r c r ~ d e ~ ~ ,J.: von FIohlwcllct~. Z. VllI 90, 81-87 (1948). [5] Bammcrt, K., ancl Kliiukcns, H.: Nabcntotwauscr hinter Lcitriidcrn von axialen Stro. rnungsmaechincn. 1ng.-Arch. 17, 367 -380 (1940). [Sa] Banks, W. H. H.: The boundnry lnyer on a rot,nting sphere. Qunrt. J. Mcch. Appl. MnLh. 18, 443-454 (1965). [6] Bcckcr, R.: Bcrcchnnng dcr Roibungasclrichtcn nit schwaclrcr Scl~undiirat~riin~~~ng nac11 dcm I~npnlsvcrfnl~rcn. ZFW 7, 163-175 (1!)50); EM) nlso: Mitt. M n ~ - I ' I n n c l ~ - I ~ ~ s ~ i t u t fiir SLrornungsforschung No. 13 (1956) nnd ZAMM-Sondcrhcft 3-8 (1956); Diss. Ciittingcn 1954. [7] Binnic, A.M., and HnrriR, D.P.: The application of bor~ndarylnycr thcory to swirling liquid flow through n nozzle. Qunrt. J . Mcch. Appl. Math. 3, 89-106 (1950). [8] Block, J.: A note on t l ~ c o r b x patterns in t.11~ v boundary lnycr flow of n awcpt-bnck wing. J. b y . Acro. Soc. 56, 279-285 (1952). [0] Biidcwndt,, U.T.: Die Drchstromnng iibcr frstem Grnnd. ZAMM 20, 241-253 (1940). [I01 Boltzc, IF.: Gron7~chichtcnnn 1toL~tio~rslriirpcr11. Iliea. (:iittingcn 1908. [ I l l Burgcrs, J.M.: Somc cor~sidcrationaon thc dcvclopment of houndnry lnycr in the caee of flows having n rotationnl component. Ken. Aknd. van Wctenschnppen, Arnsterdnm 45, No. 1-5, 13-25 (1941). [I21 Cnrricr, C.F.: Tho b o ~ ~ n d n r y laycr in n corner. Quart. Appl. Math. 4 , 367-370 (1946). [13] Chu, S.T., and Tifford, A.N.: Tho compressible laminar boundary laycr on a rotating body of rcvolut,iorr. J A S 21, 3 4 - 3 4 6 (1954). [I41 Colintz, I,., and Giirtlcr, H.: lbhratron~ung schwnchcm Droll. ZAMP 5,95- 110 (1954). mit [I51 Cooke, J.C.: 7'110horrndnry laycr of a clnss of infinite yawcd cylinders. Proc. Cumbr. Phil. Soc. 46, 645-648 (1950). [IG] Cookc, J.C.: Pohll~auscn'smethod for three-dimcnsionnl laminar boundary layers. Aero. Qoart.. 3, Pnrt 1, 51-60 (1951). [17] Cookc, .J.C.: On l'ohll~anncn's n~cthodwith npplication to a swirl problem of Taylor. J A S 19, 486-4!N (1952). [I81 Cookc, J.C.: Tho flow of fluids nlong cylinders. Qrmrt. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 10, 312-331 (1957). [ID] Cookc, J.C., and IInll, M.G.: n o ~ ~ n d n rlayers in three dimensions. Progress in Acroy nautical Sciences 2 , 221-282, I'cgamot~ Press, London, 1962. [lDn] Crabtrrn, L. F , Kiichcn~nnn, . D., nnd Sowcrby, L.: Three-dimcnaionnl boundary layers. Clrapbr in: L. Itoscnhcad (cd.): Lnminnr boundary lnycra. Clnrcndon Preea, Oxford, 1963, p. 409-491. [20] J)M, A.: Untcrs~~chungcn den Einflnea von Grenzachicl~tziiunen iibcr auf die aerodynamiachen Eigcnschnften von Pfcil- und Dcltafliigeln. I)iw. Braunscl~weig 1959; ZFW 7 , 227242 - .- Il9R!II. .. ,1211 I)irnrn~nnn. \Y.:15erechn1111g Wiirn~riibcrgnng~x In~ninnrr~~nstrijn~ten dm an 1Ciirpert1mit konatnntrr n r ~ dorlnvi-riintlerlicllrr Wanclten~l)rr~~tur. I3raunschwcia I951 ; ZAhlhl 1)i~s. 33, 89-10!? (1953); w e also J A S 18, 64-65 11951). [21a] Dnmnrquc, P., Iaghovitcr, G., and Dagucnct., M.: DBtcrminntion drs ligriea dc courant pari6talea sur un corps de ri.volution tournant nutour dc son axe dans un fluidc nu repos. ZAMI' 26, 325--336 (1975). [21h] I)wyer, JI. A.: Solnt,ion of n thrm-dimensionnl boundary-layer flow with scparation. AIAA ,I., 6, 1336-1342 (1968). [22] 14;icl~clhren~~cr, and Ondart. A,: Mi.t,hode dc cslcul de la couche limite tridirncnuioE.A., nrllc. Applicntion A un corps fi~mlhinclini: snr Ic vent. ONERA-Publication No. 76, (:l~nt.illon. 1955.
I - .

1231 Eichelhrenner, E.A.: D6collement laminnire en troia dirncnsions aur un obstaclc firti. ONERA-Publication No. 89, Chatillon. 1957. [24] Eichelbrenner, E.A.: Three-dimensional boundary layers. Annunl Review of Fluid Mech. 5 , 339-360 (1973). [25] Eldcr, J . W.: Tho flow poet a flat pin& of finite width. J F M 9 , 133-153 (IDGO). [26] Fadnia, B. S.: Boundary layer on rotating spheroids. ZAMP V, 156-103 (1064). / [27] Fagc, A.: Expcrimcnta on a sphere a t critical Iteynolds-numbers. ARC 1tM 1760 (1036). , [28] p g n r t y , L. E.: The larrlinnr boundary layer on a rotating blade. J A S 18, 247-252 (1951). [29] triissling, N.: Verdunstung, Wiirn~ciibcrgang und Geacl~witrdigkcitavcrtciinngbci zweidimc~lsio~~alcr rotationusymrnetrischer lnrninarcr (2rcn7ficl1ichtnt.riimung. 1,nncln. Univ. und Areakr. N. F. Avd. 2, 35, No. 4 (1940). [29n] Furuya, Y., and Nakarnura, I.: Velocity profiles in the skewed boundnry lnycrs on aome rotating bodies in axial flow. J . Appl. Mcch. 37, 17-24 (1970). [30] Furuya, Y., Nnkamurn, K., and Kawnchi, H.: The cxpcri~nent the skewed boundary on layer on a rotnting body. Bullet.in of JSME 9 , 702-710 (1966). [31] Furuyn, Y., and Nnkelnnra, I.: An cxpcrin~ontnlinvcatigntion of the skowod bonndnry layor on n rotaling body (2nd Rcport). Bullotin of ,JSME 11, 107-246 (1!)08). [32] Garbscl~, Ii.: Ubcr dic Grenzschicht an dcr Wnnd cines Tricl~tars inncmr Wir1)cl- nnd mit Radialstriimung. Fifty ycnrs of boundnry-lnycr research (W. Tollmien and H. Giirl.lcr. cd.), Brannschweig, 1955, 471 -486; six also: ZAMM-Sondcrhcft 11- 17 (1956). [33] Ccis, TI).: Ahnlichc Crcn7~chichknnn Rotationskorpcrn. Fifty ycnrs of bonnil:rry-layer rcscnrch, (W. Tolln~icn, and H. Oortlcr, ed.), 13rnunschwcig, 1955, 204-303. 1341 Grenzsclricl~ten.J. Rnt. Mccl~.Annlysis 5, 643 - - . - Geis, Th.: ,,Kl~nlichc"drcidi~rre~~sionnle 686 (1056). [35] (:cisslcr, W.: Rcrccl~nt~ng I'otcnlialstriimung unl rotntion~~yrnn~ctriucl~c dcr Itiitnpfc, 1Utrgprofilc rind '~riebwcrkscinlii~~fc. 20. 457-462 (1072). ZFW [36] Geiealcr, W.: Ucrcchnung dcr drridimcnsionnlc~~ Inn~inarcn(:rcnzechicht an nngwklltcn Rotntionskorpern mit Ablosnng. AVA-Bericht 74 1 I0 (1074); Ing.-Arch. 43, 413-425 1 (1974). [37] C:ciwIer, W.: The throe-dirncnaior~nllaminar boundary lnycr ovcr a body of revolution s t incidence and with separation. AVA-Bcricht 74 A 08 (1974); AIAA .J. 12, 1743--1745 (1974). [38] (:ersten, K.: Corncr interference c f i c h . r\GARD Rep. 290 (1959). [39] (;er~ten,IC.: Die Crcnzscl~iclltatron~ung cincr rccl~twinkligcr~ in Eckc. Zi\MM 39,428--429 (1959). [40] (:lnucrt, M.B.: The wall jet. J F M 1, 625-043 (1956). [41] C;lnrrert, M. B., and Lighthill, M. J.: TIIC nxisymrnctric bonnclary Iaycr on n long t l ~ i n cylinder. J'roc. Roy. Soc. London 1 230, 188- 203 (1955). 2 [42] (Xirtlcr, 11.: Dic Inn~inarc Grcnzsrlricht ant schicbcnclcn Zylincler. Arch. Math. d, F I L ~ C . 3. 21(i-231 (1952). 1431 Giirtler, 11.: 1)ccny of swirl in an axially sy~nmctricaljet, far from t l ~ e orificc. Itcvisla Math. Hisp.-A~ncr. 11'. Scr. 14, 14:)-178 (1054). [44] Grohnc, I).: Zur lnrninarc~~ Striim~rng cincr krciszylindriachcn Dose nit rot,icrendc~~~ in I)cckcl. ZAMM-Sondcrhcft 17-20 (1956). 1451 (>ru~rl~\vitz, T u r b ~ ~ l c n tRcibungsscl~icllte~~ Scknndiirstriimung. 1ng.-ilrclr. 6, I(.: e mit 355-365 (1935). H a n ~ a , It., and Peterson, L. F.: AxiaymmcLric laminar wrikc behind n slcndcr body of F. revolution. JIPM 76, 1- 15 (1976). tlannah, I1.M.: Forcrd flow agninsh n robling disc. AltC JtM 2772 (I!)52). 1Iansrn. A. C;.. Hcrzie. 1I.Z.. nnd Costello, G.lt.: A visunlizalion stndy of sccortd:iry flons in cascddcs. NI\CA 2947 (1953). Ilnnsrn. A C.. and Ijrrzie., 1I.Z.: Cross flows in lan~ioarincon~pressiblc bor~ndaryIayrrs. . . .. . . . . < , NACA TN 36.61 (l!)58). Hayes, W.D.: The three-din~ensional boundary laycr. NAVOItT) Rep. 1313 (19.51). Hoskin, N.E.: 'rlre Iatninnr boundary laycr on n rotating sphcrc. I'ifty years of I)oor~dary lnycr research (W. Tollmicn and H. Giirtlcr, ed.), Brnunachrveig, 1955, 127-131. IIowarth. L.: Kote on the boundary laycr on a rotating sphcrc. Phil. Mng. VII, ./2, 1308 -- 1315 (1951). [52] Flonarth. I..: The boundary layer in three-ditncosionnl no\\. Pnrt I. I'hil. Mag. VII, 42. 23!1 - 243 (l!)51).
7

'FI;

[5!)1 JIIII~~~~IIS, :.: ( ~ r ~ : ~ ~ z s r l ~ i r l ~ t ~ ~ill r oit l~ri c rsr ~ i~ llcr :~~~r ~ % l r~~ ii g l)ri s ~ ~ I ~ r r r ~ ~ ( l c r ~ f ~ ~ r c < l ~ ~ ~ III\(~ ~ ~ ~ ~ St,rii111111igr11. illill.. l : ~ x . l ' l : ~ ~ ~ r I z - I ~ ~ sfli .i rI Slrii~n~~ngn~o rscIi~~~~g h i .~rl No. I I, (!iit.liligrli (l!)55). I(iO1 l < t ~ l l y , I < . : I ~ i o011 ~ I : t ~ l ~ i t i : ~ r 11. \ l I,II(: 1)01111(l:iryn y r r 011 n cir(311I:~r, y l i ~ ~ ( l cn n x i n l i11ro111. l r ir l)rrssil)l(r flour. JI\S :21, K t 4 (1054). I ( i l 1 l<rzy\r,ol~Io~.lti. h1.Z.: 0 1 1 sI(%:~(lg, I:ir~iillnr r0111111 jr1.s ill r o ~ ~ ~ l ~ r r s sYi ~ ) l( r ~ I I ~:ISPS far lS ~ S l ) r I i i ~ ~I,lir IIIOII~II, tl ()sl,(rrr. 111g.-Ar(;l1. .?. 373 383 (l!14!)). ( ( i 2 I I ( r z y \ v o l ~ l o ~ ~hl.Z.: 0 1 1 I I 1 r 1101111tln.ry y r r i n : r o r n r r I I Ilsr o f t . 1 r~ l n x n l i o l i ~ i i r l l ~ o ( l . lii. ln I ~ r ( : > \ N l ' r ~ \ I ' l l . No. 2, 77 112 (l!)5li). I W l l < i i r l ~ r ~ i ~ I).: ~ ~ ~ , : ~ t rIirr.r:lfI, s l ~ : ~ l ) r s :ultl t.lir:ir : ~ c r o ( l y ~ ) n ~ ~ ~ i c , a for fliglll, nt. sr~pernoriicspredrr. ,\(IV:III(TS i n 1Irrt)11:111lir:i1 i ( % ~ i r 3, 221 252 (l!)ii2). Sr rs I(;'Ij I<~~(~~IcIII:~IIII, I ) . : 'I'~I(*r t . o r visrosit.y 011 1 1 1 r t y p r o f IIo\v 011 s\vcpt, willpa. I'rnr. Sylllporlk S~IIIII Nnt.'l. I'l~ys. 1,:tl). (NI'I,) l!)55. l l i 5 l 1,:111gl1:1:tr, 11.: Sfrncly llolv ill t,lir t . r : ~ ~ i s i t iIr11gt11 r a s l r : ~ i g l ~tl,,~ ~ t )J. tll)pl. Alrvli. 9, o~~ o c. I 55 ' 58 ( I !).12). \ I [GO] I,irl)r, \\I.: l)rr ( ~ ~ ( * I I ~ s ~ I I ~ v I I I , ~ . : I I I I I . l ~ i l c r : t v i :7, 215 217 (l!)52), ~ [ti71 IA)(IS, I si111l)lrI : ~ l l ~ i l l n~ o u n t l n r y : ~ y r r II.f:.: \ Ir l n.il.h s e c o ~ ~ t l n r y Ilo1v. J A R 22, 35- 40 (1955). l(i81 I,~~rl\r.icg, H.: I)ic :r~~sgr*l)ilrlol.r: a n : ~ i s l . r i i ~ nill~r~ n g t ~ ~ l< ~ i ~ e rotirrellden Syntc~ii. I n g . - r \ r r l ~ . 19. 296- 308 (I!l5l). [(;!I] I . t ~ t l ~ i l ~ ~ ~ l ( . r:11ic1 l?yc1l~rrg, . : Ex1)(:ril11~11trllrI!II~C:~SII~~IIII~~(~II S., . A i i h r r ( 1 ~ 1 1I , ~ ~ f ~ \ v i r l r r s l : ~ l l ( l111.i villr*r 11111 C~IIP 111ii d(:r \ \ ' i ~ ~ < l r i ( . l j~:rr:~ll(.l(? ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ A1.11~11r o l i r r r n t l c ~ I<ll::r\l. g l I~llys. Z, .'<I;, 5V2 558 (l!):$5), l i t ) ] hl:~gvr, I\.: ' ~ l ~ r ( * ( ~ - ( l i ~ ~ ~ ( ~ ~ ~ s i l)o1111(1:1ry ~ y r rwit11 s111:1llrross-llo~v.,l,\S 21. I:IIII~I~:IV ~ l o~i: l: H:I5 845 (. l!I54 ). . l i t 1 h1:lgt.r. '1.: 'l'l~il.l< I:IIII~II:I~ I ) o ~ ~ l ~ c i :ll:r~ y ( - r111iiI(.r SII(I(I('II y II(~~III~J):I~~OII. Il'ifl,y ~(.;II.s IIIIIIII(~:I~~ rcs(~i1rvl1 lily(,r (\I1. r~'O1lllli('ll :11111 11. (:iirl,l~:l.. (.(I.), I<~:LIIIIS(.II\~(\~~. I!I55, 21 :):$. 171:i 1 hl:~grr.;I.: 'I'i~rc~r-cli~~~c~~isiol,;tl bolltidnry Inxrrs. I ' r i l ~ r c l . o U ~i i v r r s i t y Sr.rirs. Tligli Spretl ~r ~ I f ~ ~ . o ~ l y ~ t ~ i nl ~ ) i i~ '~ o p t ~ ~ s i ol r'l r i ~ ~ r c l o ~ ~ i v e r sI'rcss. \'ol. I Y , 2SG - :j!)4 (l!)(;4). : ~ ( ,let ( r s . ~~~i il~y 1721 AI:111glrr, \\'.: ZIIS:IIIIIII~,II~I:LII~ ~,!~is(d~o~i (>I)~:II'II r o l : t l i o ~ ~ s s y ~ ~ ~ ~(~r~ ~ ~~ztsr :il s i~ ,~l ~ ~ r ~ i 111111 : r~ t ~ ( l. t c . ~ill I < o ~ ~ ~ [ ) r c ~ s s i l ~ l c . ~ ~ ~ I<'I~issigkri~c~n. Zi\hIhl 28. !)7 I():$ (1!)48). 1i:iI h I : ~ r l i l ~ , .I.('.: 1 1 IIIV 0 ~I:I~IIIIS (~Il;*rls (.:IIIS~(I 1110 I)OIIII(I:I~~-I:I~(~~ 1 l ~ i t , l i ~ ~ ( - s s l)y (I~S~II:IC~II~~II~~ 011 I11r l)ofiirs 01' rrvo111I~io11 SIII:I~~ :bl :III~~(*S o f :~l,t:~vlz. .lt\S 21. 421 42!) (l!)57). 174) hli(.h:~ll<t.. I\.: ' I ' l r ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~111111( :~ ~ l(~ rc ~ i i ( ~ ~ i t ( ~ I l r ~ l i s xj~ r i UII~C~~SII(.~IIIII~ (*ilivr ~ ~ o t , ; ~ i i o ~ ~ s s y ~ ~ i ~ i ~ t ~ t r i . st,I1r11I:IIII~II:II.(~IIi ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ g r ( ~ ~ ~III~.-,\IY~~I. l ~ 268 27!) (I!Ki2). l) ? , s ( : l ~ i t 31. l . ~ 17" h I i l l i k : l ~ ~ . . I { . : '1'111* I)OIIII<~:I~YI ~ (' I : ~ y r r: I I sl(i11 r r i ( . t , i o ~ ~ ~ :L l i g ~ ~01 rrvo111Ii~>11. fo . rr 'I.~:IIIS. '\ShI 1 51. %!I 4:) (1!):12). 5 171il hlitll~-r.\\:.: ~CX~IC.I.~III('IIIC.II~ ~III~P~SII(~~IIIII~~~II 7,111. Il~~~1ro11~11:1111il< 111'1. li11gt4.l > l ~ y s%. .1!). . 57 so (l!):!H). 1771 hloorv. It. I < . : ' l ' l ~ ~ . ( ~ ( ~ - r l i ~ ~ ~ I :~l l ls iilo l:l~ r o ~ ~ ~ i ( ll i:l~ y. r rIlo$v. .l,\S 20, 525 5:l.l (l!)5:j). r l ~ I) l :~ ~ y ( 7 % hlool.~., I". I I\.: ' I ' ~ I I . ~ * c * ~ ( ~ ~ I I I c ~ I I s ~ I)OIIII(~:II.~ ) r ly\ .~ l \ l : ~ ~ ~ill r ,\1)111. Al(>(.l~.I r . oIII:~~ 1:1) (\r I l ~ ( ~ (. s / IS!) 228 ( l!l5(i). (7!11 N:I~<:IIIIIII.;I. I . : 'l'11(' I:~III~II:I~ ~ l ~ f l 1:1y1'r 011 : S ~ I ~ I I ! ~ ~ I1)011?' 0~:1rl)ilr:1ry I)o~ :lry I I~ s~I:I[>(~ :isinl ill I .I < s : I l i No. , 1 , I 45 (1!)72). 1801 N:I~<;IIIIII~:I. I.. \':III~:Is~I~~:I. S.. 111111 I i ~ ~ r l ~ y\'.:. 'I'l~r :~ iI~ivl< 111r0111c111 l)o111iiI:11.y l:ly(>rs 0 1 1 ~ . i ~ l : c . y I i~l~~ill :IX~:II ~ii ~ (l l: rs ~ (Ion.. S(.vo~ltlIIII~~II. S~IIII)OS~IIIII l i l r ~ i t lh l : ~ r ~ l ~ i ~ r:111tI I"llli(li,.s. r.ry 'l'ol<yo. SI*III. l!)72. [ S l 1 K ~ ~ : I I I IS. I).: h'olt, OII I,~I(> . ~1ot1111~:lry OII :I r o I : l l i ~ ~ g ) I i ( ~ X;\hl I' .5, 151 I 5 5 (l!!54). I:lylsr ~[ rr. lH1:1l Nycl;~Ill. .I. I<:.:~ v ~ t Il Ir:~llsf(-rfor tllc: Iliiclrwntlt ~ ) l ~ o l ) l r lIl)~ s s c r t : ~ l i o ~('olor;~rlo ht,ntc i. ~. I ~ ~ ~ i v r r s il i o r,i ( ' o l l i ~ ~ s , ty (;olnr:l(lo 1!)71.
~

1821 OIII~II, It.: '~IIC i r e r . ( ~ i ~ ~ ~I c ~i ~s ~ i l)o1111(1:1r.y I,~ a l i i i ~: ~ r ~ a ~ I:t.y(*r :11o11g:L c:ol,tlrv'. Sc:. 1). 'I'~I(~SIS, ~ M I T , Caml)ri(lgr, Mnss., I!l6!). [8:11 I'nck, 1l.C.: 1,wninur flow ill rill nxi:l\ly sylnlnrl.rir:~ljrl. o f c:o1111)rcssil1le Ilrlicl. f:tr fl.ol11 I.llr orific.~.I'ror. (:n11111r. I'l~il. Soc. $0,! H - I 0 4 (1!)54). 4 (841 1':~rr. 0.: Ilnt.c.rsuc:li~~~~gc~i r o i t l i ~ ~ r ( . ~ ~ s i ~ ) ~ ~ u l c ~ ~ n.11 r o ( . i r r c r ~ ~ ( lI)r<:lil<iirdrr d (:rot~xsrlric~I~t, ~:~~ p r r ~ ti ~ c axinlrr A11st.rii1i11111g. i I)iss. I ~ r : t l ~ ~ ~ s ( : I i \ I!)(iLt; III~.-I\~(.~I. :$!Kt 413 (I!)(;:!); vrig 32, set: n.lno: I)ir S1.riill11111g rillrll i l x i : ~ l: t l i g ( ~ s I . r i j ~ ~ ~ I . ~ : ~ ~ 11111 roI,irro~i(lt:~)) r r l ~ l t i i r p r - r.IO. S ~ , l ~ i l l I . I)~II~,(x~III.(:cs. 5.3, 2(iO 271 (l!)5!)), n r ~ d I ~ l o i v I,IIc ~ , I I ~ C ~ - ( ~ ~ I I I I : I I S ~ O l)o1111(1:1ry : ill II:I~ 1:lyc.r 011 n ~ [ ~ i ~ i t i i ~ ~ fgrcvnl111 l)o(ly o io11. A I A l \ .J. !2. : % ( i 2 ~ - :$I\:! ( l!)li4). r 8 5. I'llrirlcrrr, (:.: ~ T J I ~ C ~ S I I ~ ~ I I I I I ~ ~ I I l n r ~tlrlii (:rl)ir!l ( l r r I < r t . i s t . l r : ~ c l ~ ~ ~ : ~ s \'1)1-~ I~"(o ~ s ~ ~ ~ I I I : ) ~ s f cl~i ~~~. . heft No. 205 (1!)27). 1861 I'rn~itll.l.. I,.: (Il)c*r I<ril)~~ri~sscl~icl~t(!~~ c ~ i t l i ~ r ~ r ~ ~ s i o S~~~~IIIIIII~(.II.~ ~ I z - I ' . ~ ~ s l 11c.i c l r ~~:~I(-~r I< . . 2, sclirifl, l!)45. l:I4 141, o r (:ill. \ V < ~ r l < s G7!) 681; ( l ! l ~ i l ) . [X7] I'rtrtsoh. . I . : I)ic, lamina1.r I < c i \ ~ n n g s s ( ~ l ~I I r lIl~lt~ t , i s ( . l l r ~ ~ :i ~ ; i ~ I ;Irylill(l(:r~iI I I I ~< . O ~ . : L ~ ~ ~ ) I I S ~ ~ J I ~ ~ ~ I iclcli I ~ c s y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1I11strii1~1111ig.~ f I f : t l ~ r l ~ l i ~ r 18,~:{!I7 ~ ~ ~ ~ g i tris(:lir:r l.l s ( l ~ 40'2 (I!Wl). [88] l ' r o l ) s t c i ~ ~I<. n11(1 ICIliol. I).: '~IIc , I?., I~:IIISVO~S~ l v i ~ lill (~OIII~II.(~SS~I)I,~: ~ l l y (.II~V:L~II~I: rl , :ixi ~ y n l r ~ ~ o l 1a111innr11o1111tlnry-lnycr ,ric Ilo\l,. .IAS 23, 208 2 2 4 (I!)5(i). 1891 I'I~I~II~S. I<.: ~ l3c.rccl1111111gr r l : ~ ~ i ~ i t i alr'c i ~t ~ l : ~ r ~ K q l r~III~ ~ r . ~ i g (:iil.l.ilig(~l~ Zt r tl :~ i i ~Iit o l l ~ I)iss. 1!)47. I!)O] Qllcijo. h1..1., ,Il~clr~ot., 13.R1.. n l l d \ \ ' o l l ~ ~ ~W.. I).:\ \ : i ~ ~ t l - l , ~ ~~ ~ v (~ r~ I ~ i g:&I.1.1i1i ~s 1~ ( ~ ~ 1 rl i t ~ ~ -l : ~1l > t 1 o f tile r f l c ( ~ l s f (!l~orcl\visc o 1vi11g ~CIIC:C?R:I,IO l ~ ~ ~ r i z o ~ i l , : ~ l - l , n i l 011 l,li(!l , : t v I~II~~I,II~I~II;II posiI,io~t ~ il utnl)ility cl~~~rnc:trrist.ivsan rtirl)lnnc- 111otlc.1 n.it.11 :L 35" s\vc~l)l~-l):rc:lc of wing. N A ( !\ I{I.II. I 12o:t ( 1954). l!)l] l < n i ~ ~ l ) i r \V.,T.. C r n l ) l ~ r ,R.S., n1111,111rcrtvicz. l,.S,: 'I'll((l, flow S(:[I:I~:I~~~III :II)OIII ~.OIIIY 111, i ~ ~ ( ~ i ( l cN a~ .c I<rs. c!o1111(.il( h t l : ~ ( I : t % l)hllCN~\lC(2,11:1rt,.I<IIII. l!)li:t (2). ~ t r. [ { J I n J 1<n.j11,I<. It,., J.ocsrr, . J . , UII~ l'lntc, IC. .I.: c l o ~ i I l~rofilcs C,I~I: (:. V ,~ f r ~ for ,t ~ ~ I III~IIIII(*III, : )Jorl~~rl:~ry 1nyc.r nlong sn)oot.li a n d r o r ~ g l ])lntrs. .lk'hl 76. :18:1 - :t!)!) (1!)7(i). i 1021 l2:111i. \!:ls:uil.a: A l ~ ~ ~ l i c I A i r ? ~ t ~ g ic r clic (:cs(.ll\r.i~~cligl<(:il.n,l~sr f i~~ IIII~I' r ~ ~ ~ l ) ( ~ r : ~ l ~ ~ r v ( - r I f : 'l i t 1 dcr i l i k o ~ ~ i ~ ~ r r : s s i I:~111iti:1rcli l,Ir~~ (~~~:IIZSCII~(:II~, 1~11l,l:t11gri111.rr ( * ( . l ~ l . \ v i ~ ~ l <I':i,I<(\.~1~ i l 1 lig~. S ( I ~ r o r r t . i s r l i r r I { c i l r : ~ g~IIIII I'rol,lc~n t l r r I r ~ t . r r f ( . r r ~VOII ( : r c . ~ i z s ( . l ~ i ~ . l ~ ( c . ~ ~ . I{I.:IIIII~z I)iss. 178 (l!)(ifi). sc-l~!vrig I!Kifi; .Ill.bV(:l. 151; [!l:tl IZott, N . , n11(1(!r:ibt,rec, I . , I?.: Si11111liIic:clIn111i11nr l)o1111(1:1r.y l:~y(,r ~:II~:III:II~~II l)o~li(,s fol. o f r r v l ~ I i ~o r y v i s I 1 5 5 5li5 (I!)52). [!):In] I<III)~II, (:.: l ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n1(111g i rl o r ~ ie r .,111'hl 2fi, !I7 -- 110 (l!lfi(i). S. llolv r r s sn ~ l r [!la11 S:i\v:tlzlti, 0 . :SI.rii1111111gs1a~lql (!ill('roli(.r(\~l(l(. 11111 I<II~:(*I. ,\(.I:I hlr.(.l~.!I. Is!) 21 I (l!)70). I!)5I Sc11:ul. I{.,\.. :111(11<01111. I<.: Slcill f r i v l i o ~:I:I(~ III-:LI-I~:IIIS(~~~ ~ (.I~i~r:~<.l.(~risli(.sI:~I~I~II:II. (11. i t llo1111(1:1ry l:~y(:r or1 : t.yIi11~1cr : ~ x i : ~ ~ ~ ( ~ o ~ ~ i j ) r ( : flo~v. .II\S I S . (i7 I li75 ( l!)5l 1. I ill il ssiI~l(~ (!)lil S,,llilll~r.I,.: ~ ~ I I ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ I I ~ ~ ~ I IIII,~ ~ 1I? 1 1 l ( ~ 1 1 i i Sl,ri,lllllllg. I"(II.s(.!I~. 1111:. \\If's. iil~i%r I:LIII~II:II(*I I I I 1111 I . Ilorl. 428. (1!)22); ZI\RIM 2. !Ni It)(\ (l!l22); l'l~ys. X. 2;J. I 4 (l!)22). 1971 S c l ~ I i r l ~ t . i ~ 11.: 1,:1111i1inrcS l , ~ ~ l ~ l a ~ ~ s l ZAhlhlt ~ . ~ g . 2li:i (l!I:t:$). )g, ~ r r i l 1:j~ 260 [!I81 S r l ~ l i c l i t i n g ,[I., n ~ l t 'L'rr~c~krnl)rotIf.. l I<.: S ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I I:IIII ~ ~ i ~: I~I I( ~~~ r~ ) ~ ~ s r o I i( t~ ~I. i > ~ ~ i l l ~ l ~ I)ir: II t ~I .I Scllrihr. Z,\Rlhl .?2. !)7- 11 I (l!l52). (!)!I] S c l ~ l i ( . h l i ~ ~ g . I)io I : I I I I ~ I I ~ ~ ~ 11.: Striil111111g r i l l v ~ nxi:ll :III~C~S(~~)III~(~II l ~ r ( w l rI)v(.II11111 l roti ~~ I<iirprr. 111g..Arrl1. 21, 2'27 244 (1053). 1100J S r l ~ l i r l ~ l i n g , ' ~ l ~ r ( ~ r - ~ l i ~ ~11r11111(1:1ry ~ i : ~ l 11.: ~r~~sio 1:tyrr 1101v. I , ( V ~ I I ~ II~ ('IIII~~~II~~OII :I[. IIIV XIII o f I h r III~C*~II:I~~~II:I~~I<I>S(*:I~(,\I l ) ~ ~ l ) v o v ~ ~ i l < / , l ~ ~ g oS Il ~~ ) ~ i : ~ . >\ssot,i:~tio~~ l l y ( l r ; ~ ~ l i ~ ~ :II for s : I\ . l!I(il. l'ror. N(-l~vi;.l~)(r ASS(,III~)~(Y: (;i.~~Cr:~lv l ' ~ \ s s o r i : i l . i o ~ ~ (I(. IIII,I~I.II:II,~IIII:II(~ < ~ ~ ' l ~ ( ' r i ' l i ~ ~ ~ (I(* l l!)5 II~cI~:LIII~~~II~~s. . l2!)0; SVI: :11si1 l ) F l , - l < ( ~ l ~ . ( l ! I f i l ) . l)~~l)rov~~ilz 1262 [ I 0 1 1 S r l ~ l i c h t i n g ,H.: (:rrr~zs~:liic.l~~,t,I~eorir, 51.11 (.(I.. 11r:11111 (:. \'(-rlitg, I<:lrlsr1111(..I!)li5. ,;IlW21 S c l ~ o l l w ~ ~ ~ r i ( * r . 1)iv ln111i11:1rc ~ ~ ~ i l ~ ~ ~:III ~ ~ o l~ : v~ l l ~ o ~ ~ ls ~s lI<,,I~I)PI~II.~ ~ F,\\'.: l ~ ~ g s i i ~ ~ y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I)iss. I<r:~n~isl:l~\vri:, 1!)4:$. Sl~ot.lc.~~rtl \,c.l.sio~lill ~ I r v l R l .; ~ l l ~ 1. 270 277 (1!)4!)). ~ . 52 (l!)48), [10:11 S(,:~rs. \V. I<.: I!c)IIII(~:I~~i ~ ~ f l ( : r s . I : ~ y v ro f yl~\v(:(lc y l ,I,\S 1.5. e l ! ) IIO:I:II , S(~1l.s.\ \ ' . I < . : I<oIIII(~:I~\. I:~y(.rs ill I ~ I I ( ' ( ~ - I ~ ~ I I I ( * IIlolv. O \ .).~ ~~ .I t * ~ . l ~< v v . 7 . 231 2x5 I S ~ i ~l ~ l I l h I. , . . (1!)51), [ IO4j S r ~ l ~ ~I<.: r y . I,:~II~III:I~ I)ot111(1:1ryi l y r r 0 1 1 : S ~ ) ~ I I I I ~ I I ~i.11111. ill s111:111 :IIIKI(.S : ~ l l : I, t111 :I l I 01' ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ llo\\. ~ l i c 2.1. 430 4:Ni (l!b57). r s o J,\S :<?!I ( l ! l 5 l ) . [IOT,] S(luirc:. 11. 11.: '1'1i(, r0111111 I:ltllili:~r j r l . ()II:I~!. .I RI(Y.II. ; \ l ~ l ) l . RI:IIII. 1. :!2I [IOOJ S c l i ~ i ~ 11. 13.: l<:~(Ii:ll IW'ly y r a r s o r IIOIIII(I:I~~-I:I~~C~~ r. jcls. I.~~SV:I~(~II :III(I 11. (\\'. 'I'I>IIIII~~:I (;ijrllrr, rcl.), l $ r n ~ ~ ~ ~ s c l 1!)55, r 47 . 54. ~~v ig IIOIin] Sp:~rro\v, 1S.RI.. I,ili, S., :111d I.IIII(~~~~II.( r l ) ~ ~ ~ill l 1 1 1 ~ ~II.O~~~II:IIII~I, '1'. S. : 1i10\1. ( I r \ . c . l rn 11) ~111r:i11rr rrgioli o f tl~l)('snntl c l ~ ~ r t s . I'hys. F l t ~ i t l s . :$:I8 347 (I!Ni4). 7
~

264

XI. Axially ~ymmctrical and thrm-dimensional boundary layera

1,

1 '

[107] Steinhcucr, T.: Three-dimensional boundary layers on rotating bodies and in cornera. AOARlJograph No. 97, Part 2, 567-611 (1965). [I081 StewartRon, K., and Howarth, L.: 011the flow past a quarter infinite plate using Oscen's equatior~s.,lFM 7, 1-21 (1960). [I091 Stewarteon, K.: Viscous flow pnst a qr~nrtcrinfinite platc. .JAS 28. 1- 10 (1961). [I101 'J'nll)ot, I,.: I ~ m i n a r swirlinl?.pipe flow. .J. Appl. Mcch. 21, 1 -7 (1954). [1]():r] 'rrrn, S.: On lnminirr bou~~dary lnyer over a rotnt~ngblnrle. .JAS 20, 780 -781 (1953). 11I I j 'J'nylor, (. 1.: 'J'ho h o ~ ~ n d e r y : layrr in the ronvcrging nozzle of n swirl ~rlorr~izc.r. (211rtrt.-1. Mcch. Appl. Mal.11. 3 , 129- 139 (1950). 11 121 Tetervirt. N. : Bonndnry-layer momentu~nequations for t.hree-dirncnsional flow. NACA . . TN 1479 (1!)47). 11131 l'iiford. A.N.. and Chu, S.T.: On the flow around a rotnting disc in a uniform stream. JAS 19. 284-285 (1952). [I 141 Timn~nn, R.: Tllc theory of three-di~nensiotialboundnry layers. J3011ndarylayer eiTecle in acrodynamirs. Proc. of a Sympouiutn held a t Nl'l,, landon, 195.5. [I 151 'I'i~nman.It., and ZturL. J.A.: Eine RcrIicnmet.hode fiir dreidi~nensior~alc Ia~ninnre Grenzschichten. I'iftv vears of boundnry-layer research (W. 'l'oll~nien and II. GBrl.ler, cd.), - " Ur~unsclrweig, 1655, 432-445. [I101 Ton~otika, Ihrninar bonndary layer on the surface of n sphcro in n oniform stream. S.: ARC 1tM. I678 (1935). , [I171 I'oniotika, S., and Imai, I.: On the transition from Ianiinar to trlrbulent flow in the bounclary lnycr of a sphere. Rep. Aero. Rea. lnst. Tokyo Id, 389-423 (I9:SR); and Tomotika, S.: l'roc. Phya. Math. Soc. Japan 20 (19:38). [ I 181 l'r~~ckcnbrotlt., ]$in Quadmtnrvcrfnhren zur Bcrcchnung der Reib~~ngsscl~icllt E.: an axinl angestriin~br~ rotiercndon I)rolikiirycrn. In&-Arch. 22. 21 -35 (1964). [II!)] Trr~ckcnl~rodt, Die turbulente S t r i i n ~ ~ ~ r l g E.: an eirier angeblancnen rotiercndcn Scheibe. ZAMM 34, 150-162 (1954). [I201 Vogelpohl, G.: Die Stromrlng dcr Wirbclquelle zwischen ebeuen M'iinden mit Reriicksichtigung dcr Wandreibung. ZAMM 24, 280-294 (1944). 11211 Weher, 11. E.: The boundary lnycr inside a conical surface due to swirl. J. Appl. Mech. 23, 587 --592 (1950). 11221 Wieghardt, I(.:- ISinigc Grcnzscl~icht~ilr~~s~~~igc~~ nri S<ot.nt,ionskiirpern.SchilFstccIinik 3. 102 - 103 (1!)55/5(i). [12:3] Wieselsl,orger, C.: Uber den L~~ftwitlerstand gleichzeitiger Rot,ation des Versochsbei korpers. Phys. Z. 28, 84-88 (1927). 11241 Wild, .J.M.: The bountlary laycr of yawed infinite wings. JAS IS, 41 --45 (1940). 11251 Va~nnpa..J.: An npproximatn soInt,ion of t.he Ianiinar ho~~ndnry layer on a rotating body of rcvol~~t.ion nr~iforr~~ in co1111)rc~niblc flom. I'roc. OLIi .Japiln. Nat.. (:orrgr. Appl. Mecl~.. 295---298 ( 1956). 11261 Young, A. I).: Soruc special boundary-lnyer problems (20th Prarldtl Motnorial Ixcturc). ZFW 1, 401-414 (1977). [I271 Znrnir, M., nntl Yonng, A.D.: Expcrinlcntal invcsl.igat,ion of the boundary layer in fl strca~n\visecorr~c?r. ,Icro. Quart,. 21, 313- 339 (1!)70).
>
L ,

Thermal boundary layers in laminar flow t


n. Dcrivntion o f
r
7

the

energy equntion

.Ih c transfcr of llcat bctwcen a solid b o d y ar~tl liquid o r gascocls flow is a prohlcm a whosc considcrnt,iorl involvcs Ll~cscioncc of Illlid nlotion. 011 ttlc pl~ysic:alm o t i o r ~ of tile flt~itl t h e r e is srrpcrirnposed a flow of h c a t a r ~ t l , gcricrally s p c : ~ l t i ~ ~tllc g, t w o ficltls i r ~ t ~ c r a c111ortlcr t o tletcrminc t h o t c m p c r : ~ t u r c t. clistribntion i t is rlec:c:ssary to cornl)inc t,l~e q ~ ~ : ~ t i of~nlotion wit11 thoso of h c a t condnot,ion. 11 is int,r~it,ivcly c o ls cvitletlt t h a t 1,llc LcmpcraLr~rcdjstribution arountl a h o t body i r ~ fluid s t r c a n ~will a o f t c ~ lJI:LVC t h e s a m c c h a m a t c r a s t l ~ c vclocity distril)utior~ n bor~ntl:try-1:~yor i flow. F o r axample, if we irr~aginc solid botly which is placcd in a fluid sLrcam : ~ r l t l w l ~ i c h n is I ~ e n t c d o t h a t i t s temperature is maintaincct a b o v e t h a t of t h c surror~ndingst,hen s it is clcnr tllat t l ~ c : t e m p e r a t u r e of t l ~ c sCrcam will incrcasc only ovcr x t l ~ i r ~ 1:~yc:r i n ifllei n ~ ~ n c d i a t - e i g h b o ~ ~ r h o o d t h e b o d y ant1 ovcr a narrow w a k c bchintl i t , Fig. 4.2. rl of ,I,h c m a j o r p a r t o f tllc transition from t h e t,cmpcraturc of tllc h o t botly t o t.llat of Cl~c
coltler surroundings taltcs placc in a tl~irllayer in tllc n c i g l ~ b o u d l o o dof the l)otly wl~iclr,in analogy wit,lt flow phenomena, m a y b e termctl t l ~ cl ~ c r m a k)onrld;iry I;~ycr. t l It, is cvitlcnt, tllnt flow phenomcna a n d t l ~ e r m n l pt~cnorncnainteract, to n higll clcgrcc. T o 1)cgiri t . 1 ~ investigatiori of s t l c l ~ ) h c n o m c n x , L is rlecossary t o cstablislr tlrc ~ i cncrgy bal:~ncc for :L llnitl clcmcnt in mot.ion a n d t o consitlcr it in atldition to t , l ~ c ctl~tai~ions rnot.ion. For a n inc:ornprcssiblc fluitl t.11~ of crlcrgy b:~lnr~cc clctorr~~ir~ccl is b y t.llc int,crnal o l r r p y , t,he condr~ction Ilcat, t , l ~corlvcct,ion o f l t c a t with tllc st.rc:ani of c nntl t , l ~gc~lcr:~tiorl llcat through friction. TII s comprossil~lc r of llr~itl h c r e is a n ;ultlit,iot nal t,crtn tlnc i.o t h c worlc of cxpansion (or comprcssion) wtlcr~l.hc volnrnc is c11:~ngc:cl. I n all r:lscs m.diation m a y also bc proscnt, b u t it.s c o r l t r i b ~ ~ t ~isosmall a t mot1cr:rtc: i r~ t,on~peratures, anti wc shall neglect i t complctcly. W c shall now proccctl t o establish t,l~is cncrgy b:~lancc o n t h c basis of ttlc F i r s t Law of Tl~crmotlyrlarnics,consitl(:ring an rlemcnt.xry volume A V = dx dy d.z of mass AM = P A V a s it flows along iths ~ ) : i t , l ~ . l ' l ~ cqunnt.ity of h e a t dQ a d d e d t o t h c volume dr~rirlg a11clcn~crttof tirnc tlt st:rvcs t o jnrrcasc it,s int.crna1 cncrgy b y a n amorlnL tllg,, arltl t,o pcrli)rrn work tl 14'. I lc~ncc:

cncrgy

- work
-

: Ilcrc a.nt1 in \vl1:11, follo\vs, we e~nploy t l o ~ ~(Ir ,1011lt-t,I~c l


as t.l~c nnit of work ant1 ct~crgy).

1 a111intlcbtctl f.o l'rof=%wr I<. Ccrslcn for l l ~ c rcvisrct v r r s i o ~ ~ t . l ~ cli:q)tc:r. of i~ I Nt~\vl~on~~it~lcr or I .I

I NIII)

206

XIT. l'l~rr~nnl bo1111r11iry lnycra i n Inminnr flow

'1'111- t.t-r111l lC7./tlt rc:l)rt:srnls n sr~l~st.arrt tlcriv:~tivcwlricl~ consist,^ of a local ant1 t i:tl :I t.or~vc.t.l.ivrc . o ~ ~ l . r i l ) l ~ t . i o ~ ~ .

Tho nrgst,ivc sigr~ a.tltletl in order t o follow t,11c sign corlvent,ioll of cqn. (1 2.1) accortlis i11g t o w l ~ i c l ~ work adtlcd t.o t.11~ fluid from t,lrr! oui,sitlc is rlcg,zt,ivc. T l ~ c tol.:tl work j)erforrnrcl by t.11~o r ~ n : ~ l sl~csring n :rntl sl,rrssrs prr unit! t.itnc rsrl trow l)c writ.t,c:r~ :IS

r:~.I.tlrc gratlirtrt.. I l r r ~ c c ,I,lto a ~ r ~ o ~of n l . t,ra.nsforrotl ir~t,o o l ~ ~ l v r 1' i , l ~ r o ~ ~ g l r ~ I~rnl, v A SIII.I':I~(~ I I I ~ I I ~ \vl~i(:l~ ~IC S arc normal 1,o t , l ~ c2:-dirccl.ion (I'ig. 12.1) is rclr~al t,o ( h i ) '/'/r?:r) tl!/tlz. 1Zy oo~rt,rnst,, a r n o r ~ rIc:~virlg1,llcv o l ~ ~ l isrfiivc~l l(k'3 ' / ' / r 3 ~ : ) 1l.l~o ~t n by ( i ' / i i . v ) (k;)7'/tln.)tl.r](I!/ tlz. 'l'l~rrs, t,hc arrlorlnt. of Itcat. atltlcd I)y oor~tl~lr(ion tlnr.irlg l,itnr. tll 1.0 n, v o l ~ ~ r r ~ o c:n.n I)r \v~.itt,rll Al'

JIrrc a,, n,), . . . , s,, rlct~ol.c tho rlorlnn.1 ant1 s l ~ r : ~ r si.rc~sst:s i ~ ~ g itil.rot111rctlr:~r.lit*rl l i eqns. (3.20) and (3.26). Substituting eqtrs. (12.3), (12.4) nl~tl( I 2.0) into cqlr. ( 1 2.1 ), nntl pcrfnrnring s 11uln1)crof obvious simplificst.ions, i ~ ~ c l ~ l t l tllose it~l.rotl~rcc,tl ing Oy cqn. (3.1I), we ol~t,airl, after some calculnt,iorl, t,l~c:followilrg oncrg.y o ( j ~ ~ : ~ I . i01' r ~ s o 1,l1(! flow:

Jlcrr @ rrpresrnts the tlissipatiorl firnct,iol~ give11 I)y

Rgr~at.iot~2.7) enjoys gcnrral valitlit,y, I)ut i r l most ~,r:r,c>t,irnl (1 r:rsrs i t is ~ ~ o s s i lt.olsirn~ c plify it st,ill furtOrcr. Jrl doing so, it, is ncccssnry carcfrtlly t.otlist,ir~g~~islr l)ctwcc~r . 1 1rnsr 1 ~ of a pcrfcc:t, gas n.ntl t . l ~ s of :LII incom~)rc~ssil~lc 'I'll(- l.l~c~r~notlyt~n~rric? t Ill~itl. proprrt,ic,s of t , l ~ c Int,t,rr/lo ~ t o l ronsl.itnt.e n lirnit.i~lg m.sc of 1,lrt: ~,rol)c.~.I of t . 1 1 ~fi)rl~lc-r. li~c.t., irs 111 t,lic va.riat,ion in i,l~o int,crn:~Ienergy of :L prrfrc:t gas is clc c,, ti'/', \vlrcrrns l,l1:11~ 01' it,s o ~ ~ t l ~ a lis ltlh. c,,dT. Tlin corrcspo~~tling l y v:rr.iat.ior~sfor nrl int-orrrl)rrssil)l(~ fl~litl :1ro tic = c (17' a,ll(I (I/& r (17' -1- (l/@)tlp .c .
I--

: l'tlt. ill 1 . 1 1 i~ltcrtr:~l p,,l ~ c~~c.rgy anti n c.l~:l,ngci r r Iti~~t,l.ic: oirc:rgy I,y nrl ntno~lnt, { 6 0 LI I'(~L' 1- 11' 4 i ( 1 2 ) } , if (1 l l ~ t x( , I I : I I I ~ V i l l 1l1r l)oi~(~~rI.ial ~ g y crr( (IIIC to (lis~)l:~(:crnr~rl,l ~ c irk t gr:tvit:~t,io11;11 Iirl(1 is 11rgIrt:1(~1. I l(kt~cc
3

I Ilr c,l~ntrg(rr:l t . l ~ f.ot.nlrt~c.rgy.l l C T , (:orr!iist,s of a chnngo tllg il r t

gas i , l ~ n t ~

M'itlr 1l1c nit1 of' Illis rclr~:tt,io~r ~ r tof :~ l

c , ( I T - c,, d '1' 1 (1

268

XII. 'I'hcrrnal borrnrlary lnycrs in lnrninar flow

b. Tclnpernture incren.9~through ndinbntic cornprcssion; stagrlation temp~rat~ure 269


(1 J = 1 Nm;

IIcre c,[d/kg (leg] represrnt.~ t11c specific: Ilnnt a t const,nnf, pressure per unit mass. I n general, c, clepcnds on tjcrnpcmtfnre. 111 tlte case of a constant thermal contlr~ot,ivit,y, we obtain the sirnplcr form

Table 12.1. Physical constants 1 IrJ/kg dcg lo3 m2/sec2 dog)

Tcrnpernt~~re

Specific
hent
Cv

In tltc ca.se of an incomprcssil)lc fluid, wc liavc tliv wit.11d n . c tb7' yields -

rct

= 0, ant1 cqll. (12.7) togrtllcr

["CI

T [Kl

[lcJ/kg Kl

[J/"

80"

K1

I
1

[niz/mcl

I
1

[kg/'n nec =PnoJ

Mercury

I he tan~pnmt~nre changes brought, about by thc dynamic: prcssrlre variation in a comprc:ssil)le flow arc important for its heat balalice. I n particular, i t appears useful t o cornpare t.11~ tc~nperat,rlrc diffcrcnccs wliicli result from the heat due t o friction wit,ll t.liosc cattsctl by comprcssion. For this reason wo shall first cvnlrrat.c t.110 tcrnpcra.t.ttrc increaso due t o compression in a frictionless fluid stream : 1 f the velocit,y varies along a st.rm.tnlitlc t,l~otcmpcr:~t.l~rc must vary also. In order to simplify t 1: - .. 1 ; argrrtncrtt it, is perrnissi1)lo t o assumc t l ~ n tthe process is atliabatic xntl rcvcrsiblc bcca~tsct,hc small value of conductivity and t,ho high rate of change in t h e t8hcrmotfyttatnic propcrtics of state will, in general, prevctit, ally appreciable cxchange of h m t wit.11 t.hc sr~rrot~ndirlgs. partic:rtlar wc propose t o cale~rlatethe tempcmtfurc In increase ( A T ) , , 7 , - ,7 which occlrrs a t t,lle stsagnation point of a botly in a ' ' stream anti wlticlt is tlue t,o compression from p,, t>op,, Fig. 12.2.

20

2931

0.138

9.3

-5

1560

0-115

10.023

1,uhr. oil

Air (ntmooph.)

-50 0 3-60 100 200 300

223 ' 273 323 373 473 573

1.006 1.000 1.006 1.009 1.028 1-048

In an analogous manner, thc complete Navicr-Stokcs r(1nalions (3 26) lent1 t o the I%ernoalliequation when viscosit,y is neglected in them and whcn a n intagrnl along a streamlinc is talren:
l'ig. 12.2. Calc~~lat~ionbltc tctnpcraturc inc.rmno of at stagnation point due to adiabatic comprc3sion (A7'),,, = To - 7.m

so t h a t the tempcrature increase T For the case of zero heat condnc,tion i n frictionless flow the energy equation (12.11) givcs t3hefollowing relation between temperature and pressure along a strcamliric (coor<linatje ) s
-

T,

1 = - (wW2 w2), c~

(12.14a)

anti, in pnrt,icular, the temperature increase a t the ~tngtiat~ion point ( w adiabatic contprcssion becomes

0) t111cto

wl~crc o ( s ) d c n o t c ~h e vclocity along a streamline. Dividing by e y and integrating t t u along a strcamlinc we obtain "

IIere w dcnotes the free-stream vclocity (Fig. 12.2). The temperature T, assumrd 1)y , the fluid when the velocity is reduccd to zcro is known a s the slagnntio~t te~npernlurr, sometimes also referred t o a s the total lernperature. The difference (AT),, = T o - 1'brtween the stagnation and the free-st,rram temperature will hcre be called t h e ndiczbtrlic trmprralitre incrrosc

270

XIT. 'I'l~rrtnalbo~~ndnry layers in leniinar flow

l $ ( l ~ " t i "(1 2.14%).~v'.llir:ll a l s o i r n o w ~ ~t,hemmprcr.ible B e r n o ~ l lcgurt,inn,has ~ ia :~s i b r r n t l r t l ~ ~ ( . r ( l t l ~ c n s u ~ n p t ~ i t11:~t on a o ~ l t,l~o flow in t l ~ e strertm is rev~niible,i. e. t h a t t'he er~tn,p.yremailm c:or~st.:~nt along n st.rcnmlir~c. ac:tr~alfact crln. (12.143) in more 111 ge~lernlt11:tn this nrgumcrlt would suggest, a s it applies t o arty o n e - d i r n e ~ ~ s i o r ~ ~ l st,rcam, sric:l~a s Ll~oflow t.llrough a slentlor nozzle, on col~ditiont h a t there is no cxtjrrrlnl excl~nngo ofllcat, Imt irrcspect.ivo of wJ~ct,I~or crtt,ropy remains constant the or not,. Tllr erl11nt.io11 can bc sl~ownt o bo approximat.c:ly t,ruc : ~ l o r ~a sl,rcaI,~linc g i l l st.c:t(ly t~l1rcr-(lin1r:r1sional llolv1.. F o r air wit.11 c, -- l.OO(i k.J/kg drg the ac1iabatic tc.rnprr:~t.~lre incrcwso a t n vrlonitpyot'ul, 100 ~ r ~ / s o r a value of has

I n rnot,iotls wllore t.cmperatnro tlilTc~renrcsbring at)oul. dircrcr~crwin dcl~sit~y it is necessary t,() inr.lIldc buoyancy forces in t.llo ccl~~nl.ions 1not,io11(33.29) R I I ~ 10 of ~ trc,:lt t,llcnl as Ijotly forc:cs irnp~~cssnd t l ~ rl i c l r l i t l nr gas, I'lrc,ir 111ngl1it.rltlc. on I)(,itig

'I'he %di:th:~tir: ~ m p r r a t ~ r ~ r e t inr:re:lse c n l ~ ~ ~ ~ l nfor :kir from eqn. (32.1413) is sllown f.eti ~)lot,tcd 14'ig. 12.3. T l ~ o ill spcoifir: hcnt,, c:otltluc:t,ivitjy,arid other t,hrrmnl ,)roperties for n number of s110st~:~ncrs list,ed i r ~ are Table 12.1.

I[cre p tlc.l>ot,os rorffi(:icn(, I,llrr~n:~l t,llr of cxpnnsiot~nl. l.r~ml)c~r:r.l.~~~~c t,llc rn.ti() 'I'm, 1' is "1' t,llc t,wo sprcific Iir:r.t,s, antl cm is t . 1 1 ~ s1)rrtl 01' so1111tl t I ~ ( s l l i l i t l . ol' a~.n\rita.tio~~. 'I'l~is r I > IlC Inst t.isrm (:all 1)c nrglrrt,ctl in flows \vliivlr n1.c nfl'c~c,t.c.(l nlrnns, gellrl~ally L ) r a l ~ i l ~ g . t.l1c t1cj~crltlrnc:rof tlrnsit,y o n ~ ~ r c s s r ~ l . c t)c: ig~lol.c%tl. s (lint. can ~ ~ ~ ~ we srlbtl.act (,he ~ , grad p , ~ p, g, gct~crnt,etl I J 1.11~ t d i o ficltl, wc t , l ~ ~ t,cr~n = ~ s oljl,ain from erllls. ( : J . ~ ' J.zll<l(3.30) t,llc followi~lg ) rno(lific(l form of t ' l ~ c a r i c r - S t * ) l ~ c ~ N e ~ ~ ~ ~ : t1lr tst.c~ntlyflows of a con~prcssil)lc for ~ ~ i ~ ~ fluitl of const.a.111viscosit,y: a(e.) a ( e 4 ?(PIO) --0 , (12.1~)

ax

4-

a~

az

Fig. 12.8. Atli:rl>nf ic tcnlp.-ratrlro inrrmmo at stngnntion point for air frorrl rqn. (12.1411) (r,, = 0 24 l%t~i/Il)i) I<

111 arlllition it, is nrcrss:r.ry t o consitlcr t.11~ energy cclr~:tI,iot~ (12.12), :l.lso 1111tlvr l.llc :~ssnrn~>t,ionconstant propcrt,ics: of

ilvrr t.11~; tlissipat,iorl f r ~ n c t ~ i o@, ,is given I)y oq11. (12.8). For ~)orf(xct r~ gnsrs t i o l ~ st.a.t,ecan be writ.t,en an of -P . R T . =
CI

1110

cqlln-

(12.20)

272

XII. Tl~ern~al boundary layers in laminar flow

c. Theory of sitniI:~rit,yn 11c:ttt,ranafrr i

273

I n tile general case of a compressible medium, eqns. (12.17) t o (12.20) form a system of six s i m ~ ~ l t ~ a n c o u s equations for the six variables: u, v, w , p, e, T t . F o r incompressible media (liquids) t h e last equation a s well a s t h e trerms u ap/ax etc. wllich represent, cornprrssion work vanish. I n this case there are five equations for u, v, w , p, 1'. 1t is noccsnnry to ernphnsizo t.llnt tho sytnl)ol p does not donotc tilo sarno physical quantity in eqnu. (12.IR), (12.19) ancl (12.20). Wherens i n tho lnut t.wo cqunlionn p stnntls for tho thorrnodynamic property, the uy~nbol in eqns. (12.18) represents the difference between the actual prcup sure and the static pressnre of the modinn1 at rest when it* density is em (cf. remark concerning fluid8 without free surfaces in Sec. I V a). In the cn.908 treated in detail in the literature so far, tho pressnre term has been included either only in eqns. (12.18) - the case of free flows - or in the pnir of eqrlationa (12.10) and (12.20) for compressible flown. Before proceeding t o intlicate solut,ions of t h e above equations, which we shall tliscnss in tho sl~ccccding sections, we propose, first, t o examine them from t l ~ e o i r ~ t p of view of t11e principle of similar it?^ [10B]. I n this way we shall discover the dimensionns less groups on which the s o l ~ ~ t i o must depend. W e begin by introducing dimensionless quant,il,ies illto eqns. (12.18) ant1 (12.19) in the same manner as in Sec. I V a , when Itcynol(1s's similarity principle was deduced from the Navier-Stoltcs eqr~xtior~s. All lengt,l~s will be referret1 t,o a representative 1engtJ1 I , the velocities will he made dimcnsionlcss wit,l~ reference t o the free-stream velocity U,, t h e density with respect t o e,, ant1 the pressure will be rcferrctl t o e, Urn2. The temperature in t h e energy e(111at.iorlwill be madc dimcnsionlcss wit11 reference t o tt,~et,empcrat,ure dircrence (Al'), = T,,, -- TW between the wall and t01e fluid a t a large distance from t h e body; t,hus O* -- (7' -- Tc,)/(A' " I)rnoting all climcnsionlcss q ~ ~ a n t i t iby a star we obtain 7). es from eqns. (12.18) anti (12.10) for the equation of motion in the x-direction a n d for t h e energy equation in t h e two-dimensional case wit11 g, = -g* cos a:

I t is recognized t h a t the solr~tions eqns. (12 21) nntl (12.22) tlcl)cntl on Ll~cfollowof ing five dimensionless groups:

'l'hc /irst group is t l ~ c alro:~tlyf:tmili,zr Ilcynoltls n r ~ n l l ~ cT .t ~ c r fo11rL11 ant1 fifI11 groups differ only Ijy {,hefactor R, so t.l~at, all, t,l~crc only /out. inrlrpe7arIe111 in arc di?itcit.?iol~l c ~ qua,i~lilies. s The second group call be rcl)rcscnlctl as

This gives t l ~ c Grashof n111n1)cr

. -

q /? 1:' (A 7')0----

v2

'i'hc third quantity m.rl bo wrilt,cn as

e* jU* au* 4- . $;; *


ao *

4;:)
ao*

= -' p . ax*

Q* (u* h*

-i- V* a y * )

e,r,

"
*

+ I C!K)L o * cos a + Urn2


azo* a20*

,*

e,U-l

"--

(""'
+

is the tl~erinul dilluaivity [m2/sec or fL2/soc] and

! (: , ?!) ay*2
(12 21) is the dimensionless Prandtl number. It will be noted t h a t i t depends only on tho proprrtirs of the metlinm. For air P = 0.7 npproxirnatcly anrl for watcr at 20C P = 7 approximately, whereas for oils i t is of the order of 1 0 0 0 t owing t o t l ~ r ilarge viscosity r (see also Table 12.1). The Jourlh dimcnsior~lcssquantity leads clircctly t o the tcmperature inrrease tllrougli atliabatic compression as calculat.cd in cqn. (12.14b). We
1 1 % ~ ~

1-

1-

The tlimcr~sionlemd i s s i p a l i o ~ ~ function is here givcn b y wl~cre is Irnown as tllc dirnensionlcss Eclrcrt nn~nltcr. l ~ quantiLy E = lJm2/c1,(A71)0 E T c

. .. . .

- . .-.. . .

sine(?the viu~onityI wn.8 aflsllnled c011sta11t above system is valid only for moderetc changes / the in tcni rrnbrlre. I n the rmc of large temperature tlilTerences in gnscs (over 50" C or 00" F), o r rnocfcmtn ones (over 10" C or 18' F) in liqnids, / I ~ n ube f,aken to vary with tcnlpcmtnre. ~t I n tllin c:rse t.110 cq~~ation motion robins the form (3.29).The six equations under consideraof tion nlnst he sn()ple~nenbri the empirical viscosity law /c ( l ' )eqn. (13.3), and, ill all, we by , hnvo n syutrn~ nevcn uirnnlt.nncoun cqnnI.ioncl for tho seven functions I t , 11, 111, p, e, 7. 11. of '

is sorncLirncs used. It in related to the Prandtl number hy t.hr equation P,

PR

: The ratio of tho two tempcrat~lrc dilTcrcnces Itas, 80 far, not received a separnk nanle. k'ollowing

n snggcstion by l'rofessor E. SrhmidL it 11m bern proposed in nn rarlinr edition to call it, after I'rofc?u~or It. C:. Eeltort,,ant1 to give i l t.l~e IF. name of t.hc 1Srkrrt. nn~nbrr, E.

car1 I)r rc>t.nilrrvlin inrotnl~rrssil~l(~ :IISO. I)rit, I l ~ c flo\v irrf~cr~~rctnt~ion reference t o wit11 ntli:~l):rt.ic: c:ott~l)rc~ssiotr c.cnsr,s l,o I)(: vnlitl. It is now possil)le 1.0 conclutle t h a t frictior~al hc~11, IICRI, ( I I I C 1.0 ( : O I I I ~ ) I . C S S ~in11)ort~nnt. the c:n.lcnlnt.iorr of t,hc temperature nncl :Ire ~ I I for fic.ltl ~ h r n tltr I'rcv--st,rrn.tn vc,loc:ity 11, is so lnrgc t.l~n(, ntlinhntic t,crnl,er;~ture t,lro in(:rt~:~sr ol' l,lt(, S:I~II(\ is ordvr nf ~ n ; ~ g ~ ~ i l:ISt (I,lrc pr(?srril)c~l t l(\ I~~:~r~pt>rnt,~trc (lifT<:rcr~cr l ) ( ~ l , \ \ ~ ( l,lt(, l Itot ly :I 1141 l.lt(, sl~r~~:llll, ~~~ l

I f l.ltis ~)rt~sc~ril)c.tl I I I ~ I ( ~ ~ ; I ~ (lill'+rr~~(*c I.lro same ortlt:r of rnn.gr~it,tltle s I.(. II~o is of a (.It(: nl)soltift~ I,rnrl)c~r:~.l.t~rc f'rcc: sI.rr:r.trr, wl~ic:l~ for cxnrnplc, tho cnso with a of !.I:(: is, roc-l<c.l :I(. vr.1.y l ~ i ~ nll,it,t~tl~~. 1Srkc.rl. r~rilnl)c,rI)rromc:s ccjl~ivnlcnt~ t,llc Mnclt l t 1,Irc: t.o I I I I I I I ~ ) ~ * ~ , s(*ebrt ' r o r ~I~ I I ~foIlo\\,i~rg : t l ( ~ t ~ I : ~ l r0111 (,Ire cq11nt,io11 :IS l , r f'i o ~ ~ : of stsate of a 1)(.rliv.fK:IS

I n most npp1ic:~tion.swe (lo rrot rcqtrirc t o lrrtow n.11 t,hr tlct,nils of 1 . 1 1 ~ t.?rn1)c.1.;~1 ltrc. arrd velocity field, b u t we wish, in the first, plncc, to know t.hc tjt~n,nI,it.y I t r , : ~ l . oxof chnngctl lwt,wcen t,lle body nntl t,ha strcnln. 'l'lris cl~lnnt,iI,y I)(: c.xl)rrssrtl \vif,lr I Irr c,nn aid of x coefficient of hcnt l,rnnsf(:r, a, wl~ichis tlcfinctl ril,lrer as :I lorn1 t~l~:r~rIil.y or ns n mcnn qt~nttt,it.y over t,11c srlrf:lcc of t.lto I)otly ~ ~ n t lc:ot~sitl(:rntiorr. rr r I hc rocffic:iollt, of II(::L(, t,r;lrtsf(:r is rc:l'crrc~tll,o I.IIc t1irvrc.11c.c: I~rt.\r.cv.n I I V Ir~rtl)c.I r ; ~ l , l ~of tile wall :LII~] of't , l ~ t :I111i(l, t , l ~ l:il,l,(!r 1)vi11g re t,lraI, c I,:L~<(\II : 1:11,g(:l i s l , : t ~I'I.I)III ~ i ~ :LI, L ( ~~ (,he wall. If q ( r ) tlcnot,ss t,hc clr~nrrI,it~y Itc:it r x c l ~ : ~ ~ ~I,(-r l I I I ~ I nrr:b :III(It , i r l r ( * of get I ~ ( = h<:nt,flux) a t n point r , tlrctl ac~ortling NC.II-/OII,'S I 01 cooli~l!~ is : ~ S S I I I I I ( Y (,II:I~,, 1,o I~I J it ~
1

.lhc cocfficie~~t. I~cnt, of t,r:~~rsft:r t , I t t ? ( l i n ~ ( ~ r r sI.l/n~%r(: 11:~s io~~ tlvg]. I\(, (II(> I ) O I I I I I ~ : I I . Y between n solitl botly nntl :I l l ~ ~ ithe I.mttsrc:r ol'Itr:~t, t111osolt:ly to c.o~~tltic~Iiot~. tl is In nccortlnnce wit,h Fot~ricr'sInw t,lle nt)soll~t.c vn.ll~e ~ . I I ( , I ~ c n tI I I I X is. (:(In. (12.2). of

~.u"

y 17'~../0~., T o , c,, ( y --

- -

1) . (.'or~rl)nri~~g I I S (12.20) a,trcI (12.30), :t11(1 inl.ro,Ir~rir~gI i ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~(~ts i ~ , t ~ II l~ r~ .s s ~ , ~ , ~ l ~ ; o ~ i vr(> i s ol)t,nili n loc;~ltlin~cl~sionlcss cocffic:icl~t of lrrnt f.mrrsl'c:r n.ltic:l~ is l i t ~ o \ ~ t ~Ilto :IS Nrissclt number N [ B l ] :

No\v

w l ~ c ~ rM - 1 ' . ./c... is I,Itc- hl:~c.ltI I I I I I I ~ ) ( * ~l.. 1 1 ~ \vorlr of cornpr~ssio~r tlrnt tluo t,o r~ ' nntl frit-lion I)rc.ontv i ~ t ~ l ) o r t . :wlrc,~~ I'rc~.-strc:~lr~l o i : i t is comp:trnl~lowit,l~t,l~at, ~ r ~ I ~t,Iw ~r .~ of' SOIIII(I. :11tt1 ~ I I ~ S I ,II IIv l)r(~s(~ril)(,~l I I I ) ( ~ I ~ ( l i l~l I~ * r ~ ~ t ( ~ r I~(*~ ; I ~ I ~ ( v I)IY~OIII~:S of 111,- orclrr of 1,111, : ~ l ~ s o I tI t ~l ~~I ~I I ) ~ ~I ~ I.V: I of l , l t t * l'tv(> ~ , ~ ( , : L I I ; I l~is C C - I I ~ iSl l l ) r : ~ ~ ~ li , li c ( ~ lligl~t, , I I I S I O l I.II,\ of'ro~!l~ttLs : i t , very ltiglt : ~ l l i l t ~ ~ l t ~ s . r I I t ( , prcrc~tli~~:! tli~nc~t~siorr:~l nnnl,ysis lrntls 1.0 t.ltr corrcl~lsiorrt.Irnt 111c s o l ~ t f ~ i oft ~ ~ o t,lrc?:~,ltovr syst.c-rn of c:clc~nl,iot~s t.11~ for vrlocily nntl t,cmpcrat,r~rc firltls tlcpcr~tlor1 t,ha foIlo\\ring fo11r ~li~ttrr~siottl(~ss grollps:
1

--

k
1

N ( T , - T) ,

=-.

k I N ( d l'),

(l2:11)

111

Urn 7' - l'm


(A?')(,

= /, (s*;R, P, G, E ) = 1, ( s * ;

R, P, G , E)

N = / (s*; R, P, G , E) ,
'J711c sccorl(l cql~nl,iorrst,nt.cs t.lr:~t,silnilnr procrsscs :&re:~lsocl~nr:tcl.rrizc~(l t h ~ . Ily fact. t,l~n,(f;)r t.lrr111 I.hc rnt,io 7'm/(A'/')n IIIIISI. I~nvt, I.II(' sntn(: \J:IIIIC (c/. I:!(;)). 'l'lrc syrlll,ol s* tlcrlolrs l ~ e r ct.11~ l,l~rco dirnc~nsiortl(~ss s1):lc.c cnortlinnl.c~s.If :L l l l t L : l l l v:rluc of the cosfficicnt, of 11cnt t,mnsfcr is ft)rmctl l)y int,t>grnt.ingovor t . 1 1 ~\vl>oltr sl~rfnrr, the spact-: coort1innt.c will ccnso t,o nppe:tr and

I f (AT'),, w l',.,1 . 1 1 ~ ICrltcr13 1111tn1)cr tlrlS~~rrnirrctl t,hr Mar11 ntln~l)erit1 nccoris I)y cqn. (12.27). '1'11~ ])rol)lcrn of cl(:t,c.r~~rining dirr~er~sionlrss 1,ltc grorrl)s \ \ , l l i r l 1 govchrn 1lon.s wiI.lr 11r:lI.I,r:t.r~s~nissior~ is l,rr:~l.(\(l n pnpcr 1))' P. Pis(:l~cr1361. it1
r l : l t ~ c , c > \vil.lr

276

XtI. Thermal boundary layers in laniinar flow

d. Exact aolutiona for the problenl of temperature distribution in a viscoua flow Fig. 12.4. Velocity and temperature distrib11Lion in Couette flow. a) Velocity distribution. b) Temperature distribution with heat generated by friction wl~en the temperatures of botl~ walls are equal. c ) Tcmperatrlre distribation wit11 heat gcncnted by Friction for tho cast when Lhc lower wall iu non-conducting
T-T,

277

Whrn sprcial solr~tionsare consitlerctl thcn, in most cases, one or more of the tlimensionlrss groups will disappear as the problem will only seldom be of this most general nature. As srrrl from eqn. (12 27) t h e temperature field and, hence, the coefficicnt of heat transfer tlcpcnd on the Eckert number only when the temperature cliKcrences arc large (50 to 100 C or 100 t o 200 F ) and whcn, simultaneously, t11e vclocitics arc very large and of the order of t h e velocity of sound. With moderate vclocitirs the ten~peraturcand vclocity fields depend on the Eckert number when temperaturc differences arc small (several degrees). Further, even with moderate vrlocitics, the buoyancy forccs in eqn. (12.21) caused by temperature differences arc small comparcd with the inertia and friction forces. I n such cases the problem ceases t o dcpend on thc Grasllof number. Such flows are called forced flows. Iience, for forced wnvrdio7t N = f (R, P) (forced convection) . , The Gmshof nr~mbcrbecomes important only a t very small velocities of flow, motion is caused by buoyancy forces, such as in the stream particularly if t l ~ e whicl~riscs along a heatcd vert.ica1 plate. Such flows are callctl natural, and we refer In to thc prohlcrn as one in d u r n 1 co~~vection. w c h cases thc flow becomes inde~)cntlrnt. the Rcynoltls numbcr, and of
N = f (G, P) ,

where

(natural convection) .

1. Coucttc flow. A pnrtic~~larly simple exact solution of t,llis systcm is obtainctl for Couette pow, i. e. for the case of flow between two parallel flat walls of which one is a t rest, the othcr moving with a constant vclocity U 1in its own plnnc, l'ig. 12.4. The solution of the equations of motion in the absence of a prcssurc g r a t l i c ~ int the ~ x-direction is

Examples of prol)lcms in forced flow are given in Sccs. c to g of the present chapter; cxan~ples problems in natural convection are contained in Sec. h. of
(I. Exnct solr~tionsfor the problem of temperature clistributinn in a visco~lsflow

A very simple solution for the temperature distribution is obtained when i t is postulated t h a t the temperature is constant along the wall, the boundary conditions being y=O: T=T,; y=h: l'=T,. (12.35a)
I n this case thc dissipation function reduces t o the simplc expression @ = ( a ~ ~ / a y ) ~ , and the equation for temperature distribution becomes consequently

We shall now proceed to solve several particular problems of temperature distribution. The examples to be discussed will be sclected from t h e Iarge number of possible cases on the ground of mathematical simplicity. We shall begin by discussing several cases of exact solutions, as given by H. Schlichting [ l o l l , just as we have begun witli the discussion of examples of exact solutions of the equations of flow with friction in Chap. V. For the case of incompressible two-dimensional flow witli constant properties the system of equations for the velocity and temperature dist,ribution in steady flow along a horizontal z,z-plane we obtain from eqns. (12.17) to (12.19):

With thc boundary conditiorls (12.35a), thc above equat,ior~ has a solution which is independent of x. Since, with v = 0, the term v aT/ay on thc Icft-hand sitlc also vanishes, all the convective terms on the left-hand side of eqn. (12.34) become equal t o zero. The resulting temperature distribution is, thercfore, due solely to the generation of heat through friction and to conduction in the transverse direction. Prom eqn. (12.35b) we obtain d2T k-=-p dy2 (12.35~)

(:),'

and, substituting dultly, we have

'UIC solution of this cquntion which sntisfics condil,ions (12.36n) is

d. Exact ~olrltions tho problem of t,ernpornture dist,ribrlt,ion it1 a viscotl~ for flow

271)

r ,

I llc tlitnrtlsionlrss ~ ) n r : ~ m r I r r
/I

v
ll1Z

0.8
06 .

(Fl - T")

r:111 also l)c wriI.t,rn a s

if \vc: pillf - - 'I1, (A7'),. 11, is sccn t,llnt i t cat1 I)o oxprcssctl i t 1 t,orms of 1.11~ 1'rnntll.l 1111in1)t:r 1111(1 l.llr 16c:ltcrt. n~rtnt)cr fro111 ccln. (12.28). I n t11c cnso ~~rlclcr consitlornI,iot~, i. c. \vl~rnt.lirrc is no convection of I ~ e i ~tth e temperature distribution is seen t o , cleltond o n tile protluot P x E. If, finally, t,hc ilbbrevintion rl = ?//it is introtluced, ttllo followin,n vrry dtiiple eqrlntion for tcmperatrlrc tlistribution is obtaincd:

Fig. 12.5. Telnpcrn1,rlre distribntion in Cor~ettc flow for vnrions temperaturea of both walls with lleet generated by friction (7'" = tempcrnturc of the lower wall, l', kmpcmlrlrc of t,he upper wall)

0u .
0.2
0

Tltis tlistributior~is seen plottetl in Fig. 12.4b. Tlic Iligllrst tcni[)ernturc by frirt,ional hcat occurs in t h c ccntrc ant1 llas a v a l t ~ o givcn by

T',,,c:rrnt,ccl

t.t\~~ij)(:ral [list ril)~~I.ion t~r(, consists of' a. lincnr t.ortn whic:ll is the snmc as in t h e r;~s(? n flr~itla t rest wit.11 no fricf.ionnl Ilcnt g e n ~ m t ~ o tSnpcriinposc!tl on i t t,llcro of l. is n par:~l)oliotlistril)lll.iorl wllic:l~ is tlllo t,o ltllc llrat genorat,ctl t.llrorlglt frint,ion. r I II(: Lc~nll)rr:~l,rlrt; tIist,ril)tltiotl for \,:~riot~sX I I I ~ ~ Sof' tllo ~ ) r o t l ~P c t E is SCCII plot,t.ntl V ~x i l l Id'ig. 12.5. It. is worl.lly of not.c t.llat for n g i r r n vnlt~c of the tenipcrn1,urc tlilrerent:~ or' (.It(: 1.n.o w:tlls - 7',, 0 Ilrnt fIo\vs I'ron~ 1 . 1 1 ~ 11p~)cr wall t o tile flrtitl only a s lorlg :IS I l l ( : vc*lot~it.,v of 1.11t: 111)l)rr (Il \\.all (100stint. c x c t ~ a ccrt.nit1 vnlnc. A rcvcrsal ~l or' t . I ~ t . t1il.c.c.l ion of' IItr Ilo~vof 11c:iO nl, t.11~ t~l)ltc-r.~)lal,c oc:ctlrs wl~rtr t,ho t,cn1l)t:r:~l,t11.(: g r ; ~ t l i ~ ~(l ~i I, t>11:111g(\s :I , t sigr~. 11, is S ~ ~ I'I.~III I I rt111. (12.36) t , l ~ a t ((I'l7/t1?/)!,.,, --: for 0 I 2 k - - 7 7',,. 111~11t.t: 1 1 ~following r111o n.pl)lics t o Ll~otlirrrI.iot~ of 1ir:l.t. t. llo~va!, t , l t t \ tll)l)tbr\v:III:
'I'llr
7

tl~c case of coinprcs.ribic! flow for wllicll tho al)ovc solt~t.iot~ remains vitlid provitltrtl that t,l~e viscosit-y may I)o assumrtl t o be ilitlcpcndc~itof tcrn~)cmturc, eqn. (12.38) cnn be put, in t h e following tlimcnsionless form
111

cvl~cro M =F [ J , / C ~ clcnol.cs I11c M:~ch nrilnl)c~.:~ntlc,, is t.110 vclocil,y of s o ~ l ~ l :tklt I e ~ n l ) c r a l ~ r l',. I t is rcmarltal~lot.llnt Lhc n~nxirntlmt.ctnpcrat.r~ro ~rc tlocs not tlcpcntl on t,llc tlist.ancso bct,\vccll t,llo wn.lls. 'l'llo q l ~ : ~ ~ t t . of. y i t 11c::~t grnrrat,ocl 11.v fric:l,ioll is disl~ril)utedcvcnly bctwcen t.hc st,at.ionary ant1 t.hc moving \v:~ll. Tlie tcmpcrnturc distril,~~t,ion t.11~ in ltrcsetlt c:xa,~lll,lc is import,:lrll. for I.llc flow in the clearance bctwccn a jorlrnal a n d it,s bcnring a.ntl was tliscussctl i t t t1ct;ril by G . Vogclpol~l[143]. Tllc flow in tllc clcnmncc is 1anlinn.r in view of t.11~ ~ n a l l s tlitnonsions of the latter ant1 of the Iligll visr~sit.y t1I1r oil. '1'11~ t 1 t ~ ~ ~ ~ l ) r r : riso ~ r r c of t.I. tluc t,o frict.ion becorncs consitlcmblc cven :tt, ~llotlrrat,c: vclocitics, as sllo\v11 1 ) ~ ' t,llc following cxanlplc: Viscosit,y of oil at, motlcmtc t,crnl)c~rnt~t~rcy ROO (1) fro111 (m Table 12.1 : ,L = 0.4 I<g/mscc; contlr~ct,ivit,y oil k of 0.14 ,J/m s r c tlcg. I l r n t ~ c !'rot11 I0 III/Rc(:: eqn. (12.38) wit.11 U , = 5 inlscc: T,,, - 'I1, 9 (leg C, ant1 for lJ1 :-T,, - To= 36C. The ternpcraturc rise in the Inltricn.t,il~g is so 1:t.rgc t.11n.t oil ills tlcpcr~tlnnccon t,cmpcmt,r~rcbccorncs itrlr)ort,:~nt,.I t . N:~lllno 1901 t:xt,c.nt 1t:tl t11c prccc(ling solul,ion t,o tllc cnsc of tcl~~pcr:~l,~~rc-tlc~)t:~~tIc~~t, vist:osil.y ant1 li)tltltl l.I1:10 the velocity distril)ut,ion a t right angles t.o tsllc wnlls censrs to I)c linczrr.

'l'l~iss i t t 1 1 1 1 t ~~ X : I I I sllotvs I,II:II. t i l t , g(*titb~.:tl of' IIC:II, I ~ I I ( : lo r'rict~io~t II~~~\ ior~ rxcrts n 1:1rgc rbl1i.c.t. 011 IItr 1)r.oc:c-ss of' rooling :111tl l,11:1.t. :I(, lliglt 1-rloril.irs the: \v:trlncr wall Inny I ) I Y . O I I I I ~ 11(~:1(('(1 inslt>:~tI I)rin!: (:ooI~rI. 01' 'l'llis t-l'Ii~'t. of ( . I I I I ( I : I ~ I I ~ ~ I I I : I I is ill~l)orl,:lnc.c lor t I I V c.o~rsi~lt.t.;~t ol'c~oolitlg I~iglrvt:loc.il ivs. I t . \vi,II r.c:c-~rr. t,ltc. ~)l.ol)lt>tns iorl :11. in c~ol~tlc:ci,t.tl tvillt t l ~ t ~ ~ I ~:o r ~ n t l : ~ r y n ~l l:tjrt~~.s :111tl will I)(, ~ 1 i s ~ ~ 1 1 s s ~ ~ ~ l l:~.t,c:r.

A further importrant so111tion for tho t.cinpcmt.urc tlistribut,ion froln rqrl. (12.n4) is obtained wllen i t is postulatctl tltat all tho llcat d t ~ c friat.io11is t,rnnsft:rrctl t,o t.o one of thc walls only, whoreas no Ilcat t.rnnsfer t,xlrrs ~tlacc t,l~c n,t otallrrwall (:~.Ilial):~t,ic wall). I,& i t bo nssnmed t h a t t,Ilc lo\ver wall is ins~~laI,otl, t,llat t,llc 1)otintl:~ry so

280

X11. Tl~ermal honndary layers in laminar flow

d. IPsncl, solrttio~in thc problrtn of totnpcraturc tlisLril,~~bion a visoons flow for in

281

conrlitions for tcm pnraturc bccomc : Ass~iming,again, equal t~cn~perat~urrsthe walls, i . c. 7 -- l',,for of ' obtain from cqn. ( 1 2 . 3 5 ~ ) the solntior~of which is it, is seen plotted. in Fig. 12.312. Thus the temperature increase of the lower wall is given by T (0) - To= T , - I, = , UI2/2 k . ' u (12.41) The value T, is callctl the adiabatic wa.21 temperature as already mentioned; i t is cqual t o the reading on a thermometer in thc form of a flat plate. Upon comparing cqns. (12.41) and (12.38) i t is seen t h a t the highest temperature rise in the centre of tltc channel for the case of equal wall tcmpcratures is equal t o one quarter of tho adiabatic wall temperature rise
=

,I h , we

The solution of eqn. (12.34) with the above boundary conditions is

The t,cmpcrat,uro distribution is reprcscntcd by a parabola of tltc forlrtd~ degree, Fig. 12.6, ant1 t,hc mnxiln~ilntcmpcratrtrc rise in I.llo ccnt,ro of t.11~ l ~ i ~ n nisl c r

The criterion for cooling in the case of different wall tempcratnres given in eqn. (12.37) can be simplified if the adiabatic wall temperature T, is introduced. W e then have

11. M. de Groff [48] generalized the preceding solution for Couctte motion t o incluclc the case when thc viscosity of the fluitl depends on temperature. The further extension t o a compressible fluid was given by C.R. Illingworth [68] and A. J . A . Morgan 1871.
2. Poiseuille flow thror1~11 chanrlel wit11 flat walls. A fitrt,hcr and very simple a cxnot solrttiorl for t,e~npcral,ure tlist,ribution is obtained in the casc of two-dirncr~sional flow t~l~roltglr cl~annclwith parallel flat walls. Using t11c symbols explaincd in a Fig. 12.6 we note with I'oisc~~iUch a t the velocity distributiori is parabolic: t

An extension of tlte solrltion to the case of tempcrat,~trc-clcpnnclcnt viscosity w:~s given by IT. l~ausenblas1631. The corresponding solrtt,iort for a c i r c ~ ~ l n r pipe was given Ly U. Grigull [47]. A furtl~erexact solution for the thermal bounclary layer mn bc ol~txincclfor the flow in a ronvergrnt and a tlivcrgcnt cltannrl alrcatly cortsitlrrrtl in Sro. V 12. The solution for the velocity field due to 0. Jeffery and 0. Iiamel quoted in that section was utilized by I(. Millsaps and K. Pollhausen [86] in order t o solvc thc thermal problem. The temperature distribution across the channcl is seen plotted in Fig. 12.7 for different Prandtl numbers. Owing to the dissipation of energy which is particularly large near the wall, the resulting temperature profiles acquire a pronounced "boundary-layer appearance". I n fact, boundary-layer-like appearance becomes more pronounced as the Prandtl number increases. The velocity distribution u/us from Fig. 6.15 has been plotted in Fig. 12.7 t o provide a comparison.

Fig. 12.6. Vc1ocit.y and tcrnpcraturc distrihr~tionin a channel wit.11 flat walls wit11 frictional Ilmt. fx7.l<rt1 int,o anconnt

E x -

Fig. 12.7. Tcmpcrnluro distributions in a convergent channel of included angle 2 a = 10" at varying Prandtl numben P, afhr I<. Mill~aps and K. Pohlhnusen [go]. Reynolds number R = 1342 Velocity distribution from n g . 6.15.~ Owing to tho dissipation of cncrgy which is particnlarly large near the wall, the resulting tcmperatrlre profile~acquirc a pronounced "boundary - layer appearnncc"

Rotntirig rli~k:(:II:I~I. in pnrt,icular Pigs. 5.12 and 5.13, ~ o n t ~ a i t i ra solrtt.ion V, d 1.0 t>lwflnw prol)lr~n aror~ntla n infinit.cly large disk rotat,ir~g a fluid a t rest. l ' l ~ i s in wns n solnt,ion of' t.lrr syst,cln of eclns. (5.88). 111 order t,o tletermine t,he t.ernpern,t,ure ficltl in tPhcr~oiglrl)o~rrIrt,otl a hcni,c-(I.rot,at,ing disk, it is necessary t.o expand the of pre<*cvlirrg syst.c,m of'rqr~xt.iotrs inclrrding t,lrc eqnat,ion for t,Ire t,emi)eratr~rc l)y distribut.iorr it.sc.lf (c-ncsrgy c-clt~nt,io~r). Sntah cn.lctt~ln.t.ions have I)ccn prrforrnctl Oy I<. Millsaps and I<. I ' O I I I I I ~ L I I S ~ I I IXCin] wlro :~.lso inc.lrltlc*tlin them t.l~ottllcots tlissipat.iorr. Several of acl(lit,iorr:rl stvlrtt,iorrs of tlrc Nnvier-St.olzcs orjt~at~iorrs t,ogrtlrcr with t h e energy equation wl~iclrI(t:~tl sirnilar solrtt.iot~s t.0 wrro given I ) j r 1). 1,. Tlcevcs and Ch. J . ICippcnhan 1!)7).

J 110 ~ l r ~ lr~ x v c s no\v 11ct:n orniI,t,t:tl :I,S s ~ t ~ ~ c : r l l t ~ o t ~ so ~ ~ l v ofs I I I : I ~ I I ~ ~ l ,. lI tI* I ~ ~ ~ '1'11~ . r of ~ vnriorts t,crms in tlrc two cqnntions whic:h lravc I)(.cn cxt.i~n:rlt:cl\ v i l , l ~t,Ito :lit1 of' I II(. v r locity bountl;bry-layer equat,ion (7.2) arc slrowrr ;~l)ovc. 'l'l~c osscttt.i:rl rc~sr~lt~ t.lrc> ol'
3

prcvio~~s estimation was t , l ~ ntth e viscor~s forccs wcrc of t,lrc sarrrc: o~.tli!r tn:~gtril.rtt~o of as t l ~ c inertia forces only if t l ~ o vclocit,y borrr~tlarv-l;~.vc~r t.lrirIc~~~ss, s:~t.isfit:clt r l ~ ~ ! OS,

It, l ~ a s alrnatly brcn stfatfcrlon sevcral occasions t,lrnt i t is ir~tuitivelycvidctit


t,l~a.t, ~ r i many cases t , l ~ e tc:mpcrat~~rc field arour~tia hot body i r ~ fluid stream is a of t.ltc hou~ldnry-ln?/sr 11yps. 'I'lris means t,llnt t.11~ tcml~eraturefield wllich spreads from the body cxt,cntls cssnnl.inlly only over n narrow zone in t h e inirnodinte neighbonrlrood of tlrc s~rrf:coc, wl~crcnst h e regions s t a larger tlistance from i t are not m:~tcrially a f i c l ~ c t lby Cl~cl ~ i g l ~ c r botly ton~pcratnre.I n pnrticr~lart l ~ i sis the case whrn t,Irc cor~tllrctivit:y,k, is small, as for g;lacs ant1 liq~~itls. s u c l ~ In cases t,l~ere is gm.clicnt at, riglrt, angles t o t , l ~ c wall and thc l ~ c a tliux a vcry steel) t,c~rnl)crnlr~ro t l ~ l c conclt~c:t.ion of t.l~o 1.0 is satno ortlcr of ~ r ~ a g n i t ~ ia sc t e : ~ t ~ l h due t o cor~vect~ion only across L t,lrin layer n r a r t,lre \rrnll. On t,Irc other hand, it is t o t)c c ~ p c c t ~ rt,hat t.he : tl tctnpcr:~t.urrincrc:r.sc rlcnr a n nnhcntctl botly in a fluit1 stream flowitrg at. a l~iglr IZ,rgnoltls I I I I I ~ ~ J ~ : ~ , is dnc 1.0 t , l ~ gc:nerat.ion of frictiorlal heat, is itnportar~t n.nc1 wlricl~ c only i r r t l ~ c t,hirr 1)01111tlary layer, l)ccnusc t,lrc rj~~ntrt,it-.y tncclinnicnl energy w l ~ i c is of l~ t.r:rnsformrcl itrt.o I~c.xl. t.lrrot~glrfriot,inn is signific:l.t~t.only t,l~cre.ITcnce it rnny bc c*slwc~tt,tl t,l~:it ronjnnnt.ion \r.il.l~ I.lrc \,c,locit,y hor~rrtlnr~r. in . layrr t.hrrc: \ \ r i l l I)r forrr~etl :I, t,lrc.rrrrnl I I O I I I I ~ ~ : ~ .across \vlric:l~ t.l~etletnprratrrrc gmdinnt, is vcry Inrgr. In?jcr ~ ~ It is. t,liorcforc, possil)l(? t,o t.n.ltc atlvnntngc of this fact ant1 t o it~t,rotluccinto t l ~ c cric?rgy cXqunl,ion,\\91ricl~ govcrrls t.hc tcrnl)c,r:~turcc l i s t r i l ~ ~ ~ t ~siniplificnt.ions of a ion, sirnilnr rrn.l.t~rr thoso i 11Lrotlt1cct1 (.o cibrlicrr into Ll~c rtlt~:~t,ions rnotiot~(Cl~ap. I ) . of VI L)i~iiensiorrlossfi)rtrls of t.11~ nquat,ions of motmion and energy were given in Scc. c of t.Iris rlrapt.rr wlrcxrc n. rcprcscnt,n.t.ivo velocity, [I,, a roprcsent,at3ivelertgth, I , a,s ~vcll a s n. rc1)t.c:sc,nt.:1.t.i\~c t,ernj)rr;rt.~~~.c tliflrrcnce, (A7')0, were .rlscd t.o render t h e rrlovn.nt c l r ~ : ~ ~ ~ l , i t . i ccli~irt:t~sionlcss. :s Por t.lrc sake of sitnplicity we. sh;lll mst.rict orlrs c l v c ~t,o t.ltr t.wo-tli~nrrrsiot~n.l case wil,l~constant flttitl proj>rrt,ies allti wr sha11 nlroosc: t,lrc n-n.xis along t,ltc tlircct,ion of t.11c. mnirr st.rcani. Untler t l ~ r s e ~ s s ~ t m p t , i o t ~ s ~ t.Irt: c q ~ ~ : ~ t iof nn ~ o t i o nin t.llc z-clirt,c:tiot~nntl t h r energy rclt~:~t,ion. o oqns. (12.21) ant1 (12.22), c:rn I)c wril,t,ctr in t l ~ cli)llo\\,ing foyrn:

As a consequence i t provctl t o I)c possil)lo t.o ncglcc:l. F2tr/iis2 :&gainstiJ%re/i)!/' i l l 1 I 1 t first cqt~nt,ion rnot.ion nntl 1.l1osocontl rclt~:r.t,io~~11ro1,iotrtlroppctl out. :rlt.ogc*t.l~r?r. of of 'I'l~is was conrrectrtl wit,l~ f;~cL tlrc tlrnt t , l ~ trnnsvcrsc pressure gmtlit.rrt i)71/i)!/- Os, SO e . t h a t tho pressure coul(l be assr~mrtl o tlrpcntl on z alone. As secrr froln c:qn. (12.4Ga) t the body force wlric:l~is tlr~ct o the buoyat~c:yof t . 1 ~~ o t t ~ Ilt~itlp:~rLic:lcs, i. c. 1.0 I rr their t,I~ermal x p ~ n s i o n , of t,he: s a m r ortlrr of ni:bgr~it.utlc:IS t.lre i t ~ r r l ~: iI : ~~ visr is II c o ~ forces if ~s G % R" whiclr occr~rsonly \\,it11 vcry small vclocit.ics a,11<1 c011sitIer~1)Ie I c n ~ p r r ~ t . t(lift ~rc fcrcnces. I t is now possible t o make a similnr rst.irnnt.io~~ tCrnrs in t,lrt. rnorgy cclr~at,ion. of

i. e. t , l ~ e mnlt.iplicat.ivc fa.ctforof tlrc t,hrrmn.l contlrrct,iorr t.t:rtns, is :I.IRO a srn:l.ll qrtnnt,ily a s far as liquitls ant1 gases ar(: c011~0rr1ed ~ , I I cItcy 11oIc1sI I I I I I I ~ C Pis 1:1rgc, l)eif cause the Prandtl nllmbcr for gases is of 1,lrcortlc:r of I, :r.trtl for l i c l r ~ i t l sit, m.ngc:s I'ro~n 10 t o 1000. Ilencc it, is scerl t h a t t.11~ cor~duct.iorrt.t.rtr~s c:n.tl I)ot:orrrc: 01' I.lrc S:IIII~. ordrr of ma.gnituttc a s t h e cor~vcctiorltcrrns only if i)l)/;!!/ vcry In.rgt:. i. c., o t ~ l y is if in t h c vicir~ityof tire sr~rface t,he botly t l ~ r r c a I:tyrr ~ i t 1 a S L C C ~ t,rat~svt~rst: of is 1 t,crnj,cmt,~~rc gratlicnt,: tire ther~n,tclho1~1rrlrrv?/ lnyrr. 'l'lrc order of n~:~gnit,r~tlot,l~t: of convectional and viscons t m m s can now I)c csli~nntctl. t is shown r~r~tlnr rc111nlion I i,l~o c ss t,l~crnlal I)on~td:wy 1:~yrr.t.'I'hc i . c r n ~ and t * i ~syrnbol 0 , denotes t h e t h i c l r ~ ~ e of t l ~ c a20/as2 can be neglcct.ed against a20/ay2 nntl t.l~r contlr~c:tion tcrrrl lvacotnc-s of the sn.nle ordnr of rnngnil,ntIe n.s t,he convcct,ional t,nrm only i f t.l~e tjlricktrc~ss I.lro t.lrc:t.~n:rl of

- ---Since t.hc Proncit,l nnmbcr may vary frorrr fluit1 to llrtirl by ~evcrnlortlrr~ tnng~~it.r~clt: of (sen Tnhle 12.1), the prasent estimate cannot bc expected to Ilold in thc two lirnit.8 P -* 0 or P -+ a. In sucli cases better cst,imaks result from the solrrt,ions given in eqnc1.'(12.58) n.ntl (12.62n).

284

XIJ. Thcrninl bor~nciary layers in laminar flow

f. General properties of thermal boundary layer

285

Regarding the differences in the significance of p in eqn. (12.50b) on the onc hand end in eqn. (12.GOd) n thc other, we rcfer the reader to thcremark made in Scc. X I 1 c just after eqns. (12.17) to (12.20). 111 view of t,hc dary layer 8, obtained estimation for the thickness of t.hc vclocity bounI
N

/ l / ,~wc obtain

For the incompressible case (Q = em = const) and for constant viscosity these equations reduce t o

I t follow^ that the ratio of the thickncsses of the two boundary layers is independent of the lteynolds number. If energy dissipation through friction and the buoyancy forces are omitted, the ratio of the two boundary-layer thicknesses becomcsdcpende~~t. on a singln characteristic number - the Prandtl numbcr. I n this case it is possible to givc a vcry good physical interpretation of the Prandtl number, a s will be shown in Sec. XI1 f 4 in more detail. Rstimnt.ing the rrmnining tcnns in thc: cnrrgy rcll~ationi t is concllrtlcd that, in the expression for tlrc tli~sipat~ion function only the tcrm (i?u/L~y)~ rcmains signifirarlL, and

giving three equations for u, v , and T.


f. General properties of thermal boundary layers

l'hc l ~ r a clnc to friction is sccn to be important only if t

Jn the case of gases t,hc hcat gcncmtcd I)y friction bccomcs important only if thc temperature risc clue to adiabatic compression is of the same order of magnitucle a s the difference in tempcraturc bctwccn the body and the fluid. The same rcmark applies to the work of compression. Reverting t o dimensional quantities and taking into accol~ntthe dependence of viscosity on temperature, wc obtain tho following simplified equations for twodimensional compressible fluid flow:

Since in thc fr:rmcworlc of bountlary-laycr theory thc pressure may be rcgardctl ns a given, impressed force, we havc hare a system of five simultaneous equations for tho five unknowns e, IL, v, T, / r .

1 Forced and natural flows. Thc diffcrcntial equations for the velocity and . thermal boundary layer, eqns. (12.51b) and (12.51c), are very similar in structure They differ only in the last two terms in the equation of motion and in the last term in the temperature equation. I n the general case the velocity ficld and the temperature field mutually interact which means t h a t tfho tcmperaturc distribution depends on the velocity distribution and, convcrscly, thc velocity distribution depends on the temperature distribution. I n the special casc when buoyancy forces may be disrcgnrdccl, and when thc propcrtics of thc fli~iclmay bc assumcd t o be independent of tcmperaturc, mutual interaction ceascs, and the velocity ficlcl no longcr depends on the temperature ficld, although thc convcrsc depcndencc of the tcmperature field on the vclocity ficld still persists. This happcns a t large vclocitics (large Reynolds numbers) and small tempcrature tliffcrcnccs, such flows being tcrmed forced (cf. p. 276). Thc process of heat transfcr in such flows is doscribcd as forced convection. Rows in which buoyancy forces are dominant are called natural, t,hc rcspcctivc heat transfcr bcing known as n a t ~ ~ r convrction. 'l'llis casc occurs at, vcry al small vclocitics of motion in the prescncc of largc tcmpcrnLt~rctlifrercnccs. 'rho sl,at,c of motion which accompanies natural convection is evokctl by buoyancy forces in the gravitational field of the earth, tlrc latter bcing due to tlcnsity dil'fcmt~ccs and gradicnt,~.For cxamplc, the ficld of motion which cxist,soiit,sidc a vcrtic:al l ~ o t plate belongs to this class. Porcctf flows can be subdivided into t,l~osc with rnotlrr:tt.c and those with high velocities depending on whcthcr thc hcat tluc to friction ancl comprcssiorr nccd or necd not bc taken into account. I n I)ot.h cascs tJlc tcmpcl-aturc: ficld depcnds on the ficld of flow. A t modcratc vclocitics, wl~cnt11c heat clue C o friction and comprcssion may be neglected, the depcndencc f tJre trmpcratrrrc ficld on the vclocit,y finl(1 is govcrncd solely by t,hc Prantltl nn1111)cr.To r a e l ~,~ita!/le vclocit,y ficl(1 thcrc corrcsporltls a singly irrfinitc fntnily of l,onl[)rrnt,l~rtr clisl.ril)~~l,io~ls with thc I'rantltl rruuibor as it8 paramct,cr. A t lrigl~vclot:il,ics work clric I)ol,l~ to friction and comprcssion must be irrcludcd. Whether this is ncccssary or not dcpcnds on tho Eclrcrt nrlrnher E - 2(A7'),,/(A7'),,, i.c. on wlrct,lrc-r it, is compn.r:il~lo~ \ ~ i t . l i

286

X11. 'rl~rrlr~al bo~~ndnry layers it1 laminar flow

11nit.y. 111 ot,ller worcls, t.11~ \vorIz clue t o frict.ion arid compression must he talren into accol~nt, wllcn t h e t,crnpnrnt.~~rc increase drlc t o friction nnd cornprcssion is comparable with t,llc: t8~mpcr:~t.urc tlilTcrcrlcc prcscri0ccl a s a bourlclary contlition (t,rmpcraturc tliffrrenco I)ct,\r;rc:11 I)otly ant1 fluiti). I f t,hc prescribed tenlperatlire difference is of t.ho ortlcr of t.11~ m n at)solrrt2ct.r~npcrat,l~rc, worlc duo t o frict,ion arid cornprcsm t,hc only if t , l ~ vr1oc.il.y of llow is compnr:ll)lc wit,ll f.l~at, sol~ntl. c of sion 1)rcorncs ilnl~ort.nllt,
11, is il11port:rnt t.o 11o1,c:1,11:~t, t.llc t . c t n ~ ~ c r ; ~ cqrra.t,ioll is lincar, unlike t . 1 1 ~ t~~~rc t:clunt,iorl of rnot,ion. 'l'llis Icnds t,o cnnsitlcrable sirnplificat,ions in t h e process of int,c.grnt,itlg, nlltl s~~pc:rl)osit,ion known sol~lt~ions of beconlcs possil)lc.

If t . 1 ~ work of compression a s well :IS t , l ~ c cvolut.ion of 11o:~t. l t r o ~ ~ g tlissil)at,io~l t ll c:tn be neglect,ecl, tile same reasoning s l ~ o w s tllat, rtll solltt,ions of oclr~:~t.ions (12.51 P ) \vIlit~l~ clcsrril~c: t,l~c: i,I~rrtn;tl I)o~~r~cln.ry l;~,yc:r,nll~st, of t.t~cf o r ~ r ~ : I)(:

2. Atlinlmtic wall. I~itl:~II,y is I I C C ~ - S S R I . t,o m ~ n t . i ~. n~ i ~ t . vi~rict~y ~)ossiI)Ic it, ~ t l tI1c of s d s of 1)ounclary c o ~ ~ t l i t ~ i o n s~ n n c l lgrontcr for the ttcrrlpcratnre ficltl t,llarl for is t,hc? vrlocit,y fieIt1. Tllc t,cmpcmt,nre on t J ~ esurface of t h e body may bc constant or v:triablc but., moreover, i t is also possil)lo t o encount,cr pro1)lcrns for wllich tho hr;~t flux is prescribetl. 111 view of eqn. (12.30), tliis means t h a t t,lle t,crnperaturc gmtlirnt a t (,tie wall may appear as a bountlary condition. T h e so-callctl rtrliobalic ~tvrllconst.iL~ltosa pnrtic~tlnrrxn.nlplo of tllc Iatt.er class of cases, since i t rnnst be post,l~lat,cd thn.t t,llere is n o Ilcat f l ~ l x :from t,11c wall t o tfhe fluid, i. e., the borlr~clary c:o~~tlit.ion t,ho wall is at,

Iloncc, tile h c i ~ tflr~xfrom rcln. (12.30) cntt I)(; \vrit,t.cn

1 his case c:Ln 1)c visrtnlizotl Ily ilnagir~i~lg 1,hat the wall of the body is perfectly it~s~llatctl against I~cst, Row. 'I'llc heat generated l)y t h e fluitl througll friction serves 1.0 11f:n.t1,llo wall 11nt.ilt,llo contlil,iotl (a7'/an),,. = 0 is reacl~ctl. Thus tile t.crnperat~rrc of t.llt, wnll wl1ic:ll we rnny :~lsocall t,llc r~tlirtbcclicunll tempernlure 1)ecolnes higher ~,II:I.~I t,llaL of t,ltc ll~titlat, sornc clist,nnco fl.orn it. Srtcll contlitions are satisfied in pr:~ct,ic*c \vIlrr~a so-called p1at.c t.hcrlnornct,c:r is usctl, i. (:. \\,lien t.llc ternperat,nre of :I, f l l ~ i t l st.rrntn is rnc-asl~rctlwit,l~t.11~ aitl of a flat glat,c which is placed parallel t o t,Il(. sl.rc.ntrl 1. 'l'hc P X C ~ S S t . ( ? ~ r l l ) c r a t ~ ~ ~ r c plnt,r const,it,~lt,c*s 0 1 1 1.110 t.llc rrror of t . 1 1 ~plnt.c t . l l r r n ~ o ~ ~ ~ c'I'llc~ r . t . c error 1nns0 I)c tlrtl~lc:t.t-tli l l ortlrr t.o ol)tnin t.hc 1,rnc t,empcrat.urc of t.I~c: tnovirla I l ~ ~ i t 'l'llis tlifkrcnc:c is sornctitnrs c~nllctl tllc kinetic. lempernt?~re. l.
1

'l'llis very imporlnrlt rcl:tt.ion st,atfcst h a t for rrll 1:~lnirl:~r I)o~rntl:~.ry I:~.yc:rs- :~I\v;~.ys on ttlle nss~~n~pt.iorl c:otnprcssion \r.orlc nlltl t'ric:t.ionnl Ilc:;rl, :Lro rlcgligil)lc: - I , l ~ c ? thnt N~lssclt1111rnbcr propori.ional t o t l ~ c is sclnnrc root of 1.11~I<.t~y~loltls n11111l)rr.I I S ~ ( ' : I ( ~ I of the general rclnt.ior1 I)ctwec11 the N ~ ~ s s c :111cl ~ I I OIlvyt~oItIs~lnml)t-rs lt irnl)litltl by eqn. (12.32) on t,l~c basis of tllc full Navirr-St.okc-s rcl~t:~.t.ioi~s, I)or~~~tl:rry-I;~yc*r 1,11c si~nplilic:at.ionslead t o this special, more csplic,it. r c l ; ~ t i o l ~ .

1<tluntion (12.62a) :~llowsus t o write tlo\v~l1I1t: follo\vit~g o r t n ~ l l ; ~ 1I1t- loc:;~l f for shrarine st,rcss :

3. Annlogy brtwrcr~llent tratlsfer ntlcl skit1 friction.

1'01. I)onntln~~y-l:~.ycr flow


iil

i l~cbro c?sist,sa rc~~n:~.rk;tl~l(: rc~l:lt.iorlsllipI)ct,\vccn Ilc,at t,mnsfc,r i~ntl slzin frict,ion ~ l ~ i ~ h ,

in i t s simplnst. form, w:l.s tlisc:ovc.rtl I)y 0. Itc?j~noltls [!I81 t.llis rc:l:~.t.iot~ l r ~ l o w tn.s l,llr I<,c~y~)oltls is ~ :~n:~logy.

1874. I4'or t,his rm.son,

I t , l ~ n si)c.cn sllowtl i l l St,(:. VI 11 :I t.llnt nlk sol~~l.iorls t.11cr two-tlirncnsional of I)ol~ntlnry-l:tycr ccl~~;l.t.iorts :In inronl~)rc~ssil)lc for flnitl I ~ x v ct.hc form
As :ilrr;ttly statctl, this mostgrncrnl form of I<c~y~loltls's :tn:ilogy is valitl for ,111 I;l~llit~.rr 1)onndnr.v Iagrrs. In j)nrticlll:ir, if there exists a class of si?nilar solutions, t~:irnrly t l ~ : ~givcw t. 1)y rxtrrnnl flo\vs of l h c form U ( X )= 11, x ' t11r11tllc- ror~siclcrationsof S r t 1S:l ", nllow 11s t,o writr

288

XII. Thrrn~al boundary layers in lnminar flow

f. Gencrnl propcrI.ien or thcrmal bor~ntlnrylnyrr

289

and

be neglected. Ne~ert~l~eless, preceding rcsnlts can t)c cxt,o~tlctlt,o incl~~tlc thc other cases, R U C as that of a flat plnto with frictiorlnl heat (sect oqn. (12.81) n t ~ dioot.tlot.t?on ~ p. 2 ) ) or that with compression work (sce Sec. X l l l c ) . I t is l):rrtfioulnrlyr~ot.c?\r,ort,lty !9 t h a t thc Itcynoltls analogy earl bc rccovcrctl in tr~rbolcn flows wl~crc t it.plnys:tn rssc~~~l,i:~l part in the calculation of heat-transfcr rates (c/. Chap. XXI [I).
4. Effect of I'randtl numher. The cor~siderat~iona this c.haj)trr c~onvint~cs of 1 1 t h a t thc J'randtl number conatitutcs t h a t parameter wl~osc vnluc i~ dc.c*isivc Tor ~ I I P extent of the tllermal boundary layer and, thcreforc, for thc rate a t whirl1 h r a t is transferred in forcctl or free convection. According to its tlrfinition

It follows immediately from the temperature equation that

I n analogy with eqn. (12.53), t!le local Nussclt number formed with the coordinate z assumes the form

N,=-r
where

(1 1

=1/~,-F(~,P),

(12.55)

The function F ( m , P) will be discussed in more tletail in Sec. X I 1 g 2 (see eqn. (12.87) and Fig. 12.14). Thus between the local skin-friction coefficient

a n d thc Nusselt number there exists the relation

thc Prandtl number is equal to the ratio of two quantities: one of t,l~ctn (viseosity) charactcrizcs the lluid's transport propcrtics with rcspoct to Ll~ctmrlsport of nlornentum, t h e other (thermal diKusivity) doing the same for the transport of hcat.. If the fluid possesses a particr~larlylarge viscosity, i t can bc stated looscly that its ability to transport momcnh~~rn Inrgc. Const:q~rcr~l.ly, tlnst,ruc(.ior~ ~ n o t n c f ~ t . ~ ~ n ~ is t,hc of introduced by the presence of a wall (no-slip condition) extends far into the fluid and the velocity boundary layer is comparatively large. Similar statcmcnts car1 bc: made with respect to thc thcrmal boundary layer. I t is, thcrcforc, nr~dcrstantlal~lc that the Prandtl number serves as a direct measure for the ratio of the tl~icltnesses of the two layers in forced flow, a s already demonstrated in eqn. (12.49). The special cwe when P = 1 (already discussed) corresponds to flows for which thc two boundary layers are approximately equal in extent; they are exactly equal along a flat plate a t zero incidence whcn its temperature is uniform. I n addition to this, thc two limiting cases whcn the Prandtl number is either very large or very small arc also worthy of attention; they are representcd schematically in Fig. 12.8

The simplest type of flow, t h a t on a flat plate a t zero incidence, is characterized b y the value m = 0 and b y the fact t h a t eqns. (12.51 b) and (12.51 c) for the velocity ficld and t h e temperature field, respectively, become completely analogous if the Prandtl nnmher has the value of unity. I n this c~ase, solutions themselves acquire the identical algebraic forms, and we have

Very small Prandtl numbers: It is clear from Fig. 12.8 t h a t in the case of very small Prnndtl numbers, such as occur in molten metals (for example in mercury), it

Consequently, Z(0,l) = 1 , and eqn. (12.56) simplifies to N = 4 c, , f' (m = 01, P = 1) , (12.56 b)


a) P-U(liqu/d metals)

R ,

when applied to a flat plate. This is the simplest fonn of the Reynolds analogy; i t was, as elready stated, first discovered by 0. Reynolds himself. The preceding argument is applicable, so far, only to laminar, incomprcssiblc flow^ a t constant wall tcmpcratura and on condition that energy dissipation may

6) P --( liquids,oils)

Fig. 12.8. Comparison between the tcmpcmture and velo~it~y fields for bonnclnry lnyrrzl wit.11 vrry amall and with very large valr~esof Prandtl r~a~nbcr

290

X l I . Tl~rrnmal hor~ndary layers in lnminar flow

f. General proportics of tl~crmalbonnclnry Inycr

2!) 1

is possil)lc t.o disrcgartl t l ~ e vc1ocit.y borrndnry layer in t h e calculation of t h e t,hcrmal

bo~untlarylayer. Conscqucnt.ly, t h e velocitty components ?L(x,IJ) and v(x, y) can be th replaced by U ( x ) anti V ( s , y) = - ( d l J l d r ) IJ, respe~t~ively, e approximation for V stemming from t h e continuity cquat,ion applied a t the wall. The energy equat,ion (12.51~) then assumes t.ho particnlarly simple form

Very large f r a n d t l numbers: The secontl limiting casc when P + oo was solvccl for t h e first time many years ago by M.A. 1,evi:clue 1701. Jlc inLrotlucotl t#he \,pry reasonnble assumpt,ion t,hat the wholc of the ttcrnperat,urc ficltl is confi net1 inside t,hat. zone of the velocit,y field where t,he longit~ldinalvelocit,y c.otnl~onent,, is st.ill pro?I,, port.ional t,o the trnnsversc distance y. The snmo circ111nstanc:cscan also oc:c.rtr a t int,errnccliat,cvalrlcs of t l ~ c I'rantlt.1 n u m l ~ e r cascs w l ~ r n tllcrninl 1)ound:try I:tycsr in t,lto starts wibh a temperature jump a t t,he wall a t a: = T o ( c f . Vig. 12.17) itlsitlo n clcvc-lopctf veloaitly bountlnry Inycr. Accortlingly, in t,llc enrrgy cqnctI,ion, C Y ~ (12.51 v ) . II. SIIIIposc t.llnt the velocit,y tlist,ribution in tile velociby bount1nr.y layer is rcprcsc-11t)ccl ) ~ 1 11 = (to/p) IJ. I t can then be verified t , l ~ a t in accordance u.it,h refs. [7(iJ ant1 I(iYa] , (see also refs. (1 111 and [I 121). the substit~~t,ion

partvial d i f f ~ r e ~ ~ cqnn.t8ionfor temperatr~ra tinl ~listribut~ion into we can trnr~sfortnt,l~c! an ordinary onr. 'L'l~is,in tarn, Icnds to the following utiivcr~nlexpression for tile Nrtsselt, nr~trll)cr

tmnsforms t,hc cnrrgy cqnation into t8hc following orclinnry clifferc.nt.inl t-cln:~Iion:

15c,nations (12.59a) ant1 (12.5gb) are special cases of this general equation. In t,I~c casc of a flat plate (II(3:) :- [ I , . in (:ltap. V, cqn. (5.17). 1t.s solr~t~iorl is
T.

Ilcrc 2, dcnntcs tlra coordinate a t whicll tfllc t.cnl~~c?r;ttttrc jt11nl1 at. tlto w:~ll 11as bcen placetl, i l I)cirrg rcmembcrcd t,liat the cffcct of fr.rictiott:~lI~ont.has I)ccti ncglcc1,ctl. l'ho solution of this ortlirlary differentin1 cql~:ttior~ 1)c cxprcssetl ill c:~n closed form in t,crms of t11o incomplete gamma f'rrr~ctions. I'orfor~nittg 1,111:rrcll~irrtl calculation, we worlld obta.in t , l ~ e Nussclt number

const) wit11 a l~niforrn wall t,ernpcrat,ure

7',,,, obt,ain tllc satnc tlini:rt!nt,inl cqll:&t,iotl t h a t encor~nt~erecl anot,her corlnexion we a8 in

In l . l ~ c pnrI.ic:rtl:~lcasc of n Iltat 1)I:~to:LL front cqn. (7.31) Arcsort ling t o rqn. (12 31). t h r cormspontling Nussclt number is anti obtain

z(:t.o

iltc.itlcv~c:c.wit.11 r,, . - : 0, \v(* s1111sl.il.11l.c:

r0 = 0.332 I' (Iw

I/ 'g x
s

N, = 0.33!) P I I ~ R , (11:~l~ plntc ,


111

>PO)

(12.(;2:1)

111(, cnsc, of st~agt~al.iorl-l~oi~tl. (11 (3:) flnw

L-=

u', r ) , i t follows that,

It is s11own in Fig. 12.14 l l ~ a t t.11is ccluat.ion rrprc~scnfsn very gootl approsin~alion

292

XIT. Tl~er~nnl I~o~n~dary in laminar flow layers

g. Thermal boundary layers in forced flow

293

evcn in the case of moderately-valued Prandtl numbers. A t the stagnation point, the corresponding cquation is N = 0.661 P1I3 ,

1/%

(stagnation point,

P -+ oo).

(12.6213)

If the frictional heat is neglected then a temperature field exists only if there is a difference in temperature between thc wall and the extcrnal flow, e.g., if Tw- T , >0 (cooling). Hence it follows t h a t for a flat plate a t zero incidence in psrallcl Row and a t small velocities the temperature arid velocity distributions arc idcrltical provided that the Prandtl number is equal to unity:

Analogous, simple asymptotic formulae can also be established for the case of frcc convect,ion on n verlical flat plate, [73], see also eqns. (12.118a) and (12.1181)). Thi~ result corresponcls to eqn. (12.52) which Icd 11s 1.0 thc f~rrnulat~ion Ll~c of important Iteynolds analogy between heat transfer arid skin friction. 11. Blasius introduced new variables for the solution of t.11~ flow rqna1.ions, sce oqns. (7.24) and (7.26). (y) is 1110slrcnm f n n c l i o ~ ~ ) :

g. Thermnl bouoilnry layers in forced R o w

I n the present section we shall consider several examples of thermal boundary layors in forced flow. I n solving thcso problems, us0 will bo made of tho simplified thermal boundary-layer equations. J u s t as in the case of a velocity boundary layer, the general problem of evaluating tho thermal boundary layer for a body of arbitrary shape proves t o be extremely difficult, so t h a t we shall begin with the simpler example of the flat plate a t zero incidence.
1. Parallel R o w paet a Bat platc at zero incidence. We shall assume that the x-nxis is placed in the plane of the plate in the direction of flow, the y-axis being a t right arlglcs to i t and to the flow, with the origin a t the leading cdgc. The boundarylayer equations for incompressible flow and constant properties (i. e. independent of temperature) have been given in eqns. (12.61 a, b, c): assuming t h a t the buoyancy forces are equal to zero as well as t h a t dpldz = 0 [18, 941, we obtain

'rhc diffcrcntirrl <:quation for f(tl), cqn. (7.28) bccornos f f"

+ 21"'

=0,
L -

wit11 tllc boundary conditions: rl = 0 : f = f' = 0 ; 1 =- c : 1' 1 m of these equations was given in Chap. VII, Table 7.1.

I . 'I'l~esolution

Including the eflect of frictional hcat, as secn from eqn. (12.63c), the temperature distribution l'(r]) is given by the equation

'I'hc: I ) o ~ ~ r ~ t l a r y ronclitaions arc:


1 =0 1
:

u =v =0 ;

T == T,,,

or

aT/8g = O

I t is convenient to represent thc general solr~tioriof eqn. (12.65) by tho superposition of two solutions of the form:

'I'l~e vrlocit8y field is it~tlcpcntlrr~t, t,l~ct c m p r r a t ~ ~ r c of firltl so t l ~ a t , tflrc two Ilo~v equations (12.03a, b) can be solved first and the result can be employed t o evaluate t,he tscml)cmtnre field. An important rclatior~shipbetween the velocity distribution antl thc tcmperat,ure distri1)ution can bc obtained immediately from eqns. (12.63 b) : ~ n d( I 2.63 c). Jf 1;hc hcat of friction p ( a u / a ~ may be neglected in eqn. (12.63~). )~ t.he two rquat.ions, (12.03b) and (12.63c), become identical if T is rrplaced by 76 in the sccond cqr~at~ion if, in ad(lition, the properties of the fluid satisfy the equatiori id

ITcrc O1(r]) dcnotes tllc grncml solnLion of thc l~ornogcncouscq~~:~Cion 02(t7) and denotes a particular solution of the non-homogeneo~~s equation. It is, further, convenient to choose the boundary conditions for Ol(r]) antl O , ( q ) so as t o rnakc 01(7) the solution of the cooling problem with a prescribed temperature diKcrcnce betwecn the wall and tlic external stream, T , - T,, with O2(l;l) giving the solrition for the adiabatic wall. Thus 01(7) and OZ(r])satisfy t h e following equations:

294

X 11. Tlrrrnlnl bo~~rrdi~ry in lan~inar layers flow

with 0,' - () at, r] . 0 ant1 0, = 0 a t q -= co . 'l'lic value 0,(0) pcrmit,s us t.o rvalnntc t h e constnttt C from cqn. (12.66) in n manner to satisfy f.lie boontfnry nondit,ion 1 - T,,, for 7 - 0 . This yic,ltls '

Table 12.2. Diniennionlcss coefficient of heat transfer, a,, ant1 ditncnnior~lcnsadi:~ltnt,ic wall ternpcmture, b, for a flat plate a t zero incidence, fro111eqnn. (12.70) and (12.76)

(,'oo/i~~g prohlcnt : Tlte solut,ion of cqn. (12.67) was first given by 13. l'olllhnnsen [94]. I t rnn Ijr wvrittcn a s

IIct~cofor P = I : 0,(q) = 1 - / ' ( q )= 1 - ?c/U,, nntl for P = 1 the temperature dint.riltc~t,io~~ bccomcs itlont.icn1 with t.11~ vclociLy t l i ~ t ~ r i b l ~ t iinn accordn.nce \rritit o cqn. (12.64). 'l'he t.crnpcmt,r~re grntlicrit at, t.11~ w;~ll,a s calculated from eqn. (12.60), wil.ll /"(O) = 0.332, bccomcs:

- ("'I)

= a, (P) = (0.332)'
0

dtl

Tltr corls(,nnt r t I is s c o l ho tlcpcntl solcly on t,ltc PrantltJ tir~rnbcr, (P). Some valr~cs a, c:~lct~l:~t.r(l 1 I'ollll~nr~srn rcproclnccd in 'l'ablc 12.2. They can bc interpolated hy .: arc witlt goo(l nrrrtracy from t,hc formula

Fig. 12.9. Tempc.rat~lre ~list,ril>r~tion :I I~catrtlflnt plate a t zcro i ~ ~ c ~ t l r r ~ r11 > , on I\ 11 ( stn:i11 vrlo(.~fy plotted for various Pralltltl nrln~hersP (friclionnl 1lr:it ~lrglrrtctl)

For very stn:tll I'l;~,ntll,lnllmbcrs, cqn. (12.59~1) givcs


rs,
-

For P = 1 we Irnvc: 02(?]) = 1


)I)

0.564 ;/-P

(P -- 0 ) ,

wllrrrns for w r y Inrgc: I1r;ct~tlt.l 1111nll)rrsaqtr. (12.62n,) lcatls t o

'I'llc t.cnil~cmt.r~rc \vlliclr is assr~mctl t,ltc w;111 owing t o fri(:l.iortnl Ilml. 1 . 1 1 ~rrrlirthrtlic by ~tlnll/~nr~?ern/?t,rr. is t.liiis, by eqtls. (12.00) nrttl (12.72): 'l',,
l'?,,, = I
r
l

- T,,

--

Urn? b (P)
rP

(12.74)

l'ltn t.c~~nl~c.r:~l.~~~.v rlist,ril)~~t.iot~ c;~l(~r~l:t.l.c~tl c-tin. (12.69) is sl~owlt ~)lol,t.ctl f~.orn in I'ig. 12.9. As :~lr(\;~(Iy ~nanI.ionctl, t,llr. c r ~ r v e for P I givcs also t,lrc: veloc.it.y (JisOriI)rrf.ion. 1For v:llnrs of P 1 1 1.11~ tsl~rrrnnl 1)ortntlary lnyrr is t,l~innrr than t.hc valocit,y I ~ o r ~ t t t l ;I:~.~c*r. c-x:tnrplc, For oil wit11 n I'rnn(1t.l rirttnhrr P = 1000 the tl~errnnl ~ . r ~ I'or I)on~lil:rry Inyc-r is otlly ono l.crit1lr of t,l~t: vc~1oc:ifyl)o~~ritlnry 1n.yrr.
I

/Irlinhn/ic 119r1lb:'1'11t. solrtl.iori ol' ~ 'v:lri:lt,io~t ol' t,llc 1)nmrnrt.rr'. Itzis

~ I I (12.(i8) I .

can.tiIIC ol)t.:iinctl by t.11~ mctltotl of

fro111cqn. (12.72). I'or a consl.;r.nt 1'rantll.l nntn1)cr t,ho :rtli:r,l~nl.ic: \v:tll l,c-tril,rr;r.l,~tr(~ is prol)orI,ionnl t o l , l ~ cn(lin,l)ntsict.ctn~~(~r:~I,~tr(: ~ 1 . i ~ 1!,v,2/2rr, \vlti(:l~ \V:I.S ~ ) l o l , t . i ~i~ ll l Icig. 12.3. Sotnc rtrlrrlc.ric:al v a l r l c ~of I,It(: I;~cl.or ( P ) ; ~ r og i v c , ~ i~l 'I':IIII(. 12.2; 1'01. h l motlrmt,c: Prn~ttlt~l riumbcrs them vn.lucs ]nay 1 ~ : in(,cl.l)ol:rt,otI\ \ r i t , l ~ sr~lIinionb;I(:(:IIracy from tllr. forninl:~,1 1 1 / P . Tltc valttcs for 1:1rgvr 1'r:111tlt,lI I I I I I I ~ ) ( ~~ S : I I IIV in~. f'crrrtl fronl l'ig. 12.10. 111 1.11~ bmil.ing m s r , wc! I1:1vc (841

296

XI]. Thcrtnnl boundt~rylnyrn in lnminnr flow


I'ig. 12.10. Adiabatic wall tc~npcrnturc7 of ' " a flat plate a t zero incidrnce with velocity Ua for v:irio~lnv n l u r ~ tho of l'ra~~rll,l1111ni1)(;r; r k r a 1':. 15ckc1.tanclO.llrcwitz [IB] as w'cll RR D. Moksyn [84]. I'or large I'rnndtl nlltnl)rrn, according to D. Mcksyn [84], we havc 0 = 1-0 PI13

g. l r l ~ c r l ~ ~ n l bourltinry lnycrs in rorcccl flow

207

I t is remarliablc t h a t for P = 1 wc havc cxactly b = 1. Thus, for a gas with P = 1 flowing in a parallel stxcam with velocity U , past a flat platme t zero incidence a the temperaturc rise due to frictional heat is equal to the adiabatic tempersture, i. e. t o t h a t which occurs from velocity U , to zero. The adiabatic wall temperature [16, 201 measured st various Reynolds nrlml)ers U , x / v is seen plottcd in Fig. 12.1 1. Thc agreement, is vcry good in thc laminar region. A t the point of transition from laminar t o turbulent flow in thc boundary layer the temperature increases suddenly. The temperature distribution for a n adiabatic wall represented non-tlimcnsionally is
t l ) - Too ' 1'2,.- Tm

T , ( T I- Too = OJtl, P) )
T,

- 'I'm

b(P)

'

and is seen plotted in Fig. 12.12 for various values of the Prandtl number. From eqns. (12.74) and (12.75), we obtain that the constant C from eqn. (12.68a) is

c = ( T , - T,)

- ( T , - T,) = T , - T ,

The general solution for a prcscribcd tempcraturc difference between the wall and the free stream, T,#, - II',, eqn. (12.66), is thus T ( 7 ) - T , = [ ( T , - T,) - ( T , - T , ) ] 0 1 ( 7 , P ) with T , -- II', comes

uz + ---- 0 2 ( 7 ,P )
cP

(12.76)

from eqn. (12.74). Thc dimensionless temperature distribution beT - Too --- - [L- ) E b (PI1 8 , ( r l , P ) 1' -Too -

+ h E 02 (vtP ) .

(12.765)

Fig. 12.1 1. Measuren~cnt of ndiabatic wall ternpcrnturo on n flat plate in n parallel air strenm a t zero incidence in a lnlnitlar ant1 trtrbulcnt boundnry Iayor, nfter Eclzert and Weise [20]; theory for laminar flow and P = 0.7
,05
2
$ 5 6
I ,06 3 7

4 5

It is shown plotted in Fig. 12.13 for various values of the Eckert number E = Um2/c,(TW T,), from eqn. (12.28). For b x E > 2 the boundary layer near the wall is warmer than the wall itself owing t o the generation of frictional heat. I n such cases the wall will not be cooled by the stream of air flowing past it.

5. .

Heat transfer. As scon from eqn. (12.2) the 11c11.t flux from plate to fluid at, station x has the value q ( x ) = - k(t3T/ay)v-oor

Thc rate of heat transfcr per unit time for both sides of a plate (length 1, width h ) is Q = 2 b / q ( x ) dx, so t h a t
1
I

a ) Neqkdir~g/rictioml heat : I n this case T ( q ) - T m = ( T ,- T , ) ( 7 ) by eqn. (12.69) wit11 ( ~ l l ' / d q ) ~ a , ( T , -- T,). With nl from cqn. (12.71a ) we have = -

o1

Fig. 12.12. Temperature excess in the laminar boundary laycr on n flirt plate a t zero incidence in s parallel strean1 wit11 high velocity in the absence 01 hrolinq for vnrions l'rnndtl nrtmbcra (ndinbntic wirll)

The cnsc of turbulcrit flow can bc approximatcd by l h c equations

N = 0.0296 ,

'fi., O ' ~ t u r b u l c n t ), R

(12.79~)

which we quotc here for complctencss, b u t without proof. 'l'hc preceding forrnr~li~e for t h e rate of lieat transler a r c in good ngrccmcnt with t h c n~rasnromontn h ~ o o t t 1'. Elias [31], A. Rrlwarcls nr~tlB. N. 1'urt)or 1271 ant1 .J. J(c:stsin, ID.1'. M~tc.(l(*r ILIHI 1%. Wang [66J. E. b) With frictional heal: I n this case with T ( q ) from cqn. (12.76) we obtain

~linlril~rrt,ion a l:rn)irinr I~ounrlaryIaycr on a Iicnbrl ( E > 0) and in IGg. 12.13. 'rrnrl)cr:~tr~rt. cooled ( E < 0) llat plntc: nL zcro incidcncc i n ti parallrl st,rcnn~ the case of a Inr~iinar for hoiitidnry layer nrrd \\~iI.lr frict.ional Irc:r.l accorrntctl for an calcrtl;~bdfro~nrqn. (12.70). I'mntlt,l nrrtnber P 0.7 (air). 'l'llr Icnrpc!rnt,t~re the w r ~ l lis nraint.airrctl corrst,nnt a t y. (:rrrvc: h x E = 0 for of ,. zrro rrict,i(tn:~I Ilr-ilt,;rttrvc h x E = 2 corrcs~)o~id~ ntliabalir wall; E = 1Jm2/c,,(7',,- 7>,); t a11 o b . 0,835. I'or h x E > 2 l.hr lrot wall ccb:tsrs I*, I?c coolctl by t,lrc strf:n111of ~ooler RIII(.C air, t,l~o 'l~ral, c:nnliiori' providctl I)y fricl,ional Irrnl. prc!vrtit.s c!ooling

wherc T, is t h e adiabatic wall temperature. It is identical with the wall tcmpcrature in t h e thermometer problem a n d follows from t h e equation Urn2 - Urn2 T,-T,=b(P) - - - - - z i p ---. (12.80) 2 c, 2c IIere b(P) can be takcn from Table 12.2. Iritrotlucing t h e Mach number M = U,/cw from (12.27), T, may also bc taken from

T h u s we o b h i n the following expressions for t h e local and total h e a t flux from cqns. (12.77) ant1 (12.78) respectively

IVIII.

l ~ ~ [ r o t l ~ r c itli~nr.nsionlcss coofficienf,~in the form of t,hc Nlrssclt ~ l u r n t ~ c r rig from (12.31) instoatl of t,lic? locnl ant1 total Iicat flux, rcspcctively
1 .

q ( ~ )

.c

N ( 1- 2 )

; ~ r ~ c lQ

-- 2 h 1
P-+O,

1.

N , (T,,- l',)

N,=O.564

I / P - ~ Rfor .

I t now ceascs t o bc useful t o basc t h e cocfficicnt of h c a t transfer a(x)on thc t.cmpcraturc diffcrcncc (Tw T,) from eqn. (12.29) o r t o clcfinc tho Nnssclt nr11n1)trr i l l :rx eqn. (12.31) because t h e heat flux is no longcr proportional t o t h a t t c m p c m t l ~ r c diffcrencet.

t E. 11:ckert and W. Wcisc [17] Iinvc, therefore, ~t~ggrnLed introclr~co N I I R Rnnnrl)cr N* to a C~~

based on the difference (T, - T,). We migliL tlicn cxpcct to obtain ns a 8rnt approxiina t.'loll, even in compre~ibleflow, the mmc forrnu1.w for N* a in eqn. (12.79a. b). If, on llic otllcr 9 hand, wc retain the Nomelt number b a d on (T,- T,) tlrcn eqn. (12.81) Icnds to tlic following exprcasions instead of (12.79a):

300

XI1. Tl~rrrnnl borrndary layers in laminar flow

g. Thcrmal boundary layers i n forced flow

The cooling action of a stream of fluit1 on a wall is considcm1)ly rctluccrl because of t,hc hrxt gencmtrd by friction. I n 111rnbsrr~cc frirtionnl I~eat,, of heat will flow from the platc t o thc fluid ( q > 0 ) as long as T, > II', but in actr~nlfact,, if frictional hcat is prcsont, a flow of hcat persists only if T, > T,, eqn. (12.81). Taking into acrortnt thc valuc tlcdr~cctl T,, we obtain the condition t h a t heat flows from wall for to fluit1 (nplwr sign) or in tho reverse tlircction (lower sign), if

then satisfies t.llc? equation


0"

.t ."!-l-L01 - It pif 0 = - p~ x 2 m - n 1""p/


2

antl thc sol~rtionmust satisfy thc boundary cotltlitions 1 7 ~ 0 :


a:=];
17=03:

O-:()

A numcricnl cxatnplc may serve to illust~mtctfhe signifirancc of cqn. (12.82): 111 a stream of air flo\ving a t TJm = 200 m/scc, P = 0.7, cp = 1.006 k.J/kg dcg wr obtain P 1JW2/2 = IF tlcg C. The wall will begin L be cooletl whcn c, o

1/

If tltc tenipcrat,urc difference bctwren wall and stream is snlallcr than t,ltis value the wall will pick 11p a port,ion of thc hcat generated by friction. I n particular this is tho case whcn thc tcmpcraturc of the wall and stream arc cqnal. An ec~uatiorlfor thc rate of hcat transferred from n flat platc a t zcro incitIcnco but with variable material properties was derived by H. Schuh [110]. The temperature field on a platc placed in a stream with a linear temperature distribution w54 studicd in ref. [128].
2. Additional sinlilar sol~ltionsof t l ~ eequations for thermal boundary laycrs. I n the casc of a flat platc a t zcro incidence, the velocity and the temperature profiles t~lrnctlout to bc similar among themselves. This means that the distributions a t tliffcrcnt clistar~ccs along tllc platc co111clhc mn.tlc congrrrcnt by a s~tiLahlc t r c t c l ~ i t ~ g z s in the y-direction. Since i t is lcnown t h a t tltere cxist velocity boundary layers other t.11an those on a flat platc for which t l ~ i s true (e. g. the wedge profiles discussed is in Chap. IX), it, appcnrs useful to stucly the possibility of tho cxistcncc of additional similar solutions of t.he energy equation. This problem was investigated in detail in ref. 11351. At, tho prcscnt time, we sha,ll start with t.hc class of velocity boundary leycrs on wedges anti will awnme t h a t t,Ilc cxtcrnal flow is of the form U(z) = tc1 x"'. 111 at, analogous manner, we stiprtlatc {,hat tho wall-tcmpcraturc clistribution also sa1,isfies n power law, say one of thc form T,(x) -,Y = ' = TI x". Walls of constant t,rtnpcrat,~~re inclutlctl as thc casc n == 0, and t11c valuc 12. = (1 --711,)/2 are c ~ r r r ~ p o t ~ t l s COIIS~CIII~, to :I, brat flux q . 1nt.rotlucing tlic sitnilnrit,y variable

It is clear from cqn. (12.84) t h a t its right-ltat~tlsitlc vanisltcs in tltc al)scncc of fric:tiotlal heat and that all solutions arc then of tlrc s i t ~ ~ i l a r typc. IIowcvcr, if of frictional hcat is includcd, similar solrrt,ions arc rcstrictctl to tltat t:ombinatio~~ pnratnct,crs for w11icI1 thc right-halld sido becomes intlcpcntlct~tof z. 'r11i.s oc:t:~trs when 2 ~n - 7 t = 0 , tltat is, whcn thcrc cxists a firm cor~l,lit~g 1)ctwco11tltc vc1ot:ity distribution it, thc cxtcrnal flow antl tho tcmperatarc tlistril~r~tion :&long1.110 w:ill. According to this result., thc casc of a c o ~ ~ s t ~tcmpcmt,r~re ant lratls to similar sol~~t,ions otlly on a flat plate (1i1=1t =0). 011thc o l l ~ c r hnt~tl,if 1,110 contli1,iotl 2 111, - - 11. - 1) is satisfied, thcn for every pair of values of m and P t l ~ c r c cxists oric tlcfinitc valur: E, for which there is no flow of ltcat (O'(0) = 0). Jn this rasc, the tctnpc:mt,~~rc distribution along the wa.11, once again lcrtown as tfhc atliabalic wall-tcmparat,r~rc: distribution T,, is given by

Numcricnl valucs for t l ~ c frtnction b(m,P) havc bcnn romput,rtl by 1%A. 1lr11r1 171. I n the particular case whcn m = 0, the numerical valucs of l'ablc 12.2 arc rccovcrctl. Wlicn thc cffcct of dissipative hcat is ncglcctccl, wc obtain tho simpler equation

whose solutions for different valucs of thc parameters m, n, and P have bccn published by a number of aut.hors [79, 121, 32, 33, 89, 1401. E.1E.G. Eclrcrt [I91 has dcmonst,ratcd that for n = 0, the local Nusselt number is given by thc equation

wr ol~tnintlic f;~tilili:irrquations (0.8~1) the brlocity u = i J ( . z ) . / ' ( q ) ,or for

Eerc

N
%

ax =-=k

i---y
U ( x ) . 1:

O' (0) = -

id,

0' (0) .

( 12.88)

The frinctiot~F ( m , P) is seen plotted in Fig. 12.14 on thc basis of the numcriral data provided by 11. 1,. Evans [33]. Jn addition, thc asymptotes for very small and vary large I'randtl numbers, cqrts. (12.57) nritf (12.01 n), rrspccl~ivrly, 11avo also

302

XJI. Thorninl boundary layers in laminar flow

g. Tliernial bonndary Inycrs in forced flow

303

F ~ R12.14. 1,ocnl Nta~clt . nl~mher a fnnction of tho Prandtl nii~nber of the flow parameter as and m for flows wliosr f'rre-stroam velocity is distrih~itedaccording to the law U ( z ) = u, zm = = v , z P l ( 2 - 0 ) (wctlge Ilow) hut for a constant wnll kmpcrature and in the absence of dissipation Asymplot.ic approximations for P -t 0

I\riylilpt.r)tinapproxiinations for P .+ cm and P P + u ant1 p = - 0. I!)O: ,

+ - 0,100 according to eqn. (12.61a), and for

been indicated (see also [119]). F o r thc Rat plate (m =0) the earlier rclntions from eqns. (12.69a) and (12.62a) are, ~laturally,recovered. The caso of stagnation flow ( m = 1) leads to eqns. (12.69b) and (12.02b). I n tho special cnsc of a separation profile (m = - 0.091) i t becomes necessary to adopt a different asymptotic approximation for P -t oo,as shown in 1321. The thermal boundary laycr associntcd with tho thrcc-dirnc:nsional vc:locity boundary layer on a rectangular corner a t zero incidence is also of tllc sclf-similar type when the external velocity distribution is of thc IIartrcc class given by U ( r ) -C x m . The velocities a s well a s the temperature distributions for this case havc bccn worked out in a thesis by Vasanta R a m (ref. 1921 in Chap. XI). Figure 11.I!) givcs an idea of thc vclocit-y distribution for dilTcrcnt vnlrics of tlic ~)rcss~~rc-grntlicnl, 1)nt.nmctcr m. I'lrc tliagrnnl in Fig. 12.16 supplc~ncrik ~)rocctliilg in t,l~rtt, c : t ~ ~ ~ t . r i i t i x tlic onc il, an example of the associated temperature distribution. For a uniform cxtcrnal Ilow with U(x) = Um = const and in the case of a hotter (i. e. cooled) wall for which T, > Tm the solut,ion nevertheless exhibits a zone near the corner itsclf, shadcd in the figure, in which ( T - Tm)/(T, - Tm) > 0, that is in which T > T,,,. 'l'l~is zonc occurs when dissipation is included and corresponds to a condition where thc local fluid temperature exceeds the wall tempcraturc. Thus, loca.lly, the heat flux is reversed and proceeds from the fluid t o the wall in spite of the fact t h a t a t a largc distancc from the wall the temperature of the fluid is lower than t h a t of the wall, Tm < T,. The physical reason for this seemingly anomalous behavior is rootad in the increased local ratc of heating due to dissipation which occurs near thc corner. Phcnorncna of this kind are important in the liypcrsonic flow rogimc. 'l'lic rcslrlling Inrgc inc:~.cnscs in temperature which occur in such cases can cause burning of the surface of the body in the stream (ci. Sec. XI11 e).
3. Thetmal boundary layere on i ~ o t l ~ e r m a l bodies of nrbitrary shape. N. I'rocss' ling [39] carried out calculations on the tcrnpcraturc distribution in thc laminar boundary layer about a body of arbitrary shapc for tlic two-climcnsionnl ant1 axially symmetrical cases. I n his calculations, in which friction and cornprcssion work wcrc neglected throughout, he assumed a powcr serics for the potential vcloc:ity clistribution around the body expanded in terms of the length of arc (Blasius serics), similar to Sec. I X c , i. e. of the form:

Approxilnation for inbr~ncdisto PrnntitI nurnbcrs and /' 0, according to eqn. (12.71a). i=

U = u, x 4- u, 2" -1- u, xk "

... .

The velocity distribution in the boundary laycr is wsnmctl to llavc the form: Fig. 12.15. Tornpcrntnre distributioli , along a lienkd wnll (T,,,> T,) it1 a right-angled corner in n laniinar boundary layer with a constant ex(inclusive ofdirisipntioli),aftnr ternal velocity Urn ~n.qnndRani (1441. 1,irictn of cot~st.nrit tc~nper:~.t,nrc: P = 0.7 nricl E = 2.1. The local temperat~lre for exceeds the wall t~rr~lwraf.i~re).,'- i n 1.11~ ( 7' ; l' hntcl~r:clrcgion; conseqnent,ly,in that region heat flows fluid + wall i n spite of tlie fncl, t,liat t.11~ wall tmnperatnrn exceeds the free-stream t.aniporntnre. Tlie reason for t . I ~ i nproccm licri in tlis~ipnt,ion. Rckert nnnibcr E -- IJ&/r, (T,,, 7',)

dist,ribut,io~iwas of tlic form : Correspondingly, the assumption for thc tcmpcrati~re

I n a manner similar t o t h a t for the velocity boundary laycr in Scr. TX c it, is found t h a t the functions T I (y), T3(y), . . . satisfy ordinary diffcrcntial cqnations wliicl~include thc functions f l , i,, . . . of the velocity distribution. I n this case, howcvcr, tllc fr~nctions T,, . . . also depend on the Prandtl number. The first arlxiljary frlrlctions TI(?/) T,,

30.4

X11. Tl~ort~lal boundary Iaycra in lerninnr flow

g. Thermal borrnclnry lnycra in forccd

flow

305

for t,hc two-tlitncnsior~alant1 axially syrnmctricnl case were evnlnnted numerically for n Prantltl nllmber of 0.7. 'rile met,hocl under consideration is somewhat cumbersome I)y its natnrc, ns was t,hc case wit11 the velocity boundary layer, particularly for slcntlrr I)otly for~iiswhen a large number of terms in the power expansion is rrqnirrd, as sl~o\vn l l 1281. i Nurnrrol~ss o l ~ ~ t , i ofor s self-similar thermal 1)oundary layers inclusive of the t~ elTrc.t,s of blowing and suction can be found in [34, 44, 134, 101. In t,lw sprcinl case when P = 1, ant1 when the Ilcatf duo t o friction is ~ieglccted, the tfiKcrcnt.inl ccll~at,ionfor the temperature clistribution in the boundary layer a r o ~ ~ n an xrbit,r:sry cylintlcr is itlcnt.ica1 with that for the transverse velocity tl coml)oncnt (volocit,y componerit in the tlircction of the generatrix of the ynwetl rylirrtler). This r a n be seen upon comparing cqns. ( 1 2 . 6 3 ~ and (11.58). The relation, ) w l ~ i c lhas already t)ecn discusscd in Scc. X I d , was ut,ilized b y I,. Golancl [46] for ~ t,lro e v a l ~ ~ n t ~ of rt.he temperatlure distribution in the boundary layer around a io ~ aylir~tlcr s~)rc:ial of form. I n tile ~~eigltl~ourhootl a stjagnation point, where t h e velocity distribution of is r ~ ~ ~ r c by oIJ~(z) == ~x dwith nz =.. /? = 1 , thc Nrlsselt number dcfincd in ~ ~ t ~ eqn. (12.87) ran be rcprescntad by t h c cqrlation

'I'ablc? 12.3. Thc coti~t,nnt in the equation for the cnlcnlat.ion of tho rorffic:irnt, of I~cnt, A t.ransfi.r i n t,he ncigllborrrltood of n st,agnnt,ion point, nftm H. 11. Sqnirc []:ti J

on contlition thatf oncrgy dissipation is neglected. T h e character of the function A ( P ) emerges from Fig. 12.14 and Table 12.3. I n thc former, the curve for /? = 1 corrcspo11tl.s t o t l ~ c function A . For .z circulnr cyli~ldcrwe p u t U(z) = U, sin ( x / R ) ,so tfl~at. I 91 4 fJ,/D. lrcncc

Fig. 12.16. Jmcal rate of float translcr trro~rntl circt~lar n rylindrr. Coml,arison brtweon tl~eory antl expcriment. Nuamlt ~~nrnbern and Jtcynolcls nnmN I~rrR,, rrfcrrcci to rylincler dintncter I ) = 100 111111. Mmsurcn~ents pcrformcc\ by E. Scll~nidtnnd K. Wcnner [107]. l'l~rorytine to N. Froeasling [XI] ant1 W. l)ie~~einann [Ill. Systelnatic infl\lcncc of Rcynolds number due to vnrying froe-stream turbulence, Scc. XI1 g 7

Tllc al)ove rxl)rc.ssiol~ agrcrs reasonably wcll with t h e mcasi~rementsperformed by R. St.llnliclt antl I<. Wcnncr [107] a t lowcr Rcynolds numbers, see Fig. 12.16. I t :~ppt-ars, I~owrvcr,t,hat t h e ratio N,/~/R,, drpends systematically on t h c Jtcynoltls n l ~ n ~ l ~this; s y s t r n ~ a t ~infll~cncc not acconnl,cd for by the tl~eory. cr ic is For cxamplc at, R - 1.7 x 10" tho m m s ~ ~ r cVRIIIC c x c r ~ t I s t,heorot,i~a1 at. the .st,:~g~int.ior~ tl t,l~o onc poitrt by 10 to 16%. We s11:~ll rcvcrtt t.o t,l~is point in Scc. X I J g 7 whcrc i t will bc RIIOWII t , l ~ a t l ~ e discrepancy is due t o the rffcct, of varying free-stream turbulence procll~rrdhy a rhangr in the Jtcynolds number. Whcn ~,crforniingnrrnierical cnlcnlat,ions on ' thermal bountla.ry Ia.yers, i t is Sorttit1 t l l ~ tnpproai?ndc rn,etko(L~ muell simpler l,11a1i tho preceding exact metlrods. , arc Such n.pproxin~:~t,e mcl,hods arc based on nclrlatioris modclled on the integral moment,r~rneqnnt.ion for t,l~c calc~llntionof velocity bountlary layers wliicli was considcrcd in tlct.nil in C11:l.p. X . Ncglrct~ing frictional heat; and tile effects of co~npressibility it, is [)ossil)ln looinfngrat.c: t,l~c:crncrgy cquat,ion (12.51c) from y = 0 t o y = oo and SO 1.0 ol)Ia.ill t.111:hrcst-llic:,: rq~rrdion

(T- T,)]

dy = - o ( C T ) ac~ ,-0

wllcrc a .=. k/p c, is t,l~e tllcrinnl t1iff1tsivit.y ir~t~rotl~tcotl in cqn. (12.25). Tllc prnct:tling rcl~~al.ioll, somrt,i~nrs :11so c.:~llotlt,l~c c:~~crgy-i111.rgm.I c?cl~~nl.iorrt, clt~ito~I.IIII,~~!:OIIS is to t . 1 1 ~ r~lo~l~c~it.r~nl-irltcgr:~l (8.32) for t,llc v c l o ~ i t ~ yo ~ ~ ~ ~ tlayer. rclrrn(.ic~n b lnry From among t l ~ c numcrous proccclures wl~icharc avnilal~lcfor thc soll~t.iot~ of t.lrc 11catflux equation (12.91), we propose 1.0 tlcscribc t h a t tll~o IT. B. Sqrlirc [IS21 to ill ~ 6 1 1 tlct.nil I)(:(!~IIsc it is partir~~l:~,rly 1~ sir111)lt: t~,n(l IK:~:I,IIS(: it, i~ II rln,l,~lr:~l t-o11l,i1111:rt.ior~ l'olrlllauscl~'~ of i~l)~)roxit~\:~t.c Ibr t,l~c mct,ho~l sol\rt,io~~ t,111> ol vclocit,y I)o\rntl:lry layer clescribetl in Cl~ap.X. I n orclcr t o ovi~luatot,l~c ilitcgral on the Jcft-l~:~ntl side of cqn. (12.01) wc introtfucc 1 . 1 1 va.riables ?I -- y / B for t8hovt~loc:itry ) o ~ ~ ~ i t lI:tyrr antl ~ I ary

Not to be confnscd wit-h the encrgy-integrnl cqnation (8.35).

306

XII. Tllcrrnal hor~ndarylayers in laminar flow

17T = ?//Or for t . 1 1 ~t.hc:rtnal layer. We tlcnoI,e, furt,l~er, t,l~cir mt,io I)y A = BT/d, ant1 we ;Lssulnc: ~ , I I : I ~ ,t-llo vrlorit.y : L I I ( ~ t.on~l)crat,t~rc clist.ribr~l.iot~s, rcr;pcct.ivcly, havc the fimns (12.92~~) 2 11"1?i4] IJ (x) F ( 7 ) , == I =U( ) 2
--

Upon dividing eqn. (12.95) by eqn. (12.96), we ohtain

A2.

H ( A )= 4

1 i-4

U~~UII.(I~
-0
z
O

(12.97)

H JUQI x
,I .l l t r vt:loc.it,y tlist,riln~t,ion st.il)~~l:~l.ctl c:orrcspontls 1.0 t,llc: I'ohlhnuscn assumpIlcrc? t.ior~ in otl11. (10.2:1) : ~ . t ~ c l t , I ~ t : liwm of t.110 t.cml)cr:~t.l~rc clist,ribt~t,ionf11nc:tion is so srlrc:l.ctl ns t,o c:nsllrc? itlt.nl,ic::tl vclocil.y : ~ n ( lt(:n~~)cra.l,ltrc~ t ~ r i l ~ l ~ I for nBT ---- 0 , (li .io s
as rcrcl~~ircrtl y t,Itc Jtc~ynolclsanalogy for n flnt ~)l:~t.ct P = I, cqn. (12.64). 11. a srll~st.it,ut,ing cclns. (12.!)2:1, 1)) into ccln. (12.91), wo obt,ain
011
I

Since H ( A ) is a known function, Table 12.4, the preceding equation can bc used t o tloterrninc A ( x ) . T h e calculation is best porrorrncd 1)y u~lc~~cssivcp r o x i ~ n a t i o ~ ~ n , nl) starting with the initial assumption t.11at A -= r o t ~ s l ~ . Jltwrc wc obtain

u4 Lu CIX

Jlc~rt. / / ( , I ) is n rl~tivors:~l ~ ~ ~ ~ c t iA ~ l O,./fi f of o -

wl~icli turns out l o l)c given 11y

The resulting value of A is now int,rvtlucctl into t,hc 1t:ft.-11:~ntl sitlc of ac111. (12.!)7) thus leading t o a n improved value of A. I n general, two stst*psin the iteration nrc found t o be sufficient. The local rate of heat transfer becomes

Performing the intlicatcd integrations, we obtain


140 180 3 - - - +- -- -- - - 3- 1 3 1 2 1 ~I(A= ) .
15

II(A)= 2 A -

? /In"+

'

A4

for A

<1
a n d hence t h e local Nusselt number referred t o a characteristic length I is

and

,,

10 A

15 A2

140 A'

+ - 1-

1 -180 A6

orA>,

Some numerical valrlcs of the function [[(A), calculated by W. Dienemann[ll], havc been listctl in Ta11lc 12.4. Tablo 12.4. Nlrrnoricnl vnluw of tllo function H ( A )

T h e steps to be taken t o evaluate the thcrmnl boundary layer, and in partficr~lar, to determine t h e variation of t h e N~lsseltnumber along a body of preseribcd sllape are thus the following ones: from eqns. (12.97) and (12.978) 1. evaluate A (2) 2. evaluate d (x) from eqn. (12.96) 3. steps 1 a n d 2 give dT(x); finally, t h e local Nusselt number follows from eqn. (12.98).

The integration of cqn. (12.93) yields


I

Flat plate at zero incidence: The preccding approximato method will now be compared with t h e exact solution in tthc case of n flnt plato at zero incidence. Insert= , ing U (z) U into eqn. (12.97), wc obtain
I

'I'lle vclocity l~onndary-layer thickness cJ can bc evaluated with thc aid of cqn. (10.37) wl~c,r~ is rcmoml~crt:cl from cqn. (10.24)t t h a t n/d2 = 316/37. T l ~ n s it
I .

The expression A = P-ID constitutes a n approximation t o the soInttion of this equation which is in error b y n o more t h a n 5 per ccnt. as compared with t h e exact solution. The boundary-layer thickness from cqn. (12.06) is

Fttr IIir ankt. o f ~ i n ~ p l i f tlic~ i l . rdalci~lalion bmcd throughot~t the flat-plate relations ( A = 0). is on

X11. ' I ' l ~ r r ~ ~ ~ n l hotrnclnry I:ryrrs in lnn~iunr flow I1enc.r 01c loc.:~l N~rssrltrtumbrr rcfcrrc-tl t,o the cnrrrnt Icngt,h s alone; thc plate, !Is), I)vc-o~nc.s

g. Tl~cr~nal bo~~ndary layers i n forcrtl flo~r,

:lO!)

V ~ I I( 1 2

w11c~rrn.s t,l~c c,xn.c.t sol111~io11, cqn. (12.79a), showed t h e n ~ ~ m e r i c a l coefficient t o b~ eq11:1l l o 0.:1:12. Alt.rrn:~l :~pproxirnnt,c ivc proccdores for the calculatfion of-the tjhcrmalq!o~ndary 1j1,ycron 1)otlit:s of n.rl)itSr:r.ry l ~ a p c s s have baeq intlicnlc;i_Ly...E..lj;ckert [l-)j a n d Gy I{>.I<Cclirrti nt~tl* J . N . 13. jivin&mtl [23, 251; t.he latter require a somewhat larger ~ I I I O I I I I of I I ~ I I I I ( % ~ ~ C : I . ~ ~, \\,orlc, b111 t,hcir BCCIIT:L~Yis improved. 111 this connexion t,hc p n 1 ~ ~ tI)y \V. I)ic.nrniar~n1 1 I], 11.J. Merlc 1851, M.B. S k o p e k [I181 and A. G. Smit,ll .s n.11t1 1). 1%. Spnltlit~g In] rnny I)? usrful t,o t.hr rcadcr. 111ror~f,ra.st. 1.1 with 11. 13. Squil.~'s, t.11~:I:~t.ltsr pror.c.cI~~rrs rn:~.lco us(: of t.11r rcsr~lt,s t , l ~t,hcory of similar I,hcrn~:il of c I,o~rr~tl:rry I:~.yrrs l.linc*t in t . 1 1 ~)rrnctli~ig 011 l ~ scc:tion. 'I'l~isimprovt:~ the accuracy of tlle calclllntion. r I11n v:irio~~s :~l)lrroxirnat,n nlct.l~otls I~nvn ~ o r cxaminctl crit.icnlly and comparctl wit,ll I r~ rxch ol llor in n pnprr 1)y 1). 13. Spnltling ant1 W. M. P u n [I221 : their accumcy has beeti jlltlgrtl I)y pc:rli,rtning c:ornpn.risons with t.he cxaot solut,ion for the circular cylintlcr proritlt.tl Ily N . 1~rorssling. Accor(lil1g t.0 t.hns(: stlltlirs, trhomethods due t,o IT. J. Mcrlc /85] nntl A . G . Snlit.ll and D. R . Spnlding [ l l n ] t,ul.tl onl, too I)c rclnt~ivclyt,hc I I I O S ~ , ~ c c I I I .in ~ ~ ~ of l.l~rir : sl>iIlt: silnl)li(:ily. ' ~ I I c Iattcr relerencc s11ows t h a t a t a PrantU1 nl~rnl)cr P :-= 0.7, t.hc similar wctlgc profiles satisfy with good accuracy thc relation of

calculat.ion mllc:l~Inore tlific~tlt,. n p a r t i c ~ ~ l at,11c prccc[ling a ~ ~ l ~ ltnii(I(: ( I ( ? l . : ~ i l ~ ~ i I r, ~ors calculalions for t,lrc thcrmal I101tntl:wy I:l.yc:rs n~socinl~ctl will^ lllc wctlgc Ilows wl~ic:lr corresporltl to U ( z ) = ulx"' and whose vclorit,y I)onndary Inycrs, cnl~:~~l:it.c~tl r:trlicr by 1). It. Jlart,rcc, llavc been clisc~lssctli t 1 Sca. I X n . 'I'll(: tllcrtnnl I ) o ~ ~ n t l : ~:r yy r r I ~ for wcdgc flow is also tliscussctl in a paper by A . N . rl'ifTort1 11391.
4. Tllern~nlb o ~ ~ ~ ~lnyers oti walls witli nn nrbi~rnrylenipernt~~re dary distrihl~tion. \+'it11 1.110 oxcept8iot1 t.hc si~nilnr of solrlt.ions for wcdgc flows tliscussctl in Src. XI1 g 2, :ill t.l~crrn:tl) O I I I I I ~ : I ~ ~ I layers discussctl so far were cnlc~~lnhrl the x.ssun~ptio~~ t l ~ c or1 thnt tc~nl)ornt.urc: dil1i:rcnrr l)~:l.\\W I I wall and frcc s t r c : ~ rwhich creates the heat Ilux rcn~ni~~cd ~~ constant. The onlculation of Lhc tmnpcratt~re ficlrl nntl of t.11~ of heat t,rnnsrrr i n thr: prcscnrc of n tc~r~l)rrnt~uro \vl~ic:l~ rate 7',,,(3.) is dislribr~lati alol~g 1.11~wnll prrscnt.~ many cliffin~llics. 111nny mscs, t.l~cscarc c.l.r:ttril hy In t,l~c fw:L t,I~at, 10t~:il l~(::it,flux i8 hy no I I I ~ : L I I ~lcl,cr~~~ir~rrlIjy t.11r: ln(!:~l t,Ilc ~ sc)lt?l.y t~c-ti~lt~~ntl~~ cliIli.rc,nc.c! '/',,,(:r) 'l'<w,. , 1 1 r o v 1I~o I)(: ~l,ro~~[cl,yI I I - I I ~ C : IlI ~ y "~I:I!I~, It , ~IIII III~, l~i~lc,ry" 111,. l t o 1 1 1 1 ~ 1 : ~ r y l:ly(!r. , he cxtcnsir,~~ t.11~ J of exp:insion in n J%liisiuss0ri08 1.0 i t ~ r l l ~ ~ l e :trl)it,r:iry clisfril~llt~io~~s of wall tcmpcrntr~re wrts worI<cdout by C . It. (;r~l~n (!. S. Yih [:!HI : ~ wrll :is I)y N. Icr~)rssli~~g n11(1 s [40]. The specinl rase when the velocity profilcs in thc I~ontltlnry Inycr cnn I)c rclircscntotl in the form of a power law nntl when t l ~ c tetnpcrntt~re distrihr~tio~~ Lhc aell ci111I)c ~ C ~ I ~ C R O I I ~ I I nlong as n power series w.w invcstignhd by D. It. 1)avie~ nnd 1.1':. llournc I.!)]. P I I ~ O X ~ I I ~I O ~~C~( I I I ~ C S ) A ~I I for t l ~ e cnlc~ilation tlirrnmnl boundnry lnycr along non-isot~l~crmel of ~rrnlln vverc elnl)nrntctl I)y the following n~ltl~ors: I).Jt. Cl~npmnnnntl W.M. Itr~l~osin J . 1tlci11 181. nnrl M. 'l'ri1111~ IXO]. L'.L. I)onoughc and N.B. Livingood [12]. M. J. I,ightl~ill[13:3], H. Schuh [Ill], G . S . Arnl)rolc [2], I). I?. Spnl(1ing [120], E. Eckert. J.P. Hertnetk nnd R. Dirkcbnclc [2C,J, 13. J J ~liur 174. 751 and i4. Schlirlit.ing 11021. The ~chenie provided by If. 13. Squire, nnd clisc~~mcrl rnrlirr ~::III nlno I)o cxtentlcd to inclrlrle non-isothermnl walls [13:)]. 111 no st cases, thc ni~thoru~~eglrot. cvol~lt Ihc ion of frictiontal hcnt ahcn incon~prcssibleflow^ nro being st.11dicd.
-

11 (x) 'I(,$.=) .ir dx

=- 48.72 - 2.87

43= -- clU
v

'I'l~ist.cl11at.io11 rx:ic~t, /3 is for 0 (plnlr) : L I I I ~/3 -- 1 (stfagnat,ionpoint). If i t is supl)osctl (I~nt) rcln (12 100) vnjoys ~ ~ r ~ i v r r s : t l vnlitlily, it, is possil)lc immetlintcly t o writ.? down

dr

Since tJ~c climcrc~~l.ial rrlnot,ion for tho t.l~rr~u:~l bouutlnry Inyrr is li~~rnr, is possil)l~* ib L o writ(: clown t.lic! gctternl solut.io~~ t . 1 ~ to ~)robln~n 1.l1c: fornl of n li11r:ir C O I I I ~ I ~ I I :~ . ( %~ ( , I I ~ ~ ill of L ~ . r ~ a i st.:inrlnrcl sol~~tions. Soc.11n st,n~~tlarcl solulion is c~l)t:iinr(l cot~sidrri~~g 11y :I w:~ll. I'ig. 12.17. \vltosf: It.n~l)rrat.r~reequal to t.hnt of the free strca~n, i8 'I1,, from z -= O t.o s = r,,. At x = r,, t.lir: \v:iII trt~~lwrnt~lrc is strdtlcnly c:l~a~~grdn vnlrlc 7Is. prodrlcing the s k p functio~~ L o skrtrl~ccl i l l I'ifi. 12.17. I f the solutir>r~ this proble~n is tlc~~oletl t.o by

4672-1'

(
0

'

) [I,,,

)I ( )

(for P = 0.7). (12,101')

I lrrt: IT,, nntl I tlt:r~ol.cc . o n s l , : ~rcfcrcltcn valncs. This equat.ion corresponds t o eqtl. ~~t (10.37) \vhic:h \r7:~s tl(%rived A. Wnlz for t,hc rnomcrlt~nmtjl~iclrncss. I)y The local Ni~ssclL ~ ~ l l ~ n l )is: r t n.gnit~tlt:l,c:rrni~~otl cqn. (12.!)8). At, t.he st.ngnal,io~lpoint we ol)t.:~it~ I)y

.
,. ,

-. -.

~ , ~ ~ i ~ ~ j ~ l(lorj IJ :,i <1(7/0

: :

0.7)

1.
, '
Fig. 12.17. Uevrloprnc~nt, of --L I I I ~vc-locity n~itlIr111prr:it.urc I~ountlnrylnyrr in l.lic ~)rcscr~ccn sts11-likr of jl1111l) i l l aa11 tc~nl)crnt.nrc st,:i:it, lion z - r,, (stanrlnrtl pro. I~lrm)

UfxI

-+ ; J.

----~
<-

.~~

_ ----- OJI/?Icdqr 01 dynamic


hni~ndaiy ldvcr
OUlPI CdgP O/ /helm~/

bnundafy layer

I)rnst.ic.:~lly \ii~n~~lili(:(l l)ro(:(:(Il~rcs tS11ecalcrllntion of t l ~ e r m a l for bountlxry 1nyc:r-s oil pl:ii,cs nnrl rot.;~.tionnlly y ~ n m e t ~ r iI)otlics were indieatreti by IT. J . Allen ant1 s c I<. (!. I,oolc 1 1 1. :111!11)y If:. !':(-lz(:rt, n.ntl \I. Woisc [17]. 1: IC(,I<(:rt,:III(I0 . I)r(-\vit,z [181 ~)rrfor~~ic(I~(:n.lcr~lat~ions t.ernl)c~r:~.t,rrlc: 4 . on t,he t l i s t , r i l ) ~ ~ l ilo ~ ~ I~r,l~tttl:~ry l I.II(. I:tycr allowing for t h e rKect,s of compressi1)ilit.y and fricI.iot1:1.1I~r:rt,. 1 1 g c ? ~ ~ o ri:t ~ gnscolls ~nol.ion 1 1 l, t.hc work of coniprcssion is of the satnr o~,tl('r I I ~ : I C I I ~ ~ .I(' I , :IS I.II:I tlissip:tt,cvl I.l~roltglr of I I. visrosi try. t is then no longer possi\)lc I l o ~ , Y I I I ~ 1 1 1 ( x ~ l ~io11~for t(,~r~l~(:r;~.t,~~r(:i l ) ~ ~tto i n. n T ~ ~: l ~Iist~r , o diffnre~it~ial equat,ion of t.Itt: fivst or11t.r. :IS \ r : ~ st,It(: c;~st. wi1.11 t.llc flat, plnt,c, xntl t.Ilis c i r c u m s t a ~ ~ c n renders t,llo

310

XJI. 'I'hrrmnl boundnry layers in laminar flow

g. Tlicrmnl boundary lnycn in forcrcl flow

31 1

topnite asmethod, too, fniln a t the point of ucj)nrnt,ion bccauso the funct.ion ~ ( z , z , , bororncs thin ) in 0.
rO -C

sitnil:~rtllatrnrr. thr I~rritflux q ( r ) mn IIVr o n l p ~ ~ t r from thr known distribr~tion tl ~ / ( ~ , r c , )q* (r.rfl)(7's - 7'm) = for lhr stnrltlnr(1 ~~rol)lrlrl PI^. 12.17. 111 this cnsr of
111 n

A comparntivcly acctlrnte method wliich, ill nddition, mnkw nti n.llo\vnncc for frirt.ionnl heat, has hecn indicated by 13. JA Fur 174, 761. This nlet,lld \vaa cxtcndcd t o include cornprcssible flows.

q (4 =

q* ( ~ , r , ,(171.5(x0) )

(12.105)

Ilc*rr, P ~ I I R . (12.101) nncl (12.105) c n n t a i ~Stit:ll.jr*n inlrgrnln. When t.ho dintrihr~t.iotls7'.<(r) nI. ~ r - . O rirc c:o~~t.i~~t~ol~w. i t is ~~ossiblc xi11111liljr 1.11 lhc rrhovc cxl)ron~iol~ to
' '/ I 'I1,, =

i
{

0 (.r.!/,r,,)

(1 ' 1 I , (IX,) ( l ~ , ,

(12.10(i)

5. Thermal boundary layero on rotationnlly symmetric and rotating bodies. Tho cnlc~rlnt.ion of rolitionally nymnlctric t.liermnl bolrtiilrii;ji lnycrs jiFcncnIi no priit-ictilnr ~liflic~~lticn l~rrn~lsc: tho encrgy cqrrntion is 1 1 snmo a for tho two-di~nc~~siot~nl C O I I R P ~ I I C I Ino .st, ?111ct.l1~1c1s 10 q cllno. ~ ~ ;. which havc bccn cvolvctl for two-ditncnsionnl prol~lcn~s bo oxtc.r~clctl nlr >ly to rokrtic)~l:rll.i cnn tc) sy~ntnotric s~~rfncos, fnr c~ntnple, l , 17, 1111. k ' u ~ t l ~ c r ~ ~ 1.11~rot.iLlio11ilhjR ~ I I I I I I O t:nso ~ ~ RCC, [ ~ore, ~ . ~ cnn IICrcclr~retlto n t ~ o - ~ l i ~ l l c ~ ~ ~ i hy ~ n l a/~pliontiol~ ~ I I CMnnglrr trn11sfortnnI.iotl17 1 I. onc o r l.llo of scc. X LC.
Tllcrmal boundary Inycrs on rotating rotationally syrnmctric ~urfaccs have bocn invcslig.tlcd in a n ~ ~ m h e r publications. Solutions for a disk which rotalcs in st.ill nir (cl. Src. \' 1 1 ) arc of contained in [120, 130, 511: Lltc corresponding pro1)lcrn conrornil~g rnl.ttl.i~~g e slthc>ro Svc:. S I I,%) (rl. was nolvccl by S. N. Sing11 [I 171. A. N. TifIbrd and S. T. Chu [I411 cxnniirictl tlic casc of a rotriling clink placctl in nn axial stream, whereaa the problem qf a aphcre rotating in an axial strcnm forms the snl)jcct of a s111dy by J . Siekmann [IIB]. Additionnl solutions for rolnting bodies can be found in rck. [%] [138]. and A generally valid approximate method for the study of thcrmnl boundary Iaycrs on botlics rotating in an axial strcam was developed by Y. Ynmagn [I451 who bawd himself on 11. Schlichting's procedure mentioned in Chap. XI (ref. [0!)] of Chop. XI).

and to writr r111 n ~ ~ n l o g oversio~l cqn. (12.106). ltcforving to cqn. (12.61 b), it is now posnible r~s of to ol~t.:ii~l the f~llo\vingox1)rrssion ftw 1 1 1 ~hrrll, IIIIXalong n wall providctl with n varying trtnlwrnI.urr T s ( r ) wllic.11 was first tliacovcrtd Ily M. .I. I,igl~thill(80) This in
m -

* -

(r) = 3

)!

I.

Strictly speaking, the prccoding equation is valid only for the asymptotic cnso when P + m. Accortlirlg to M. J. Lighthill 1~801, greater meaarlre of agreement in the range 0 < fl < 1 can n be R C C I I ~ W ~ hen the fnctor 0.5384 is replaced by 0.487. The same equation, but with a factor of O.VZ3, wa.q also ohL3inod hy H. W. Liepmnnn 1781 who cmploycd a different mode of reasoning. As intlirntntl in tho caption to Fig. 12.14, the general, asymptotic approximation is not valid for tho ~ r p a r a t ~ i oprofilc. I t is, tllercforc, clear that Lighthill's equation (12.107) munt n brcak ilo\vn a t the point of separation. An improvement in tho computation of the rate of heat trarlrrfc.r wnu inclic~ntctlh?; I).13. S p a l d i ~ ~ g [120J. According to this method, the distribution of the heat, flux (br the standard problem of Fig. 12.17 milat he obtaincd by iteration from tllc fnllo\ving two rqllat.ions:

6. Mensuretner~ts on cylinclers nn11 o t h e r Iwdy sl~nlics. R l m s r i r r m r n l s o n t,l~e coefficient of h e a t transfer by forcctl cot~vcc:t.ion,mosl.ly f r o m rirc111n.raylirltl(:rs, r a n be f o u n d in p a p e r s by R. I I i l p c r t [50] ant1 E. S c l ~ r n i dn ~ l t I<. W c ~ ~ r l 1.107J. 1L. IIilt l cr

Tho ft~r~ot.ion x ) urnnt.nltrv~ F( ovor from the known claw of similar solr~t,ions is givcr~ roc[ 1201; and in a few ri~tt~~rrinnl I I C ~ hnvc hce11 rc:l~rocinned here in 'J'ablc 12.5. 'l'hc iteration starts with VIII F'(,y,,) = 6.4 nncl 1c:~cln to q,*(z,z,,), frorn cqn. (12.108). This, in turn, allows us to ealc~ll~rlr X ~ ( T , Z from rrltl. (12.10!)) n~rclto inscrt it onc:o ngain int,o cqn. (12.108), nnct so on. Unr~,rt.l~rin,~)

I ' l l 2

Vnlt~rnof t.l~e fi111ct.ionF ( x ) for tlw cnlcrllnt.ion of n thcrmnl bon~ldnrylayer on a ~ioninothrrmnlwall; n l k r D: R. Spnlding [I201 11r11n11or, in t r r ~ n s Ihc Ilny~~oltls N of 11itt1111cr [or (.irt.t~lirrvylitit11.r~ R lcig. 12.18. 7'110 N~tssclt. after It. Flilprt [56]. Snrfacc kmpcraturc IOO" ( npprox. A c:c)rnl~;lrisc)~~ 1.111: ~no:mt~rorrli:t~t~~ : \vil.Ir duo to J. Kcstin and 2'. F. Macdcr [07] srrggostn th11.1Ilill~c:rl,'s ~ I I C I ~ % I I ~ C ~ I I C . I I ~ . ~ w:rc 111:rfor111c.d in a strcam of 0.9% trirbulcnce intensity

312

S I I . 'I'hrr~nnlI~orlntlary laycrs i n Inntinar flow

g.

Tl~ormal 1,oundary lnycrs in foroctl flow

31 3

pert prrforrncd measurements on circular cylintlers in a cross-flow of air covering a v c r y witlcmngcof Itcynoltls numbers. ITigltre 12.18co11tninsaplot oftlle mc:kn Nussclt nulnbcr N,,, tnlrcrl for the wholc circumfcronce of t h e cylinder against the Itcynolds number R. 150th N , and R arc base11 on the diameter of t,Ile cylintler. As n first , crr~tlc a.pprnxiniation i t can be a.ss~lmccl h a t N is p r o p ~ r t ~ i o n t,o R'I2 as confirmod t , al by 1.11~ tllrorct,irn.I calculations for tllc f1:i.t ~)lnt,c zero incitlcncr, orlrl. (12.79a, b), c1.t and for t,he flow nonr a sbagnation point, eqn. (12.90), in laminar flow. The loral cocfficiolt of hcat transfer varies considerably over t,lle surface of cylintlers nntl ot.hcr botlies; mrn.s~lrcmrnl.s circrllnr oylinrlcrs tlnc to R . Schmitlt on ntitl I<. \Vcnncr 1107j 11.r~. sl~own Fig. 12.19. I t is sccn 1,Ilat in t,llc Inrni~lnr in bountlnry Iaycr t . 1 ~ corflicic:nlt of hcat transfer tlccrcascs wit11 tlistance from the stagnation point, ant1 rcnchcs a rnirlilnllnl in the ncighhorlrl~oodof t l ~ e point of s c p ~ m t i o n .Jn t,ho LIo\v bc~hintlthe point of separation its value is about cqua.1 t.o t h a t a t the lentlirlg rtlgc in t h r Iaminar layer. Similar worlr is reported in refs. [72] and [99].

on unhcat,ctl cylirldors in parnllol ant1 in cross-flow covering a rnngc of nir vc?locit.ic:s rlrnrly up t o sonic. I n the case of n st.rram p:~r:~llcl Ollc axis of f,l~o l,o aylil~tlrr t,ltoy ol~t:iincda mean value (T, -Ti,) 2 ~ , , / l l , , ~0.84 wd~icll was ir~drpt?ntlcnt the = of Mnt:Il nr~mbcr,in good agrcemcr~t\vit,ll 1.11~ v:~lucfrom rqn. (12.80) for a Il:ct I ) I : L ~ . ~ ~ . I n cross-flow t.Iloy obt.aincd a v a l l ~ c 1~ct.wc~cn and 0.4 wllic:l~was ; ~ l s o 0.6 rt:nsorl:rl)ly intlCpendcntof t,]lc h.lach number. A summary of rccrnt work o n the t.ol.nl Ilc.at,-l l,n.tlsfer rate from a circr~lnrcylindcr is contair~eclin n papt'r I)y IT.'I'. MOI.~:LII 1881. It. lCiclll~orn,E. Eclrcrt,, ant1 I\. I). Anrlcrson [30j ~nc:~surc:tl tllc rn1.c of I~rnt. t,rar~sfcrrctlalor~gIL c:ircr~l:l.rcylintlnr ~)lnc:ctlin n.tl axit1.l st,ronnl, tho S I I ~ ~ I Lt.e~n~ C l ) r r : ~ t ~ to f l.Iit: (:yli~~tlt!r rc 1)t:ing v:~ri:~l)li:. 'J'l~t~y t11)t:iint:tI gt~otl :~grt:rtn(:111, \vil,l~ l,l~t;or(:l,icnl onIc~~lnt.ions wllc-n :~llowanccwas rnatlo For t.llc cllkal~of t,llc crtrvat~rrc:of 1 . 1 1 ~surfare. l<.c:vic\vs ol't:i~rrc:t~l~ j)n.l)crswhic:l~ corlctsl.rlt.11clrlsc:lvc.swil.ll I I ~ ~ ; Il,r:~nsli:~. ~, ~trol~lt:r~is arc j)llblj~11~t1 froin t.iln(: t o titnc in t,hc I?~ler~ralio~ccrbu r ~ t n l01 lletrl t s ~ r t 8 llf6ts.u Jo Tra7zsfer.
r I h c t11crrna.l 1)oilntlary l:~ycrcan 1)c convcnicnl~ly~ n a t l cvisil~lcwit,ll t,l~c ;hid of int.crfcrotnct~ric pllotogml)lls. J'iguro 12.20 rcprcsrnts tho llow past a t.~rrl)inc c::rsc:r~lc. Thc shift in the lines is a measure of tho tliffcrcncc bct.wccn tllc local tlrnsit,y and tllat, a t a rcfcrcnrc s t a t e (e. g., with rcspcct t o t l ~ c undistlrrbctl strcam). 1'1112 c11:~ngcs in densit.y in t l ~ c region of pot,cnt,ial flow arc tluc lnainly t o prcssurc cl~:~ngcs,~ u in I t t h e 1)ountlnry 1:~ycrtho I ~ c a d u c t o friction co~lt,ributcs t grcat.ly t o t . 1 1 ~ clt:rngc in tlcrlsity. 1Jpon close cxamit~atior~ is possible t o tlisccrn i n Fig. 12.20 s u r l t l c ~ ~~ t ~ Itinks it sl rp in the lincs. 'l'hcsc arc rluc t o the conaitlcrablc atltlit.iona.1c:llatigr in ~1ct1sit.y 1)rotltrccd by frictional hcat. T h u s t h e kinks trace t h e oulcr cdgc of t h c tllcrmal bounclary layer. I n natural convcction it is even cosier t o rcndcr Chc bountlnry laycr visiblc ILS i t i s possible t o use a Schlieren method for this purpose, first described by I<. Schmidt [105]), cf. p. 314.
7

t.rnn.sfcr for a circular cylindcr nt varying Ilcynolds ~~umbcrs Incan u nnred by R. Scl~~niilt I<. Weriner ancl [107]. Curves ( I ) and (2) refer t,o the rcgion below t.lio crit.ical ltcynoltls nuinh~r, crlrvrs (3) and (4) were moa4111.0d i n 1.110 crit.irn1 range, and c:urvo (5) nl~ovc:l.11~ critical rnngc

Pig. 12.20. Thermal boundaryleyer on a turbine cascade, made visible with the aid of the interferometer method, after E. Eckcrt. Anglo of flow a t inlet /3, = 40"; solidity l/t = 2.18; Reynolds number R = 1.97 x lo5 The shift of the interferometer lines is proportional to the change in density. The eudden kinks in the linea near the waU show the outer edge of the thermal boundary layer, since the heat of friction produces a large change in density in that rcgion

A rotn1)nrisorl 1)ct.wcorl tho ~ncasuretlval~rcs t h e forwartl porLion of t h c cylinder for from Fig. 32.19. i. c. for trllc portion whcrc t h e flow is laminar, a n d theoretical cnlclrlnt.ions has nlrcatly bccrl givcn in lpi'ig. 12.16"~11c tlleorct.ical curves were based $1 on I.l~cnct,nal, ntcas~lretlvclocity tlistrrib~~tion t,he external flow. As is known, near the forward sl,n.gnntion point t h e Iatt.cr agrecs very well with t h a t given by potent,inl tlleory. Tllc agreement, a s already stated, is satisfactory. I). Johnson and .J. 1'. Ilart,nc-t.t, 1023 pcrformrtl mcasl~rcmcntsof I~eat--transfer rates on a circular t.ylinc1t.r \vil.ll 1)lowing (sweat,-c,ooling). kc. 15cakert. ant1 W. Wcise [17, 203 published t III- r r s l ~ l l s 1.llrir rnc-n.snrcnlrnl,son tilr mcan ant1 local adial)atic wall temperatures of

7. EUeet of free-stream turbulence. In all previous considerations concerning laminar boundary layers it was tacitly implied that the cxbrnal stream was alm laminar. Ilowevcr, in the overwhelming majority of crrscs, particularly during wind-t.unnc1 h k q , tho cxkrnnl stmnm carries with it a certain dcgree of turbulctirc wllich mcnrls thnt a t every point in it, Lhc vclori1,y fluctuates, changing its magnitude and direction. Whcn the velocity is shady on the avcrage, there are superimposed on it three fluctuating velocity conlponcnts wl~onetime nvcragcv over srrfGciently long intervals of time vanish. The eflect of such flucti~otionson t.hc vclocity bonndary layer will be oxamincd in greater detail in Chnp. XV which dcnla with non-shady boundary layers. Jn thc present section we ehall cxaniinc the cUect of s~lch free:-stream o.srillations, ~~nrticulnrly those duo to turbulence, on thermal bonndary layere and on ratcm of hcat transfer.

314

X11. Thermal boundary laycrs it1 laminar flow

h. Thermnl borrndnry Inycrs in nnbitral flow

31.5

I t iu rccognizcd that, t l ~ e r eexiutr, a diffici~ltyin providing nn rrneqt~ivocaldescription of ~ucb Iloct.rietirig ntrenma. Since torbolence involvca atochnstic finctuationa, ntrictly epcnking, 110 two t~rrhttlctit utrcnrns can ever bc ~imilnr.1Iowcvcr, it is found by experinient t h a t certain nvcr:rgc propcrlit:~of tho osrillatiods arc adequate to dwcribe them. Tlirse nre: the intensity T, in of of titrl~r~loncc, tlcfit~ctl Scc; XVI d 1, ant1 I.ho ~ c n l c b~trhulcticc,L, definetl in See. XVIIltl. It, is found, frtrtltcr, that in cnaca when ttic scale of turbulcnm is small comparcd with the din~etinions of I.lic I)orly. wliinlt occrtrs in most cmm in prnctice, ttic dngree of turbirlence alone sr~fficca lo ~-l~arikrtd.rizc Ilow. I t in, t.hcn:fore, b bc cx]xcted t.hnL lhc N I I R R number for gconlctrically t.l~c C~~ uitnilar, isot,licr~ti:~l l~odics wlti~liarc placcd in f l ~ c t ~ n n t i parallel, isolhcrtiial streanis, depc~icls ~~g, on 1.Iir tttrl~rtli:~icc ititensiy, T , in ndtlition to its clc~~cntlcncc lltc l'randt,l and l<ey~~oldn or1 rlt~tnl)eru. 'I'ltt~e. for t.ltc: local or 1.11~111c;111 Nussclt ntrn~hcrwo may write, rc~pcclively,
NZ
/I

Nm

(R, P, T) , /*(RI P, T)

(12.1 Ion) (12.110b)

Fig. 12.22. l3lTnct of ti~rholencc intrtisit.y of t.lw' exl.crnnl sl,rct\~n on 1 . 1 1 ~rnto of ltcnt brtrnnfcrrrci i t 1 tlio stagnal.ioti poir~t a cylinclcr, after of I,. l<aynlnr [63]

An i-irrrnse in t.11~ iriten~ity t.i~rbt~lcnce tllo free at.renm must produrn two e~scntinlly of of tlifL.rrnl cll'(:Is. I'irst, RR will 110 RIIO\VII in Chnl). XVI, an i t ~ c r r ~ ~inlc~ioit~y in e nnuncs enrlinr tmtisit.ion In) L~trl~rtlcrico the boi~ndnryIsycr ant1 I~cnno incrcnso it1 1.110 r h of liont I.rnnefcr in nn n whicli is characterielic of a turbulent as compared with a lnminnr boundary layer. This clTnct will Ite tliscrl~sctl in more dclail in Chap. XVI. J n addition, there e x i a t ~ sccond elTcct wliicli a can become parlicolarly pronouncecl in the prwcnce of a larninar boundary layer. Tho diagram in Fig. 12.21 tlcpicta the variation of tho local Nuwelt number on a ci. 2ular cylinder a t different valuen of the Itnyr~oltlo number nncl of the intenuity of turbulei~ce the external stream according of to nir:~m~rcmont.u ~wrrortnedby 3. Kmlin, P. k. Mw,dcr anrl f i . 11. Sogin [A4]. These memure' m c n h have been compnred in tho diagrani with N. J'roraqling's [39] theoretical calculations which correspntl to LIie cwe of a turbnlericc-free extarnal stream. These resultr, are quite aimilnr to tlicmc reproduced in Pig. 12.19. I t is n o b d that tho clTact is rcmnrkably high, a turbulennt inblisit,y 01' n b o i ~ t2.5% producing an increnso in the local heat flux by nomething liko 80%.

in tlic N ~ l s s c l t i u ~ n b e r t.11e trtrbrtlcnce in(.cnsity incrcnscs, r ~ c tn. l ~ o ~ t.ht. lillt:~~c~:csc ns ~g ~ is not. a s large as t.l~at Fig. 12.21. 1,. ICayalar at.t,emptetl t o c.xplnirl t.his l)l1t~t1ornc.nor1 in t,lleoretically. I I e a s s u m e s t.hat t h e st,agnat.ion stprcam (ser Icig. 5.9),c l ~ a r a c t c r i z c t lIly st,renlnlir~es whiell a r c r o n c n v e o u t w a r d s , dcvclops a syst.cbrn of stnt.ionn.ry, c.oi~nt.c:rrotat.ing vortices wllose a x e s a r c aligned wit,h t h e principal Ilow c l i r c r t i o ~ r:~.t.llcrliltc ~, t.llose on a c o n c a v e wall s h o w n i n Fig. 1 7 . 3 2 b (Gocrt,lrr vort,icrs). A s a rcsrllt., (,Ire flow becolnes highly three-dimensional i n t . l ~ eb o u n d a r y I:~yer wllich c x p l a i n s t,llr i n c r r n s r i n tile 11cnt.-transfer rat,c. 111 t.llis connc:rt.ion, rt~lt~vntlf.o t ~ s i t l r t ~ r ~ l:I.I.(>o t ~ s ~ ~i cotlt~ainctlin t h e p n p c r s by 11. GoertJrr 14.51, 11. Sclllic-l~t.ing 110:11, J . K r s t . i t ~1051. F;. A . B r u n et n1. [4], G. W. I m w e r y a n t i R. J. Vacllorl 1821 a n d ,T. I<est.i~l I,. N. nntl I'ersen [68a]. S e e also ref. [I181 o n p. 549.

Uncx~~ectedly, Irowcvcr, tile prccedi~igc h c t in nbscr~l011 a flat. plnla nl. zcro i~tri~lrt~cr:. Mena~rrct~terita performed by J. Kestin, 1'. Ir'. Macder :rt~cl 11. 1':. Wang [IiHj on n fl:tt p1:rto ahow no sensitivity to frec-stream turbr~lcr~rc t,ho lariiirinr rnngc. 7'110 clnrtlr r r s ~ ~ l t , obl.:iiltc?tl in wnn by A . 13dwnrt18 ant1 N. lr11r11cr[27]. S ~ t r l irrs111Ia n ~ t g ~ r sl,l1:1,1, rxI~rrt~:il, ~ I V I ) I I I ~ * I I ~:~ll'r.~,lx l, I Y1.110 local lieat transfer only it1 the presettce of a pressttrc gratlicnt.. Tlic cxpcri~ticnts qrtotctt i t 1 rcf. [(iij provide a certain confirmation of such a sr~pposition. i~nlwsir~gpressure grndirnt artificially Ry a on a flat plat^, i t was found possible to incrcasc Ll~clocal Nt~sscltnu~iiberby increasing tlle turbulence in tens it,^. A qualitative explanatiori of t.his brhavior cnti t)c obtai~ierlwith Llic air1 of C. C . 1,in's thcory dcscribcd i r t Chap. XV, a s poinI.ct1 o u t in ref. [OR]. 'I'lrc clTcct of frccstrrsi~nti~rl~ulcncet ~ o ltent trnnsfer 11.1.9 been stlltlietl also in referri1i.r~ 412. 43, 54. 83, IfM). 113, [5, l:)O]. ;\ lnotlerri anlnlnnr?. can he found in 1881. Fig. 12.21. Variation of locnl Nuasclt number NDorr a circular cylinder wit11 turbulence intensity T niitl angular coordiriato 6, after J . Krstin, 1'. 1' Macrlcr and If. H. Sogin I641 (Valr~es inkti. of sily of ti~rbillcnreT npproxirnalc only) - - - Theory after N. Frocasling 1391

11. Therrrlnl borrr~dnrylnyers i n nntltrnl flow (free cor~vection)

I n niore recent. t,inlc*s I,. JZnyalnr (0.31 investigat,rd b o t h theoret.icnlly a n d e x prrirnent.ally t,tlc i n f l ~ t c n c eof tr~rbrilenec int<ensit:y o n t , l ~ a r a n s f e r of h e a t f r o m a t e i r c ~ t l a c y l i n d r r . 'l'lie cxp!:rimcnt,n.l rcslllt, is sllown in Fig. 12.22. T h e s e measurements r also s l ~ o w t,lln(, for i ~ ~ t . e n s ~ t .betwuen T = 1 anrl 5% t h e r e occrlrs a s t e e p increase ics

Mot.ions wllicl~ r c causcd solcly b y 1,llc t l c ~ l s i t y a grat1icnt.s crcnl.ctl 11y t,c:tnl~rr:rt,tlrc difTercnrra n.rc tcrtiiccl ' r ~ n t u m l ' a s disLinct f r o m t.hosc 'forcctl' o n f.11~ slrr*nttl I,y e x t e r n a l causes. S ~ r c l ~ nat.r~m.l a flow e x i s t s a r o n n t l a vcrtficnl hot, 11l:lt,c o r nroltlltl a 1iorizont.al h o t cylintlcr. Nat,ur:cl Ilows also (lis~)Iay, most, cnsrs, :L I ~ o ~ I ~ I ~ ~ : ~ I . ~ in struc:I.clrt., p:rrt.icr~lnrly if ~ I I ( . viscosit,y ant1 t~on(111cLivil.y ( I I C ( I t l i i l :tt.t. SIII:~II. of ,\ comprt:l~ensive review of t h e field w a s prepnred b y A. J. Etlc 1281.

316

XI1. Thermal boundary layers in laminar flow 't'lie vc1ocit.y compo~lent~s become now U = ~ V X ' ~ ~ C V = V ;C Z - ~ ~ ~ ( ~ C ' - - ~ ~ ) , ~ ~ ' a n d t h e tc~tipernt~urc tlist.ribut,ior\ is tlct,rrmit~crclby t l ~ c f~lnctionO(7). Equnt.iot~s (12.1 12), (12.1 13) a.ncl (12.1 14) lcatl t.o Lhc followi~)g clini:ro~t,ialcqunt,ionn

I n t h e casc of a verlical hot plnke, tho pressure i n each horizontal plane is equal gravitational pressure and is thus const+ant. The only cause of motion is to fi~rnisl~ccl t h e differctlcc? between wcigl~t n d buoyancy in the gravitational fieltl by a of t,Itr earth. l'hc cquntfion of mot,ion is obtainetl from eqns. (12.61 a , b, c) wit11 clp/tlx 0 ant1 = 1/11',. Nrglccting frirtional heat we have
, :

I J r r e n k / c,~ i3 the thrrmal diff~tsivit~y and 0 -- (7'- T,)/(I', - ) , is t h e di' Z mc~t~siortlrss lorn1 tc.rnprrntt~re I n n theoretical invcstigntion conccrnirlg t h e cxperiinrrli,ally drtrrrninrtl trmpcraturc and velocit,y fieltl of a casc involving r ~ a t u r a l convection on a vcrttcal hot plate, due tro E. Schmidt a n d W. Beckmann [104J, E. P o h l l ~ a l ~ s etlrrnorlstrntctl thaL if a strcani function is introdnccd b y putting n IL - &play ant1 v = -- atl)/ar, then t h e resulting partial tlifferential equation for y~ can be mtlucrcl t o a n ortlinnry diffcrent,inl rqriation by the similarity transformation
2

wit.h the bound:~ry contlit.ions 5 = 5' = 0 and 0 = 1 a t 77 -- 0 and I;' =- 0, 0 = 0 a t q = 00. I'igl~rcs 12.23 and 12.24 illr~stratcthe solrttions of tll~csc cq~rnt.ions for (:dvarious values of P. Figures 12.25 ant1 12.26 conL:~ina t:otnl~:rrisott Ijct,wc:t:ri t,I~t: culatccl velocily and t.crnl)craturc dist.ribrltiorl ancl those nlcns~~rctl 11:. Srl~lnitlt. by aritl W. J3ccktnann 1104].'l'he agreement is sccn t,o be very good. It, is sccn, f n r t l ~ c r , t h a t tthc velocit,y ancl tfhc.rmal bountfary-laycr thickness a r c proporlional to r ' l J .

Fig. 12.25. Tempcmturo dislribution in the laminar bonndarj laycr on n llol vert.icnl fhbt plntn in Im1.nrnl convccliort in air, mcasnrrtl by I<. Sch~nidt W. Iscckant1 inann [104]; z = distnnce from t h o loaor etlgr of the plate

Fig. 12.26. Vrlocity distribnt.ion in t.1~ lanlinnr bortntlnry lnycr on n vertical plntc in natural t:onvcction in air as rnmsurcd by E. Sclttnidt and It7. 13cckn1ann[I041

laminar honnrlary Ixyrr on a hot vcrt,iral flat plate in natnrni ronverliorl. Tl~rorrtirnl rnrvrs, for P 0 73, n h r J':. I'oI~II~~nscn [!)dl and S. Ostrnrh I!)3]
1

x(G~)v4 x 7

I l o n l trnalsfcr: 'L'ltc cl~lnnl.it.y 11t:11.t, ~ ( z=) - - k(27'/i:y), l.t~:~t~sli-t~t~t-tl ~ i l . of 1,t.r. ~ r i time and :wca from t . 1 1 ~ plntc t o t l ~ c fluitl nL scct,ior~ 1)ccomcs z

GI-

,.

*a

T,,, - l',., Tm

- Ornsltol

tt~~trilrrr

Pig. inar flat Fig.

12.24. Velocity distribution in l l ~ I:mr

boundary laycr on n hot vertical plate in nat,ural convection (RCO also


12.23)

wil,h (aO/aq),

- 0.508

for P = 0.733. l ' l ~ c total h r n l t,mnsfcrrrd I,y

iL

pI:ttc> of

318

XIT. Tl~crninlbonndnry layers in lntninnr flow


==0

h. Tliermnl bornidnry Iaycrs in nnt-urn1 flow

3 1 $1

lcrigt,li I a~ttlwitlt.11 0 is Q

/ q ( ~(Iz, )
0

and hence

Tnblo

12.6. Coefficients of heat trnnsfer on n heatod verticnl plate in according to refs. [93, 94, 109, 1261

nntrirnl convection (laminar),

'rho nlrarl Nnssrlt rinrnbrr tlcfinctl by Q -- h k N m ( T ,- T,) thus hecomes N,, = = 0.677 c PI4, or, i ~ ~ s c r t i n g vnlue of c from cqn. (12.1 14): the N,, = 0.478 (G)'14 , (12.110)

in tho is t,hc Grnsliof t111tn1)cr.Tt m n also h r writken as G = g I"(T,-T,)/I~~ casc of litlt~itls. 'l'lie tli:tgmm in Pig. 12.27 gives a comparison hetween tlieoreticnl resulb on free convcction wiLli measr~rernentson Ileatad vertical cylinders and flat platcs pcrformcd by E. R. G . Eckert and T. W. Jackson [22]. When the product G P < 1 R 0, 1.11~ is laminar, and for G P > 101 the flow is turbulent. The agreement hetween flow theory and experiment is exccllcnt.

E. Polill~ausen'sralculations have been extended by IT. Schuh [I091 to the case of I:trge I'mncttl numbers such as exist in oils.
The casc of very small Prandtl numbers is treater1 in a paper by F.M. Sparrow arltl .T. I,. Gregg 11261. Tlie limiting cascn whcn P + 0 and P -zoo were exambled by E. .I. Lo l'cvre 1731, according to whom we may write

Some numerical values for intermediate Prandtl numbers are contained in Table 12.6. Calrolntions with n hmpemt~~rc-clcpcn(lctitt viscosity were performa11 1)y '' Tllirn l. [50]. The olI'c(:L of suction or blowing on tho rate of llrnt Lrnnshr from n vcr1,irnl plat,e in naturul cortvrction is tlcscribctf in refs. [29, 1241. Atltiitiot~alrlassrs of similar solutions in natural {lows were discussed by I<. T . Yang 1146). Thils, tcmpcraturc distributions on the surface of the plate of the form T, - T = TI xn also produce , similar solutions, but the diflkrential equation (12.115) is now rcplt~cedby

Solutions t.o l.lirsc equations were found by E. M. Sparrow and J. 1,. Crrgg L127J. Reference [I261 discusses similar sollltior~sin the simultancor~spresence frec and of forced convection. I n such cases, the velocity of the external stream must be proportional to xm (wedge flow) and the temperature distribution on the plate must be proportional to xZrn-l. Mcnsrrrcmcnt,s on n vertical hot plntc in oil pcrformctl I)y 11. 11. Tmrcnz 1811 gnvc: the vnlue N = 0.555 ( G x P)'I4 which constit~ltesvery satisfactory agrcelnent , with tlieoreticnl calculations if i t is considered that the theory docs not take into account the dependence of viscosity on temperature, which is important precisely in the case of oils. The laminar thermal boundary layer around heated bodies in natural convect.ion can bc convenicntJy rnadc visible with t,he nit1 of a Schlicrcr~ninl.liotl tlcviscd by E. Schmitlt [l05]. A parnllcl bcarn of light is pr~uscdt.hrol~gltt,ht: I)our~cl:~ry layer in a direction parallel to the plate and produces sllatlo~ on a screen plnccd s a t a large distance from the body. The density gradient in the air a t right anglcs t o the surfacc causes the rays of light to be deflected o~~twartls. dellexio~iis Tlle largest a t point,s where the den5it.y gradient is stecp, i. e. ticar the botly. Wit.11 n sufficiently large distance between screen and body thc space taken u p by tho heated layer remains dark so t h a t in the Schliercn picturc the shadow of tho body is surroundetl by a sliadow clue to the thermal b o ~ ~ n t l a rlayer. Tltc rays of light. y which are deflecl,cd out of tho temperatltrc ficld crcatc 2.11 illl~rnin:~l,ctl zouc n.ro1111tl thn clark shatlow. 'l'he oritcr cdgc of this zoric of light is forn~rclby 1.ltn r:r:) s wltic!lt just skirt the surface; consequcr~tlythcir dcflcxion is proportional to tllc tlt:r~sit,y

Fig 12.27 Average Nitsselt nombrr for frre convcction on verticnl plntes and cylinderti, nftcr E. R. ( 15cknrt and T W. Jnrknon 1221 : . .
t'urvc ( I ) lnniinnr . N m 0 556 (GP)'I';

GP < 10a
GP > 10'

VII~VQ (2) 111rl1111rnt.

Nm

0 0210 (GP)'l';

n P 4 '

m7

ma

W '

on

mn
GxP

w*

mn

320

X11. Thrrn~nl bor~nclnrylayers in Inminsr now

= 2 x 10Rt o 4 x 101): N =0.726 ( P x G)lI4 f o r l a m i n a r flow, arltl ( P t o 9 x IOIL): N = 0,0674( G x P1'20)-11Vor t u r b u l e n t flow.

x G -:4 x

10J1)

F o r t h e s p h e r e J.I. Shell [115] calculatetl N = 0.420 Gl14, whirl^ n-a.s c o n , firmed by m e a s u r e ~ n e n t sin a i r . S u m m a r i e s of r e c e n t w o r k o n nntrtr:rl c o ~ i v e c t i o n a r e containctl in ref.?. 165, 961.

g r a d i e n t at (.he surface, i. e. t o t h e local coefficierlt of h e a t transfer. F i g u r e 12.28 rep r o s e ~ ~a s t Selllieran p h o t o g m p h t a k e n o n n heated v e r t i c a l f l a t plnto. T h e c o n t o u r of t l i c p l a t e is s h o w n by a b r o k e n w h i t e line. It i s easy t o recognize o n the s h a d o w t h a t t,hc b o u n d a r y - l a y e r t h i c k n e s s increases as d4.h e e d g e of t h e z o n e of l i g h t sllows T t(I1a.t the local roaflicicnt o f h e a t b m n s f c r is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o z-'I? T h e p i c t u r e in Fig. 12.2!) gives a n i n t c r f e r o g r a m f o r t h e s a m c t y p e of bounclary l a y e r ; i t w a s o b t a i n e d hy E. R. G . R c k e r t a n t l E. S o e h n g e n (13J.

Fig. 12.29. Intcrferogra~nof a thermal boundnry layer or1 n vcrt,ical I~cntedflat platc, nftcr R. 1%. Iklzrrl C. nnd E. Soehngcti [10]

,/

Otl~er ttllnpes: 'I'IIC mot,ion (111ct o nat,rlral chnvcction s r o r ~ n ( a I~orizortt.:~l I IIC:LL(:(~ c i r c u l a r o g l i ~ ~ t l cw a s t,rcn.t,cd i n an a.na.logous w a y by R.I l c r m a n n 1551. t i c r F ~ I I I for P := 0 - 7 a Inenn l l c a t t,mnsfcr coefficient N,, = 0.372 G ' I ~ , w h e r e G is I~ I ~ a s n do n t,llo clinmct.er. blcasc~remcnt.si n air p e r f o r m e d by I<. J o d l b t ~ ~ c[GI] g a v e r N,,, I- 0.395 G114 at, G 1 0 ~ v h i c h hows s ~ a t ~ i s f a c t o r ygreement w i t h t l ~ e o r y . s a M r n s u m ~ n r n t . o n vrrt,iral cylindcrs[142].ir1 w a t e r a n d c t , l ~ ~ l r ?glycol g a v o ( P X G =s ne

,/I I] AIIc'II, lI.,l., ILII(I l,e~olz,Is.(:.: A ~ n c l , l ~ r ~ ( lrvtlvr~Ii~t,ing for ht:ot, trmnsf(*r in l,l~c: ; I I I I ~ IfI oI ~ I l: w rcgic~ns Iiotlic?~. of NIICA Itep. 704 (1!)4:)). 121 An~hrolz,(.:.S.: 'l'llc rffcc:t, of slrrfnco t,cnlpcratrrre vi~ri:~l~ility I I C R ~ ,C X I : ~ I R I I ~ ( i:l l l i r ~ ~ ~ i t r i ~ r 011 flow in n hol~nclitry I:~,yer.Soviet I'l~gs. 'l'ccll~l. I7hys. 2, 758. 748 (I!)57). r l ' r ; ~ ~ ~ o(.l : ~ . ~ i ~ Zli. 'rekl~.liiz. 27, 812- $21 (1957). I:!] I3j0rlzl1111eI.(:. S., i~ntlICnys, W. M.: Ilnnt t,r:itisfor I)ct\vc~et~ conccnl.ric~ rot:rti~lgc.ylit~(lrrs. J . Jleiit 'l'rnnsfcr 81, 175-- 186 (1!)59). [4] Urnn, 1'3. A,, I)iep, A., antl I(estin, J.: Sur Itn nouvcnrl t,ype d r s t,or~rhillons longitrltlinnnx dnrl~ I'i.cortlen~crtta~rt.onr d'rtn cylinflm. C. It. Ar:ntl. Sci. 263, 742 (1!)0fi). [R] Iliiyiikt,iir, A.lt., ICcslin, J . , nntl Mi~etlor,1'. 17.: 111llucnc.eof con~l>inr~d prcsstlt.t: gr;i(lic~tlt and turbulence on tlle transfer of heat from n plate. Int. .J. Iloat Mass Trntlsfcr 7, 11751186 (1!)04). [(i]Ten I l o ~ c l ~ . Die WBrrnriil)ert,rngnng. Brrlitr. 19:l(i. M.: [7] Isrr~n.15. A , : Sclcrkcl eo~nl~rtsI.io~~ prol)len~s.Vol. I I , 185 l!j8, A(;A ltl), ~'l!~K:~lllfIll I+(*ss, 1,011~l~~11, ]!)!xi. [8] ~ h n p n ~ a n . I).Jt., atid It~thesin,hI.W.: 'l'rnl[)crnttrrr nntl vrlorit,y profilrs i n the ('Olil[~'rSsthlc:, Inlninnr borrndi~ryInyrr \viLll nr1)ilrtrry tlirtt.ril~l~tio~~ of s~~rfnc.o tc:tnl~rr,~t .I .\S I / ; . Itrr.. 547 --50!7 (1!)49). [!I] J)avico, T).lt.. nntl 13ourne, D.E.: 011the cnlculnlion of Ilont, ant1 nlirss trnnsfrr in I:til~itlnr and t,urbulrnt houndery layers. 1. 'Chc In~ninar ca.se. Qrritrl,. .I. Mcctl. Appl. Mirth. I), 457- 407 (1956); ~ o also Qrtnrt. J. Mecli. II~IIII. e hInt,l~.12, 0 3 7 :Kt!) (1959). ~~ [lo] I)e\rey, C. F., n r ~ d(:~oRR, I?. : 1t:xnct sitnilar aolnt.ion of 1.11~:lnnlin:ir borrnclnry-l~iyr-r J. eqrtn. tiorla. Advnnros in Heat l'rnr~afer4, 317--440 (19fi7). [I I] I)ienen~nnn,W.: Uerecl~nurigdcs W5rn1ciibergnr1grs :in In~ninnrrrrr~strij~ntcn I<iirpprn trlit. ko~~st,nnt.er ortsveriir~derlichcrWnr~tlternl>ernt.rlr. rind Ilias. 15ra11nncll\veigI!l5I ; ZAhlM 53, 89-109 (1953); see nlso .IAS 18, 04 - 0 5 (1!)5I). [I21 I)o~lor~gl~e, rind 1,ivingoocl. J. N. 13.: 1t:xnc.tsolrltions of Iiinlinnr bortnclnry liryrr rclrla. 1'. L., t.io~rs xvitli const,nnt pro1)rrt.y vnlt~es porous wall wit,h vnriiihlr Ic~t~~poretctre. for N,\(:A Ibrp. 122!) I I!)RR\. ..,(12aJ Driest, E. R. van: Coi~vectiveheat tranafrr in gnsos. 1'rincet.on University Serics, High Speed Aerodytinmic~and J e t Propulsion, Vol. 1', 339-427 (1959). 1131 Ifrkert., E. It. G., and Drnke, R.M.:Hent ntid mass t.mnsTcr. hl(:Grnw-Hill, Now York, 1!)5!1. 1141 Eckert, E.: 1':infiillrllrlg ill tlen Wiirn~cuntl StofftitiuLnunrl~.:lrtl c:tl., Ilcrlir~.I!)(;(;. I151 Eckcrt, E.,nnti Drewitz, 0.: Der Wiir~neiihcrgnngnri nitw tnit groBer (:c:scl~\r~il~rligkcit, lii.l~gsn~~gest.rB~~itc Forncllg. 111g.-Wcs.11, 116 - 124 (1!)10). Plnt.tc. I c r 1 . : ~ I I I I ~ I ~ ~ I ~ I ~I ~ I I I I II L~ ~~ I I I I I I I II I . I I I 317 (I !)40). [I71 Eckert, E..I L I I ~Weisc, W.: Die 'l'ernperntnr unbehciztcr Kiirper in rinrnl (:asst.ron~ Iloltcr Geschaindigknit. Forschg. 1ng.-Wes. 12, 40--60 (1941). [I81 Eckert, E., and Drewitz, 0 . : Die Bercchnung dca 'I'e~i~perntr~rfel(lt~s lalninclren Grenzin dor scllicl~t, ncl~ncllnngcstriinlt,er unl~el~ciztcr 1Ciirpcr. I,r~l't.f:r.l~rl hrsr:111111g Is!) l!lG (1042). 19, [ID] lCrlterl., 15. : I)ie Ilcrccl~nrn~g Wiirl~~c.iil)orgn~~gt*s 1i1111i11rlrc:n r r t ~ z ~ ~ ~nnlnt ~ ~ l ~ t . elcu i n tlrr (: I ~ i l.ii~nt.er Kiirper. VI)l-J~orsch~~npnl~eft 416 (1942). 1201 ICckcrl, [C., nrttl Wcisn, W.: M C R R I Ider ' ~ c . ( : r t ~ ~ ~ o r n I , r ~ r ~ ~ t ~ r tObcrflliclrc~ II~ nitf rlrr c i I ~ ~ ~ ~ gnc:llnrll angeet,riirnlsr urlbcIi(?i7.trr I<iirper. Porechg. 111g.-Wen.13, 24% -254 (1942). [21] 13ckrrt. E..R. f:., and Sorllngen, I%.:l>ist,ribut.ion of I1c:~t. t.rntrsfrr ~ : n ~ f f i e i e ~ ~ t~ ~ n d n r o s rir(:r~Inr cylinders in cross-llolv at. Ibeynold~~ n ~ n ~ h fro111 20 t.o 500. 'rriins. ASME 74, 343- -347 ers (1!)52).
\

322

XII. T l ~ o r ~ n n l I)onndnry lnyers in ln~ninnrflow

Hmferenccs

[22] I5ckrrt.. 15.11. (:., nntl Jnckson. T.\Y.: ~\nnlysis tnrbalent frec convection bor~ndnry of lnycr on n flnt. plate. XI\(:;\ 1<cp. 1015 (1!)5l). 12:tJ ICc.krrt., 15.11. G . . ant1 I,i\rir~good. .I. N. R.: Mrthotl for rnlct~lnt~ion In~ninnrhcnt trnnsfor of i l l nir 11ii\\. l i r e ~ ~ ~ l ~ t l ~ylitidcrs nrbil rnry crone-sool.ion (il~clr~ding of Inrge temperntr~reelifl'crencm itnd Lrn~~~j)irnt.ion rooling). N,\Ct\ Rep. 1118 (1953). [241 I<c:kort, I':.I<.(:., nntl l)i;lgi~iln,/\.,I.: I5xpcrirnrntnl investignt,ion of free-convection hrat transfer in vrrt.ivnl t,rrl~e lnrgr (:rashof nntnhers. NACA Itrp. 1211 (1!)55). n.t, 1251 ICckort,. IC. It. (:., nntl 1,ivingoorl. ,I. N. 13.: Calc~rlntiotisof Inn~innrIient Lrnnsfcr nronntl oyli~~tlrrs nrbitrary cross-section nnd t,rnnspirntion cooled walls with applicntio~lto of ; tiirl~inc? bliulr cooling. NACA Itep. 1220 (1956). \ - ' [26] 15ckert. E.It. 6.. Hnrtnctt, J. p., and Birkobnck, R.: Sinlplirtcd equations for cnlrnlntin!: local irrltl t.ot~lhcrrt flt~xto n o ~ ~ - i s o t . l ~ c r ~ i ~ n l J A S 24, 54!)-551 (1957). ar~rfnce. 1271 I':tl\vartls, A,, nnd JFurbor, 1S.N.: T l ~ c it~lluence free stream t ~ ~ r b u l c n c c Ileet trnr~sror of on by convcct.ion from nn isolntrcl region of n plane sr~rfacc parnllel air flow. I'roc. I r l r i t . in ~ccli. ICng. 170, 941 (1956). 1281.1':de. A..1.: Advnnces in free convcetion. Advances in Iteat 'rrnnsfer, 8cnd. Press, 4, 1--64 (1967). 1291 Richhorn. R..: The cffret,of mnns trnnsfer on free convect.ion. J . Ifcnt Transfer 32,260-263. ( I WO). [3O] Eicl~horn,R.., Eckert, E.R,. C... nnd Antlcruon, A. D.: An expcrimcntnl st,nrly of thc cffcf.1~ of ttonuniform wall tetnperature on hent trnnafcr in lnrninar nnd tl~rbulcntn x i ~ y ~ n ~ n e t r i c flow &long n cylinder. .J. Heat Transfer 82, 349-359 (1960):. [31] IClins, I?.: I)rr Wiir~neiibcrgengcincr gelieizten Platte an stromende Luft. Abhandl. Acrodyn. InsL. 'rH Aachcn, Heft 9 (1930); ZAMM 9, 434-453 (1929) and 10, 1-14 (1930). [32] Evans, H. I,.: Mhss trnnsfer through Intninar boundary layers. 3a. Similar solution to the b-cquat.ion when R = 0 ntid IJ >, 0.5. Int. J. Hent Mam Transfer 8. 26-41 (1961). [33] Evnns, I1.L.: Mms trnnsfer through laminar boundary layers. 7. Further similar solutions to the b-equntion for the cnae R = 0. Int. J. H m t Msss Transfer 5, 35-37 (1962). 1341 E V R I ~ U , H.L.: Lnminnr boundarjr lnyer thcory. Addison-Wmlcy Peblisliing Conlpnny, Ileading, Maaa., 1968. 1351 Fnec. A., and Falkt~cr,V.M.: Rclation bctween heat transfer and surface friction for l a n h n r liow. ARC ItM 1408 (1931). [36] Fischer, P.: Ahnlichkeitsbedingungcn fur Striimungavorgange mit gleichzeitigem Wiirnieiibergang. ZAMM 48, T 122-T 125 (1083). [37] Frick, C. W.. nnd McCullough, G. R.: A 111cthod for determining thc rate of heat transfer fronl a wing or sLrcamli~iedbody. NACA h p . 830 (1945). 1301 Frit,7nche. Alp., Bodnnreacu, M., J<irschcr, O . , and Esdorn, H.: Problemc der Warmciibertragung. V111-Forachungsheft 450 (lH55). [39] FrijsRling, N.: Verdutlstung, Wiirmeiibergnng und Geschwindigkeiteverteilr~ng bci z\veidimcnsionnler und rotntiori~symnietrisohprGrcnzschichtetro~nung. Lunds Univ. Arssk., N. P. Avd. 2, 36, No. 4 (1940); see also NACA TM 1432; see also Lunds Univ. Arssk., N. F. Avd. 2, 1.54, No. 3 (1!)58). [40] I'riiwling, N.: Cnl(:~rlnting11y serics oxpnn~iot1 tho hent trnnsfor in Inminnr. const.nnt of prol~rt~y bonndnry layers nt non-isotl~crtr~el aurfncou. Archiv fiir I'ysik 14, 143- 161 (1958). 1411 Frowling, N.: I'roblerna of hcnt transfer across laminar boundary laycrs. Theory and fundamental rescnrch in heat transfer. Proc. Ann. Meeting of the American Soc. of Mcch. Engrs. (J.A. Clnrk, ed.), I'ergamon Press, 181--202, 1963. [42] Giodt, W.11.: 1nvcstignt.ion of vnrintion of point unit hcat t,ransfor coefficielit around n cylinclor nor~nnlto nn nirst.rcnn~.'rrans. ASMIE 71, 375-381 (1!)49). [431 (:ietlt, W. 11.: Ellcot, of tnrl~nlnncclevt:l of inoidcnt air utrea~n locnl hcnt transfer nnd on skin frict.ion on n cylinder. .)AS 18, 725--730, 766 (1951). [44] (:erstn~~, nncl IZiirncr, 11.: Wiir~nciil~crgnng n t e r I<., i~ ISoriicltsit:ht,ig~rng r r Reihungswiirmc d bei In~ninnrrn Keilnt,rii~tn~ngor~ veriindcrlit:l~crl;en~pcrat,nrrind Nortnalge~chwi~~digkeit nlit cnt,lnng flcr Wnncl. Intnrn. *J. Hent MRRU Tratisfer*ll,655-673 (1968). [45l (:iirt,lcr. 11.: Ul~t?r c!irio Annlogie zwiricl~rnInstnbiliLiibn Inrninnrer (:ren7,sol1ichtnt,riirn11ngon an konk:rvnti Wiin(le!t~i ~ n d ~ r ~ f i i r nWiindct~.1ng.-Arc11 28. 71 -78 (1969). nn ~t~n [4(iJ (:c~lantl,1,. : A t.l~eorcl.icrrl invc~t.igiit~io~~ trn11src~r the lnrnitii~r of I~t?nt in llow regions of nirfoils. .JAS 17, 4:ttiL 440 (l!I50). 1471 (:rig~~ll,I . : Wiirmciilirrt~rng~~~,g [ in ln~ninnrer Strii~nungmit Itrih~~ngswiirnlr. ChernieIr~genic~~r-'l'c.d~~~ik (1!)55). 480--483

[47a] Grig~rll,U.: 'rechnischc Tltermodyn?n~ik.3rd ed.. 194 p., Rrrlin, 1977. [48] De Groff, H.M.: On viscor~shenting. J A S 23, 3!)5- :3!)6 (I!l5(i). [4!lJ Onl~n, I < . , anei Yih, (:. S. : I,an~innrconvect.ior~ Iiont. fron~t . \ r . o - t l i t ~ ~ r ~ ~ nI~c~clirn C. of i o ~ ~ ~ t \vit,l~ I vnrin.blc \\,all tz11111rrnt11res. J're>c. 5t.11 blitltv. (:OII~. 111icl bl(~41. I' 2!l 40 (l!l57). [RO] Hnrn, T.: Heat trnnslcr by lnniinnr Irce convcct~icrnabout, a vcrticnl lliit ~ilnt,c: \vit.l~ lnrge te~npcrntnretliffrretice. I3ull. JSME 1, 251 - 254 (1958). [51] lInrt,nett, J . l ' . : Ilc:~l,t.rnrisfcr fro111 n ~~or~.isot,hrrn~nl rotating in st.ill nir. .l. Alipl. tlixk Mech. 26, 672 -- ti73 ( 1959). [52] Hnssan, I1.A.: 011 heat, t,ransfer to Intninnr bonndnry layers. ,JASS 26, 464 (I95!)). [53l 1ln11senbln.s.11.: 1)ic tiicl~t. iuotlicrn~c St.riin1111ig cinrr ziihc?n P'liiwigkrit, clnrrl~ rtigr S11nltc.n und I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i l l ~Ing.-Ar(:l~.IS', e151 --. IOfi (1!)50). trr~~l~r ~~ [54] Van I)cr Ilogge-Zijnen, U.U.: llcnt. t.rnnufcr froni I~orizont.:il(:ylindcru to n t.~~rl~nIc:~iL iiir Ilo\r. Appl. Sci. Res. A 7, 205-223 (1!)57). [RR] IIer~nnnn,It.: Wiir~nciibcrtrngl~~rg frcier Striirnr~ng \vnngrrrcl~len y l i ~ ~ ~i l lc ? r bci a111 % l z\vcriatornigcn (:iuren. V1)1-l'oracliur1gal1cft 379 (l!YJli). [56] Hilpert. It.: Wiirtirenbgabe von gehcizlen 1)riihtmn rrtid Itollrrri it11 Luftatror~~. IPors(:I~g. 1ng.-Wes. 4. 215-224 (1933). 1571 IIc)\vnrt,l~, VcIc>cit,yn.tic1 t o ~ n ~ w r n tiIist.ril~t~t,ic~~~ itlong a Ilnl 1)Iitl~:. I,.: ~~re~ for 11 IIIII\, l'roc:. l!,c~y. Soc. I , ~ I I I ~A ~ I I I :!t\4 . 377 (l!l:tfi). ~ 154, [58] llli~ig\v~irll~, So111euoI~~l.i~~nri c~q~rnI,ionu llo~vI I 11 V ~ M ~ ! ~ IcIxMi ~ t ~ ~ ~ v c ! ~l111i1l. : (:. It.: cif I,IIC of ~ xiI~l~ I'roc:. Cnmhr. I'hil. Soc. 46, 469 -478 (IORO). [59] ltnai, 1.: 011the heat transfer to c o n ~ t n n t propcrt,y l n ~ t ~ i rI)ol~ndnrylnycr wit.11 powor ~~ir function frec stream velocity and wnll tctnpernturc clistril~ot.ions. Qunrt. Aplil. Math. 16, 33-45 (1958). [GO] Jalcob, M.: Heat transfer, I nnd 11. McGrnw-Hill. Ncw York, 1!)4!) nnd 1!)57. [ e l ] Jocllbnuer, It.: Vas Temperat.r~ritnd Gescli\vindigkciIrrfcl~i IIIII ein gehcizt~s lto11r bci frcior Konvektion. Forschg. 1ng.-Wes. 4, 157- 172 (19:!3). [62] Jolitwon, I). V., and Hnrtnett, J. P.: Nent trnnsfor from n cylinclcr in crossllow u~itli t.r:inspirntion cooling. .I. I lent. 'rrnnsrcr Rli, 173- 17!) (I9(i:l). [63] Kaynlnr, L.: Expcrimcntcllc uncl thcorcbirrcl~cUttterrlircl~itngeniibrr den ISinflnO (Ies 'l'11rbulenzgradcs auf den Wartneiibcrgang in dcr Umgcbung dcs St.aupr~nktcucines Krciszylinders. 1)is~.Braunscli\veig 1968; Forschg. 1ng.-Wes. 35, 157-167 ( 1 9 0 ) . [84] Kest,in, J., Maeder, P.F., nntl Sogin, H.H.: The influence of Llrrbnlcnce on tho t.rnnsfcr of hent to cylinders n m r the stngnation point. ZAMI' 12, 115-132 (I9fil). [G5] Kentin, ,I.: Tlie efTcct of frec-st,renm turbrllcnce on hcnt trnnsfcr rnks. Atlvnnrcri in Ilcat Trnnsfer (T11. Irvine and J.1'. Harnett, HI.) A c ~ l l'ress, Vol. 3, 1-32 (I!lf;r)). . [66] Kestin, J., Maeder, EP., and Wnng, H.IC.: 011 bountlary layers wocintotl with oacillut.ing nt,ren.mn. Annl. Sci. Rm. A 10. 1 11961). -. . . n * , [67] Kestin, J., nnd Mneder. P.F.: lnflr~encc turbulence on t,rnnsfrr of Iient, from rylinclrm. of NACA TN 4018 (1954). [68] I<rstin, .I., Mnrdrr, P. 1 , nnd Wring, 11. 15.: Jnflncncr of t n r l ~ ~ t l r n on the :rnnsfor of liriit ' ro from plates will1 ancl witlioul a prrrinurr grntlirtit. Int. .J. llrnt Mnns 'l'ransfrr 3, I!! :: 154 (1961j. [68n] Kestin, J., and Persen, L.N.: The trnnsfer of hent across n turbulent bouriilnry lnycr n t very high Prandtl numbers. Int. J . Heat Maaa Trnrlsfcr 5, 355-371 (1962). [on] Klcin. J., and Tribus, M.: Forced ronvectior~from r~on-iaol.hcrmnl snrfiiorri. Ilciit Triinsfer Symposin~n,Engineering Itosenrch Institute, Univ. of Michignn, Ai~g.1952. [70J Knudsen, .l.G., ancl JCntz, V.L.: Fluid dynamics ant1 l~c:iL transfer. Mc(:rrt\v-llill, Now York, 1950. J [TI] KO, S. Y.: Cnlclllnt,ion of iocnl hcnt t,rnnsfer cocfficic~itnon slender snrfnnc.s of rrvolnt.ion by the M~inglcrt.rnnufortnntion. J A S 25, 62-63 (1958). [72J I<roujilin, (:.: Tho hent, transfer of a circlrlnr cylilitlor ill a t,rnnsvcrm nirllo~vi t 1 tt.&o rrrngc of R e = 6000 - 425000. Techn. l'liysics USSR 5, 289--2!)7 (19:!8). [73] J,o I'cvro, ll:. J.: 1.nminnr frcc eonvcct.ioti frcim n vorl.ic11.1 pl~rno~ n r f n r r .Mnrl~.Il:ng. Ikn. ].all., Jlriit, I 13, (:It. l!ril~tit1, J MO. 174) 1.c J'rrr, 13.: Noitvelle tti(..t~~odc ri.so~lr~~iorl it,i.rnl.ion clcu 6q111rl.i(>118~ ~ ~ : ~ , l l lct,~ j ~ l e : ~ cle par ~ I i thcr~niqr~cs In corrche limits lalnirrnire. l'ubl. Sc:i. ct. 7'oe:lin. (11, Mi~~isIAre I'Air, NO. tie el,: 383 (1962).

324

X l l . 'rl~crn~nl I)onntlnry Inyrrs in Iarninar flow

References

325

[75] 1.e 1711r, C o ~ i v r c t i ~ r ~ chnlcur en r6gin1e Inn~innire a r ~ s cas d'un grndient, de pres13.: do In d le sion e t d'nnc tcntpi.rnture de pnroi quclqllonques, Ic ll~~itle 6I.nnt A propriet6~physi(l11rs constanteo. In(,. .l. Iqeat Mass 'I'r:unsfer I , (i8-80 (10Ii0). [76J Lcvi.qtrc, M.I\.: lacs lois do In t.rnn~tnissiondc chnlcl~rpar convection. Ann. Mines 13. 201 -- 2311 ( 1928). (771 1,cvy. S.: Hrnt trnnsfer to const.nnt prol)ert,y lan~innrbonntinry Inyer flown \\it11 powerf~lnct.ion frro-strmn~ vclocit.y and ~vallt ~ ~ ~ n l ? c r avnriation. ,I,\S 19, 341 --3.58 (1952). t~~~ro 17x1 Lieptnnt~n.H . \ V . : A uin~plnderivation of l,igl~tl~ill'n~ c a t I trnnsfc*r ~ O ~ I I I .Il:M ~3, .357.II~ L 360 (1!)58). [7!)] Lictzkc. A.F.: l'l~corct.icnland ex]icrin~c~ntnl invc~stigntionof hmt. t,rnnsfrr lip Intninnr nntr~ralconvcr1.ion bct\r~cenparallel plates. NAG\ Jlep. 122:) (IO55). [SO] I,igl~t.l~ill. . J . : C ~ o ~ ~ l r i b ~ ~ I . the ~ s M t,o i o t tllrory of l ~ c o t trnnafrr t,ltro~tgl~Ia~ninar n boundary Iayrr. I'ror. Roy. Soc. London A 202, :l5!)-377 (1950). 1811 Lorenz. 11.11.: 1)ir \Viirineiibertrngung an einer ebetien sc~~lcrrchten Plntte nri 0 hei nnliir1 I~clirrJ<onvekOion. Z. Terhn. Plrysik 362 (1934). [82] I,o\vcry, (:.\$I., nncl \1ncl1on, It.. J . : The rlTect of trlrb~~lence hant trnnrrfcr frotn Ilnat,ed on cylindrrs. l t ~ t . Hcat Mass 'Crnnsfcr 18, 1229-1242 (1075). .I. 1831 Maiscl, I).S., nr~tlSher\vood, T.K.: Evaporation of liqr~itlsinto tnrbt~lent.gns streams. Chetn. IStlg. l'rogr. 46, 131- 138 (1050). [84] Mcksyn, U.: Plnte t~hertnotnetrr.%AM]' 11, 63-68 (I%()). I851 hlrrk, 1I..J.: Jtapid cnl(:r~lntionsfor I)or~nd:rrylayer 11r:tt.t.rn~~sft:r trsing \vf\tlgc sol~lt,ionn ancl n s ~ ~ n p t o t ,expansions. ,JFM 5, 400-480 (I!l5!)). ic [86] M~llsnps,K., a.ntl I'ol~ll~ausen, K.: Tl~c!rrnnl distribution in Jeffery-Ha~nrlflows hetween non-pnrallrl ~ilane a.nI1s. JAS 20, 187-1!)6 (1!)53). (80n] mill sap^, I<., and Pohlhnusen, K.: Ilent transfer by laminar flow from a rotating plate. [87] Morgan. A. J.A.: On t,he Couet.te flow of a co~npre.ssibleviuco~~s, heat conduct,ing, perfect gas. J A S 24. 315-310 (1957). [88] Morgan, V . T . : The overall convcct.ion hrnt transfer from slnooth circr~lar cylinders. AdvanCCR in Heat. Trnnsfer 11. I!l9-265 (1975). I891 Morgnn, (:. W.. I'ipliit~. A.C., nnd \V:~rtlrr. \Ir. H . : On hcat trnnnfer in lerninnr hol~ndary Inyrr llows of lic111iflsI~:~ving very s t ~ ~ n l l n I'rnnrlLI I I I I I I I ~ )JAS 21i. 173--180 (I!)58). ?~. 1901 Nnhn~c,It.: 13ritrri.g~ r ~ rI~ytlrodynnn~inrllcn z 'rheoric tler Lngorroihnng. 11ig.-Arch. 11, l!)l - 2b!l ( 1940). 1911 Nussolt,, W.: 1 ) : ~Grundgcsctn dns \Vfirtneiihergangeu. Gee. Ing. 38. 477 (1915). 1921 Oldroyd, ,l. G.: C:nlculaLio~r~ concerning tl~eoreticnlvnluea of boundary layer t,Irickness anti cocfficielltR of frict.ion ant1 l ~ c n ttrnnafer for stendy two-climensionnl flo\r. in an incotnprrsniblc botludnry layer arit.lr main st,realn velocity ( J z m or U ez. Phil. Mag. 36, 587-600 (1945). [93] oshrarh, S.: An nnnlysiu of In.minnr free-con\.ection flow' nnd heat. transfer about fl flat platc? pn.rallol to t.11~ tlireotion i f the g e ~ ~ r r n t i n g body force. NACA Rep. 11 11 (1953). (041 I'ol~llransr~~. 1)cr Wiirn~car~st.nrtscl~ IC.: zwiscl~enfesten I<iirpern und I~liiusigkeit,etr nit klciner Itcilinr~g t ~ dklcitier Wiir~neleit.t~ng. u ZAMM 1, 115-121 (1021). 1'rnndl.l. I,.: I3ine I~eniehrn~g z!vischen UrBrmeaunt,nr~scl~ nnd S t r o ~ n n n g s a ~ i d ~ r illt d s Jfliissigkc~ifr~n. I'l~ys. 71. 11, 11172 -- 1078 (1910); see nluo Coll. Works I I , 585-596 (I9(il). [!)GI I<.nitl\l)y.(1. I).. n.nd Holln.lid~, G.1'. : A goneral neth hod of t)bt.ainit~gapproxinintc sol~tI<. Lions 1.0 I:rmint~r nncl t ~ ~ r l i u l c ~ ~ lc:onvot:liot~pr~ihlr~ns. free , Arlvnnc:cs in Ileal. '1'ranuft:r 11, 2Ii& 315 (l!l75). [!I7 1 Jlcc.vrs, 1%. n110I<ipl~rnhnn, .I .: 0 1 1 n parI.icrlln.r class of s i ~ ~ ~ solnt~ions t.11~ I,., CII. ilar of eqrlnticins of n~(ll.ion nntl onergy of a viscons IInid. JASS 29, 38-47 (1962). [!)HI Ilrynctltls. 0.: O n t,he extent. hnd nction of t.11~ heating surface for s b n m boilers. Pror. Mnnc:l~c~slrr I,it.. l'hil. Soc. 14, 7 - 12 (1874). , I!)9l IZ i r l ~ n r ( l ~IS.~:.~ : 'I'lie nerotlynaniic chnrarterist,ics of a cylinder Iiaving n heatetl h o ~ ~ n d n r y o ( . I Inyrr. I'l~il. Mag. 23, 681 ~002 (19337). 11001 S:~t.o, n.ntl Sngc. B. 11.: 'l'hcrmal t,rnnnf'er in t,urhu~ent streams: Effect of turbulence I<.. gna on rnncroscol)ic: trnn8l)ort. from npherw. 'l'rans. ASMJE 80, 1380-1388 (1958). /lOll Scl~lic.l~t.ing. 15inipr csnlrle 1,iisungcn fiir tlic Tcniperaturverteilung it1 einer Inminarcn 14.: Striitnung. Zi\l'vlhI 31. 78.- 83 (1951). [I021 S(.l~liclllittfi. 11.: l)rr Wiirn~ciiliergal~g pinor l5.ngsarrgcst~rii1~1tal1 rtt~ P1al.t~mit, veriitiderlir41rr \\';rt~cllc.t~~prrnl~r. IforscI~g.111g.-Wes. 17, 1-8 (1951).

n/

[I031 Schlicht,ing, )I.: s n r v ~ sorne recerit rcsonrrh it~ve~t.igat,ions bountlsrg I:ryrrs arltl on on lieat tmnsfer. J . Appl. ech. 38, 289-300 (1971). [I041 Schmidt,, E., and 13cckn1ann, W.: Dns Tetnpcmtur- und (:c:scIrwincligkritnfc~Irl van r i r ~ r r Wlrlne nbgebenden, senkrechtet~Plat,te bci r~ntiirlicher J<onvelctiot~. Vorscllg. I11g.-\Vrs. I. 301 -404 (1030). [I051 Schmidt,. E.: S~:lrlierenaufnnl~men Tetnpcratnrfclder in d t r NRhe wiir~t~cnligel~c~~tler dcr ItOrpcr. I~orsclrg.Ing. -Wee. 3, I 8 I 18:) ( 1!)32). [IO(iJ Sclinlitlt, E.: 1Cinfiilrrnng in die techniscl~eThermotlynatnik untl ill (lie (:rnn(Il:lg(~t~ clrr clietnisrhcn 'l'herrnotlynnmik, I0tl1 ed. nerlirt, 1003. [I071 Schlnitll., 15.. nnd Wcnner. I<.: Wiirtnrnbpi~lioiihrr drn 11111fn11g oinm a l ~ g r l t l ~ r s vgc.l~t.iv,~~c~t~ tcn Zylit~tlers.I'or~cl~g. 1ng.-M'es. 12, 65-73 (1941). [I081 Schn~idt, IC.: '1'her1nisrl1e r \ ~ ~ f t r i e h s s L r i 5 r n ~ ~ ~ n t l ~ r \\riir~t~ciil)rrgntlg. ~ \'iert,o 1,1lcln.i6l'rat~tlt.l-Cediicl~t,r~isvorlesun~ 8, 273--284 (IV(i0). ZFW I1091 Schuh, N.: Einige Problemo bei freier Striitnung ziil~erI'liis~i~lceikn.(:iittinprr Mono. grnjihirll I{tl. J%, (:rrnnschicl~tm. 19.16. [I 101 S c h u l ~ H.: Uhor die I,iiout~gder latninnrcn Urenzncl~ic~l~l.glcicliu~~g , an eincr rl)cnrn I'l:~t.te fiir (:rsci~\vindigkeitR- tlnd Tenrperatt~rfeld bei verrintlrrlicl~et~ Stoff'\vertcn ~ ~ n fiir tlnn tl Diffnsionsfcld bei hiiheren I<onzentrnt~iotien. ZAMM 28/27. 54---GO (1947). , [I 11] Srhuh, 11. : Ein neues Verfahren znr Berechn~lngdes \1'Rrtneiil1ergnnges in c b r n r t ~nntl rotntiorissyn~mct.riscl~en In~ninnrt:n Grc?nzucl~icl~t~!t~ konnln~~tc!r 1)ci uncl vt*rii~~clc.rli(.l~rr Wnr~tlt<:~~~licrnl,nr. I'orachg. 1ng.-Wca. 20, 37--47(1!)54); stw n l ~ o :S ~ I I I I I I , : ,\ ~ r c * \ \ ~ II. rnethod for cn.lcnlat.ing laminar heat, trnnsfer on cglintlrrs of arbit.mry cross-st~ctionant1 on bodies of revolution a t constant. and vnriahlc \\.rill tetnliernture. I<TII Acre. 'rN :l:i (1!)53). 11121 Schuh, H.: On wymptotir solutions for the l ~ e a t,ransfer a t vnrying \\.all ktnpcratnrrs in t n larninar boundary lnyer with Hartree's ve1ocit.y profiles. J A S 20, 146-147 (1953). [I 131 Seban, R . A. : The influence of free-stream t ~ ~ r b u l e n c e tlie local transfer fro111rglititlers. on Trans. ASMI3 Ser. C. J . Heat Trnl~sfer82, 101 - 107 (1960). [I 141 Shao Wen I'ean: Meat, transfer in Itirninnr cotnpres~ible bonndn.ry Inyrr 011 n I I O ~ O I I S flat. ~)latc wit11 Ilnid injrc1,ion. .Jr\S 16, 741-748 (1949). [ l l 5 ] Shcll. J.1.: I)ic \Viirtnciiltrrgn~lgnznl~l I<~tgcillrinl~c~n. ,\mcl. Sci. Nnl.. Iir.lgrntlr . I , von I%r~ll. 189 (l!):38). [I101 ~ i c k n ~ n n5.: Tlic mlrulalion of t,l~e n, thcrtnnl lamit~ar bonndnry lnyer on n rot:rI.ing slihrrr. LAblI' 13, 468-482 (1962); see also r\(:Altl) llep. 283 (I!l6O). [I171 Sit~gh, S.N.: Heat. t.rnnsfer Iiy lalninnr flow from a rotat,ing spl~ere.Appl Sci. Ilca. ;\ 9. 197 -- 205 ( 1960). [I181 S k o p ~ t ~M. 13.: Approxinlate method for integrating t.hc eqnaliona of n Ialninnr bonr~(lnry v, layer in an inc.on~pres~iblcw in the presence of heat transfer. Soviet l'liys. Techn. I'l~ys. g 4, 411---410 (1959). 'rrnnnlation of Zh. Tckh. lpiz 29, 461 -471 (1959). [I191 Sniith. A. G., nncl Spalding. 1I.B.: Hcat transfer in n lnrninar boondary Inyer \vitll const.nnt fluid ])roperties ant1 const.nnt. \vall ternpcrnl.ure. J . R,oy. t\ero. Soc. 62, 60--64 (l!l58). [I201 Spaltling, 1). U.: Heat transfer from s~lrfacrs non-uniforn~t,cn~pcrnt.urc. of JI'hl .I, 22--32 (1958). [121] Spnltlit~g, I%., D. nntl lCvnns, FI. L.: Mass transfer t h r o ~ ~ ~ h boundary layrrs. 3. SitniIan~innr Inr sollttions t,o the 1)-cql~ntion. Int. .J. Ilrnl. Blans 'rrnnsfcr 2, 314.- 341 (1!)(;1). 11221 Spnltlit~g.I). I$., nncl Pun. \V. M.: , revie\\, of 111(:t11otl~ ~irc*clirting~ ( . ; r l Irill~urrrr.firf\ for I licirnt.s [or Ituninnr ~~~~ifr~r~t~-liro~i(:rty 1:1~(.r I~ont~tIt~ry Ilo\v~.IIII.. . I . l l w t . ~ I I I S S'I'r:t~~sh'r. 5 2 3 - . 250 (19li2). [I231 Spnrro\v, 1':. M.:l'ltc tlicr~nnl Iioloitlary laver on n non-isotlirrn1:11s ~ ~ r f n\vit.l~ I ~ I I - ~ I ~ I ~ ~ O rc I frcc streant vrloritv. J F M 4., 321 -329 ( ~ ! I F-~ .R \ -. -. 1 11241 Sporron., E.M., nntl Cess, 1t.U.: Free convcctiot~\%it11 blowing or s ~ ~ r t i o t,J. 1Ie:lt l'rnnsfer i. 83. 387 -389 ( I- -, .. , ntil r [I251 Spnrro\r., E.M., Eichhorn, R., nntl Gregg, J . L . : Con~hincdforcctl nncl free convectior~it1 a boundary layer flow. l'hysics of Ipl11ir1n2, 31!)-328 (1!)5!)). [I261 S11arro\v. E.M., ancl Gregg, J.1,.: 1)etnils of exact low l'rat~dtl nu~nl)rrbont~tlnrylaycr solutions for forced and for free convection. NASz\ Mento. 2-27-59 E (1959). [I271 Sparro\\., 1C. M., rind Grrgg, J. L.: Siniilnr solutions for frre ronvert.io~~ :I non i s o t l ~ c r t ~ ~ a l fronr vertical &?late. ~ r a n s .AShfE 60, 370-380 (1958). ' 11281 Spnrro\v, 1':. M., nnd Gregg, J. L. : l'hc eflcct of a non inoll~crrnr~l atrmti~011 i i o ~ r ~ ~ c l ; ~ r ~ freo layer l ~ r n t trnndrr. .I. Appl. Mech. 2/i, I61 I65 (1!15!l).
\ - -

326

X l I . 'l'l~cr~i~nl ho~inrlnrylnycrs in Inminnr flow

(12131 Spnrro\rr,1C.M.. and (:re g, J L Ijent, trnnsfer from n rot,nting disk to fluids of any PrancllI nutnbcr. .J. H~:lt, l'ronsfcr 8i, i49-251 (l!ls!,). (1301 Sparrow, K.M., ant1 Gregg, J.L.: Mnsa t,rnnrrfer, flow, and hent trunsfer nhout. n rotnting disk. .I. Hoat. 'l'rnnsier d2, 21)4-302 (IOOO). [131] Sqr~irc.11. 11.: Scc:t.iori of: Modern 1)cvtrloptnmt~in Fluids D y ~ ~ n n ~(S. sCiold~tein,ctl.), ic Oxford, 1 1 , li23!- (727 (l!)RR). 11921 S q ~ ~ i r 11. I{.: Ilrnt Lrnnsfrr cnlr~ilat~ior~ ncrofoils. AIEC ItM 1986 (1942). c. for (1:13] Squire, 11.11.: Notc. on the effect of variable wall ten~pcratr~re I~ent on trn~iefer.ARC lthl 2753 (1!)53). [I341 Stewnrt., W. 15., niicl Proher, It.: Ilcnt. t r n n ~ f c and dirnsion in wedge flows with repitl liinnn r trn11ufe:r. 1111~. llcnt, 'rrniisfer <5, 1149 - I l(V3 (l!)(j2). ,J. 11351 Stn,jtr~~ovic:, Si~riilnr 11.: bii11~rnt.11rc I)o~~ndnry Inycr~.,JASS 2/i. 571 -574 (1!)5!)). [ l:16l S~~g:i\r.nrr~.,Snk), 'l'.,Koniatau. H.. nricl Osnkn, H.: Tho effect of free atrcnni t,r~rb~~lc:~~cn S.. ~ I hcnt, t.rnnsfcr fro111n flnt ~ l n t s N ACA T M 1441 ( I 135R). I . ( 1171 S ~ ~ k rS. l'.: VorLirity n~~~l)lific.nticlri n. in stng~~ntion point llow and i h effect on hent trn~~nfcr. .II'M 21. 513 - 534 (1065I. . . . . .. - , 1 lRHl 'I'icn, CIA.:llcnt trnlinfcr by Inniinnr flow fron~ rot.nt.ing cone. .I. lfent. Trnn~fer 2Y2--n 82, 253 ( l!MO). [l3!)l l'iffortl. A.N.: 'L'lir f.l~ermotlynn.niirs 1 . 1 1 ~ of lnnlirinr bonndnry lnyer of n. Iim.tnc1 hocly in n Iiigli spoctl gna [low fieltl. J A S 12, 241 --251 (1!)45). [I401 Tifford, A.N., nntl Cliu, S.T.: Ilcnt t.rnnsfcr in lnriiirinr boundary layers suhject L sr~rfnro o prmsclrc nnd tetnpcrnt~rredint,rib~~l.iotis. I'roc. Second Mitlweqtern Conf. Fluid Mech. 1!)49. 363--3177 (1949). t (141 1 Tifforel, A.N., nnrl Clin, S.T.: 0 1 1 Llir flow nnrl temperature fieltl in forced flow a g n i n ~ n rotating tlisc. I'roc. Sccnnd U. S. Nnt. O ~ n g r . Appl. h~ccli.1955, 703-800 (1955). 11421 'I'or~loukinri.Y.S.. Ilnwkins, (:.A,, ant1 Jnkob, M.: Heat trnnsfer by frce convection from 11c:nlecl vertical sr~rfncefl liquids. Il'rans. 1\ShIli: 70, 13-23 (1948). t.o [I431 \'ogc:lpol~l. G . : J)or Ubergmg tler Itcibr~ngswirmc von Lngcrn ans dcr Schtnierschirht ill die l r i t f l i t : I ~ c . - 'To~iipc:r:rt.t~rvertnil~~~~g nrirl tl~crminche Anln~~fst.rrcke pnrnllele~r in Sc:l~~~~icrsc~liic:l~t~~:t~ bci lCrwiir111i111g d11rf.11 i1111erclLc~iI)~itig. Vl)I-l~or~cli~~~~gsl~efL 425 (l!14!1). [I441 V~wn~itn. J1e1ii: Ahlilichc I,iisnt~gcti fiir die (:escl~rviridigkeita- urid Te~nprnturverteilri~ig in elor i~~konipro~qiblcti lntninnren (:rcnzsrliicht cntlang einer rcclitwitikligen Ecke. lEin Ll~corotiuc:l~cr Hcitrng Z I I I ~ I I'rohle~n tler Interferetiz von Gronzucliicliten. Disa. Brnrlnsclin.rig l!)(;li; .It). kV(21, l!1(X;, I 5 6 b I78 (1!)67). [I451 Yn~ringn,I . : An nl~j~roxinintc. . uolnl.it~n t1I1eInn~itinr of flow 1imt.-trnnofcrin n rot,nling nxinlly eyn~~~ic:t,ricnl n~~rfrrt:r n 11nifor111 ~ c o t i i ~ ) r e ~flow.l J. Mcch. 1,nb. .Jnpnt~2, No. I, 1)ocly in i~ sil~ c I I4 (l!)5(;). [ l4(i] Ynng, K.'I'. : Po~nil~lc si11iilnrit.y~ O I I I L ~ ~ Ifor R I ~ ln~ninnr free convection on verticnl plaks n1ic1 cylintlers. .I. Appl. Mcch. 27, 230- 2:1(i (1!)60).
\
\

C I I A P T E R XI11

Laminar boundary layers in compreesible flow t

T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of tlie t . l ~ c o r y bonntlary-layer flow i n comprcssi1,Ic s t r e a m s of n w a s st.irnulakt1 b y t h e progress i n acroriauLical cngir~ccririg ~ l t l ,in mt:t:lit, t,inlc:s, I,y t,l~c clcvolol~rnenl,of roc:knts ant1 art,ific:i:tl satollitn:~. Wl1n11 fligl~t,vr.loc:iI.ic:s of t . 1 1 ~ o r d e r of ~ ~ i u l t i p l of t h e velocity of s o u n d a r e attainctl, t l ~ c es work of cornl,rc:ssior~ aricl e n e r g y dissipation p r o d u c e s considcrablo increases i n t e m l ~ e r a t u r e a n d Forcos u s t a l w a y s to i n c l u d e t h e t h e r m a l b o u n t l a r y l a y e r i n t11e analysis, because t l ~ o w o I)oundary l a y e r s s t r o n g l y i n t e r a c t e a c h w i t h t h e o t h e r . At a vclocity u ~t h ~ temperature e , rise d u e t o a d i a b a t i c compression a t t a i n s a v a l u e of

:I*

is kiio\vn f o r m ecjn. (12.14b). I I c r c c, tlcnotcx 1 . 1 1 ~ sl,rc*ilicu Iic:tI, or 1 . 1 1 ~ g:rs I)rr 1111it m a w . Sinc:e y p,/p, = (y - l)c, 7 ,' w e m:ry : r l w I\-ril,c:

-~

w l ~ r r c h e Mach n r ~ m b c is tlcf ncd as M = va,/c,. T l ~ risc i r k t c n i p r r n t l ~ r cL l ~ r o u g l ~ t r , c frirtfion in t h e b o ~ ~ n t l a r a y e r is of tila s a m e o r d r r of rnnpni1.11elc as t , l ~ crise dl10 t o ly ntliabalic rompression, as alrearly m e r ~ t i o n r t l r ~ l ~ s p X I I, anti as will b c sliowri i n i C . grcittcr tletail l a t e r i n t h i s cliapt.rr. ,, e n r ~ m c r i c a levaluat,ion of e q n s . (13.1) ant1 (13.2) For a i r conccivc:tl of as a lh ~ ) c r f c c gas i s r e p r e s e n t e d graphically i n Pig. 13.1 (in wl~ioll = I.oOG k.J/kg d c g a n d t c, y -- 1.4 h a v e been assumed). It i s s e e n frorn i t tfllatst a flight velocity of 7 1 1 , ~--- 2 I~tri/sco, w l ~ i c lcorresponds t o a Mach n u m b e r of M - 6, t,hc t r ~ n ~ , o r a t r ~ r c of t l ~ c a s ~ , risc: g s1.rcnm atjtfninsa vallle of d 7' 2000 d c g C. 'I'liis t,cml~cl~at,nrc inarcasrs m.l,iclly risc as 1 . 1 1 ~l l i g l ~ tvc:locil.y is inarcasctl. I l o w c v c ~ r ,rr g a s al. Iiigh l.c:~r~~,c:r:rL~~ro (:11:~1igr:s ifhq pllysical propcrt.ics i n comparison wit11 tlic corresponcliiig pcrfcct, gns. 111 rcnl gases t l l r r c o c c u r l.hc processes of tlissociatiori ant1 ioriizat.ion (forina1,ion of :L ~ , l a s ~ n : l ) . Conseqnent.ly, tlie a b s o r p l i o n of e n e r g y associated wit11 s u c l ~processes carlses t,lle t.cmpersture rise i n a real g a s to be smaller t h a n i t wo~llclb e i n a perfcct gas. A t a n

--

. .. .~

1 R I ~ Iindebted to Dr. F. W. Riegela who cor~t.ril)~~ted n rrviscrl vrrsin~iof tl~is r.l~:il~tc.r t,llc (,o previous edition; in pnrtiollar, Dr. Itiegels forniulnted the p r c s e ~ i t n t i o ~ ~ extc~rtlcdIllir~gof tile worth-Stewartson transformation contained in Sec. XI11 (1 1.

328

X I1 1. J,nn~i~~nr I)o~~ncl:~ry i n comprc.usihle flow Inyrrs

orl)il.nl velocity of a satellitt: of 7r1, = 8 lzm/sec, t h e temperature rise even in a real order of 10,000 tlcg C. Tho mngc of Mac11 nrimbcrs M 1 6, in which , gas is st.ill of t , l ~ c t,hrrc cxisl, Inrgo cIiKcrrnncs bctwccr~the bchnvionr of a real a s opposctl t o a perfect ,gas, is givrn t.Itc: t1:tme of hypersoltic flo7o. 'l'llc occ:llrrence of chemical reactions (ioniznl.io~l, tlissocint.ion) wl~ichsc:t in hcllintl a shoclr wave or in t.he 1)oundary layer O I I ;I. solitl I)o~ly l :I Ityj)c?rsonicsl.rt::~mI)y virt,no of tho cxistcrlcc: ol:t I~igh il t,c:tnj)c:r:~.t,trrc, c.ot~sitlcr;tl)ly c.otnl)lic:xt,cs t,llc l.;~slrof annlyzing t,ho flow. F o r Cllis reason, wc s l ~ i ~ l l rt,s(.ric:t, our consitlcrat.ions t o t h a t range of Mach numbers in whicll tllc flllid can still I)c :~ssl~mctl obry 1.11~perfect-gas law; i r ~ t.o air, this corrcspontls t o a range s of M.,, -r: (i.In trlotlcrn t,imcs t1111(:11 nt,tfcnt.ionl ~ a I)ccn giver: t,o tllcstntly of l)onntJaryInyrr flows a t hyprrsotuc vclocit.irs ant1 in 1,hc presence of c1iemic;tl reactions. F o r drtails, t.llc rrntlrr is rcfcrrctl t o t.lle I)oolc by 1%'. J)orml~ce[20]. 11.

Tllc c ~ ~ r vcorrcsponcling t o (1) cs 0.5, 0.76 atltl 1.0 a r r also sltown plol.tctl in I'ig. 13.2. I t in seen from t.110 graph tllat Subllcrlantl'n formnl:~(I:{.:{) nL be nl~l)roxini:~(c~tI :n at. high t,ctnpcmt,ures by n.tlopl,ing vitlncs of o) I)cl.wccn 0.5 nncl 0.75, \ v l ~ c ~ r c:I(;; ~ s ~ lower tcmpcraljr~rcs v a l l ~ e = 1.0 appears t o It(? ndcql~ntc.'l'llc sl)c:c:ilic 11(~:1l. t.lrc (1) c,,, n.nd l , l ~ c I'r:~ndt.l rlllml)cr,P, can both I)c nssr~rnctlt,o 1)o c:o~ist.n.nl~ wil,l~ s:l.t,isl'nc.I.orj~ :r c l c ~ r i or! : I ~ I I ) ~ O X ~ I I I ; I ~ ~(wen , a t largc! l,c:~np(:r:~l,nrc ~ ~OII tlilrc:r~-~~c:c*s, :I.S SI:(*II f r o ~ 'l';11111: t~ 12.1. Somct.itrlcs, t.11~ viscosity law / 1 ( 7 ' ) is :tssrlmrtl t o I)(: of' t,It(- forln

--

where 1,llc consl.ant h scarves t o nchicve a better apl)rosim:tl,ion 1.0 tthc more cx:~c~t. Sr~t,hrrln.ndfortnt~la (13.3) in t.ho ~lciglll)onrl~ootl a tl(?sirctl l,rt~ll)c.r:l.I.lr~.(: I I K ( ' of ~:\ (cf. Scc. XIlTtl).

Fig. 13.I . Tc~npornt,urc in air in ternis rise ol tho flight velocit.~, w,, and t,lle Mac11 n ~ ~ n i l ~Mr , 'Vlic cllrvc Iabcllcd "l)crI'ect c. , gas" mas calc~llst~d the nici of eqns. wit.11 (13.1) n11c1(13.2). Thc velocity 111s= 7.0 kn~/sec that of nn nrtificinl satellite in in orbit,, ant1 lo,< = 11.2 km/scc rcprcsenL9

Even in I.llc mngc of snpcrsonic Mac11 numbers ( M < 6 in air), t h e t,cmperaturc , rise irt tllr gasc.or1.q stream is higll cnougll t o force us t o talrc ilit,o a.ccount the effect of t,clnl)cre~t.urc: the propertics of tJllc gas, in particular, on ils viscosit,y. Tllc lrineon ~ n a t i rviscosit,y of most gases, and, of air n.mong Lhem, incrcascs cor~sitlcrablya s t h e : t.etnl)craturc is irlcronsctl. 111t,llc caso of air, a s sltown I)y E. R. van Driest [30], i t is possible t o use a n interpoI:~t.ior~ fbrmr~ln l):~.sctl I). M . Sntdlcrland's theory of viscosi1,y. This can be written or1 Fig. 13.2. Tllc dynaoiic viscoaity, 11, of air in tcr~ns of the telnperaturc T
Curvc(1) B l r a s ~ ~ r c ~ n cand inlernls pnlalion f o r l a ~ ~ (13.3) hased on la Sntherlnncl's r q ~ l a t l n n Ourvcn (2). . (3). nlld ( 4 ) p o w ~ r lacs. crln. ( 1 3 . 0 , !\.it11 d i f i r n n t values of thc exponent ro

wllrrc /I,, clcnotas the viscosity a t tJle reference Lrnlperat,llre T o ,and Sl a constant is whic:l~for air assumes the value S1=llOK. ' l'ltc pt-(?c.(:(li~~g rcl:~t.ion I)ct-weon I,lle viscosiby /I of air and 1.11~ temperature, T,is scerl plot,t,rd a.s curve ( I ) in Fig. 13.2. Sinco t,hc rcl;~tion (13.3) is still too complicated, i(( calcrllat.ions by tllo sitnplcr power law i t is c:tlst.omnry l,o npproxirn;~.l,c in t,hcorc?t.icnl

330

X[[1. l~%minar borindnry lnyers in compressible flow

b. IEclation between t0ie velocity and the ternprrati~refirlcls

33 I

The pllonomcna 1111tlcr con~itlcrat~ion hccome, naturally, very complicat,ctl b e c n ~ ~ s o t.lln interaction hetwccn thc velocity and t8he thermal hountlary Inycm. of Con~parcclwiLh iricorn~~rcssil~lc there are a t least four aildit,ional quantit,irs flow which must I)o t,riltcn into account, in t,he calcrilation of comprcssiblc boundary layers: 1. the Mach nilrnbcr t,l~t! i'r:tr~tIl~lri~tmbcr 3. tho viscosity FtincLion 11 (7') 4. hoi~ntlarycontliLion for t,cmpcratj~lrc clist,rib~it.ion (hcal, tmnsfcr or aclial)at,ic wall).
2.

Tho pressure gradient, a s was t h e case with i~rcornpressibleflow, is now also tlt-l.crn ~ i r ~ c by t h e frictionless external flow: tl

a,it,ll pl(.r) ant1 T l ( x ) ilcnol,ing the densitfly ant1 tcrnperntl~~rc, mspect.ivcly, at, t.hc oi~lcr ctlgo of Llio t)ouritlary Iaycr. Sincc ap/R?/ = 0 a t ally poi11L x along i,llc: flow, the tcinperature anrl dciisity satisfy tllc relnt,ion (In.lo) @ (5, ' ~ I ( zy) = @l(x) 7'1(x) . ?/I , . Making t.11~ nssiiinpt,io~~ eqns. (13.5) t,o (13.7) Lli:ltf tlit: t.cni~)rr:~t.rirc: in tlt.~)t~~itIs on the single variable IL, i. e. t h a t T = l ' ( 1 ~, ) wc can dcduce from cqn. (13.7) t h a t

It is clrar t h a t tho large number of adtlitfional pnmmctsers, compsretl with incomprcssiblc flow, causes the number of cases likely t o occur in practice to becomc almost
int.mctablo a s a consoq~ience. Comprchcnsivc roviows of tllc niimcrous papers concernerl with comprcssil)lc boundary laycrs were givcn by G. 1Zucrt.i 1571 and 8.11. Young [106]. Details of spccial m:~t.hcmat.iral mcthods cmployctl by varioi~snuthors have hccn discussed by N. Cilrle [26) ant1 I<. Stewarhon [9G]. Problems of compressible turbulent layers are discussed in Chap. X X I I I .

SO where tlilTcrenliation with respect t o is tlcnol,cd by tho s11bs~rip1, Lh:~i,5", = dT1d.t~. Eliminating thc left-hand siclc with tho aitl of cqn. (13.B), wo 11avo

I). Rclntion hetwccn the velocity nnd the tcrnpcrnture fields


I n tho caso of two-dimensional flow, a n d irrespect,ive of the shapo of ttlc body, tllcrc exist* a romarkal)ly simple rclation betwcen thc feltis of vclocitsg a n d tcmpcrature. I n tho p:rrticirlar $so when P = I , t h e integration of the differential equaiions becomes much casicr. Thc corresponding proposition was first used by A. Rusemann [lo] and I,. Crocco [20] when they calculated the compressible boundary layer on 8 plate. I t can be stfatcd simply by m c r t i n g t h a t irrespective of the form of the viscosit,y filnot.ion ,u(7'), tlic tempcratiirc I' clcpcnds solcly o n t h c velocity component u takon parallol to the wall, i. e. T = T ( u ) . Thiis curves of constar~tvelocit,y ( u = const) are identical with the isotherms ( I ' = const). This remarkable theorem can be easily deduced from the boundary-layer equations. Neglecting the buoyancy forces h u t taking into account t h e temperature depcndenco of the properties p and k , we can rewritc tShcboundary-layer equations (12.50a, b, c) as: Introtlucirig the Pmndl,l numbcr P = ,IL c,/k, which may bc nssumccl indcpondent of temperature a s far a s gases are concerned ( c f . Tablo 12.1), we obtain

It is clear from this form t h a t T


dp=O:p=l dz or, if
dx

T(IL)is a sollltion of tho system of ecluations

( 13.5) t o (13.7) if, s i ~ n n l t a ~ ~ c o r ~ s l y ,

and

T,,=
T,

- -P=

I
Cv

k
=0

(13.1 1)

d? + 0

: and if, in atidition,

at y

-- 0 .

(1B.lla)

This proves our proposition. The act,nal function which describes t h e relation 1)ctween l.rniperat,urc ; ~ r l c l velocity is ohtainril by intrgration Th11s from crln. ( I 3 I I ) wc Iravc. t.Iic- gc.r~c.r;d solution us T (u) = + C u -1. C:2 .
c~

Tho rorlst,arlk of intcgrnt.ior~C1 ant1 ( 7 , can now 1)r tld,c~rltri~~t-tl t.11c. I)o~~r~rl:lry froni condibions. For dpldz $ 0 we have GI == 0 . :

332

XI I I . I , : ~ I I I ~ I I : L ~ l)o111111r1ry liiyvrx

ill

co~nprrssiblr flow

c. The flnt plntc?nt zero it~cidcnrc

:$:%:I

1. Aclinl~nticwnll
'1'11~Ilollntlnr~.c.o~ltlif.iot~s arc

of tho heat flow is rlrt,erminctl b y t h e grnilient (dT/tlu,), nt tho wall. In fact, wo ran tlednce from eqn. (13.13) t.hnt

: 1

c . 0

?L

-7-

U ; '' I

Ilc~rr7', (a)(ICIIOI,I,S 1.11(: t ~ c m l ~ r m l .:I.(*~1,llc: o~tl(.rrtlgr of tho I)ortn(l:~.ry ~ rr Inycr, :III(I t,l~c, sol~~l.iol~ I)csc.oi~~rs
r I I

so t l ~ a for (tIZ'/tl~,),< 0 t.l~rrc a flow of llcnt from t.11~ t is wall t o tho l l ~ ~ i t:tnd (,onl, versely, for (dT/tlt~), > 0 Lent flows from tho fluid t o the wall. 111 this tnnnnor T," - T,

==

T -1'

1 (U2 --- U 2 ) 2rp


.. .. .

3 urnz2 C,

or

l l \ v - l',