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Larsen & Toubro Limited

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On LINE
CONDITION MOINTERING OF
EQUIPMENTS
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TEMPERATURE MONTERNG OF EQUPMENTS
----- THERMOGRAPHY
WEAR & TEAR OF THE MACHNE
--- By studying the dust particles in lub oils
ON line shaft alignments for rotating machines
---- motors & generators
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CONDITION MOINTERING OF
MOTOR BY NUMERICAL
RELAYS
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Causes of motor malfunctions
Over load (thermal) - 30%
Contaminants - 19%
Single Phasing - 14% 44% failure is due to
Bearing failures - 13% over heating of winding
Old age - 10%
Rotor failures - 5%
Miscellaneous - 9%
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W Factors that influence the operation of the motors &
its healthiness can be classified into
External factors
nternal factors
W External factors
Load induced
Quality of applied voltage
KVAR capacitor connected near motor terminal
Cooling system
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Load induced
Mechanical over loading
Rotor jamming
Failure of cooling system
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Tmax
Tth
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THERMAL OVER LOAD PROTECTION
PARAMETERS SETTINGS
HEATING TIME CONSTANT tm 1-60 MIN
COOLING TIME CONSTANT to (1 -10) tm
THERMAL PRE ALARM Ta/n (50 - 110)Tn
RESTART INHIBITION Ts/n (40 -100)Tn
CALCULATED PARAMETERS
HEATING CURRENT I Id
2
+ 3 Is
2
(I/Im)
2 -
(Ip/Im)
2
TRIP TIME t tm log
e
(I/Im)
2 -
(Ib/Im)
2
Ip MOTOR CURRENT
1UST PRIOR TO
OVERLOAD
Ib PERMISSIBLE
OVER LOAD
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THERMAL OVER LOAD PROTECTION
TIME CONSTANT tm :
- SIGNIFIES THE RATE AT WHICH MOTOR HEATS UP
- TIME TAKEN (IN MIN) TO REACH 63 OF FINAL TEMP.
- DEPENDS UPON THE FARME SIZE, TYPE OF INSULATION
AND COOLING ARRANGEMENT
- TYPICAL VALUE 35 TO 40 MIN FOR A 200 kW MACHINE
TIME CONSTANT to:
- SIGNIFIES THE RATE AT WHICH THE MOTOR COOLS DOWN
- EXPRESSED AS MULTIPLES OF tm
tm HELPS TO MATCH THE RELAY WITH
THERMAL OVER LOAD CURVES OF A GIVEN MOTOR
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THERMAL PRE ALARM
THERMAL TRIP
RESTART INHIBITION
LOCK ROTOR PROTECTION DURING
RUNNING
STARTING
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LOCKED ROTOR PROTECTION
PARAMETERS SETTINGS
CURRENT LEVEL ILR (1 TO 5)Im
DEFINITE TIME DELAY 2 x tSt
(WHEN STARTING)
DIFINITE TIME DELAY tLR 1 -25 SEC
(WHEN RUNNING)
DISABLE FACILITY
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MOTOR PROTECTION - PROLONGED START
ISt
Im
tSt Time
Motor Current
Im Motor Full Load Current
Ist Starting Current of Motor
tSt Starting time of motor
Itr Transition Current
tTr Transition Time
ITr
tTR
AFTER t tTr,
IF MOTOR CURRENT I > Itr
LOCKED ROTOR ELEMENT
IS ACTIVATED
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TEMPERATURE MONITORING UNIT
4/8 RTD INPUTS - PT100
SET TEMPERATURE
DIGITAL DISPLAY OF TEMPERATURE
4 OUT PUT RELAYS
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QuaIity of appIied voItage
W UnbaIance voItage
W Phase faiIure or singIe phasing
W Phase reversaI
W Harmonic content in the voItage
W capacitors connected near the terminaI of the motor
u p d a l e d

8 / 2 2 / 0 1
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UnbaIance voItage
W The motor can get over heated whenever there is unbaIance
current fIowing in the stator. Even a smaII unbaIance in voItage
, of the order of 2%, can cause a temperature rise by 10% for
the same Ioad. This wiII not be detected by the thermaI
overIoad eIement - since the motor current is stiII at rated
current
W 1% 98% Derate motor
W % 95%
W 4% 8%
W 5% 75%
W Unbalance voltage results in negative sequence currents
W Which can be detected by numeric relays
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MM30 RELAY - SETTINGS
CURRENT UNBALANCE PROTECTION
PARAMETERS SETTINGS
TRIP LEVEL Is (0.1 TO .8)Im
TRIP TIME DELAY tIs (1 TO 8) SEC
(INVERSE TIME)
0.9 tIs]
TRIP TIME t
( SEC) (Is/Im - 0.1)
VECTORIAL DERIVATION OF Is
INV. TIME CHARACTERISTICS
PHASE REVERSAL
SINGLE PHASING
DISPLAY OF ON LINE Is
DISPLAY OF Is DURING STARTING
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W Phase faiIure or singIe
phasing
SingIe phasing causes 100%
Negative sequence currents
ReIays trips
instantaneousIy
W Phase reversaI
VoItage based protection reIays
wiII detect phase reversaI
by sensing voItage negative
sequence even before
motor starts
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W Harmonic content in the voItage
The effect of above depends on the percentage of
harmonic voltage & the impendence of the source. f
the source impendence is very high like that of the
generator the effect of harmonic voltage is enlarged &
may cause pulsating torque generated in the motor
with load noise & may cause damage of the motor by
very high temperature rise in the motor & hence calls for
monitoring of the harmonic voltage content in the
voltage
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W Capacitors connected near
the terminaI of the motor
capacitor
Capacitor KVAR connected should be such that
Capacitor current should be less than
No load current of motor
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+
InternaI factors
Bearing faiIure
Temperature rise in stator & rotor
Leakage currents
nternal faults
B
a
c
k
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BEARING
TEMPERATURE MONITORING UNIT
4/8 RTD INPUTS - PT100
SET TEMPERATURE
DIGITAL DISPLAY OF TEMPERATURE
4 OUT PUT RELAYS
Bearing faiIure
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Temperature rise in stator & rotor
CALCULATED PARAMETERS
HEATING CURRENT I Id
2
+ 3 Is
2
(I/Im)
2 -
(Ip/Im)
2
TRIP TIME t tm log
e
(I/Im)
2 -
(Ib/Im)
2
u p d a l e d

8 / 2 2 / 0 1
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Leakage currents
Can be MONITORING by earth
Ieakage reIay
300mA to 8 A
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nternal faults
nternal earth fault
REF RELAYS
nter winding fault
DFF RELAYS
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SCADA SYSTEM
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ZONE OF
PROTECTION
FAULT B
R
Y
B
N
RELAY
REF PROTECTION
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REF PROTECTION
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TYPES OF DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
CIRCULATING CURRENT
(HIGH IMPEDANCE)
PERCENTAGE BIASED
(LOW IMPEDANCE)
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CIRCULATING CURRENT
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
I1 - I2 RELAY OPERATING
CURRENT
TRIP IN TERMS OF
SETTING CT PRIMARY
(20 OF In)
RELAY WILL TRIP IF I1-I2 IS
GREATER THAN 20 0F In
(In RATING OF CT PRIMARY)
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CIRCULATING CURRENT
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
Id
Is 20
Average current Ir /In
((I1 +I2)/2)/In
0.5 1.5 1.0 2.5 2.0
RELAY TRIP AREA
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ADD A
STABILISING
RESISTOR
TO IMPROVE
PERFORMANCE
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CIRCULATING CURRENT
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
STABILISING RESISTOR
WILL IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF RELAY
FOR CT CHARACTERISTICS MISMATCH
- TO CERTAIN LIMITS
BUT RELAY HAS BECOME INSENSITIVE
DUE TO ADDITION OF RESISTOR.
RELAY MAY NOT TRIP FOR A REAL
INTERNAL FAULT.
FOR TOTAL IMPROVEMENT
USE PERCENTAGE BIASED RELAY
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BIASED DIFFERENTIAL
I1 - I2 RELAY OPERATING
CURRENT
(I1+I2)/2 RELAY RESTRAINING
CURRENT
TRIP SETTING (I1- I2)
(I1 +I2)/2
(BIAS )
NORMALLY BIAS 20
RELAY WILL TRIP WHEN
(2*(I1 - I2)/(I1I2))*100
VALUE EXCEEDS TRIP SETTING
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HIGH IMP. DIFFERENTIAL
ReIer excel sheet
(I1- I2) 20A
1000 - 980 20A
BIASED DIFFERENTIAL
I FL 100A
20 setting
(I1- I2) 182A
1000 - 818 182A
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PERCENTAGE BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
INTERNAL FAULT
EXTERNAL FAULT
BIAS PERCENTAGE
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PERCENTAGE BASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAY BIASE CHARECTERSTICS
I1I2
2
Id
( I1-I2)
RELAY NOT TO OPERATE
RELAY OPERATES
SUM CURRENT
DIFFERENCE
CURRENT
MIN I1-I2
SLOPE
DUAL SLOPE ?
0.5 2.5
0.15
0.2R
0.4R
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CONNECTION DIAGRAM MD32-T RELAY
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PROTECTIONS :
THERMAL OVER LOAD
LOCKED ROTOR
EARTH FAULT
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE
UNDER CURRENT
MOTOR PROTECTION RELAY for lower
Ratings up to 50KW - MPR 300
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MOTOR PROTECTON RELAY
- MPR 300
W PROVIDES E/F CO-ORDINATION
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BRIEF SPECS
THERMAL O/L CLASS 10,10A,20,30
E/F 10 TO 50
DEIFINITE TIME 300 ms
NEGATIVE SEQ. 40, 3 sec
MAINLY FOR SINGLE PHASING
LOCKED ROTOR 3 Im , 1 sec
UNDER CURRENT 0.5 Im, 3 sec
MOTOR PROTECTION RELAY - MPR 300
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BRIEF SPECS (CONTD..)
AUXILIARY SUPPLY 240 V AC 50 Hz
OUTPUT CONTACTS 1 N/O 1 N/C
6 CAT NOS TO COVER 1 - 2.75 A
2 - 5.5 A
4 - 11 A
8 - 22 A
16 - 44 A
32 - 88 A
MOTOR PROTECTION RELAY - MPR 300
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MOTOR PROTECTION RELAY - MPR 300
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